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Publication numberWO2012145359 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberPCT/US2012/034018
Publication date26 Oct 2012
Filing date18 Apr 2012
Priority date21 Apr 2011
Also published asCA2832644A1, CN103597018A, CN106905612A, EP2699630A1, US20120267368
Publication numberPCT/2012/34018, PCT/US/12/034018, PCT/US/12/34018, PCT/US/2012/034018, PCT/US/2012/34018, PCT/US12/034018, PCT/US12/34018, PCT/US12034018, PCT/US1234018, PCT/US2012/034018, PCT/US2012/34018, PCT/US2012034018, PCT/US201234018, WO 2012/145359 A1, WO 2012145359 A1, WO 2012145359A1, WO-A1-2012145359, WO2012/145359A1, WO2012145359 A1, WO2012145359A1
InventorsAlan H. Forbes, Wen Pao Wu
ApplicantPactiv LLC
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: Patentscope, Espacenet
Disposable lid having polymer composite of polyolefin and mineral filler
WO 2012145359 A1
Abstract
Disposable lid comprises a thermoformed sheet in the shape of a lid for a hot beverage container. The sheet comprises a polymer composite of a polyolefin and at least one mineral filler. The sheet has a thickness less than about 0.035 inches and a heat deflection temperature at least comparable to that of high impact polystyrene.
Claims  (OCR text may contain errors)
1. A disposable lid comprising:
a theimoformed sheet in the shape of a lid for a hot beverage container, the sheet comprising a polymer composite of a polyolefm and at least one mineral filler; wherein the sheet has a thickness less than about 0.035 inches and a heat deflection temperature at least comparable to that of high impact polystyrene.
2. The disposable lid of claim 1, wherein the heat deflection temperature is at least about that of high impact polystyrene.
3. The disposable lid of claim 1, wherein the heat deflection temperature according to ASTM D648-06 Standard Test Method for Deflection Temperature of Plastics Under Flexural Load in the Edgewise Position (2006) is at least about 87 °C.
4. The disposable lid of claim 1 , wherein the mineral filler includes a high aspect ratio mineral filler.
5. The disposable lid of claim 4, wherein the mineral filler is selected from the group consisting of talc, mica, wollastonite, or combinations thereof.
6. The disposable lid of claim 4, wherein the polymer composite comprises at least about 10% by weight of the mineral filler.
7. The disposable lid of claim 1, wherein the mineral filler includes a low aspect ratio mineral filler.
8. The disposable lid of claim 7, wherein the mineral filler includes calcium carbonate.
9. The disposable lid of claim 7, wherein the polymer composite comprises at least about 20% by weight of the mineral fi ller.
10. The disposable lid of claim 1, wherein the polyolefm is selected from the group consisting of polypropylene homopolymer, polypropylene impact copolymer, ethylene-propylene random copolymer, high density polyethylene, or combinations thereof.
1 1 . The disposable lid of claim 1 , wherein the polyolefm includes polypropylene, the mineral filler includes a high aspect ratio mineral filler, and the polymer composite comprises at least about 10% by weight of the mineral filler.
12. The disposable lid of claim 1, wherein the polyolefm includes polypropylene, the mineral filler includes a low aspect ratio mineral filler, and the polymer composite comprises at least about 20% by weight of the mineral filler.
13. The disposable lid of claim 1 , wherein the polyolefm includes high density polyethylene, the mineral filler includes a high aspect ratio mineral filler, and the polymer composite comprises at least about 20% by weight of the mineral filler.
14. The disposable lid of claim 1 , wherein the polyolefm includes high density polyethylene, the mineral filler includes a low aspect ratio mineral filler, and the polymer composi te comprises at least about 40% by weight of the mineral filler.
15. The disposable lid of claim 1 , wherein the polyolefm includes polypropylene, the mineral filler includes a high aspect ratio mineral filler, and the polymer composite has a shrinkage comparable to that of high impact polystyrene.
1.6. The disposable lid of claim 1 , wherein the polymer composite has a shrinkage of about 0.5% to about 1.0% when measured according to the ASTM D955 standard (1996).
17. The disposable lid of claim 15, wherein the polymer composite comprises about 20%) to about 40% by weight of the mineral filler
18. The disposable lid of claim 1 , wherein the polyolefm includes high density polyethylene, the mineral filler includes a high aspect ratio mineral filler, and the polymer composite has a shrinkage comparable to that of polypropylene.
19. The disposable lid of claim 18, wherein the polymer composite has a shrinkage of about 1 .25% to about 1.75% when measured according to the ASTM D955 standard (1996).
20. The disposable lid of claim 18, wherein the polymer composite comprises about 30% to about 50% by weight of the mineral filler.
21 . The disposable lid of claim 1 , wherein the polymer composite consists essentially of the polyolefm and the at least one mineral filler.
22. The disposable lid of claim 1 , wherein the polymer composite further comprises additives selected from the group consisting of colorants, processing aids, and combinations thereof.
23. The disposable lid of claim 1 , wherein the hot beverage container is a coffee cup.
24. The disposable lid of claim 1 , wherein the polymer composite has a carbon footprint lower than high impact polystyrene.
25. The disposable lid of claim 1 , wherein the polymer composite has a greenhouse gas emission lower than high impact polystyrene.
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

