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Publication numberUS2863941 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication date9 Dec 1958
Filing date18 Mar 1944
Priority date18 Mar 1944
Publication numberUS 2863941 A, US 2863941A, US-A-2863941, US2863941 A, US2863941A
InventorsHarvey Rines Robert
Original AssigneeHarvey Rines Robert
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Radio picture system and apparatus
US 2863941 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Dec.`9, 1958 R, H. RINES 863,941

RADIO PICTURE SYSTEM AND APPARATUS Filed March 18, 1944 2 Sheets-Sheet l Dec. 9, 1958 R. H. RlNEs RADIO PICTURE SYSTEM AND APPARATUS Filed March 18, 19514 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 F a Mr @Zim llnited States l@arent @nime l 2,863,941 Patented Dec. 9, 1958 2,863,941 RADll PllCTURE SYSTEM AND APPARATUS Robert Harvey Rines, Brookline, Mass.

Application March 18, 1944, Serial No. 527,375

47 Claims. (Cl. 178-6.S)

The present invention relates to electric systems, and more particularly to radio-receiving systems that, while having more general fields of usefulness, are especially adapted for use in television.

An object of the invention is to provide a new and improved radio-receiving system.

Another object is to provide a new and improved television system.

Another object is to provide a novel combined radioand-television system.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a new and improved radio-locator system for both detecting the presence of a body and rendering it visible.

Other and further objects will be explained hereinafter and will be more particularly pointed out in the appended claims.

The invention will now be more fully .explained in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which Fig. l is a diagrammatic view of circuits and apparatus arranged and constructed in accordance with a preferred embodiment thereof; Fig. 2 is a view of a modification; Fig, 3 is a diagram showing an airplane object from which radio waves are refiected and scattered to the receiving system of Fig. l; and Fig. 4 is a view of a further modification.

An electromagnetic-wave generator 4 is shown exciting a dipole 2 to produce ultra-high-frequency pulsed-radio energy, say, of 3 or 1.5 centimeters wave-length. A continuous-wave or any other type of modulated-wave generator may be employed, but pulsed energy, at present, has the advantages of economy and easy high-power ultra-high-frequency generation.

The waves emitted by the dipole 2 may be directed by a reflector 3 upon a parabolic reflector 6. The parabolic reflector 6 is shown directing the waves toward an object, say, an airplane 8, from which they are reflected and scattered toward a receiving station,

At the receiving station, the radio waves reflected and scattered from the object 8 may be focused by an electromagnetic dielectric lens 5, such as of polystyrene, upon a receiving mosaic, bank or array 7 comprising a plurality of normally ineffective insulated radio-wave absorbingand-rectifying pick-up unit antenna elements. These may be constituted of small beads or globules of silicon, uranium oxide or other similar crystal pick-up-unit detecting elements. Small crystal beads or globules of uranium oxide or other such pick-up unit elements may, for example, be set into an insulating supporting disc 9 in the face at the screen end of an oscilloscope-like member 89. Any other similar mosaic of radio-wave absorbing-and-rectifying crystals may be employed. The dielectric lens may be replaced by any other type of Well known radio lens, mirror or other directive system for focusing an image of the electromagnetic energy scattered and reflected from the object 8 on the bank or array 7 of the pick-up antenna elements.

The pick-up elements of the bank or array 7 are shown arranged in two dimensions, along rows and columns, in the proximity of the focus of the lens 5. The first or uppermost row of the bank is illustrated as comprising the unit elements 10, 12, 14, 16, etc., shown as equally spaced horizontally. The second row from the top is shown comprising the unit elements 18, 20, 22, etc. The third or next-lower row is shown comprising the unit elements 24, 26, etc., and so on for the remaining rows of pick-up elements. Though only a small number of pick-up antenna units is shown in each row, this is merely for illustrative purposes, and in order not to confuse the disclosure. It will be understood that, in

practice, a large number of pick-up units will be employed n each row.

The pick-up antenna units 10, 18, 24, etc., are arranged in. the first or right-hand column. The units 12, 20, 26, etc., are disposed in the second column from the right. The elements 14, 22, etc., are disposed in the third column from the right; and so on for the remaining columns of elements. There may be as many columns as there are pick-up units in each row. Though each column is shown as comprising only a few units, this is again in order not to complicate the drawings.

The pick-up units will, of course, all receive the reflected or scattered radio waves through the lens S simultaneously. There will be focused on each pick-up unit a radio-frequency field strength corresponding to thescattering from a corresponding area of the object 8.

The bank of silicon, uranium-oxide or other similar detecting crystals will act to absorb and rectify the energy incident on the array 7 of antenna units. Silicon and uranium-oxide detectors and similar crystals are known to absorb radio-frequency energy, and to exhibit high negative-temperature coefiicients of resistance. Because of this high negative-temperature coefficient of resistance, the resistance of the uranium-oxide or other crystal beads will change with the intensity of the impinging radio-frequency energy. The pick-up elements will thus absorb different field strengths of radio energy, corresponding to the amount of energy reflected or scattered from the various parts of the object 8 and converged as a radio-wave image upon the array 7 of pick-up elements by the lens 5. In accordance with the present invention, as will presently be explained, a radiowave-energy distribution becomes thus focused upon the array 7 to produce a radio-energy image or picture of the object 3, specific elemental areas of which will correspond to specific elemental areas of the object 8.

