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Publication numberUS2066715 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication date5 Jan 1937
Filing date4 Aug 1932
Priority date4 Aug 1932
Publication numberUS 2066715 A, US 2066715A, US-A-2066715, US2066715 A, US2066715A
InventorsCenteno V Melchor
Original AssigneeInternat Television Radio Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Television apparatus
US 2066715 A
Abstract  available in
Images(6)
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Jan. 5, 1937. M. CENTENO v.

TELEVISION APPARATUS Filed Aug. 4, 1932 6 Sheets-Sheet l ML 015mg Cmrz/vo V INVENTOR ATTOR N EY WITNESS Jan. 5, 1937. M. CENTENO v.

TELEVISION APPARATUS Filed Aug. 4, 1932 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR jam/140%.

ATTORNEY ML CHOR (291/115 19.;

BY W

Jan. 5, 1937. M. CENTENO v; 2,066,715

TELEVI S ION APPARATUS Filed Aug. 4, 1932 6 Sheets-Sheet 3 M51; gh'we aLE VIEJVO V INVENTOR I I ATTORNEY Jan. 5, 1937.

WITNESS- M. CENTENO v.

TELEVISION APPARATUS Filed Aug.

Ell. $03

6 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTOR ATTOR N EY Jan. 5, 1937. CENTENO v, 2,066,715

TELEVI S ION APPARATUS Filed Aug. 4, 1932 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 MEL GHOR Uzwnszvo V INVENTOR BY aw; 925M160.

wrruzs: I ATTORNEY Jan. 5, 1937; M, CE'NTENO v, 2,066,715

TELEVISION APPARATUS Filed Aug. 4, 1932 6 Sheets-Sheet 6 MEL c1102 Czjvnsyo If INVENTOR BY vilfggssiaytl ATTORNEY Patented Jan. 5, 1937" TELEVISION APPARATUS Melchor Centeno V., Caracas, .Venezuela, assignor to International Television Radio Corporation,

New York, N. Y.

Application August 4, 1932, Serial No. 627,519

(01. its- 6) 9 Claims.

Another object is to provide a novel system of stereoscopic television.

A further object is to provide an improved and simple form of scanner.

Still another object is to provide novel means for accomplishing direct television.

Another object is to provide means whereby compactness of apparatus is secured.

Still another object is to provide means for obtaining uniformity of light on the scanning area.

Other objects and advantages of the invention will be pointed out or will become apparent as the specification proceeds.

The invention will be fully and comprehensively understood from a consideration of the following detailed description when read in connection with the accompanying drawings which form part of the application with the understanding, however, that the improvement is capable of extended application and is not confined to the exact showing of the drawings nor to the precise construction described, and, therefore, such changes and modifications may be made therefrom as do not affect the spirit of the invention nor exceed the scope thereof as expressed in the appended claims.

In the drawings:

Fig. 1 is a front elevation of the scanner.

Fig. 2 is a side elevation of the same.

Fig. 3 is a perspective view of the outer or stationary frame of the scanner.

Fig. 4 is a perspective view of the inner or movable frame of the scanner.

Fig. 5 is a perspective view of a mirror and its mounting. v

' Fig. 6 is a diagrammatic view of a source of oscillating current necessary'in the television apparatus of my invention.

Fig, 7 is a diagrammatic drawing of a television system embodying my invention. Figs. 8, 9, 10 and 11 are diagrammatic drawings of other television systems of my invention.

Fig. 12 is a diagrammatic drawing of a television system for viewing pictures sterescopically.

Fig. 13 is a diagrammatic drawing of pick-up apparatus which may be employed in any of the systems shown in Figs. '1 to 12, inclusive.

Fig. 14 is a diagrammatic drawing of an optical arrangement for the scanning system.

Fig. 15 is a view showing an embodiment of the system shown in Fig. 14 and including means for adjusting the lens relative to the mirror.

Fig. 16 is a diagrammatic view of the scanning operation.

Fig. 17 is an elevational view showing a screen nonuniformly lighted, which is the effect obtained unless the screen shown in Fig. 19 or the lens shown in Figs. and 21 are used in the scanning system.

