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Publication numberWO1995021626 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberPCT/US1995/001829
Publication date17 Aug 1995
Filing date9 Feb 1995
Priority date14 Feb 1994
Also published asCA2169173A1, CA2169173C, EP0723456A1
Publication numberPCT/1995/1829, PCT/US/1995/001829, PCT/US/1995/01829, PCT/US/95/001829, PCT/US/95/01829, PCT/US1995/001829, PCT/US1995/01829, PCT/US1995001829, PCT/US199501829, PCT/US95/001829, PCT/US95/01829, PCT/US95001829, PCT/US9501829, WO 1995/021626 A1, WO 1995021626 A1, WO 1995021626A1, WO 9521626 A1, WO 9521626A1, WO-A1-1995021626, WO-A1-9521626, WO1995/021626A1, WO1995021626 A1, WO1995021626A1, WO9521626 A1, WO9521626A1
InventorsKenneth Kaushansky
ApplicantUniversity Of Washington
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: Patentscope, Espacenet
Methods for stimulating erythropoiesis using thrombopoietin
WO 1995021626 A1
Abstract
Methods for stimulating erythropoiesis using hematopoietic proteins are provided. The methods provided may be used to stimulate erythropoiesis in bone marrow and peripheral blood cells and in vitro and in vivo. In addition, methods for treatment of thrombocytopenia and anemia in patients are disclosed.
Claims  (OCR text may contain errors)
We claim:
1. A method for stimulating in vitro erythropoiesis comprising culturing bone marrow or peripheral blood cells with a composition comprising an amount of thrombopoietin (TPO) and erythropoietin (EPO) sufficient to produce an increase in the number of erythrocytes or erythrocyte precursors as compared to cells cultured in the absence of TPO.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the TPO is human or mouse TPO.
3. The method of claim 1, wherein the TPO comprises a sequence of amino acids selected from group consisting of: the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 1 to residue 172; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 1 to residue 173; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 1 to residue 175; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 1 to amino acid residue 353; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 22 to residue 353; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 22 to residue 172; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 22 to residue 173; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 22 to residue 175; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 28 to residue 172 the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 28 to residue 173; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 28 to residue 175; and the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 28 to residue 353.
4. A method of stimulating in vi tro erythropoiesis comprising culturing bone marrow or peripheral blood cells with an amount of TPO sufficient to produce an increase in the number of erythrocytes or erythrocyte precursors as compared to cells cultured in the absence of TPO.
5. The method of claim 4, wherein the TPO is human or mouse TPO.
6. The method of claim 4, wherein the TPO comprises a sequence of amino acids selected from group consisting of: the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 1 to residue 172; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 1 to residue 173; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 1 to residue 175; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 1 to amino acid residue 353; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 22 to residue 353; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 22 to residue 172; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 22 to residue 173; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 22 to residue 175; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 28 to residue 172; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 28 to residue 173; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 28 to residue 175; and the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 28 to residue 353.
7. A method for stimulating erythropoiesis comprising administering to a mammal in need thereof a composition comprising TPO in combination with a pharmaceutically acceptable vehicle in an amount sufficient to produce an increase in proliferation or differentiation of erythroid cells.
8. The method of claim 7, wherein the TPO is human TPO.
9. The method of claim 7, wherein the TPO comprises a sequence of amino acids selected from group consisting of: the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 1 to residue 172; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 1 to residue 173; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 1 to residue 175; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 1 to amino acid residue 353; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 22 to residue 353; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 22 to residue 172; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 22 to residue 173; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 22 to residue 175; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 28 to residue 172; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 28 to residue 173; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 28 to residue 175; and the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 28 to residue 353.
10. The method of claim 7, wherein of 1 x 105 to 100 x 105 units TPO/kg/day is administered to said mammal.
11. A method for stimulating erythropoiesis comprising administering to a mammal in need thereof a composition comprising TPO and EPO in combination with a pharmaceutically acceptable vehicle in an amount sufficient to produce an increase in proliferation or differentiation of erythroid cells.
12. The method of claim 11, wherein the TPO is human TPO.
13. The method of claim 11, wherein the EPO is human EPO.
14. The method of claim 11, wherein the TPO comprises a sequence of amino acids selected from group consisting of: the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 1 to residue 172; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 1 to residue 173; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 1 to residue 175; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 1 to amino acid residue 353; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 22 to residue 353; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 22 to residue 172; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 22 to residue 173; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 22 to residue 175; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 28 to residue 172; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 28 to residue 173; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 28 to residue 175; and the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 28 to residue 353.
15. The method of claim 11, wherein of 1 x 105 to 100 x 105 units TPO/kg/day. and 1 to 150 units EPO/kg/day is administered to said mammal.
16. A method for stimulating erythropoiesis comprising administering to a patient in need thereof a composition comprising TPO and EPO, in combination with a pharmaceutically acceptable vehicle, in an amount sufficient for increasing reticulocyte counts at least 2-fold over baseline reticulocyte counts.
17. A method for stimulating erythropoiesis comprising administering to a patient in need thereof a composition comprising TPO, in combination with a pharmaceutically acceptable vehicle, in an amount sufficient for increasing reticulocyte counts at least 2-fold over baseline reticulocyte counts.
18. A method of stimulating erythropoiesis and thrombopoiesis comprising administering to a patient in need thereof a composition comprising TPO and EPO, in combination with a pharmaceutically acceptable vehicle, in an amount sufficient for increasing reticulocyte counts at least twoČ fold over baseline reticulocyte counts and platelet levels to at least 20,000/mm3.
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Description Methods for stimulating erythropoiesis using thro bopoietin.