According to the preferred embodiment of the invention that is herein illustrated and described, this radioenergy image or picture of the object 8 thus received by the pick-up units may lbe converted into a visible image, picture or likeness 123 of the object 8 upon the fluorescent viewing screen or face 106 of a display electrostatic cathode-ray receiving or presentation oscilloscope 90.

The invention provides means for first rendering the normally ineffective pick-up units 10, 12, 15, 16, etc., of the first row successively effective momentarily in the display circuits; for then rendering the pick-up units 18, 20, 22, etc., of the second row successively effective momentarily; for then rendering the pick-up units 24, 26, etc., of the third row successively effective momentarily; and so on, in two-dimensional order. This result may be attained by scanning the pick-up elements with an electron stream, as will hereinafter be more fully explained.

The beads 10, 12, 14, 16, etc., of the rst row are all connected to a conducting strip 43, grounded through a common conductor 78. The beads 18, 20, 22, etc., of the second row are similarly shown all connected to a similarly grounded strip 51. The beads 24, 26, etc.,

ofithe'third row are'similarlyI shown all connected to a third similarly grounded strip 57, and so on.

The cathode-ray-oscilloscope-like member 89 is shown provided with a grounded cathode 95, a control-grid electrode 934 and an anode 97; Electrons emitted from' the cathode 95 will become enabled, in response to proper-stimulation ofthe grid 93, to travel past the grid 93 to the anode 97. The electrons will continue to travel in a stream past the anode 97, between a pair of vertically disposed horizontal-,defiector plates 99 and 101, of which the plate 99 is shown grounded, and between ,4. impinges manifests itself first in the above-described crystal circuits lto ground and, through these circuits, in the input circuit of the grounded preferably linear amplifier 79.`

The scanning of these crystals may obviously also operate on the principle of change in electron-beam current, upon impinging on surfaces of various potentials.

As-the stream hits these crystals of different potentials, a change in beam current occurs, which manifests ltself a pair off horizontally disposed vertical-deflector plates 103'and` 105, of vwhich the plate 05 is shown grounded,

to impinge' finallyon the rinsulating supporting disc 9 of l horizontal-deiiector plate 99 and the vertically disposed horiiontaldeiie`ctor plate 101, will cause the electron streamfrom the cathode 95 to become deflected horizontally for each horizontal sweep, and a vertical-sweeptime base, applied to the horizontally disposed def-lector plates 103 andV 105, will cause the electron stream from the cathode 95 to become deflected vertically.

The rows of pick-up units may be positioned along the successive paths of the electron stream in order to enable the electron stream to'impinge on them as the electron stream successively sweeps over the successive rows of crystal beads of the array 7. Horizontally disposed lines of crystal elements will thus be scanned by the electron stream. Y v

One of the surfaces of each crystal pick-up element is thus vexposed to the incoming radio waves, and the other surface is exposed, within the cathode-ray tube member S9, to the electron stream.

The bank 7 of crystal globules may be scanned according to either of two principles or according to a combination ofthe same.

One principle involves measuring the variation in the resistance of each crystal pick-up unit of the bank 7 at the moment that the electron stream impinges upon it. This provides a measure of the resistance across each crystal, indicative of the intensity of the radio-frequency energy impinged upon that particular crystal and absorbed thereby directly from the radio field. Because of the high negative-temperature coefficient of resistance of the crystals, their resistance will change with the intensity of the impiuging radio-frequency energy. The radio-frequencyl energy will also become rectified to produce direct-current potential differences across the resistance of the crystals. This results from the rec'tifying or detecting properties of the crystals in the above-described radio-receiving circuits traceable from the crystal electrodes through the crystals to the grounded conductor 78. These variations of resistance and potential are representative of the radio-frequency energy impinged on the crystals by the lens 5 and impressed on these circuits. The resulting resistance and potential variations on the crystals will become manifest in corresponding circuits, as the crystals are traversed successively, during the scanning process, by the electron stream from the cathode 95 of the member 89.

According to the secondprinciple, advantage is taken ofthe direct-current voltage impressed across each crystal. This voltage is proportional to the intensity of the radio-frequency energy received by the corresponding crystal, as communicated to the said receiving circuits. With the aid of this principle, it becomes possible to measure the change of current along the electron stream as the electron stream traverses areas of different directcurrent potential. As the electron stream, during the scanning, travels across and impinges upon the successively disposed crystals, the change in the electron-stream currentfresultingfrom the different potentials across the variably resistive crystalsupon which the electron stream in the input circuit of the amplifier 79.