Fig. 18 is an elevational view of a uniformly lighted screen, the uniform lighting being obtained by the use of the apparatus of my invention.

Fig. 19 is an elevational view of a translucent sheet which may be interposed between the mirror and the screen of Fig. 16 in the position of the dotted line of said Fig. 16. I

Fig. 20 is an elevational view of the concave face of a concavo-convex lens which may be used instead of the sheet shown in Fig. 19 in order to obtain a uniformly lighted screen.

Fig. 21 is a side elevation of the concavo-convex lens shown in Fig. 20; and

Fig. 22 is a diagrammatic drawing showing the lens of Figs. 20 and 21 in a scanning system.

Referring to the drawings for a more detailed description thereof and at first to Figs. 1 to 5, inclusive, which show the construction of the scanner, the numeral I designates the static frame which may suitably be of soft iron and which serves as a support for an inner or floating frame 2. Frame 2 is vibratably supported by frame I by means of a pair of tense wires or strings 3 and the tightening mechanism 4 for said wires or strings. The lower wire 3 is secured to the bottoms of frames I and 2 while the upper wire 3 is secured to the top of frame 2 and to a strip 5 which is supported on screws 6a passing through the top of the frame I. Nuts I5 and the heads of the bolts hold the strip 5 in position on the. bolts while nuts I and "la hold the bolts in adjusted position relative to the top of frame I. The adjustment of nuts 'I and la enable the tension of wires 3 to be adjusted as desired so that the desired period of vibration of frame 2 maybe obtained. Notches I8 are made in the side edges of the upper and lower portions of the frame 2 while notches I2 are formed in the side edges of strip 5 and the bottom member of frame I so that the wires 3 may be seated therein. The stationary frame I may be held in position by means of screws 8. Frame I carries the low frequency energizing coils 9, said'coils having cores I0 of soft iron which are riveted or otherwise rigidly secured to frame I at points II, as shown in Figs. land 3. The coils 9 are connected in series and are energized by the low frequency oscillating current used for driving the device. The vibratable or low frequency frame 2, which also may be of soft iron, has two projections I3 extending from opposite side edges of the side members of the frame, these projections acting pieces by nuts 2|.

as the armatures of the electro-magnets 8|0. Projecting inwardly of frame 2 from the top and bottom thereof are cores l4 and coils I8. The mentioned wires 3 pass through apertures |1 formed in the cores M. The side or vertical members of frame 2 have apertures i8 to receive somewhat loosely screws 28 of the minor mounting. The screws 2ll'are held to the frame 2 by nuts in contact with the side or vertical members, as clearly shown in Fig. 1. The screws pass through oblong pieces 22 and are held to said The pieces 22 are each perforated in two places to receive a wire loop 24, the plane of which is oblique to the side edges of the pieces 22. A vibratable armature is secured to the loop 24 and carries a mirror 28. The armature 25 is the armature of the magnets |4|8. The coils iii are connected in series and the oscillating current of higher frequency energizes them, thereby causing the armature 25 and the mirror 28 to vibrate at the higher rate of vibration. Furthermore as the armature 25 vibrates with the floating frame 2 at the lower frequency of vibration the mirror 28 will also vibrate at the lower frequency of vibration and hence will be acted on by two vibrating forces at right angles to each other, one vertical and the other horizontal. Since the rates of vibration are different, a beam of light reflected from the mirror will trace on a screen a Lissajoux figure of the zig-zagging type. Properly choosing the rates of vibration will cause the reflected beam to closely scan the television image. The air gaps between the cores in and the members |3 of the frame 2 and also the air gaps between the ends of armature 25 and cores H are so proportioned that no matter how great the amplitude of the vibrations may happen to be, neither the members i3 nor the armature 25 will come into contact with the cores ID or 4.