DISPOSABLE LID HAVING POLYMER COMPOSITE OF POLYOLEFIN

AND MINERAL FILLER

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Cross-Reference to Related Applications

This application claims the benefit of and priority to U.S. Provisional Application Serial No. 61/477,886, filed April 21 , 2011 , which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

Field of the Invention

The present application generally relates to polymer compositions particularly suited for disposable lids and the like. Particularly, the present application relates to a disposable lid comprising a thermoformed sheet having a polymer composite of polyolefin and at least one mineral filler.

Description of Related Art

Hot beverages, such as freshly brewed coffee for people on the go, are usually served in heavy paper cups with disposable lids. Coffee is typically brewed at 90 - 96 °C, held at 82 - 88 °C and served at 70 - 80 °C. A coffee cup lid preferably has a mechanical strength to withstand the force required to push the lid onto the cup and to maintain the dimensional stability at the temperature of the coffee. The mechanical strength of a material within a range of temperatures can be correlated to the material's heat deflection temperature ("HDT") or deflection temperature under load ("DTUL"). Current lidding material for hot beverage cups is primarily made of high impact polystyrene ("HIPS"), which has an ease of processing and a good balance between rigidity and toughness due to its amorphous structure. However, high impact polystyrene resin can be susceptible to chemical attack and solvent crazing. In addition, the presence of residual styrene monomer in the resin can cause an unpleasant odor. Furthermore, high impact polystyrene resin, amongst all the commodity resins, has a comparatively high carbon footprint. Therefore, there remains an opportunity for an improved disposable lid. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The purpose and advantages of the present application will be set forth in and apparent from the description that follows, as well as will be learned by practice of the application. Additional advantages of the application will be realized and attained by the apparatus particularly pointed out in the written description and claims hereof, as well as from the appended drawings.

To achieve these and other advantages and in accordance with the purpose of the application, as embodied and broadly described, the application includes a disposable lid comprising a tbermoformed sheet in the shape of a lid for a hot beverage container. The sheet comprises a polymer composite of a polyolefm and at least one mineral filler. The sheet has a thickness less than about 0.035 inches and a heat deflection temperature at least comparable to that of high impact polystyrene.

In accordance with one aspect, the heat deflection temperature can be at least about that of high impact polystyrene. Particularly, the heat deflection temperature according to ASTM D648-06 Standard Test Method for Deflection

Temperature of Plastics Under Flexural Load in the Edgewise Position (2006) can be at least about 87 °C.

As embodied herein, the mineral filler can include a high aspect ratio mineral filler, for example, selected from the group consisting of talc, mica, wollastonite, or combinations thereof. For example, the polymer composite can comprise at least about 10% by weight of the high aspect ratio mineral filler.

