DIALYSATE REGENERATION SYSTEM FOR normal condition. Pumps may also regulate blood flow.
PORTABLE HUMAN DIALYSIS Moreover, pumps may be provided to introduce additional
substances, such as anticoagulants, into the blood. Pumped
CROSS-REFERENCE TO OTHER anticoagulants, such as heparin or citrate, may prevent clot
APPLICATIONS 5 ting of the blood on surfaces that are in contact with the blood.
In addition, the machines may include sensors, such as tem
The present application claims priority from U.S. Provi- perature sens0rs as well as heaters to maintain the dialysate at
sional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/532,759 filed Dec. 24, substantially the same temperature as the blood. 2003, hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety for all
Although effective, a patient must adjust to various complications presented by dialysis treatment. For example,
TECHNICAL FIELD patients may have to travel to a dialysis treatment facility,
such as a hospital or clinic, for the dialysis treatment. Since
The present disclosure relates generally to apparatus, sys- dialysis typically is required on a schedule, such as three or
terns and methods related to dialysis systems. 15 more treatments a week, such visits to the dialysis treatment
facility may be time-consuming and limiting to a patient. For
BACKGROUND example, the dialysis treatments may limit a patient's ability
to easily travel. For example, patients who select to travel may
With renal failure, physiological disturbance may occur have t0 prearrange for a visit at a different facility. Such
within an animal system. Such disturbances may include 20 arrangements may be difficult, thus making travel for a dialy
failure of the system to fully excrete various body toxins and sjs patient complicated failure of the system to maintain homeostasis of water and
required minerals. Dialysis treatments may be used to com- In some situations, dialysis treatments may be performed at
pensate for such renal failure home. Although, such home situations may be more conve
Two types of dialysis therapies are commonly available, 25 nient' the equipment may be of substantial size which may
hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Hemodialysis treat- cause an inconvenience to the patient. Further additional
ments typically utilize a hemodialysis machine, which oper- equipment, such as a water purification system may be
ates as an external artificial kidney, to separate body toxins required. The water purification system may further compli
from the blood. A patient may be coupled to the hemodialysis cate the process and require additional room further compli
machine by insertion of catheters into the patient's veins and 30 eating home dialysis treatments.
arteries thus coupling the patient to the machine such that the it should be appreciated that typical dialysis machines may
patient'sbloodflowtoandfromthehemodialysismachine.In be 0f such a size to prevent portability. For example, some
the hemodialysis machine, the blood engages a dialysate into dialysis machines are substantially the size of a refrigerator,
which the blood toxins are transferred. thus preventing easy portability. The lack of portability of
Peritoneal dialysis cleans the blood without removing the 35 SUch dialysis machines may limit life choices for a dialysis
blood to an external system. Briefly, with peritoneal dialysis, patient For example, many dialysis patients, whether using
a dialysate may be infused into a patient's peritoneal cavity home treatment or a dial is treatment facilities have to limit
through a catheter implanted in the cavity. The dialysis solu- , , , , ... , , . ,.. ,
0 . . , . . J , J . travel and other opportunities due to the required time and the
tion contacts the patient s peritoneal membrane and waste, .. . . . „ \, . ^ ^ Ti. * . ^ ^ ^ .
^ . , ^ „ ^ ^. ^, , , , ^ limited choices lor their treatments. It is noted that the time
toxins and excess water pass from the patient s bloodstream 40 , „ , ,. , . „ , .
, ., , , , • , , , rj,, required lor hemodialysis may vary. For example, in some
through the peritoneal membrane and into the dialysate. 1 he n , . . , r ,
transfer of the waste, toxins and water from the bloodstream systems' hemodialysis treatment may last about four hours,
into the dialysate occurs due to diffusion and osmosis, i.e., an Thls substantial period of time and the necessity to use a
osmotic gradient occurs across the membrane. The spent treatment facility or a home-based non-portable umt prevents
dialysate may drain from the patient's peritoneal cavity, 45 a patient from traveling, etc.
removing the waste, toxins and excess water, from the patient. In addition to the time required for such dialysis treat
The cycle is repeated as necessary. ments, the cost of dialysis provide additional complications,
In a typical hemodialysis machine, blood may be separated for the patient, the treatment facilities, health insurance com
from surrounding dialysate solution by a semi-permeable panies, Medicare, etc. For example, treatment facilities have
membrane. The membrane contains pores which may allow 50 large expenses for maintaining and staffing the treatment
substances in normal molecular solution and the solvent to facility.
pass through the membrane, but it may be configured to T , r,- , • T
r , 0 P1 ' , , ,. , , In addition, the costs of dialysis itself may be expensive. In
prevent the passage ol large molecules, such as high molecu- j..^. ... . ,. . . ,.
f • 1 ^ ^ • 1 Ti 1 ^ ^ J-j T1 1 ^1 addition to the cost ol the dialysis machines, recurring costs
lar weight proteins and cellular constituents ol the blood. 1 he _ , , , ; , •
,? .., r, . ■ 0- lor dialysate and environmental waste may be cost prombi
membrane further may prevent the passage ol bacteria. Since 55 . .
the apparatus operates by diffusion and osmosis, the dialysate tlve- For example, in conventional hemodialysis, a large
solution, also referred to generally as dialysate, typically amount of dialysate, for example about 120 liters, is used to
contains physiological concentrations of some membrane- dlalyze the blood during a single hemodialysis therapy. The
passing dissolved normal constituents of the blood, such as sPent dialysate is then discarded. The large amount of used
various electrolytes. The dialysate also may include various so dialysate may increase the costs of dialysis. Additionally,
concentrations of substances which may be desired to be costs may be increased due to the large amounts of purified
introduced into the blood stream by diffusion, such as drugs, water that are needed. For example, costs may be increased
dextrose, etc. due to equipment to generate, store and use purified water.
In addition to the above membrane, the typical hemodialy- Further, such dialysate, needles, and other medically-consis machine may include various pumps and sensors. Pumps, 65 taminated products, must be appropriately discarded, which or bubblers, may be utilized to introduce oxygen into the may further increase costs of and time associated with dialydialysate so as to maintain the oxygen content of the blood in sis treatment.