Background of the Invention

Hematopoiesis is the process by which blood cells develop and differentiate from pluripotent stem cells in the bone marrow. This process involves a complex interplay of polypeptide growth factors (cytokines) acting via membrane-bound receptors on the target cells. Cytokine action results in cellular proliferation and differentiation, with response to a particular cytokine often being lineage-specific and/or stage-specific. Development of a single cell type, such as a platelet or erythrocyte, from a stem cell may require the coordinated action of a plurality of cytokines acting in the proper sequence.

The known cytokines include the interleukins , such as IL-1, IL-2, IL-3, IL-6, IL-8 , etc.; and the colony stimulating factors, such as G-CSF, M-CSF, GM-CSF, erythropoietin (EPO) , etc. In general, the interleukins act as mediators of immune and inflammatory responses. The colony stimulating factors stimulate the proliferation of marrow-derived cells, activate mature leukocytes, and otherwise form an integral part of the host's response to inflammatory, infectious, and im unologic challenges. Various cytokines have been developed as therapeutic agents. Several of the colony stimulating factors have been used in conjunction with cancer chemotherapy to speed the recovery of patients' immune systems. Interleukin-2, α-interferon and 7-interferon are used in the treatment of certain cancers. EPO, which stimulates the development of erythrocytes, is used in the treatment of anemia arising from renal failure. Factors responsible for stimulation of megakaryocytopoiesis and thrombocytopoiesis resisted definitive characterization, due in part to lack of a good source, a lack of good assays, and a lack of knowledge as to the site(s) of production until recently, despite three decades of work to isolate and characterize them. The megakaryocytopoietic factor, referred to in the literature as "thrombopoietin" (recently reviewed by McDonald, Exp. Hematol. 1^:201-205, 1988; and McDonald, Am. J. Ped. Hematol. Oncol. 14:8-21, 1992) has now been identified and isolated (see copending U. S. Patent Application Serial No. 08/252,491; Lok et al. , Nature 3j69:565-568, 1994; and Kaushansky et al.. Nature 369:568-571. 1994; all herein incorporated by reference) . Mild bleeding disorders (MBDs) associated with platelet dysfunctions are relatively common (Bachmann, Seminars in He atoloqy 17: 292-305, 1980) , as are a number of congenital disorders of platelet function, including Bernard-Soulier syndrome (deficiency in platelet GPIb) , Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (deficiency of GPIIb and GPIIIa) , congenital afibrinogene ia (diminished or absent levels of fibrinogen in plasma and platelets) , and gray platelet syndrome (absence of tt-granules) . In addition there are a number of disorders associated with platelet secretion, storage pool deficiency, abnormalities in platelet arachidonic acid pathway, deficiencies of platelet cyclooxygenase and thromboxane synthetase and defects in platelet activation (reviewed by Rao and Holmsen, Seminars in Hematology 23: 102-118, 1986). At present, the molecular basis for most of these defects is not well understood.

Anemias are deficiencies in the production of red blood cells (erythrocytes) and result in a reduction in the level of oxygen transported by blood to the tissues of the body. Hypoxia may be caused by loss of large amounts of blood through hemorrhage, destruction of red blood cells from exposure to autoantibodies, radiation or chemicals, reduction in oxygen intake due to high altitudes or prolonged unconsciousness. When hypoxia is present in tissue, EPO production is stimulated and increases red blood cell production. EPO promotes the conversion of primitive precursor cells in the bone marrow into pro-erythrocytes which subsequently mature, synthesize hemoglobin and are released into the circulation as red blood cells. When the number of red blood cells in circulation is greater than needed for normal tissue oxygen requirements, the level of EPO in circulation is decreased.

Severe reductions in both megakaryocyte and erythrocyte levels can be associated with the treatment of various cancers with chemotherapy and radiation and diseases such as AIDS, aplastic anemia and myelodysplasias. Levels of megakaryocytes and/or erythrocytes that become too low, for example, platelet counts below 25,000 to 50,000 and hematocrits of less than 25 are likely to produce considerable morbidity and in certain circumstances these levels are life-threatening. In addition to treating the underlying disease, specific treatments include platelet transfusions for thrombocytopenia (low megakaryocyte levels) and stimulation of erythropoiesis using EPO or transfusion of red blood cells for anemia.

Recent advances in molecular biology have greatly increased our understanding of hematopoiesis, but at the same time have shown the process to be extremely complex. While many cytokines have been characterized and some have proven clinical applications, there remains a need in the art for additional agents that stimulate proliferation and differentiation of myeloid and lymphoid precursors and the production of mature blood cells. There is a particular need for agents that stimulate the development and proliferation of cells of the megakaryocytic and erythroid lineages, including platelets and red blood cells. There is a further need in the art for agents that can be used in the simultaneous treatment of cytopenias and anemias such as those caused by destruction of hematopoietic cells in bone marrow such as in the treatment of cancer with chemotherapy and radiation, and pathological conditions such as myelodysplasia, AIDS, aplastic anemia, autoimmune disease or inflammatory conditions. The present invention fulfills these needs and provides other, related advantages.