Additionally or alternatively, the mineral filler can include a low aspect ratio mineral filler, such as calcium carbonate. For example, the polymer composite can comprise at least about 20% by weight of the low aspect ratio mineral filler. The polyolefm can be selected from the group consisting of polypropylene homopolymer, polypropylene impact copolymer, ethylene-propylene random copolymer, high density polyethylene, or combinations thereof

In one embodiment, the polyolefm includes polypropylene, the mineral filler includes a high aspect ratio mineral filler, and the polymer composite comprises at least about 10% by weight of the mineral filler. In another embodiment, the polyolefm includes polypropylene, the mineral filler includes a low aspect ratio mineral filler, and the polymer composite comprises at least about 20% by weight of the mineral filler. In yet another embodiment, the polyolefm includes high density polyethylene, the mineral filler includes a high aspect ratio mineral filler, and the polymer composite comprises at least about 20% by weight of the mineral filler. In yet another embodiment, the polyolefm includes high density polyethylene, the mineral filler includes a low aspect ratio mineral filler, and the polymer composite comprises at least about 40% by weight of the mineral filler.

In accordance with another aspect, the polyolefm can include polypropylene, the mineral filler can include a high aspect ratio mineral filler, and the polymer composite can have a shrinkage comparable to that of high impact polystyrene. For example, the polymer composite can have a shrinkage of about 0.5% to about 1.0% when measured according to the ASTM D955 standard (1996). In this manner, the polymer composite comprises about 20% to about 40% by weight of the mineral filler.

In accordance with another aspect, the polyolefm can include polyethylene, the mineral filler can include a high aspect ratio mineral filler, and the polymer composite can have a shrinkage comparable to that of polypropylene. As such, the polymer composite can have a shrinkage of about 1.25% to about 1.75% when measured according to the ASTM D955 standard (1996). In this embodiment, the polymer composite comprises about 30% to about 50% by weight of the mineral filler.

In accordance with one aspect of the disclosed subject matter, the polymer composite consists essentially of the polyolefm and the at least one mineral filler. However, the polymer composite can further comprise additives selected from the group consisting of colorants, processing aids, and combinations thereof.

As embodied herein, the hot beverage container can be a coffee cup, although a lid for other suitable containers is contemplated.

In accordance with another aspect, the polymer composite can have a carbon footprint lower than high impact polystyrene. For example, the polymer composite can have a greenhouse gas emission lower than high impact polystyrene.

It is to be understood that both the foregoing general description and the following detailed description are exemplary and are intended to provide further explanation of the application claimed.

The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated in and constitute part of this specification, are included to illustrate and provide a further understanding of the apparatus of the application. Together with the written description, the drawings serve to explain the principles of the application. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a graph of the heat deflection temperature of neat high impact polystyrene, neat polypropylene, neat high density polyethylene, and certain mineral filled polymer composites, respectively, in accordance with the disclosed subject matter.

FIG. 2 is a graph of the shrinkage characteristics of neat high impact polystyrene, neat polypropylene, neat high density polyethylene, and certain mineral filled polymer composites, respectively, in accordance with the disclosed subject matter. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

Reference will now be made in detail to the present preferred embodiments of the application, examples of which are illustrated in the

accompanying drawings. The disposable lids presented herein generally are intended for use with cups or other containers for holding high temperature beverages, such as coffee. Although reference will be made herein to lids for hot beverage cups, other similar or suitable uses are contemplated.

Typically, polyolefms have a heat deflection temperature lower than high impact polystyrene ("HIPS") and thus are not suitable for use alone (i.e., neat) as a lidding material for hot beverage cups. However, in accordance with the disclosed subject matter, the heat deflection temperature of the polyolefin can be improved by adding at least one mineral filler to fonn a polymer composite. The resulting polymer composite can have a heat deflection temperature at least about that of high impact polystyrene and thus be suitable for use as a lidding material for hot beverage cups or the like.

Disposable lids in accordance with the disclosed subject matter include a thermo formed sheet in. the shape of a lid for a hot beverage container. The sheet comprises a polymer composite of a polyolefin and at least one mineral filler. The sheet has a thickness !ess than about 0.035 inches and a heat deflection temperature at least comparable to that of high impact polystyrene.