Mosaics of silicon, as shown in Fig. 1, alternate sections of silicon and metal, as shown in' Fig. 4, or dielectric and silicon, may be mounted in the disc 9 of the oscilloscope 89, and may similarly be used as a scanning mosaic. Radio-frequency energy impinged on the metal sections 200, 202, etc., will produce rectified voltages across the djacently disposed silicon sections 201, 203, etc., in the radio-receiving circuits traceable from the metal sections through the adjacently disposed silicon sections yby way of the common lead 78. The rectifying sections of silicon may follow the square law in their response, but this can be compensated for by proper design ofthe amplifier 79 (page 492 of Ultra High Frequency Techniques, by Era-inerti, Koehler, Reich and*- Woodruff, 1942 edition) The exposed silicon sections will also absorb' radio energy and exhibit a negative-resistance' effect; The electron scanning of the successive silicon sectionsV will thus operate, as before' described, to measure the resistance variation of the sections, or the change in beam current upon impinging oni sections of different potential, or according to a combination of the two principles.

As the electronstream produced from the cathode 95, in response to appropriate horizontal sweep-time-base voltages applied to the vertically disposed deflector plates 99 and 101 of the cathode-ray-tube-like member 89, travels across the pick-up elements in Vthe disc 9, they will successively discharge into the amplifier '79, by way of the 'conductor 78. i be replaced by a bank of linear amplifiers, one corresponding to each of the pick-up elements.

The output of the amplifier 79 will obviously vary, at successive instants, in accordance with the radio-frequency energy received by the successive corresponding pick-up elements.

A pulse generator 403 may be employed to trigger aV horizontal-time-base-sweep circuit 63 and a verticalsweep circuit 69, according to conventional and wellknown television technique. The pulse generator 40 may feed, through an attenuator and rectifier ll, to an oscilla.- tor or any similar or equivalent television circuit. One such circuit is shown as a pulse-recurrence-frequency multiplier 65, for applying many p ulses corresponding to each radio-frequency pulse for theI period between successive radio pulses, to trigger the horizontal-sweep circuit r63. The horizontal-time-base sweep will thereby be produced between the vertically disposed deiiector plates 99 and 101, occurring as many times, say, between successive radio-frequency' transmissions, as there are rows of pick-up antennael The pulse generator 40' may also feed, through the attenuator and rectifier 1, to trigger the vertical-sweep circuit 69, once corresponding to every radio-frequency transmission, One vertical sweep will then occur between the horizontally disposed plates 103, 105 during the period between successive radiopulse transmissions, corresponding to as many horizontal sweeps as there are rows of antennae, causing each of the horizontal sweeps to appear at successively lower levels on the oscilloscope-sweep faces.

lf theV circuit 65 comprises an oscillator, the oscillations may be employed to trigger the horizontal sweep. The period of the oscillations which, as previously explained, is much less than the duration of each radio pulse, corresponds to the time of sweep across one row of the'pick-up units in the disc 9,

I-f desired, the amplifier 79y may` Y f, as previously mentioned, continuous-wave radio transmission is employed, the vertical-sweep circuit 69 may be triggered to produce one vertical sweep corresponding to as many horizontal sweeps from the horizontal-sweep circuit 63 as there are rows of receiving units.

Means is provided for producing, upon the screen 106 of the display oscilloscope 90, images corresponding to the radio-frequency energy received by the corresponding pick-up mosaic antenna elements. The screen 106 is illuminated by an electron stream in the oscilloscope 90. This electron stream is synchronized to travel with the electron stream of the cathode-ray-tubelike member 89. The horizontal-sweep circuit 63 is connected to the horizontal-deector plate 100 of the oscilloscope 90 by a conductor 67, and to the horizontal-deiiector plate 101 of Vthe oscilloscope-like member 89 by the conductor 67 and a conductor 124. The vertical-sweep circuit 69 is connected to the vertical-deector plate 102 of the oscilloscope 90 by a conductor 71, and to the vertical-dei'lector plate 103 of the oscilloscope-like member 89 by the conductor 71 and a conductor 146.

The amplifier 79 is connected, by conductors 84 and 86, to a phase-inverter stage or stages 81 which, in turn, is connected, by conductors 85 and 87, to the controlgrid electrode 92 and the cathode 94 of the oscilloscope 90. The mosaic beads become thus successively connected, through the amplifier 79 and the phase-inverter 81, to the control electrode 92. Electrons emitted from the cathode 94 will become enabled, in response to the action of the amplifier 79 and the phase-inverter 81, to pass by the grid 92, to the anode 96 of the oscilloscope tube 90. The electrons will continue to travel in a stream from the anode 96, between the pair of vertically disposed oscilloscope deflector plates 98 and 100, of which the plate 9S is shown grounded, and between the pair of horizontally disposed oscilloscope deflector plates 102 and 104, of which the plate 104 is shown grounded, to impinge nally on the fluorescent viewing screen 106 of the oscilloscope 90.

The horizontal-sweep-tirne base applied to the vertically disposed deflector plates 98 and 100 will cause the electron stream from the cathode 94 to become deflected horizontally, and the vertical-sweep-tirne base, applied to the horizontally disposed deflector plates 102 and 104, will cause the electron stream to become deected vertically, in synchronism with the horizontal and vertical sweeps scanning the mosaic 7 of the oscilloscope-like member 89.