Summary of the Invention

It is an object of the present invention to provide methods for stimulating erythropoiesis by culturing bone marrow or peripheral blood cells in the presence of TPO and EPO in amount sufficient to produce an increase in the number of erythrocytes or erythrocyte precursors as compared to cells cultured without TPO. It is a further object of the invention to provide methods for stimulating erythropoiesis by culturing bone marrow or peripheral blood cells in the presence of a composition comprising TPO in an amount sufficient to produce an increase in the number of erythrocytes or erythrocyte precursors as compared to cells cultured without TPO.

It is a further object of the invention to provide methods for stimulating erythropoiesis in a mammal by administering a composition comprising TPO in a pharmaceutically acceptable vehicle to produce an increase in proliferation or differentiation of erythroid cells.

It is a further object of the invention to provide methods for stimulating erythropoiesis in a mammal by administering a composition comprising EPO and TPO in a pharmaceutically acceptable vehicle to produce an increase in proliferation or differentiation of erythroid cells. It is a further object of the invention to provide methods for stimulating erythropoiesis in a patient by administering a composition comprising EPO and

TPO in amount sufficient to increase reticulocyte counts and erythroid colony formation.

It is a further object of the invention to provide methods for stimulating erythropoiesis in a patient by administering a composition comprising TPO in an amount sufficient for increasing reticulocyte counts at least 2-fold over baseline reticulocyte counts.

It is a further object of the invention to provide methods for stimulating erythropoiesis in a patient by administering a composition comprising TPO and EPO in an amount sufficient for increasing reticulocyte counts at least 2-fold over baseline reticulocyte counts.

Within one aspect, the present invention provides that the TPO is human TPO. In another embodiment, the TPO comprises of a sequence of amino acids selected from group consisting of: the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 1 to residue 172; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 1 to residue 173; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 1 to residue 175; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 1 to amino acid residue 353; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 22 to residue 353; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 22 to residue 172; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 22 to residue 173; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 22 to residue 175; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 28 to residue 172; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 28 to residue 173; the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 28 to residue 175; and the sequence of amino acids shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from amino acid residue 28 to residue 353.

Within another aspect, the invention provides methods where a mammal is administered TPO of 1 x 105 to 100 x 105 units TPO/kg/day, preferably 5 x 105 to 50 x 105 units TPO/kg/day.

In another embodiment, . the invention provides methods where a mammal is administered TPO of 1 x 105 to 100 x 105 units TPO/kg/day, preferably 5 x 105 to 50 x 105 units TPO/kg/day and EPO of 1 to 150 units EPO/kg/day.

Brief Description of the Drawings

Figure 1 illustrates that following the addition of TPO and EPO to cultured bone marrow cells, erythroid colony formation is enhanced relative to addition of EPO alone.

Figure 2 illustrates that following the addition of TPO to animals made pancytopenic with prior irradiation and chemotherapy, the decline in red blood cell count is not as severe, and returns to normal sooner in animals given TPO.

Detailed Description of the Invention

Prior to describing the present invention in detail, it may be helpful to define certain terms used herein: Allelic variant: An alternative form of a gene that arises through mutation, or an altered polypeptide encoded by the mutated gene. Gene mutations can be silent (no change in the encoded polypeptide) or may encode polypeptides having altered amino acid sequence. cDNA: Complementary DNA, prepared by reverse transcription of a messenger RNA template, or a clone or amplified copy of such a molecule. Complementary DNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded.

Expression vector: A DNA molecule, linear or circular, that comprises a segment encoding a polypeptide of interest operably linked to additional segments that provide for its transcription. Such additional segments include promoter and terminator sequences, and may also include one or more origins of replication, one or more selectable markers, an enhancer, a polyadenylation signal, etc. Expression vectors are generally derived from plasmid or viral DNA, or may contain elements of both. The term "operably linked" indicates that the segments are arranged so that they function in concert for their intended purposes, e.g. transcription initiates in the promoter and proceeds through the coding segment to the terminator.

Gene: A segment of chromosomal DNA that encodes a polypeptide chain. A gene includes one or more regions encoding amino acids, which in some cases are interspersed with non-coding "intervening sequences" ("introns") , together with flanking, non-coding regions which provide for transcription of the coding sequence.

Molecules complementary to: Polynucleotide molecules having a complementary base sequence and reverse orientation as compared to a reference sequence. For example, the sequence 5* ATGCACGGG 3' is complementary to 5' CCCGTGCAT 3' .

Promoter: The portion of a gene at which RNA polymerase binds and mRNA synthesis is initiated. As noted above, the present invention provides methods for stimulating thrombopoiesis and erythropoiesis using proteins having hematopoietic activity. As used herein, the term "hematopoietic" denotes the ability to stimulate the proliferation and/or differentiation of myeloid or lymphoid precursors as determined by standard assays. See, for example, Metcalf, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77: 5327-5330, 1980; Metcalf et al., J. Cell. Phγsiol. 116: 198-206, 1983; and Metcalf et al., Exp. Hematol. 15: 288-295, 1987. Typically, marrow cells are incubated in the presence of a test sample and a control sample. The cultures are then scored for cell proliferation and differentiation by visual examination and/or staining. A particularly preferred assay is the MTT colorimetric assay of Mos an (J. Immunol. Meth. 65: 55-63, 1983; incorporated herein by reference) .