In one embodiment, the mineral filler can include any suitable mineral filler for increasing the heat deflection temperature of the polyolefin. For example but without limitation, the mineral filler can include a high aspect ratio filler, a low aspect ratio filler, or a blend of both. The term "aspect ratio" of a particle is defined herein for purpose of understanding as a ratio of a largest dimension of the particle divided by a smallest dimension of the particle. The aspect ratios are determined by scanning under an electron microscope (2,000 times magnified) and visually viewing the outside surfaces of the particles to determine the lengths and thicknesses of the particles.

A high aspect ratio filler is defined herein as a filler having an aspect ratio of at least about 5: 1. The high aspect ratio fillers of the present disclosed subject matter generally have an aspect of from about 5 : 1 to about 40: 1 , and preferably from about 10: 1 to about 20: 1. The high aspect filler can include talc, mica, wollastonite, or combinations thereof. Commercially available talc materials include, but are not limited to, JETFIL® 575, available from Luzenac America of Englewood, Colorado. Commercially available mica materials include SUZOREX® 325-PP, available from Zemex Industrial Minerals, Inc. Commercially available wOllastonite includes, but is not limited to, the NYGLOS® series of wollastonite, available from NYCO Minerals Inc. of Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

A low aspect ratio filler of the disclosed subject matter generally has an aspect ratio of from 1 : 1 to about 3: 1, preferably from 1 : 1 to about 2: 1. The low aspect ratio filler can include calcium carbonate, barium sulfate, or the combination thereof. Commercially available calcium carbonate includes, but is not limited to, OMYACARB FT®, available from OMYA Inc. of Cincinnati, OH, or Supercoat®, from Imerys Performance Minerals Inc. of Alpharetta, Ga. One example of commercially available barium sulfate is BAR1TE 2075®, available from Polar Minerals in Mentor, Ohio.

When the at least one filler comprises a blend of high and low aspect ratio fillers, the filler mixture can include any suitable weight percentage of the high and low aspect ratio fillers. For example, the filler mixture can comprise at least 50 wt. % high aspect ratio filler. In one embodiment, the filler mixture can be from about 50 to about 80 wt. % high aspect ratio filler and from about 20 to about 50 wt. % low aspect ratio filler.

In accordance with one aspect, the polyolefm can be any suitable polyolefm. For example but without limitation, the polyolefm can be selected from the group consisting of polypropylene homopolymer, polypropylene impact copolymer, ethylene-propylene random copolymer, high density polyethylene, or combi nations thereof. The polyolefm can be a blend of homopolymer polypropylene and impact copolymer polypropylene, in any desired weight percent, such as a 60/40 blend, or a blend ratio sufficient o achieve a desirable impact property of the composite.

In accordance with one aspect, the polymer composite can consist essentially of the polyolefm and the at least one mineral filler. However, the polymer composite can further comprise any additives known to one of ordinary skill in the art. For example, but without limitation, the additive can include colorants, processing aids such as those commonly used for processing composites, or combination thereof.

In accordance with one aspect, the disposable lid can be formed using a variety of conventional manufacturing and forming processes, including

thenrio orming or injecting molding processes, although a thermoforming process is employed herein. According to one method of manufacturing, pellets of a polyolefm resin are melted in a twin screw extruder. Powders of the at least one mineral filler are mixed with and/or added into the polyolefm melt to form a blend. The blend is extruded through a die to form an extruded sheet. The extruded sheet is then thermoformed to a desired shape of the disposable lid. Alternatively, a mineral- filled compound of high filler content in pellet form can be produced from a typical compounding process, and the pellets further diluted to a desirable filler content in the sheet extrusion process.

