|Publication number||US1985715 A|
|Publication date||25 Dec 1934|
|Filing date||17 Feb 1934|
|Publication number||US 1985715 A, US 1985715A, US-A-1985715, US1985715 A, US1985715A|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (16)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
BUCKY APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING ORTHODIAGRAPHIU DIAGRAMS Filed Feb. 17, 1954 INVENTOFE 61/5 W? V BUG/(V .WITNESS gyfya mw M n A ATTORNEYS Patented Dec. 25, 1934 PATENT OFFICE APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING ORTHODIA- GRAPHIC DIAGRAMS Gustav Bucky, New York, N. Y.
Application February 17, 1934, Serial No. 711,650 In Germany September 6, 1932 18 Claims.
The present invention relates to apparatus for producing orthodiagraphic diagrams with the aid of Roentgen rays.
There have heretofore been employed, particularly for determining the contour of the heart, devices in which a Roentgen tube and a fluorescent screen, between which the human body was placed, were moved together with respect to such body, a Roentgen beam, reduced to a small crosssection, being directed orthodiagraphically about the heart. In such prior devices, a drawing surface was fixed to the body, and upon such surface, by means of a rubber bulb and hose connection, a marking pencil would be pressed to plot the contours of the heart point by point. Such arrangements have the advantage that the dimensions of the heart image obtained upon the drawing surface could theoretically be made to agree with those of the heart itself. The various devices which have been proposed for this purpose and are now in use have in common, however, the disadvantage that the fiuorescent screen must be continually observed and the reduced beam must be directed very accurately along the contours of the heart. The procedure is consequently a purely subjective one, and different persons will obtain different dimensional results. The necessity for step-by-step movement of the marking pencil by means of the rubber bulb or like device is also an inconvenience associated with prior devices.
According to the invention the above-mentioned disadvantages are overcome by arranging a light-sensitive member, sensitive either to visible or to Roentgen rays or to both, in position to be impinged either by visible rays from the screen or by X-rays, as by being placed in line with the observation beam and upon the side of the illuminated body opposite the Roentgen tube, such member being arranged to control, preferably through an amplifying device, an electromagnet which, depending upon its condition of excitation, automatically moves the marking member against the drawing surface or lifts the said member from such surface or in any other way puts it out of operation. The invention thus provides a device sensitive to variations in the intensity of the beam either emanating from the screen or emerging from the body under observation and operating automatically to record, either positively by a drawn line or point or negatively by the absence of any marking, the passage of the beam from one area to another area of different transparency and thereby indicating the boundary between such areas.
With such an arrangement it is no longer necessary to direct the observing beam along the contour of the heart, but such beam can be led repeatedly in approximately parallel directions ,over the heart in such a manner that the whole heart surface or the heart contour is gradually traversed or scanned.
Assuming by way of example that a photoelectric cell is employed as the light-sensitive memher, the resistance of such cell increasing with the degree of illumination, and assuming that the driving mechanism for the recording or writing member is so arranged that when the illumination of the cell falls below a certain degree the pen or pencil is pressed against the writing surface, then the following mode of operation will result: So long as the observing beam, for exam ple, in the case of a measurement of the heart, is conducted over parts of the huigs which let the Roentgen rays through easily, the pencil is removed from the writing surfaces. As soon as the beam passes over the edge of the heart, the pencil is pressed against the writing surface and remains at rest thereon until the beam again leaves the contour of the heart, it being understood that the pencil moves synchronously with the beam. By conducting the beam back and forth a large number of times over the heart at suitable distances, the whole heart picture appears in shading or hatching, several rib joints, the root of the lungs, and other parts appearing at the same time,'as is usual in Roentgen ray photography, but they do not interfere with the picture of the heart any more than ordinarily.
The new orthodiagraphic device according to the present invention can be employed for plotting any parts of the body in which sufficiently strong contours appear in a Roentgen ray photograph, for example, fractures, foreign metallic bodies, and the like. There can thus be obtained at any time, quickly and directly, a Roentgen drawing without the necessity of developing plates and the resulting loss of time.
The invention is illustrated by way of example 4 a diagram indicating the pulsating movement of the heart.
As shown in Fig. 1, the apparatus is arranged upon a fixed post or standard 1 which carries a horizontal frame 2 upon which a second frame 3 is movable upon rollers 4 in a longitudinal direction. Upon the frame 3 a small carriage 6 is arranged and rests upon rollers 5, such carriage supporting a rod '7 which is vertically adjustable and carries a holder 8 for a Roentgen tube 9 and supports also an arm 10 carrying a perforated diaphragm 11. A horizontal support 12 extending from the frame 2 carries a fluorescent screen 13. A drawing board or table 14 rests on or is fixed to the frame 2 and is adapted to support a sheet 15 which is fixed thereto in any suitable manner. supports the holder 17 of a stylus or pencil 18. The latter is connected with the movable core 19 of an electromagnet 20 which is fixed to the holder 17. The magnet core 19 is lifted to its position of rest by a spring 21, at which time the stylus 18 does not contact the sheet 15. The tension of the spring can be adjusted by means of a screw 22.