As used herein, the term "erythropoiesis" denotes the proliferation and/or differentiation of erythroid precursor cells. Standard measures of erythroid cell proliferation and differentiation include hematocrit and reticulocyte counts. Hematocrit is a measurement of red blood cells, and is commonly expressed as the percentage of total blood volume which consists of erythrocytes. Reticulocyte counts measure 1-2 day-old cells that contain mRNA (absent in mature erythrocytes) and aggregates of ribosomes as demonstrated by staining (Erslev, A., "Reticulocyte Enumeration", in Hematology, McGraw-Hill, NY, 1990) . A reticulocyte count is the percentage of such cells per 500 or 1000 cells counted. An average range for reticulocyte counts is 0.8% to 1.2%. EPO is commercially available (R & D Systems, Minneapolis, MN and Amgen, Thousand Oaks, CA) and activity is measured by calibration against the second international reference preparation of erythropoietin (Annable et al., Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org. _VJ_ 99, 1972) using an in vivo assay which measures the incorporation of 56Fe into red blood cells of exhypoxic polycythemic mice (Cotes et al., Nature 191:1065. 1961) or by in vi tro cell proliferation assay that uses a factor-dependent human erythroleukemic cell line, TF-1 (Kitamura et al., J. Cell. Physiol. 140:323, 1989) . The present invention is based in part upon the discovery that thrombopoietin (TPO) stimulates erythroid cell growth. When the present inventors administered TPO to thrombocytopenic mammals, in addition to an increase in platelets, surprisingly TPO was found to augment the recovery of red blood cells and produce a rapid increase in hematocrit levels.

The sequences of cDNA clones encoding representative human and mouse TPO proteins are shown in SEQ ID N0:1 and SEQ ID NO:3, respectively and the corresponding amino acid sequence are shown in SEQ ID NO:2 and SEQ ID NO:4, respectively. Those skilled in the art will recognize that the sequences shown in SEQ ID NOS: 1 and 2, and the human genomic sequence shown in SEQ ID NOS:5 and 6, correspond to single alleles of the human gene, and that allelic variation is expected to exist. It will also be evident that one skilled in the art could engineer sites that would facilitate manipulation of the nucleotide sequence using alternative codons.

The present invention provides methods for stimulating erythropoiesis using proteins that are substantially homologous to the proteins of SEQ ID NO: 2 and their species homologs. By "isolated" is meant a protein which is found in a condition other than its native environment, such as apart from blood and animal tissue. In a preferred form, the isolated protein is substantially free of other proteins, particularly other proteins of animal origin. It is preferred to provide the proteins in a highly purified form, i.e. greater than 95% pure, more preferably greater than 99% pure. The term "substantially homologous" is used herein to denote proteins having 50%, preferably 60%, more preferably at least 80%, sequence identity to the sequences shown in SEQ ID NO: 2 or their species homologs. Such proteins will more preferably be at least 90% identical, and most preferably 95% or more identical to SEQ ID NO: 2 or their species homologs. Percent sequence identity is determined by conventional methods. See, for example, Altschul et al., Bull. Math. Bio. 48: 603-616, 1986 and Henikoff and Henikoff, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89_:10915-10919, 1992. Briefly, two amino acid sequences are aligned to optimize the alignment scores using a gap opening penalty of 10, a gap extension penalty of 1, and the "blosum 62" scoring matrix of Henikoff and Henikoff (ibid.) as shown in Table

1 (amino acids are indicated by the standard one-letter codes) . The percent identity is then calculated as: Total number of identical matches x 100

[length of the longer sequence plus the number of gaps introduced into the longer sequence in order to align the two sequences]

Table 1

A R N D C Q E G H I L K M F P S T W Y V

A 4

R -1 5

N -2 0 6

D -2 -2 1 6

C 0 -3 -3 -3 9

Q -1 1 0 0 -3 5

E -1 0 0 2 -4 2 5

G 0 -2 0 -1 -3 -2 -2 6 I

H -2 0 1 -1 -3 0 0 -2 8

I -1 -3 -3 -3 -1 -3 -3 -4 -3 4

L -1 -2 -3 -4 -1 -2 -3 -4 -3 2 4

K -1 2 0 -1 -3 1 1 -2 -1 -3 -2 5

M -1 -1 -2 -3 -1 0 -2 -3 -2 1 2 -1 5

F -2 -3 -3 -3 -2 -3 -3 -3 -1 0 0 -3 0 6

P -1 -2 -2 -1 -3 -1 -1 -2 -2 -3 -3 -1 -2 -4 7

S 1 -1 1 0 -1 0 0 0 -1 -2 -2 0 -1 -2 -1 4

T 0 -1 0 -1 -1 -1 -1 -2 -2 -1 -1 -1 -1 -2 -1 1 5

W -3 -3 -4 -4 -2 -2 -3 -2 -2 -3 -2 -3 -1 1 -4 -3 -2 11

Y -2 -2 -2 -3 -2 -1 -2 -3 2 -1 -1 -2 -1 3 -3 -2 -2 2 7

V 0 -3 -3 -3 -1 -2 -2 -3 -3 3 1 -2 1 -1 -2 -2 0 -3 -1 4

Substantially homologous proteins are characterized as having one or more amino acid substitutions, deletions or additions. These changes are preferably of a minor nature, that is conservative amino acid substitutions that do not significantly affect the folding or activity of the protein (see Table 2) ; small deletions, typically of one to about 30 amino acids; and small amino- or carboxyl-terminal extensions, such as an amino-terminal methionine residue, a small linker peptide of up to about 20-25 residues, or a small extension that facilitates purification, such as a poly-histidine tract, an antigenic epitope or a binding domain. See, in general Ford et al.. Protein Expression and Purification 2.: 95- 107, 1991, which is incorporated herein by reference.