After each simultaneous horizontal sweep of both the oscilloscope 90 and the oscilloscope-like member 89 has been completed, a successively larger voltage will be applied to the horizontally disposed deector plates 103, 105 and 102, 104 respectively, by the vertical-sweep circuit. After the last such horizontal sweep, the voltage between the horizontally disposed plates 103, 105 and 102, 104 will become restored to zero. The next horizontal sweep, therefore, will start again at the first or top row.

Successively disposed areas of the screen 106 of the oscilloscope 90 will therefore correspond to the similarly disposed mosaic-antenna sections in the disc 9 of the oscilloscope-like member 89. Each spot along a particular horizontal sweep, therefore, will become brightened on the screen 106 according to the amount of radio energy received by the corresponding pick-up elements, and fed, by way of the amplifier 79 and the phase-inverting-and-amplifying circuit 81, to the control electrode 92 of the cathode-ray oscilloscope 90.

A more sensitive video signal device might be any well-known resistance-measuring circuit, such as a bridge detector of, say the Wheatstone construction. If the uranium-oxide or other crystal globules have their resistances connected in a direct-current series circuit, then the bank of beads may serve as an extremely sensitive 6 radio-detecting element of a Wheatstone bridge, in which they may be balanced against fixed elements 212, 214 and 216, as shown in Fig. 2. The short-circuiting of each successive globule or resistance by the electron stream, diagrammatically shown as short-circuiting switches 205, 207, 209, 211, in parallel with the globules 204, 206, 208, 210, would thus be markedly indicated in the amplifier 79 and fed to the control electrode 92 of the display oscilloscope 90.

Though the tubes and 89 have been described as operating upon the electrostatic principle, it will be understood that magnetic-deflection means or a combination of magnetic and electrostatic means may equally well be employed.

Although the invention has been described in connection with mosaic-antennae arranged in rows and columns, it will be understood that this is not essential, for other arrangements are also possible. Antennae arranged along concentric circles covering the field, or a continuous spiral, will also serve, though the oscilloscope arrangement would, of course, be correspondingly modified.

Further modifications will occur to persons skilled in the art, and all such are considered to fall within the spirit and scope of the invention, as defined in the appended claims.

What is claimed is:

l. An electric system having in combination, an oscilloscope-like member having a mosaic of absorbingand-rectifying radio-receiving elements and means for producing an electron stream for impinging on the mosaic, means for focusing radio energy on the mosaic, means for causing the electron stream to scan the mosaic, `and means controlled by the electron stream, as it scans the mosaic, for indicating variations in resistance or potential of the elements in response to the action of the focused radio waves.

2. An electric system having, in combination, an oscilloscope-like member having a mosaic of absorbing-andrectifying radio-receiving elements and means for producing an electron stream for impinging on the elements, means for focusing radio energy on the mosaic, means for causing the electron stream to scan the elements, means controlled by the radio waves focused on the mosaic for producing varying potentials on the elements of the mosaic, and means controlled by the electron stream, as it scans the elements, for indicating variations in the current of the electron stream.

3. An electric system having, in combination, an oscilloscope-like member having a mosaic of absorbing-andrectifying radio-receiving elements and means for producing an electron stream for impinging on the mosaic, means for focusing radio energy on the mosaic, means for causing the electron stream to scan the mosaic, and means controlled by the electron stream, as it scans the mosaic, for indicating variations in resistance of the elements in response to the action of the focused radio waves, the last-named means comprising a balanced bridge.

4. A11 electric system having, in combination, an oscilloscope having a screen and means for producing an electron stream impinging on the screen, an oscilloscopelike member having an insulating support and means for producing an electron stream impinging on the support, the support having a plurality of radio-receiving elements, means for focusing radio energy on the radio-receiving elements, and means operable in response to the energy received by the radio-receiving elements for causing the first-named electron stream to produce upon the screen a likeness corresponding to the energy received by the radio-receiving elements.

5. An electric system having, in combination, an oscilloscope having a first screen, a control electrode and means for producing an electron stream impinging on the screen, an oscilloscope-like member having a second screen and means for producing an electron stream im- Pillgngn the second screen, the Ysecond screen having a plurality-Qi radio-receiving.elements, means for. focusing radio ,energy on the radiogreceiving elements, means for causing lthe elements .to 4be scanned by the secondnamed electron stream, ,and lmeans controlled by the change in resistance of the elements, in response to the action of the focused radio waves, for controlling the control electrode, thereby to ,cause the electron stream to produce upon the first screen Va'likeness corresponding to the energy focused Upon Vthe radio-receiving elements.