The thickness of the lid can be selected as desired, but is typically less than about 0.15 inches, preferably less than about 0.035 inches. Preferably, the lid can be about 0.01 to about 0.025 inches thick. The lid can be the natural color of the polyolefm/filler mixture, or a variety of colors or color combinations. The height, weight, shape, and design of the lid can be selected as desired to fit a suitable hot beverage container, such as a coffee cup, as is well known in the art. For example, the lid can weigh about 3 to about 4 grams. Exemplary lid designs include, but are not limited to, those described and shown in U.S. Patent Nos. 7,819,271 , 7,789,260, 7,691 ,302, D556,573, D544,793, D541 ,651 0541,650, D541.153, D540,675, D540,674, D540,673, D540,672, D540,166, D540,165, D539,646, D533,778, 0635,855, 7,731 ,047, 7,513,382, 7,246,715, D540,167, D539,650, D539,649, D536,249, D535,561 , 7,159,732, 7,156,251, 7,134,566, 7,131 ,551 , D530.602, 7,063,224, D514,445, D514,444, 6,874,649, 6,732,875, D489,260, D485,758, 6,679,397, 6,644,490, D478,006, D477,223, D476,891 , 0476,566, 4,753,365, D287,919, 4,615,459, and 4,589,569, the contents of each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

In accordance with one aspect of the disclosed subject matter, the heat deflection temperature ("HDT") also known as the deflection temperature under load ("DTUL") can be determined according to ASTM D648-06, Standard Test method for Deflection Temperature of Plastics Under Flexural Load in the Edgewise Position (2006). For the purpose of illustration and not limitation, Table 1 includes the heat deflection temperature measured according to the ASTM D648-06 standard (2006) for neat high impact polystyrene, neat polypropylene ("PP"), neat high density polyethylene ("HDPE"), and various mineral filled polymer composites in accordance with the disclosed subject matter. The data provided in Table 1 is based on nominally 12.7mm wide by 3.17mm thick injection molded bars with a span of 101.6 mm. A load of 2.51SI was applied to achieve a fiber stress of 0.455 MPa (66 PSI). The temperature of the heat-transfer medium was ramped at 2.0°C/min. The deflection was reset to zero at 30 °C to allow for any low temperature creep. The temperature at which the sample deflected an additional 0.25 mm was considered the heat deflection temperature. For the purpose of illustration and not limitation, FIG. 1 provides a graphical representation of the heat deflection temperature data provided in Table 1. Particularly, FIG. 1 shows the increase of heat deflection temperature as a function of mineral filler content for four different combinations of polypropylene or high density polyethylene with talc or calcium carbonate, respectively, as compared with neat HIPS as a control.

Table 1. DTUL and I M Mold Shri nkage of HI PS, PP, HDPE and Mi neral-fi l led composites

IM mold

Matrix Filler Filler DTUL6 shrinkage

Example Polymer Type (wt%) <°C) (%)

Comparative Example 1 HIPS1 None 0 87 0.74%

Comparative Example 2 HDPE2 None 0 69 2.60%

Comparative Example 3 pp3

None 0 80 1.53%

Comparative Example 4 pp4

None 0 79 1.46%

Comparative Example 5 pps

None 0 100 1.23%

Inventive Example 01 HDPE2 Talc 11 79 2.33%

Inventive Example 02 HDPE2 Talc 20 90 2.02%

Inventive Example 03 HDPE2 Talc 30 96 1.61%

Inventive Example 04 HDPE2 Talc 40 108 1.53%

Inventive Example 05 HDPE2 Talc 50 115 1.29% inventive Example 06 HDPE2 CaC03 10 68 2.82%