Table 2 Conservative amino acid substitutions

Basic: arginine lysine histidine

Acidic: glutamic acid aspartic acid

Polar: gluta ine asparagine

Hydrophobic: leucine isoleucine valine

Aromatic: phenylalanine tryptophan tyrosine

Small: glycine alanine serine threonine methionine Essential amino acids in TPO and EPO may be identified according to procedures known in the art, such as site-directed mutagenesis or alanine-scanning mutagenesis (Cunningham and Wells, Science 244. 1081-1085, 1989) . In the latter technique, single alanine mutations are introduced at every residue in the molecule, and the resultant mutant molecules are tested for biological activity (e.g. receptor binding, in vi tro or in vivo proliferative activity) to identify amino acid residues that are critical to the activity of the molecule. Sites of ligand-receptor interaction can also be determined by analysis of crystal structure as determined by such techniques as nuclear magnetic resonance, crystallography or photoaffinity labeling. See, for example, de Vos et al., Science 255:306-312, 1992; Smith et al. , J. Mol. Biol. 224:899-904. 1992; Wlodaver et al., FEBS Lett. 309:59-64. 1992.

Biologically active muteins of EPO based on elucidation of structure-function relationships have recently been identified (Boissel et al., J. of Biol. Chem. 268:15983-15993. 1993 and Higuchi et al. , J. Biol. Chem. 267:7703-7709. 1992). EPO isoforms having different sialic acid compositions are disclosed by Strickland et al. EP 0428267. In general, cytokines are predicted to have a four-alpha helix structure, with the first and fourth helices being most important in ligand-receptor interactions and more highly conserved among members of the family. Referring to the human TPO amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:2, alignment of cytokine sequences suggests that these helices are bounded by amino acid residues 29 and 53, 80 and 99, 108 and 130, and 144 and 168, respectively (boundaries are + 4 residues) . Helix boundaries of the mouse and other non-human TPOs can be determined by alignment with the human sequence. Other important structural aspects of TPO include the cysteine residues at positions 28, 50, 106 and 172 of SEQ ID NO:2.

In addition to the hematopoietic proteins disclosed above, the methods of the present invention include utilization of fragments of these proteins and isolated polynucleotide molecules encoding the fragments. Of particular interest are fragments of at least 10 amino acids in length that bind to an MPL receptor, and polynucleotide molecules of at least 30 nucleotides in length encoding such polypeptides. Polypeptides of this type are identified by known screening methods, such as by digesting the intact protein or synthesizing small, overlapping polypeptides or polynucleotides (and expressing the latter) , optionally in combination with the techniques of structural analysis disclosed above. The resultant polypeptides are then tested for the ability to specifically bind the MPL receptor and stimulate cell proliferation via the MPL receptor. Binding is determined by conventional methods, such as that disclosed by Klotz, Science 217: 1247, 1982 ("Scatchard analysis"). Briefly, a radiolabeled test polypeptide is incubated with MPL receptor-bearing cells in the presence of increasing concentrations of unlabeled TPO. Cell-bound, labeled polypeptide is separated from free labeled polypeptide by centrifugation through phthalate oil. The binding affinity of the test polypeptide is determined by plotting the ratio of bound to free label on the ordinate versus bound label on the abscissa. Binding specificity is determined by competition with cytokines other than TPO. Receptor binding can also be determined by precipitation of the test compound by immobilized MPL receptor (or the ligand-binding extracellular domain thereof) . Briefly, the receptor or portion thereof is immobilized on an insoluble support. The test compound is labeled, e.g. by metabolically labeling of the host cells in the case of a reco binant test compound, or by conventional, in vitro labeling methods (e.g. radio-iodination) . The labeled compound is then combined with the immobilized receptor, unbound material is removed, and bound, labeled compound is detected. Methods for detecting a variety of labels are known in the art. Stimulation of proliferation is conveniently determined using the MTT colorimetric or 3H- thymidine incorporation assay with MPL receptor-bearing cells. Polypeptides are assayed for activity at various concentrations, typically over a range of 1 nm to 1 mM. Larger polypeptides of up to 50 or more residues, preferably 100 or more residues, more preferably about 140 or more residues, up to the size of the entire mature protein are also provided. For example, analysis and modeling of the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:2 from residue 28 to residue 172, inclusive, suggest that these portions of the molecules are cytokine-like domains capable of self assembly. Also of interest are molecules containing this core cytokine-like domain plus one or more additional segments or domains of the primary translation product. Thus, other polypeptides of interest include those shown in Table 3.