Fig. 6 shows one means bywhich the scanner may be set into vibration. Two vacuum tubes 21 and 28 of the three element type have their filaments lighted from battery 28 and their plate currents supplied by battery 30, while their grid potentials are obtained from batteries 3| and 32, respectively. The plate and grid circuits of tube 21 are inductively connected to each other by means of transformer 33 as shown. The primary or plate-coil of transformer 33 is connected in parallel with a condenser 34. The plate circuit of tube 21 and the grid cir'cuit of tube 28 are inductively connected by means of transformer 35. From the plate circuit of tube 28, and in series with it, are the output binding posts; The oscillating circuit formed by the primary of transformer 33 and the condenser 34, is adjusted to the desired frequency; this causes the tube 21 to oscillate at that frequency. The oscillations are fed through transformer 35 into the grid circuit of tube 28, thereby causing the latter to oscillate at the same frequency, and hence the output will be an oscillating current of chosen frequency. Means may be provided for varying either the frequency of oscillation or the output of the oscil lator. Three'such means are shown in Fig. 6, namely, the condenser 34 may be partly or altogether variable, the rheostat 38 in the plate circuit of tube 21 may be used to reduce the plate current and to adjust the frequency of oscillation, the rheostat 31 may be used for changing the filament current of tube 31. Similar rheostats may be placed in the circuits of tube 28, as in the plate circuit, in series with or shunting the output, or in the filament circuit. These optional means tend either to change the frequency, or the output, or both.

Figs. 7 and 8 show two methods for one-way television transmission and reception by wire. Two-way television may be accomplished using similar methods asishown in previous patents to the present inventor. Fig. 7 shows a suitable light'source 38 energized either from a battery or electric mains. The light source emits a thin strong pencil of light 38, which is reflected by the scanner shown conventionally at 48 with the two driving coils 4| and 42. The reflected ray performs the scanning of the image 43 to be televised. The light reflected from the image is collected by suitable photo-electric cells 44. The photo-electric current is conducted by wires 45 to a suitable amplifier 48 which is energized from source 41. The amplified current is carried by line 48 towards the receiving station. The driving magnets of coils 48 and 4| are controlled by rheostats 49 and 58, respectively. The currents for energizing the coils 48 and 4| come from the oscillators 5| and 52, respectively, having a source 53 which may be local or from the electric means. The driving currents are carried towards the receiving station by pairs of wires 54 and 55.

The received photo-electric impulses are amplified at the receiving end by a suitable amplifier 58 having a source 51, and the amplified current is sent to energize a receiving lamp (crater, neon or glow lamp) 58 and lens 58. The scanning device at the receiver has its driving magnets 88 and 8| controlled byrheostats 82 and 83, the energizing currents coming from the amplifiers 84 and 85 having sources 88, which amplifiers serve the purpose of amplifying the driving currents coming through the pairs of lines 54 and 55. The receiving lamp 58 sends a thin pencil of modulated light which is reflected by the scanners mirror as ray 81, and goes to "scan on a screen the received image 88.

With the system illustrated in Fig. 7 it will be necessary to use three pairs of wires, namely, 54 and 55 for synchronization and 48 for the photo-electric impulses. In Fig. 7, only two wires are needed, namely, wires 88. Y

Fig. 8 shows a local source of light 18, scanner 1|, image 12, ray of light 18, photo-electric cells 14, oscillators 15 and 18 with source 11, photocurrent amplifier 18 with source 18a, and a pair of wires 88 which go to the receiving end. At the receiving end we have amplifier 18 and source 88, receiving lamp 8|, scanner 82, modulated ray of light 83, received image 84, and two oscillators 85 and 88 with source 81, identical with those, 15 and 18, of the transmitter. The driving frequencies emanating from the oscillators are remarkably constant. Therefore, it is feasible to adjust the frequencies of 85 and 88 so that they be made identical with the frequencies of 18 and 18. In this manner, with simplicity and compactness, it is possible to televise using only one pair of wires, namely 88.