6. An electric system having, in combination, an oscilloscope 4,having a first screen, aicontrol ,electrode and means for producing an electron stream impinging on Vthe screen, an oscilloscope-like member having .a second screen and means for producing an electron stream impinging on the second screen, the second screen having a plurality of radio-receiving elements, means for focusing radio energy on the radio-receiving elements, means for causing the elements to Abe scanned by the secondnamed electron stream, means controlled by radio waves focused Von the radio-receiving Velements for producing varying potentials on the radio-receiving elements, means controlled by the second-named electron stream, as it scans the second screen, for producing variations in the current of the second-named'electron stream, and means controlled by the variations in the said current for producing upon the iirst screen a likeness corresponding to the energy focused upon the radio-receiving elements.

7. A bridge having arms one of which comprises a mosaic of radio-receiving elements exhibiting a negative temperature coeicient of resistance on exposure to radio waves, and indicating means controlled by the radioreceiving elements.

8. An electric system having, in combination, a mosaic of insulated radio-receiving elements, means for producing an electron stream impinging on the elements, means for focusing radio energy on the mosaic, an oscilloscope having a screen and means for producing an electron stream impinging on the screen, and means operable in response to the energy received by the radio-receiving elements for causing the second-named electron stream to produce upon the screen a likeness corresponding to the energy received by the radio-receiving elements.

9. A bridge having arms one of which comprises a plurality of radio-receiving and absorbing elements, and means for indicating variations in the balance of the bridge in response to radio waves received by the elements.

10. A bridge having a plurality of arms connected together to form a plurality of pairs of vertices, one of the arms having radio-receiving and absorbing means, an input circuit connected to one of the pairs of vertices, and an output circuit connected to another pair of vertices.

1l. A bridge having four arms connected together to form two pairs of oppositely disposed vertices, one of the arms having radio-receiving and absorbing means, an input circuit connected to one of the pairs of vertices, and an output circuit connected to the'other pair ot vertices.

12. A bridge having four arms connected together to form two pairs of oppositely disposed vertices, one of the arms having a plurality of radio-receiving and absorbing elements, an input circuit connected to one of the pairs of vertices, and an output circuit connected to the other pair ofv vertices.

13. A bridge having four arms connected together to form two pairs of oppositely disposed vertices, one of the arms having a plurality of series-connected radioreceiving elements, an input circuit connected to one of the pairs of vertices, and an output circuit connected to vthe other pair of vertices.

one of the pairs of vertices, an `output circuit connected to the other pair of vertices, andmeans .for rendering the' elements successively effective.

l5. An electric system having,in combination, a plurality of insulated radio-receiving elements each having a terminal, means fory producing an electron stream impingingon the elements, a bridge circuit to which the terminals are connected to connect the elements into an arm of the bridge, and means for causing the electron stream to scan the elements, thereby to vary the balance oi the bridge circuit. Y f

16. An electric system having, in combination, a bridge having a plurality of arms connected together to form4 a plurality of pairs of vertices, one vofthe arms having radio-receiving-and-rectifying means, means lfor producing an electron stream for impingingA on the radio-receiving-and-rectifying means, and means for causing the electron stream to scan the radio-receiving-and-rectifying means.

17. An electric system having, in combination, radioreceiving-and-rectifying means, means for producing an electron stream for impinging on the radio-receiVingandrectifying means, means for causing the electron stream to scan the radio-receiving-and-rectifying means, and means controlled by the electron stream, asv it scans `the radio-receiving-and-rectifying means, for detecting variations in potential of the radio-receiving-and-rectifying means.

18. An electric system having, in combination, radioreceiving-and-rectifying means, means for producing an electron stream for impinging on the radio-receiving-andrectifying means, means for causing the electron stream to scan the radio-receiving-and-rectifying means, means controlled by the radio waves received by the radio-receiving-and-rectifying means for producing varying potentials on the radio-receiving-and-rectifying means, and means controlled by the electron stream, as it scans the radio-receiving-and-rectifying means, for detecting variations in the current of the electron stream.

19. An electric system having, in combination, a first electron tube having a screen and means for producing a rst electron stream impinging on the screen, a second electron tube having an plurality of insulated radio-receiving elements and means for producing a second electron stream impinging on the elements, and means operable in response to the energy received by the radio-receiving elements and cooperative with the second electron stream for causing the rst electron stream to produce upon the screen a likeness corresponding to the energy received by the radio-receiving elements.

20. An electric system having, in combination, radioreceiving means the resistance of which varies in rcsponse to the received radio waves, means for producing an electron stream impinging on the radio-receiving means, means for causing the electron stream to scan the radio-receiving means, an electric circuit in which the radio-receiving means is connected, and means for directing radio energy on the radio-receiving means to produce resistance changes in the radio-receiving means, thereby to vary the current in the circuit as the electron stream scans the radio-receiving means.

2l. An electric system having, in combination, radioreceiving means the potential voi which varies in response to the received radio waves, means for producing an electron stream impinging on the radio-receiving means, means for causing the electron stream to scan the radioreceiving means, an electric circuit in which the radioreceiving means is connected, and means for directing radio energy on the radio-receiving means to produce potential changes in the radio-receiving means, thereby to vary the current in the circuit as the electron stream scans the radio-receiving means.

2 2. An electron tube having for employment with the electrons therein a crystal element of silicon and the like 9. electrically connected with at least one conductor to provide rectifying characteristics by such connection.