Table 3 Mouse TPO (SEQ ID NO:4):

Cys (residue 51) —Val (residue 196)

Cys (51)—Pro (206)

Cys (51) —Thr (379)

Ser (45)—Cys (195)

Ser (45)—Val (196)

Ser (45)—Pro (206)

Ser (45)—Thr (379)

Met (24)—Cys (195)

Met (24) —Val (196)

Met (24)—Pro (206)

Met (24) —Thr (379)

Met (1) —Cys (195)

Met (1) —Val (196)

Met (1) —Pro (206)

Met (1)—Thr (379) Human TPO (SEQ ID NO:2)

Cys (28) —Val (173)

Cys (28)—Arg (175)

Cys (28) —Gly (353)

Ser (22)—Cys (172)

Ser (22) —Val (173)

Ser (22) —Arg (175)

Ser (22)—Gly (353)

Met (1)—Cys (172)

Met (1) —Val (173)

Met (1) — rg (175)

Met (1) —Gly (353)

Those skilled in the art will recognize that intermediate forms of the molecules (e.g those having C- termini between residues 196 and 206 of SEQ ID NO:4 or those having N-termini between residues 22 and 28 of SEQ ID NO:2) are also of interest, as are polypeptides having one or more amino acid substitutions, deletions, insertions, or N- or C-terminal extensions as disclosed above. Thus, the present invention provides hematopoietic polypeptides of at least 10 amino acid residues, preferably at least 50 residues, more preferably at least 100 residues and most preferably at least about 140 residues in length, wherein said polypeptides are substantially homologous to like-size polypeptides of SEQ ID NO:2.

The proteins used in the present invention for stimulating erythropoiesis can be produced in genetically engineered host cells according to conventional techniques. Suitable host cells are those cell types that can be transformed or transfected with exogenous DNA and grown in culture, and include bacteria, fungal cells, and cultured higher eukaryotic cells. Techniques for manipulating cloned DNA molecules and introducing exogenous DNA into a variety of host cells are disclosed by Sambrook et al.. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. 2nd ed. , Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, 1989, and Ausubel et al., ibid., which are incorporated herein by reference. Production of reco binant EPO has been described in Lin et al. , EP 014805; Fritsch et al. , EP 0411678; Fritsch et al., EP 0205564; Hegwick et al., EP 0209539; Lin et al., WO 85/02610; U.S. Patent No. 4,677,195 and U.S. Patent No. 4,703,008. Production of recombinant TPO has been described in Lok et al. Nature 369:565-568. 1994; Bartley et al., Cell 72:1117-1124, 1994 and Sauvage et al., Nature 369:533-538. 1994.

In general, a DNA sequence encoding a cytokine is operably linked to a transcription promoter and terminator within an expression vector. The vector will commonly contain one or more selectable markers and one or more origins of replication, although those skilled in the art will recognize that within certain systems selectable markers may be provided on separate vectors, and replication of the exogenous DNA may be provided by integration into the host cell genome. Selection of promoters, terminators, selectable markers, vectors and other elements is a matter of routine design within the level of ordinary skill in the art. Many such elements are described in the literature and are available through commercial suppliers. To direct a protein into the secretory pathway of the host cells, a secretory signal sequence (also known as a leader sequence, prepro sequence or pre sequence) is provided in the expression vector. The secretory signal sequence is joined to the DNA sequence encoding a protein of interest in the correct reading frame. Secretory signal sequences are commonly positioned 5' to the DNA sequence encoding the protein of interest, although certain signal sequences may be positioned elsewhere in the DNA sequence of interest (see, e.g., Welch et al., U.S. Patent No. 5,037,743; Holland et al. , U.S. Patent No. 5,143,830). The secretory signal sequence may be that normally associated with a protein of interest, or may be from a gene encoding another secreted protein.

Yeast cells, particularly cells of the genus Saccharo yces , are a preferred host for producing cytokines for use within the present invention. Methods for transforming yeast cells with exogenous DNA and producing recombinant proteins therefrom are disclosed by, for example, Kawasaki, U.S. Patent No. 4,599,311; Kawasaki et al., U.S. Patent No. 4,931,373; Brake, U.S. Patent No. 4,870,008; Welch et al., U.S. Patent No. 5,037,743; and Murray et al., U.S. Patent No. 4,845,075, which are incorporated herein by reference. Transformed cells are selected by phenotype determined by the selectable marker, commonly drug resistance or the ability to grow in the absence of a particular nutrient (e.g. leucine) . A preferred vector system for use in yeast is the POT1 vector system disclosed by Kawasaki et al. (U.S. Patent No. 4,931,373), which allows transformed cells to be selected by growth in glucose-containing media. A preferred secretory signal sequence for use in yeast is that of the S. cerevisiae MFctl gene (Brake, ibid.; Kurjan et al., U.S. Patent No. 4,546,082). Suitable promoters and terminators for use in yeast include those from glycolytic enzyme genes (see, e.g., Kawasaki, U.S. Patent No. 4,599,311; Kings an et al., U.S. Patent No. 4,615,974; and Bitter, U.S. Patent No. 4,977,092, which are incorporated herein by reference) and alcohol dehydrogenase genes. See also U.S. Patents Nos. 4,990,446; 5,063,154; 5,139,936 and 4,661,454, which are incorporated herein by reference. Transformation systems for other yeasts, including Hansenula polymorpha , Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Kluyveromyces lactis,

Kluyveromyces fragilis, Ustilago maydis, Pichia pastoris, Pichia guillermondii and Candida mal tosa are known in the art. See, for example, Gleeson et al., J. Gen. Microbiol. JL3_2:3459-3465, 1986 and Cregg, U.S. Patent No. 4,882,279.