- In Fig. 9, is shown another method by, which television by one pair of wires may be accomplished. The numerals 88, 88 and 88 indicate respectively the pairs of wires ca ying the two driving frequencies and the photo-electric curend. This line current consists of three components: one of the lower driving frequency and of constant amplitude, another of the higher driving frequency and also of constant ampli tude, and the photo-electric current with the preceding frequencies suppressed at filter 9|. In practice it may be found that filter 9| is not necessary, since the suppressed frequencies of the photo-electric current may happen to be of constant amplitude and, therefore, there is no necessity of suppressing them. At the receiving end we have a general amplifier 95 with source 96. The amplified current divides into three branches as shown, one going to filter 91 which passes only one of the driving frequencies, another going to filter 98 which passes only the other driving frequency, and a third branch going to double-filter 99, identical with filter 9| of transmitter, intended to suppress the components of the driving frequencies. In this manner, the lines I and IOI carry the driving currents of the scanner, while the line I02 carries the energizing current of receiving lamp. In practice, as explained in relation with the transmitting end, the filter 99 might be found to be unnecessary.

In Fig. 10 is shown a similar method to that illustrated in Fig. 9 for transmission and reception of television images by radio. Conductors 88 and 89 carry the driving currents; conductors 90 carry' the photo-electric pulses. 9| is a double filter (which may be unnecessary, as explained before) and 92 is the mixer or modulator. This modulator 92 modulates the oscillations (high frequency or radio-frequency) coming from the oscillator I03; the modulated frequencies act upon the radio-transmitter I04, and the issuing radio-waves or impulses go'out to space by antenna I05 and ground I05. At the receiving end we have a receiving antenna and ground I01 and I08, respectively, a radio-receiver I09, with amplifier H0 and source III. This amplifier IIO gives off three branches: one goes to filter II2, another to filter H3, and the third tofilter II4; the use of these filters was explained under receiving'end of Fig. 9. Lines II5, H6 and H1 serve the same purpose as lines I00, IM and I02 of Fig. 9.

In Fig. 11 is shown another system for radio transmission and reception of television images. Lines H8 and II9 carry the driving currents of the transmitters scanner; line I20 carries the photo-electric impulses; I2I and I22 are local sources for driving the scanner at the transmitter with source I23; I24 is a filter having the same purpose as filter 9| of Figs. 9 and I25 is a modulator; I21 is a radio-frequency oscillator and I26 is the radio-transmitter. Filter I24 might be found in practice to be unnecessary. At the receiving end we have: receiving antenna I28; radio-receiver I29 and amplifier I30; local oscillators I3I and I32 for driving the scanner of the receiver in synchronism (due to characteristic constancy of oscillators) with the scanner at the transmitter; lines I33 and I34 carry the driving impulses for the scanner; and wires I35 carry the amplified photo-electric current to the receiving lamp.

In Figs. 12 and 13 are shown two television systems, one for transmitting stereoscopic or three-dimensional television images, and for receiving them; and another for daylight or direct television transmission.

Fig. 12 illustrates a system of stereoscopic television, I36 is the image to be transmitted; I31 is the scanning mirror; I38 is the source of light, I39 is one group of photoelectriccells; I40 is another group, so placed with respect to I36 so as to receive light from another angle than group I39; MI and I42 are the respective amplifiers for the currents from I39 and I40, respectively. Through I43 and I44 (which might be different radio carriers instead of wire lines as shown) the amplified currents are sent to the receiving end. At this end we have the scanning mirror I45 vibrating (by any of the means explained in previous systems) in synchronism with mirror I31 of the transmitter; receiving lamp I46 is'energized (after suitable amplification) by current coming through I43, and receiving lamp I41 is energized (also after suitable amplification) by current coming from I44.

Since the receiving lamps are placed with respect cells I 39 and I40 sees the transmitted image I36. Therefore, if a person places himself so as to look simultaneously through lenses I50 and I5 I, thus having the opaque diaphragm I52 vertically in front of his face as if dividing it into two equal halves, that person will see a different image with each'eye, and if the placing of the photo-cells groups |39 and I40 and of the receiving lamps I46 and I41 is properly arranged, the two images will blend in the persons brain and produce the impression to him that he is looking with both eyes to a single image, i. e. I36, and hence he will think he is looking at a three-dimensional figure. This is just like looking into an ordinary stereoscope. The only drawback of this method is the necessity of using two separate channels (either wire or radio, the first not being so great a drawback) for the transmission of the image. But it is to be remembered in this case that zone television also uses several channels for transmitting the complete image, one channel for each zone.