. Above the screen 13 there is arranged a photocell 23, for example, any suitable selenium or cuprous oxide or other cell, such cell being supported upon the end of an arm 24 mounted on the rod 7. The cell is connected with an amplifier device V in whose output circuit the magnet 20 is located. Upon reduction in the intensity of the Roentgen ray passing through the body under examination, when the contour of the organ to be plotted is reached (as upon passage from the lungs to the heart), the resistance of the cell is reduced and the magnet 20 receives a sufliciently larger current to draw its core downwardly and thus press the stylus 18 against the drawing paper 15.
The person being examined is indicated at 25 and is positioned upon a table 26 of any suitable construction, the examining apparatus being brought into position from the side, as by swinging it horizontally upon the post 1. The movable parts of the apparatus, which carry the tube 9, the diaphragm 11, the cell 23, and the magnet and stylus arrangement are movable back and forth in such a manner that the examining beam passes a number of times over the contours of the heart in a horizontal or diagonal direction and the short strokes indicated in Fig. 2 are made upon the paper 15. The outer ends A of these strokes represent the outline of the heart. The observing beam can also be led over the whole heart, preferably transversely, so that the hatching extends over the whole width of the heart and produces a picture as shown in Fig. 3.
Fig. 4 shows a peculiar form of diagram which arises when the plotting device is made very sensitive. The image of the heart upon the fluorescent screen is laterally surrounded by a narrow half shadow which shows the inner and outer contours corresponding to the heart pulsations. As soon as the observing beam passes from the full shadow of the heart to the half shadow, the magnet releases the stylus, and, conversely the latter is again brought into action when the beam passes from the lungs to the half shadow at the edge of the heart. Depending upon whether the direction of motion is inwardly or outwardly of An arm 16 extending from the rod 7' The cell may be arranged between the body being examined and the screen 13 in position to be impinged by the Roentgen beam, but as the cell is more sensitive to visible light, I prefer to arrange it above the screen 13 as shown in Fig. 1. In such position, also, it casts no shadow upon the screen and does not interfere with the observation of the fluorescent image. If desired, the cell can be arranged between the body 25 and the screen somewhat laterally oi the axis of the observing beam, but in position to be impinged by visible light from the screen.
If the heart is not to be continually observed, the apparatus can be utilized without a fluorescent screen. Thus the heart can be first observed by means of the fluorescent screen 13 arranged in the position shown, and the observing beam can be directed upon the heart, the diaphragm 11 being moved to one side. The screen may be so mounted that it can then be turned aside, the diaphragm and cell being then moved into operative position.
Fig. 1 shows also an arrangement whereby the scanning of the body under observation is accomplished automatically. A motor or clockwork 25 is arranged to move the frame 3 back and forth upon the guiding frame 2 with the aid of a crank drive 26, while simultaneously a drive mechanism in the form of a screw 27 advances the carriage 6 by one step in every end position with the aid of plungers 28 upon the carriage and abutments 29 upon the fixed frame 2, such drive mechanism including a ratchet wheel 30 fixed to the screw 27 with which a nut fixed to the carriage engages. At every limit of movement of the carriage one or the other of the plungers 28 rotates the screw by one step. With this mechanism the whole heart surface is automatically traversed or scanned by the beam and the marking pencil is operated to reproduce the whole heart.
My improved mechanism for plotting diagrams with the aid of a photo-cell can also be utilized in a corresponding manner when the patient is upright; it is also possible to utilize the same for other types of orthodiagraphic instruments.
It will be understood that the recording mechanism can be so designed that the pencil or stylus will become operative to make a record only when the beam striking the sensitive element is above ,a certain degree of intensity determined by the sensitivity oi. the cell. In such case the parts about the heart will be shaded while the heart will appear blank on the diagram. It will also be obvious that the recording mechanism need not be rigidly coupled with the sensitive element 23 but may be located at a remote place where it is moved relatively to the sheet of paper in synchronism with the relative movement between the tube 9 and cell 23 on the one hand and the body 25 on the other.
1. Apparatus for producing orthodiagraphic diagrams, comprising a Roentgen tube movable to scan the object under observation, a recording device including means movable in synchronism with the movement of the Roentgen tube over a corresponding area, the intensity of the Roentgen beam passing through the body under observation varying with the density of the areas scanned by the beam, and means actuated by and in accordance with varying intensities of the emerging beam, and operative automatically to cause said recording device to make a visible record of the boundary between the areas of different transparency as the beam passes from one such area to another.
2. Apparatus for producing orthodiagraphic diagrams comprising a support; a Roentgen tube, a recording mechanism and a ray-sensitive element movable upon said support, in relatively fixed relation, to scan a body under observation;
' and a fixed drawin table adapted to support a sheet of paper; said recording mechanism including a marking member for making visible impressions on said paper, and a magnet for operating said member and controlled by said sensitive element in response to variations in the intensity of the beam passing through the body as said beam passes from one area to another area of difierent transparency to make a record of the boundary between said areas.