Other fungal cells are also suitable as host cells. For example, Aspergill us cells may be utilized according to the methods of McKnight et al., U.S. Patent No. 4,935,349, which is incorporated herein by reference. Methods for transforming Acremoni um chrysogenum are disclosed by Sumino et al., U.S. Patent No. 5,162,228, which is incorporated herein by reference. Methods for transforming Neurospora are disclosed by Lambowitz, U.S. Patent No. 4,486,533, which is incorporated herein by reference.

Cultured mammalian cells are also preferred hosts. Methods for introducing exogenous DNA into mammalian host cells include calcium phosphate-mediated transfection (Wigler et al., Cell 14:725, 1978; Corsaro and Pearson, Somatic Cell Genetics 2:603, 1981: Graham and Van der Eb, Virology 5_2.:456, 1973), electroporation (Neumann et al., EMBO J. 1:841-845, 1982) and DEAE-dextran mediated transfection (Ausubel et al., eds., Current Protocols in Molecular Biology. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., NY, 1987) , which are incorporated herein by reference. The production of recombinant proteins in cultured mammalian cells is disclosed, for example, by Levinson et al., U.S. Patent No. 4,713,339; Hagen et al., U.S. Patent No. 4,784,950; Palmiter et al., U.S. Patent No. 4,579,821; and Ringold, U.S. Patent No. 4,656,134, which are incorporated herein by reference. Preferred cultured mammalian cells include the COS-l (ATCC No. CRL 1650) , COS-7 (ATCC No. CRL 1651), BHK (ATCC No. CRL 1632), BHK 570 (ATCC NO. CRL 10314), 293 (ATCC No. CRL 1573; Graham et al., J. Gen. Virol. J3 :59-72, 1977) and Chinese hamster ovary (e.g. CHO-K1; ATCC No. CCL 61) cell lines. Additional suitable cell lines are known in the art and available from public depositories such as the American Type Culture Collection, Rockville, Maryland. In general, strong transcription promoters are preferred, such as promoters from SV-40 or cytomegalovirus. See, e.g., U.S. Patent No. 4,956,288. Other suitable promoters include those from metallothionein genes (U.S. Patent Nos. 4,579,821 and 4,601,978, which are incorporated herein by reference) and the adenovirus major late promoter.

Drug selection is generally used to select for cultured mammalian cells into which foreign DNA has been inserted. Such cells are commonly referred to as "transfectants". Cells that have been cultured in the presence of the selective agent and are able to pass the gene of interest to their progeny are referred to as "stable transfectants." A preferred selectable marker is a gene encoding resistance to the antibiotic neomycin. Selection is carried out in the presence of a neomycin- type drug, such as G-418 or the like. Selection systems may also be used to increase the expression level of the gene of interest, a process referred to as "amplification." Amplification is carried out by culturing transfectants in the presence of a low level of the selective agent and then increasing the amount of selective agent to select for cells that produce high levels of the products of the introduced genes. A preferred amplifiable selectable marker is dihydrofolate reductase, which confers resistance to methotrexate. Other drug resistance genes (e.g. hygromycin resistance, multi-drug resistance, puromycin acetyltransferase) can also be used.

Other higher eukaryotic cells can also be used as hosts, including insect cells, plant cells and avian cells. Transformation of insect cells and production of foreign proteins therein is disclosed by Guarino et al., U.S. Patent No. 5,162,222; Bang et al. , U.S. Patent No. 4,775,624; and WIPO publication WO 94/06463, which are incorporated herein by reference. The use of Agrobacterium rhizogenes as a vector for expressing genes in plant cells has been reviewed by Sinkar et al., J. Biosci. (Bangalore) 11:47-58, 1987.

Preferred prokaryotic host cells are strains of the bacteria Escherichia coli , although Bacill us and other genera are also useful. Techniques for transforming these hosts and expressing foreign DNA sequences cloned therein are well known in the art (see, e.g., Sambrook et al., ibid.). When expressing the proteins in bacteria such as E. coli , the protein may be retained in the cytoplasm, typically as insoluble granules, or may be directed to the periplasmic space by a bacterial secretion sequence. In the former case, the cells are lysed, and the granules are recovered and denatured using, for example, guanidine isothiocyanate. The denatured protein is then refolded by diluting the denaturant. In the latter case, the protein can be recovered from the periplasmic space in a soluble and functional form by disrupting the cells (by, for example, sonication or osmotic shock) to release the contents of the periplasmic space and recovering the protein.

Transformed or transfected host cells are cultured according to conventional procedures in a culture medium containing nutrients and other components required for the growth of the chosen host cells. A variety of suitable media, including defined media and complex media, are known in the art and generally include a carbon source, a nitrogen source, essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals. Media may also contain such components as growth factors or serum, as required. The growth medium will generally select for cells containing the exogenously added DNA by, for example, drug selection or deficiency in an essential nutrient which is complemented by the selectable marker carried on the expression vector or co- transfected into the host cell.

Transgenic animal technology may be employed to produce TPO and EPO for use in the present invention. It is preferred to produce the proteins within the mammary glands of a host female mammal. Expression in the mammary gland and subsequent secretion of the protein of interest into the milk overcomes many difficulties encountered in isolating proteins from other sources. Milk is readily collected, available in large quantities, and well characterized biochemically. Furthermore, the major milk proteins are present in milk at high concentrations (from about 1 to 15 g/1) .