Indifig. 13 is shown an arrangement for securing daylight or direct television; that is to say, television not by the flying spot method, but television using the reflected light from the wholly illuminated image to be transmitted. Of course, this refers only to the transmitter. Referring to the Fig. 13, we have: The image to be transmitted, i. e., the image of object I53, is suitably illuminated, either by daylight or artificial light; a ray of light from any point of the image, as ray I54, for instance, will enter the dark-box I55, through the large aperture I56; this large aperture will, due to its size, permit rays from all points of the image I53 /to enter simultaneously into the darkbox I55. The, scanner I51 reflects those rays, as ray I58, towards the box (also dark) I59, which contains the photo-electric cell or cells I60. For zone television several cells are needed. Only a small beam, as I58, enters the dark-box I59 through an aperture I6I. In case of zone television, as many apertures are needed as there are photo-electric cells inside the dark-box I59. Wires I62 carry the photo-electric impulses to the amplifier (which may also be placed inside the box I55) the wires I63 and I64 carry the energizing driving currents from the oscillators to the scanner I51. In this arrangement the scanning mirror of scanner I51 acts like the small aperture of a pin-hole camera; as the mirror vibrates, the rays coming from the image and reflected on it, are made also to swing back and forth and sideways, performing the operation of scanning with respect to the aperture ISI on box I59. Therefore, each and every point of the reflected image is scanned successively by the photo-electric cell I60. In case of zone television, the vibrations of I51 are so arranged as to permit that each aperture as IBI will scan only a zone of the image. A separate cell and amplifier and channel is required for each zone. The aperture I56 is shown without any additional optical system; it may be provided with an optical system in order to shorten the distance between I56 and the scanner I51, if desired, or to permit changing the focus of the image to be transmitted, so as to permit close-ups or far away scenes. Also, the aperture ISI may be provided with small lens and diaphragm (of the iris type used in photography), so as to permit adjusting the size of the scanning beams going into the photo-electric cell, thus modifying at will the degree of detail obtainable from the illuminated image I53. The photo-cell amplifier and the oscillators for driving the scanner may be arranged inside the box I55 if preferred, only by increasing the size of said box. Box I 55 and box I 59 are blackened boxes to avoid spurious and undesirable stray light from getting into the cell and spoiling the transmission.

The direct type of television transmitter shown is suitable for television of motion pictures, by simply projecting the motion picture on a-screen at I53 (Fig. 13), the reflected light from this screen being used for the scanning. In this manner, television transmission of a motion picture may be accomplished from a theatre without the necessity of passing the picture expressly for the television transmission; the scanner in this case serves the purpose of the eyes" of a large audience; in other words, the television transmitter-scanner seats itself within the audience as any one of the audience. In this manner, it is also suitable for transmitting scenes from the stage or in the fields of sport, etc. The scanner just takes the place of a spectator.

According to my invention I may place in the path of the scanning beam an optical system adapted to enlarge the scanning rectangle and/or modify the'motion of the scanning beam. Two

means are hereinafter described, by which this (scanning rectangle) produced on said object or screen I61 is of the type shown in I68, where we can see that the light appears to the eye (due to persistence of vision) as accumulated towards the sides and corners of the scanning rectangle. This crowding" of the light towards the sides and corners (principally towards the latter) is .due to the character of the motion of the scanning beam, which, as said before, is almost simple harmonic motion. This crowding" of light is not desirable; my improvements eliminate this. One of the crowding eliminators' is a photographic film or plate, and the other is a special lens or combination of lenses.

The desired efiect is shown in Fig. 18, i. e., a uniformly illuminated area. If in the path 0! the scanning beam (Fig. 16) is interposed at the dotted place marked I69, a photographic film or plate, and the scanning process effected over its active surface for the suflicient length 01. time (a fraction of a second-probably, this time depending on the light flux used), the scanning rectangle will be photographed on the film or plate. After developing and fixing, the transparent film or plate will look something like Fig.