Inventive Example 07 HDPE2 CaC03 20 72 2.38%

Inventive Example 08 HDPE2 CaC03 30 79 2.29%

Inventive Example 09 HDPE2 CaC03 40 84 2.06%

Inventive Example 10 HDPE2 CaC03 50 92 1.76%

Inventive Example 11 HDPE2 CaC03 60 100

Inventive Example 12 pp3 Talc 10 105 0.94%

Inventive Example 13 PP3 Talc 20 115 0.83%

Inventive Example 14 PP3 Talc 30 123 0.69%

Inventive Example 15 pp3 Talc 40 130 0.60%

Inventive Example 16 PP3 CaC03 10 84 1.37% pp3

Inventive Example 17 CaC03 20 89 1.29%

Inventive Example 18 PP3 CaC03 30 93 1.24% pp3

Inventive Example 19 CaC03 40 97 1.06%

Inventive Example 20 PPJ CaCQ3 50 101 0.94%

1 High Impact Polystyrene, Total Petrochemicals 940E

2 High Density Polyethylene, Density = 0.963 g/cc

3 PP Homopolymer PP/lmpact Copolymer b!end. Blend ratio 60/40

4 PP Impact Copolymer

PP Homopolymer

6 DTUL - Deflection Temperature Under Load (66 pss) per AST D648.

As can be seen in the data of Table 1 and FIG. 1, neat high impact polystyrene, with a heat deflection temperature of 87 °C, falls in between the range of temperature where coffee is brewed and served. The heat deflection temperature of polypropylene copolymer or polypropylene homopolymer/copolymer blend, at about 79-80 °C, is lower than that provided by neat high impact polystyrene. The heat deflection temperature for neat high density polyethylene, at about 69 °C, however, is shown to be outside the range of temperature where a lid made from neat high density polyethylene would perform satisfactorily.

Examples 1-20 in accordance with the disclosed subject matter of Table 1 show the heat deflection temperatures of various polyolefin and mineral filler combinations at different levels of mineral filler. Of the different polyolefin and mineral filler combinations, the calcium carbonate filled polyolefins have a gradual increase in heat deflection temperature relative a respective non-filled (i.e. neat) polyolefin as the mineral content is increased. By contrast, the talc filled polyolefins have a much higher increase in heat deflection temperature as the mineral filler content is increased. Unexpectedly, the talc filled polypropylene has a more significant increase in heat deflection temperature, even with the talc content as low as about 10%.

As shown in the data of Table 1 and FIG. 1, a polymer composite in accordance with the disclosed subject matter therefore can be provided with a heat deflection temperature comparable to, equal to, or greater than high impact polystyrene. For example, to achieve equal or greater heat deflection temperature than high impact polystyrene, if the mineral filler includes a high aspect ratio mineral (e.g. talc), the polymer composite can comprise as little as about 10% by weight of the mineral filler (see Example 12). Indeed, as shown in FIG. 1 , when polypropylene is used, even less than 10% by weight of talc is needed to achieve the same heat deflection temperature as high impact polystyrene. By contrast, if the mineral filler includes a low aspect mineral filler (e.g. calcium carbonate), the polymer composite can comprise at least about 20% by weight of the mineral filler (see Example 17) to achieve the equal or greater heat deflection temperature than high impact polystyrene.

As shown by Example 2, when the polyolefin includes high density polyethylene, the mineral filler includes a high aspect ratio mineral filler (e.g. talc), and the polymer composite comprises at least about 20% by weight of the mineral filler, the heat deflection temperature will be greater than that of high impact polystyrene. As shown by Example 10, when the polyolefin includes high density polyethylene, the mineral filler includes a low aspect ratio mineral filler (e.g. calcium carbonate), and the polymer composite comprises at least about 50% by weight of the mineral filler, the heat deflection temperature will be greater than that of high impact polystyrene. As shown by Example 12, when the polyolefin includes polypropylene, the mineral filler includes a high aspect ratio mineral filler (e.g. talc), and the polymer composite comprises at least about 10% by weight of the mineral filler, the heat deflection temperature will be greater than that of high impact polystyrene. As shown by Example 17, when the polyolefm includes polypropylene, the mineral filler includes a low aspect ratio mineral filler (e.g. calcium carbonate), and the polymer composite comprises at least about 20% by weight of the mineral filler, the heat deflection temperature will be greater than that of high impact polystyrene.