23. An electric system having, in combination, a mosaic comprising a two-dimensional array of radio-receiving elements for receiving radio Waves from an object, means for producing an electron stream impinging on the mosaic, means for causing the stream to scan the mosaic in twodimensional order, a normally ineffective electric circuit in which the elements are connected for producing a likeness corresponding to the radio energy received by the elements from the object, and means controlled in synchronism with the scanning means for rendering the circuit successively effective to produce successive portions of a likeness of the object in two-dimensional order synchronously with the reception of the radio energy from the object by the receiving elements.

24. In combination, means for imaging radio waves from a scene to be recorded, a radio wave pick-up device comprising a crystal detector, means for scanning the said radio wave image by said pick-up device and converting the energy thus picked up into an electrical signal, an image reproducing means, means for operating said image reproducing means in synchronism with said scanning, and means for supplying said signal to said reproducing means whereby a picture of said scene is obtained.

25. In combination, means for imaging radio waves from a scene to be reproduced, a radio-Wave pick-up device comprising crystal detector means, means for scanning an area successive portions of which correspond to successive portions of the radio-wave image, means controlled in accordance with the scanning for converting the energy picked up by the pick-up device from the different portions of the image into corresponding electrical signals, a display cathode-ray tube, means for operating the tube in synchronism with the scanning, and means for supplying the signals to the tube, whereby a picture of the scene is obtained.

26. In combination, means for imaging radio waves from a scene to be reproduced, a two-dimensional array of radio-Wave pick-up devices upon which the radio image may be formed, means for scanning an area successive portions of which correspond to successive pick-up devices in the array, means controlled in accordance with the scanning for converting the energy picked up by the successive pick-up devices into corresponding electrical signals, a display cathode-ray tube, means for operating the tube in synchronism with the scanning, and means for supplying the signals to the tube, whereby a picture of the scene is obtained.

27. In combination, means for imaging radio waves from a scene to be reproduced, a radio-wave pick-up device comprising crystal-detector means, means for scanning an area successive portions of which correspond to successive portions of the radio-wave image, means controlled in accordance with the scanning for converting the energy picked up by the pick-up device from the diierent portions of the image into corresponding electrical signals, an image-reproducing means, means for operating the image-reproducing means in synchronism with the scanning, and means for supplying the signals to the image-reproducing means, whereby a picture of the scene is obtained. 28. In combination, means for imaging radio waves from a scene, a radio-wave pick-up device comprising crystal detector means, means connected to the pick-up device for scanning the said radio-wave image and convertng the energy picked up by the pick-up device during the scanning into electrical signals, a display cathoderay tube, means for operating the tube in synchronism with the scanning, and means for supplying the signals to the tube, whereby a picture of the scene is obtained.

29. In combination, means for imaging radio waves from a scene to be reproduced, a radio-Wave pick-up device, crystal detector means for rectifying the radio waves picked up by the pick-up device, means for scanning an area successive portions of which correspond to successive portions of the radio-wave image, means controlled in accordance with the scanning for converting the energy picked up by the pick-up device from the different portions of the image into corresponding electrical signals, an image-reproducing means, means for operating the image-reproducing means in synchronism with the scanning, and means for supplying the signals to the imagereproducing means, whereby a picture of the scene is obtained.

30. A system comprising means for propagating ultra high-frequency electromagnetic energy modulated with a high-frequency wave of electro-magnetic energy, a receiving antenna array including a plurality of closely spaced conductors, an antenna array load impedance connected to said conductors, means for focusing the point of emanationof the propagated energy on a small portion of said antenna array, means for projecting a narrow beam of electrons against said antenna array, means for causing said beam of electrons to scan said antenna array, meansfor rectifying the electro-magnetic energy received by said antenna array, circuit means forming a closed circiut including said beam of electrons, said antenna conductors, said load impedance and said rectifier means in which electron current iiows, amplier means, means for feeding the rectified component of said electromagnetic energy to said amplifier, and means for utilizing the amplified output of said amplilier.

3l. A system for transforming a primary image formed by electromagnetic waves into a secondary image formed by other electromagnetic waves, said system comprising a plurality of spaced rectifying elements each having a conductive surface divided into two portions separated by a rectifying boundary region, means supporting said rectifying elements in the form of a mosaic lying substantially in the plane of the primary image, each said rectifying element being arranged to have its direction of best conduction substantially parallel to the plane of the primary image and said elements being poled with the conductive direction of each element the same as any other with respect to the said plane, whereby the electriceld variations at any given point in the primary image give rise to alternating currents on the conductive-surface portions of a particular one of said rectifying elements, thereby accumulating an electric charge on one side of the corresponding rectifying boundary in proportion to the electric-field intensity at the given point, means periodically discharging said rectifying elements in succession, thereby producing a fluctuating current varying in accordance with the magnitude of the accumulated charge from element to element, and means producing a secondary image from the information carried by the uctuations in said current.