19, with the points on the rectangle which appear with more light to the eye, appearing blacker in the film or plate. Now, if the film or plate is again placed at I69, it will absorb light at the places we desire to have it absorbed, and the scanning rectangle produced at I61 will be like I10. This, then, is a way of eliminating the crowding of light. The film or plate may be used in place of screen I61, thereby serving as the receiving screen. An opaque screen of non-uniform reflecting power will serve the same end.

The other means proposed isthe use of a lens or system of lenses, which will enlarge the rec tangle and at the same time eliminate the crowding. The rectangle enlargement may be then decreased and brought to the desired size (if this is necessary) by means of proper lenses in the ordinary way.

Figs. 20 and 21 illustrate a suitable form of lense for eliminating the crowding, at the same time enlarging somewhat the size of the scanning rectangle. The lens illustrated is of the concavo-convex type, the concave side being spherical and centered at the scanning mirror, so as to have the beam of light pass without deviation to the convex side; in other words, the scanning beam will enter the concave side of the lens normally. The convex side of the lens is of such a shape (calculable mathematically) as to produce the desired uncrowding of the light; in other words, the surface I12 deviates the scanning beam in such a manner as to convert its almost simple harmonic angular motion into an almost straight (or direct proportion) angular motion. It is impossible (also demonstrable mathematically) to absolutely transform the simple harmonic motion into a straight line (re versing, back and forth) motion, in this manner, but an approximate solution is practical.

To illustrate more clearly the object of the lens, refer to Fig. 22. I12a is the scanning beam from the source of light; I19 is the scanning mirror which is supposed to be vibrating in this case in only one direction, namely, about horizontal axis (this is for clearness in the description); I14 and I15 are the maximum deviations experienced by the scanning beam as reflected from the vibrating mirror; I16 is the lens under question (we see that the beam follows its direction with out deviation up to the convex side of the lens) at the convex side of the lens, the beam I14 is deflected to I11 and the beam I15 to I18; I82I83 is the receiving screen or subject being televised; if the lens had not been interposed in the path of the beam of light the scanning line" would take place at Iii-I on the screen or subject; IN-IBS is smaller than I82-I83, of course, The image "line" produced without the lens would appear as I8I; with the lens introduced, the image line" would appear uniformly (almost) illuminated as in I96. Of course, the other motion of the mirror would produce the other component of the scanning rectangle which would, consequently, appear almost uniiormly illuminated.

It is to be noted that the convex surface I12 of the lens must have a curvature smaller than the concave surface has, so as to permit the enlarging of the scanning rectangle. This makes the lens thicker at the edges than at the center.

Referring again to Fig. 16, it is also to be noted 75 reversal of the scanning, which would happen in case a double-convex lens were used.

Optical system of the apparatus Figures 14 and 15 illustrate an optical system for the apparatus, whose object is to reduce the size of the device. Fig. 14 shows it diagrammatically: I81 is the scanning device; I88 is the vibrating mirror of same; I89 is the source of light, either of the transmitter or of the receiver; I90 is the condensing lens for concentrating the image of the source I 89 onto the subject or receiving screen at I92; I9I is a reflecting surface (mirror). The light from I89 is concentrated by I90, reflected by I 9|, reflected again by I88 and at I92 is formed the image of source I89.

Fig. 15 shows the practical arrangement: I89 is the source. of light, which is an incandescent filament (inside of a gladd bulb not shown) at the transmitter, and the crater of a regular crater type of television lamp at the receiver. In the first case, I89 is not modulated, while in the second case, I89 is modulated proportionately to the photo-electric cells impulses duly amplified and received either by wire or radio (regular routine). In other words, I89 is the source of light of the device, I90 is the condensing lens; I9I is the reflecting mirror; I93 is the enclosing case; I9! is the focusing device for lens I99 in telescoping tube I95; the mirror I 9| is pivoted about axis I96; case I93 has a projecting part I91 which serves the good purpose of screening oif stray light which could otherwise go to the subject or screen.