For the purpose of illustration and not limitation, Table 1 and FIG. 2 shows the shrinkage characteristics of polypropylene, high density polyethylene, high impact polystyrene and mineral filled polypropylene and mineral filled high density polyethylene. The shrinkage can be measured in accordance with the ASTM D955 ( 1996) standard using injection molded bars of the dimensions 12.7 mm x 3.2 mm x 127 mm in accordance with the standard and as well known in the art. Mineral filled polypropylene can overcome disadvantages of polypropylene (neat) in the mismatch in shrinkage as compared to high impact polystyrene, therefore allowing the use of existing high impact polystyrene tooling for making a part with similar shrinkage of between about 0.5% and about 1 .0%. For example, as shown in FIG. 2, talc filled polypropylene at 20-40% talc is suitable for replacing high impact polystyrene from shrinkage perspective. Similarly, mineral filled high density polyethylene can overcome the disadvantage of high density polyethylene in the mismatch in shrinkage as compared to polypropylene, therefore allowing the use of existing polypropylene tooling for making a mineral filled high density polyethylene part with similar shrinkage to polypropylene of about 1.25% to about 1.75%. For example, as shown in FIG. 2, talc filled high density polyethylene at 30-50% talc is suitable for replacing neat polypropylene from shrinkage perspective.

in accordance with another aspect, the polymer composite can have a carbon footprint lower than high impact polystyrene. For example, the polymer composite can have a greenhouse gas emission lower than high impact polystyrene. For the purpose of i llustration and not limitation, Table 2 shows cradle-to-grave greenhouse gases emissions of lids in accordance with the disclosed subject matter as compared to lids of high impact polystyrene. The two lids have similar rigidity and perform similarly as a hot beverage cup lid. The comparative example was made from high impact polystyrene sheet of about 0.0214 inches thick and weighed about 3.83 grams. The example in accordance with the disclosed subject matter include 40% talc-filled polypropylene and was made from a 0.0167 inches thick sheet and weighed about 3.32 grams. A base unit of 10,000 pieces was used to calculate the greenhouse gases emissions. Several factors contributed to the much lower greenhouse gases emission of the example in accordance with the disclosed subject matter. These factors include polymer density, GHG emission of base polymers and minerals, and the amount of minerals incorporated in the composite. As can be seen in FIG. 2, the talc filled polypropylene lid has a nearly 50% reduction in greenhouse gases emission as compared to a similarly performing lid made of high impact polystyrene.

T le 2. Greenhouse Gases Emissions of a typical hot cup lid

Weight of

unit polymer G HG GHG

Pa rt weight Parts weight per unit (Kg CO; eq. {Kg CO, ( i sms per unit {Kg) (Kg) /Kg i -f i . eq.)

HiPS iids 3 S3 10,000 38.3 38.3 4.68 81.5 d-: 3.32 10,000 33.2 19.3 2.SS 43.5

¾ Reduction 50% 47%

While the present application is described herein in terms of certain preferred embodiments, those skilled in the art will recognize that various

modifications and improvements can be made to the application without departing from the scope thereof. For example, which the present application describes a disposable lid for a hot beverage container such as a coffee cup, the polymer composites in accordance with the application could be used in applications other than lidding where the improved heat deflection temperature of a mineral filled polymer is desired. Thus, it is intended that the present application include modifications and variations that are within the scope of the appended claims and their equivalents. Moreover, although individual features of one embodiment of the application are discussed herein or shown in the drawings of one embodiment and not in other embodiments, it should be apparent that individual features of one embodiment can be combined with one or more features of another embodiment or features from a plurality of embodiments.

In addition to the specific embodiments claimed below, the application is also directed to other embodiments having any other possible combination of the dependent features claimed below and those disclosed above. As such, the particular features presented in the dependent claims and disclosed above can be combined with each other in other manners within the scope of the application such that the application should be recognized as also specifically directed to other embodiments having any other possible combinations. Thus, the foregoing description of specific embodiments of the application has been presented for purposes of illustration and description, it is not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the application to those embodiments disclosed.

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Reference
1 *DATABASE WPI Week 200406, Derwent Publications Ltd., London, GB; AN 2004-056145, XP002677104
Classifications
International ClassificationC08K3/34, B65D43/00, C08K3/00
Cooperative ClassificationC08K3/10, C08K3/34, B65D43/00
European ClassificationC08K3/00S, C08K3/34
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