32. A system for transforming a primary image formed by radio waves into a visible secondary image, said system comprising a plurality of spaced radio-wave receiving-and-rectifying elements each having a conductive surface divided into two antenna portions separated by a rectifying boundary region, means for impinging the radio waves of the primary image upon the receiving-and-rectifying elements, each said receiving-and-rectifying element being poled with the conductive direction of each element the same as any other with respect to the plane of the primary image, whereby the electric ield variations at any given point in the primary image give rise to alternating currents on the antenna portions of a particular one of said receiving-and-rectifying elements, thereby accumulating an electric charge on one side of the corresponding rectifying boundary in proportion to the electric field intensity at the given point, means periodically discharging said receiving-and-rectifying elements in succession, thereby producing a uctuating current varying in accordance with the magnitude of the accumulated charge from element to element, and means producing a l1 visible secondary image from the -information carried by the fluctuations yin said current.

33. A-system for transforming aprimary image Vformed by electromagnetic waves into a secondary image formed by other electromagnetic waves, said system comprising a plurality of spaced electromagnetic-wave receiving-andrectifying elements each having a conductive surface divided into two portions separated by a crystal rectifier, means for impinging the electromagneticwaves of the primary image upon the receiVing-and-rectifying elements, each said receiving-and-rectifying element being poled with the conductive direction of each element the same as any other with respect tothe plane of the primary image, whereby the electric-field variations at any given point in the primary image give rise to alternating currents on the conductive-surface portions of a particular one of said receiving-and-rectifying elements, thereby accumulating an electric charge on one side of the corresponding crystal rectifier in proportion to the electriciield intensity at the given point, means periodically discharging said receiving-and-rectifying.elements in succession, thereby producing a uctuating current varyin'g in accordance with the magnitude of the accumulated charge from element to element, and means producing a secondary image from the information carried by the fluctuations in said current.

34. A system for transforming a primary image formed by electromagnetic waves into a secondary image formed by other electromagnetic waves, said system comprising an insulating support, a plurality of spaced electromagneti'c-Wave receiving-and-rectifying elements supported by the support each having a conductive surface divided into two portions separated by a rectifying boundary region,

.means for impinging the electromagnetic waves of the primary image upon the receiving-and-rectifying elements, each said receivin'g-and-rectifying element being poled with the conductive direction of each element the same as any other with respect to the plane of the primary image, whereby the electric-field variations at any given point in the primary image give rise to alternating currents on the conductive-surface portions ofa particular one of said receiving-and-rectifying elements, thereby accumulating an electric charge on one side of the correspending rectifying boundary in proportion to the electric-field intensity at the given point, means periodically discharging said receivin'g-and-rectifying elements in succession, thereby producing a fluctuating current varying in accordance with the magnitude of the accumulated charge from element to element, and means producing a secondary image from the information carried by the ii'uctuations in said current.

35. Apparatus of the character described having, in combination, an insulating support an area of which is provided with discreet elements, means for producing an electromagnetic image cn the elements, means supported by the support for producing an electrostatic charge on each of the elements varying in accordance with the intensity of the portion' of the electromagnetic image produced thereon, means for scanning the elements in order successively to release the charges in accordance with a predetermined scanning pattern, and 4means responsive to the released charges for forming a visual image.

36. Apparatus of the character described having, in combination, an insulating support an area of which is provided with discreet elements, means for producing an electromagnetic image on the elements, means supported by the support for producing an electrostatic charge on each of the elements varying in accordance with the i11- tensity of the portion of the electromagnetic image produced thereon, means for impinging an electron stream successively on the elements to scan the elements in order successively to release the charges, and means responsive to the released charges for forming a visual image.

37. In combination, means for imaging radio Waves from a scene to be reproduced, a radio wave pick-up device comprising crystal detector means, means for scanL ning the said radio wave image by said pick-up device and converting the energy thus picked up into an electrical signal, a facsimile reproducer, means for operating said reproducer in synchronism with 'said scanning,l and means for supplying said signal `to said reproducer whereby picture of said scene is reproduced.

38. In combination, means for imaging radio waves from a scene to be reproduced, a radio wave pick-up device comprising crystal detector means, means for scanning the said radio wave image by said pick-up device and converting the energyfthus picked up into an electrical signal, an image reproducing means, means for operating said image reproducing means in synchro-mism with said scanning, and means for supplying said signal to said reproducing nieans whereby a picture of said scene is obtained. Y

39. A system comprising means for propagating ultrahigh-frequency electromagnetic energy modulated with a high-frequency wave of electromagnetic energy, a receiv-v ing antenna array including a plurality of closely spaced antenna elements each provided with a conducting circuit, an' antenna array load impedance connected to the antenna element conducting'circuits, means for focusing the point of emanation of the propagated energy on the antenna elements of the said antenna array, means for projecting a narrow beam of electrons against predetermined portions of the antenna element conducting circuits, means for causing said beam of electrons to scan the said predetermined portions of the antenna element conducting circuits thereby to scan the said antenna array, means for rectifying the electromagnetic energy received by the antenna elements, circuit means forming a closed circuit including said beam of electrons, a portion of said antenna element conducting circuits and said load impedance 1n which electron current flows, amplifier means, means for feeding electric energy representative of the rectified component `of said electromagnetic energy to said amplifier, and means for utilizing the amplified output of said amplier. f