3. Apparatus according to claim 2, wherein said sensitive element comprises a photoelectric cell, and an amplifying device associated with said cell, said magnet being arranged in the output circuit of said amplifying device.
4. Apparatus for producing orthodiagraphic diagrams, comprising a support, a Roentgen tube and a ray-sensitive element movable in unison upon said support in relatively fixed relation to scan a body under observation, a recording mechanism including a drawing table adapted to support a sheet of paper, and a marking member for making impressions on said paper, and a device for operating said marking member and controlled by the response of said sensitive element to variations in the intensity of the beam passing through the body as said beam passes from one area to another area of different transparency to cause a record to be made of the boundary between said areas.
5. Apparatus according to claim 4, including a fluorescent screen arranged upon the side of the observed body opposite the tube, said sensitive element being positioned to be impinged by visible light from said screen.
6. Apparatus according to claim 4, wherein said recording mechanism includes a fluorescent screen and is of such sensitivity that it responds to areas of half shadow adjoining areas of full shadow and alternatingly plots the one or the other boundary of the area of half shadow depending upon the direction in which the ortho- Roentgen beam is moved.
7. Apparatus according to claim 4, wherein said recording mechanism is arranged to one side of the Roentgen beam, and including a fluorescent screen, said sensitive element being so arranged as not to disturb the image on said screen.
8. Apparatus according to claim 4, including a fluorescent screen and a diaphragm supported in common with said sensitive element and recording mechanism, said diaphragm and sensitive element being displaceable relatively to the tube and screen.
9. Apparatus according to claim 4. including a diaphragm for limiting the observing beam, and a fluorescent screen, said diaphragm being movable out of operative position with respect to said screen, whereby the full image of the object under observation may first be observed upon the screen, and the diaphragm then moved into position for plotting the diagram of the object under examination.
10. Apparatus according to claim 4, including means for automatically moving said tube, sensitive element and recording element back and forth with respect to the object under observation over the length of the same to scan the area to be plotted.
11. Apparatus for producing orthodiagraphic diagrams comprising a support; a carriage reciprocably mounted upon said support; a second carriage mounted upon said first carriage and movable thereon in a direction transverse to the direction of reciprocation of the first carriage; a drawing table fixed to said support; a Roentgen tube, a diaphragm, and a recording device attached to said second carriage so as to move therewith, said recording device being arranged to cooperate with a sheet of paper on said drawing table to plot a diagram thereon of a body under observation; and a ray-sensitive device likewise attached to said second carriage, said recording device including an electromagnetic mechanism controlled by said sensitive device in response to changes in the intensity of the beam emerging from the body under observation, as the beam passes from one area to another area of different transparency, to bring said recording device into operative or inoperative position with respect to the drawing table and thereby plot one area and indicate the boundary between such area and the adjoining area of different transparency.
12. An apparatus as set forth in claim 11, Including means for reciprocating the first-mentioned carriage on said support, and means for shifting the second carriage step by step on the first carriage as the latter reaches its limiting positions.
13. An apparatus as set forth in claim 11, wherein the drawing table and the recording mechanism are arranged out of line with the beam from said tube.
14. An apparatus according to claim 11, including a fluorescent screen arranged to be im pinged by the emerging beam, said sensitive device being positioned to receive visible rays from said screen to be actuated thereby.
15. Apparatus for producing orthodiagraphic diagrams, comprising a Roentgen tube. a support for a body under observation, said tube and support being relatively movable to cause said tube to scan such body, a recording device including an element movable in synchronism with the movement of the Roentgen tube over a corresponding area, the intensity of the Roentgen beam passing through the body under observation varying with the density of the areas scanned by the beam, a ray-sensitive device maintained in line with the beams emerging from the body under observation, and mechanism controlled by said ray-sensitive means in accordance with varying intensities of the emerging beam and operatively associated with said recording device to cause such device to make a record of the boundary between the areas of different transparency, as the beam passes from one such area to another.
16. Apparatus for producing orthodiagraphic diagrams, comprising a support, a drawing table mounted on said support, a marking member, a Roentgen tube, a diaphragm, and a ray-sensitive device mounted on said support for movement in all directions in a given plane, and an electro magnetic mechanism controlled by the response of said sensitive device to variations in the intensity of the beam emerging from a body under observation as the beam passes from one area to another area of different transparency and operatively connected with the marking member to bring said member into operative or inoperative position with respect to the drawing table and thereby plot an area of such body to indicate the boundary between such area and the adjoinin: a. fluorescent screen arranged to be impinged ing area of different transparency. by the beam emerging from the body under ob- 17. An apparatus as set forth in claim 16, servation, said sensitive device being positioned wherein the drawing table and marking member to be impinged by visible rays from said screen 5 are arranged out of line with the beam from said to be actuated thereby.
tube. GUSTAV BUCKY.
18. An apparatus according to claim 16, includ-
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