The mirror I 9I is pivotally mounted at I 96 (Fig. 15) so that it can be tilted at the proper angle and send the beam of light towards the vibrating mirror as shown in Fig. 14. The device shown in Fig. 15 may have its longitudinal axis (which passes through source I89 and center of lens I99) either vertical or at any other suitable angle.

What is claimed is:

1. A pickup camera for television or facsimile comprising a closure, an opening in said closure for viewing therethrough an externally positioned image from within said closure, a single, two direction vibrated, mirror scanner positioned in said closure in line with said opening and said,

externally positioned image, and angularly facing said opening, and a photo-electric cell located ivirithin said closure in a position within the field of reflection of said mirror scanner, and out of line of view between said mirror scanner and said image.

-' 2. A pickup camera for television or facsimile comprising a closure, an optically treated opening in said closure for viewing therethrough an externally positioned image from within said closure, a single, two direction vibrated, mirror scanner positioned in said closure in line with said optically treated opening and said externally positioned image, and angularly facing said optically treated opening, and a photo-electric cell located within said closure in a position within the field of reflection of said mirror, and out of the line of view between said mirror scanner and said image.

8. A pickup camera for television or facsimile comprising a closure, an opening in said closure for viewing therethrough an externally positioned image from within said closure, a single, differently vibrated as to period in each of two directions, mirror scanner positioned in said closure in line with said opening and said externally positioned image, and angularly facing said opening, and a photo-electric cell located within said closure in a position within the field of reflection of said mirror scanner, and out of the line of view between said scanner mirror and said image.

4. A pickup camera for television or facsimile comprising a closure, an opening in said closure for viewing therethrough an externally positioned image from within said closure, a single scanner mirror suspended to dually vibrate in right angle directions at selected different periods suitable for scanning purposes positioned in said closure in line with said opening and said externally positioned image, and angularly facing said opening, and a photo-electric cell located within said closure in a position within the field of reflection of said mirror scanner, and out of the line of view between said scanner and said image.

5. A pickup camera for television or facsimile comprising a closure, an opening in said closure for viewing therethrough an externally positioned image from within said closure, a single, two direction vibrated, mirror scanner positioned in said closure in line with said opening and said externally positioned image, and angularly facing said image and opening, and a photo-electric cell located within a second closure within said first mentioned closure in a position within the field of reflection of said mirror, said second closure having an aperture therein located on a line between said mirror and said photo-electric cell.

6. A pickup camera for television or facsimile comprising a closure, an opening in said closure for viewing therethrough an externally positioned image from within said closure, 8. single,

in said second closure located on a line between said mirror and said photo-electric cell.

7. A pickup camera system for television or facsimile of the type claimed in claim 1, characterized by the light path between the image and the mirror scanner including an optical system.

8. A pickup camera system for television or facsimile of the type claimed in claim 1, characterized by the light path between the photoelectric cell and the mirror scanner including an optical system.

9. A pickup camera system for television or facsimile composed of two or more associated, simultaneously operable, cameras, each characterized by the structure set forth in claim 1.

IMELCHOR CENTENO V.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2427144 *23 Nov 19369 Sep 1947Jansen Franciscus Jo WilhelmusMechanical connection for electrical circuits
US2543793 *16 Nov 19466 Mar 1951Alvin M MarksThree-dimensional intercommunicating system
US2573998 *23 Nov 19456 Nov 1951Nea Service IncOscillograph-galvanometer
US2730566 *27 Dec 194910 Jan 1956Bartow Beacons IncMethod and apparatus for x-ray fluoroscopy
US2777011 *5 Mar 19518 Jan 1957Alvin M MarksThree-dimensional display system
US2993403 *7 Jun 195725 Jul 1961Harries Television Res LtdPeriodically displaced or rotatable elements
US3004464 *21 Jun 195517 Oct 1961Hycon Mfg CompanyStereoplotter
US4723159 *27 Jan 19862 Feb 1988Imsand Donald JThree dimensional television and video systems
Classifications
U.S. Classification348/205, 348/44, 348/E03.9, 324/97, 352/60
International ClassificationH04N3/08, H04N3/02
Cooperative ClassificationH04N3/08
European ClassificationH04N3/08