40. An electric system having, in combination, an oscilloscope-like member having means for producing an electron stream, a mosaic of radio-receiving elements each provided with and connected to a corresponding electric circuit comprising a radio-wave absorbing-and-rectifying element, means for impinging the electron stream on predetermined portions of the radio-receiving element electric circuits, means for focusing radio energy on the mosaic, means for causing the electronV stream to scan the said predetermined portions of the radio-receiving element electric circuits, means controlled by the radio waves focused on the mosaic for producing varying potentials on the said predetermined portions of the radio-receiving element electric circuits, and means controlled by the electron stream, as it scans the said predetermined portions of the radio-receiving element electric circuits, for indicating variations in the current of the electron sti'eam.

4l. A system comprising means for propagating ultra high-frequency electromagnetic energy modulated with a high-frequency wave of electromagnetic energy, a receiving antenna array including `a plurality of closely spaced conductors, an antenna array load impedance connected to said conductors, means for focusing the point of emanation of the propagated energy on a small portion of said antenna array, means for projecting a narrow beam of electrons against said antenna array, means for causing said beam of electrons to scan said antenna array, means for rectifying the electromagnetic energy received by said antenna array, circuit means forming a closed circuit including said beam of electrons, said antenna conductors, said load impedance and said rectifier means in which electron current flows, amplifier means, means for' feeding the rectified component of said electromagnetic energy to said amplifier, a cathode ray tube having a iluorescent screen, means for projecting a beam Vof electrons against said screen, means for causing said last mentioned beam of electrons to scan said screen in synchronisrn with the scanning action of said irst beam of electrons, a control grid in said cathode ray tube, means normally biasing said control grid to Iblock the 110W of electrons in said cathode ray tube, a load circuit including a load impedance coup-led to the output of said amplifier means, and means coupled to said load circuit for changing the biasing potential on said control grid to establish a tlow of electrons in said cathode ray tube Whenever rectified received electromagnetic energy lloWs from said amplifier through said load circuit.

42. In a radio-current electric system, alternately disposed elements of metal and silicon and the like constructed to provide a first element of silicon and the like having electrical connections at opposite ends to the metal elements, the first element being provided'with an electrical connection to an intermediate point thereof, and at least one of the said electrical connections providing for rectifying characteristics with the said rst element, and means for impinging an electron stream upon at least one of the elements.

43. In a radio-current electric system, alternately disposed elements of metal and silicon and the like constructed to provide a first element of silicon and the like having electrical connections at opposite ends to the metal elements, the rst element being provided with an electrical connection to an intermediate point thereof, and at least one of the said electrical connections providing for rectifying characteristics with the said rst element.

44. Apparatus as claimed in claim 43 and in which the said electrical connection to the said intermediate point is connected to a grounded electric circuit.

45. In a current-translating electric system, alternately disposed elements of conductive material and silicon and the like constructed to provide a rst element of silicon and the like having electrical connections at opposite ends to the conductive elements, the rst element being provided With an electrical connection to an intermediate point thereof, and at least one of the said electrical con- 14 nections providing for rectifying characteristics with the said first element.

46. Apparatus as claimed in claim 45 and in which voltage is applied to the conductive elements and the said electrical connection to the said intermediate point is connected to a grounded electric circuit.

47. Apparatus as claimed in claim 45 and in which a further electrical connection is made to the rst element at the surface opposite the said connection to the said intermediate point.

References Cited in the tile of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,214,265 Berel et al. Jan. 30, 1917 1,794,730 Peterson Mar. 3, 1931 1,821,386 Lindenblad Sept. 1, 1931 2,086,601 Caruthers July 13, 1937 2,121,771 Jones June 21, 1938 2,130,033 Scharlau Sept. 13, 1938 2,155,471 Cawley Apr. 25, 1939 2,189,549 Hershberger Feb. 6, 1940 2,199,438 Lubszynski May 7, 1940 2,213,276 Gossel Sept. 3, 1940 2,217,326 Wald Oct. 8, 1940 2,219,113 Ploke Oct. 22, 1940 2,237,679 Lubszynski et al. Apr. 8, 1941 2,270,697 Clark Jan. 20, 1942 2,367,764 Ferris 1an. 23, 1945 FOREIGN PATENTS 253,746 Great Britain June 24, 1926 541,959 Great Britain Dec. 19, 1941 OTHER REFERENCES Ultra High Frequency Techniques, by Brainerd ct al., published by D. Van Nostrand, New Yorl' city, 1942, pages 478, 479, 486, 487 and 488.

A Comprehensive Treatise on inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry, by I. W. Mellor, 1932, page 48, published by Longmans, Green & Co., New York.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification342/179, 315/1, 313/461
International ClassificationG01S7/06, G01S7/04
Cooperative ClassificationG01S7/06
European ClassificationG01S7/06