From a commercial point of view, it is clearly preferable to use as the host a species that has a large milk yield. While smaller animals such as mice and rats can be used (and are preferred at the proof-of-concept stage) , it is preferred to use livestock mammals including, but not limited to, pigs, goats, sheep and cattle. Sheep are particularly preferred due to such factors as the previous history of transgenesis in this species, milk yield, cost and the ready availability of equipment for collecting sheep milk. See WIPO Publication WO 88/00239 for a comparison of factors influencing the choice of host species. It is generally desirable to select a breed of host animal that has been bred for dairy use, such as East Friesland sheep, or to introduce dairy stock by breeding of the transgenic line at a later date. In any event, animals of known, good health status should be used. To obtain expression in the mammary gland, a transcription promoter from a milk protein gene is used. Milk protein genes include those genes encoding caseins (see U.S. Patent No. 5,304,489, incorporated herein by reference) , beta-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, and whey acidic protein. The beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) promoter is preferred. In the case of the ovine beta-lactoglobulin gene, a region of at least the proximal 406 bp of 5' flanking sequence of the gene will generally be used, although larger portions of the 5' flanking sequence, up to about 5 kbp, are preferred, such as a -4.25 kbp DNA segment encompassing the 5• flanking promoter and non- coding portion of the beta-lactoglobulin gene. See Whitelaw et al., Bioche J. 286: 31-39, 1992. Similar fragments of promoter DNA from other species are also suitable.

Other regions of the beta-lactoglobulin gene may also be incorporated in constructs, as may genomic regions of the gene to be expressed. It is generally accepted in the art that constructs lacking introns, for example, express poorly in comparison with those that contain such DNA sequences (see Brinster et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85: 836-840, 1988; Palmiter et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88: 478-482, 1991; Whitelaw et al., Transgenic Res. 1: 3-13, 1991; WO 89/01343; WO 91/02318). In this regard, it is generally preferred, where possible, to use genomic sequences containing all or some of the native introns of a gene encoding the protein or polypeptide of interest, thus the further inclusion of at least some introns from, e.g, the beta-lactoglobulin gene, is preferred. One such region is a DNA segment which provides for intron splicing and RNA polyadenylation from the 3• non-coding region of the ovine beta-lactoglobulin gene. When substituted for the natural 31 non-coding sequences of a gene, this ovine beta-lactoglobulin segment can both enhance and stabilize expression levels of the protein or polypeptide of interest. Within other embodiments, the region surrounding the initiation ATG of the cytokine sequence is replaced with corresponding sequences from a milk specific protein gene. Such replacement provides a putative tissue-specific initiation environment to enhance expression. It is convenient to replace the entire cytokine pre-pro and 5' non-coding sequences with those of, for example, the BLG gene, although smaller regions may be replaced.

For expression of cytokines in transgenic animals, a DNA segment encoding the cytokine is operably linked to additional DNA segments required for its expression to produce expression units. Such additional segments include the above-mentioned promoter, as well as sequences which provide for termination of transcription and polyadenylation of mRNA. The expression units will further include a DNA segment encoding a secretory signal sequence operably linked to the segment encoding the cytokine. The secretory signal sequence may be a native cytokine secretory signal sequence or may be that of another protein, such as a milk protein. See, for example, von Heinje, Nuc. Acids Res. 14: 4683-4690, 1986; and Meade et al., U.S. Patent No. 4,873,316, which are incorporated herein by reference.

Construction of expression units for use in transgenic animals is conveniently carried out by inserting a cytokine-encoding sequence into a plasmid or phage vector containing the additional DNA segments, although the expression unit may be constructed by essentially any sequence of ligations. It is particularly convenient to provide a vector containing a DNA segment encoding a milk protein and to replace the coding sequence for the milk protein with that of the cytokine of interest, thereby creating a gene fusion that includes the expression control sequences of the milk protein gene. In any event, cloning of the expression units in plasmids or other vectors facilitates the amplification of the cytokine sequence. Amplification is conveniently carried out in bacterial (e.g. E. coli ) host cells, thus the vectors will typically include an origin of replication and a selectable marker functional in bacterial host cells.

The expression unit is then introduced into fertilized eggs (including early-stage embryos) of the chosen host species. Introduction of heterologous DNA can be accomplished by one of several routes, including microinjection (e.g. U.S. Patent No. 4,873,191), retroviral infection (Jaenisch, Science 240: 1468-1474, 1988) or site-directed integration using embryonic stem (ES) cells (reviewed by Bradley et al.. Bio/Technology 10: 534-539, 1992). The eggs are then implanted into the oviducts or uteri of pseudopregnant females and allowed to develop to term. Offspring carrying the introduced DNA in their germ line can pass the DNA on to their progeny in the normal, Mendelian fashion, allowing the development of transgenic herds. General procedures for producing transgenic animals are known in the art. See, for example, Hogan et al., Manipulating the Mouse Embryo: A Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1986; Simons et al. , Bio/Technology .6: 179-183, 1988; Wall et al., Biol. Reprod. 32: 645-651, 1985; Buhler et al. , Bio/Techno1ogy 8.: 140-143, 1990; Ebert et al. , Bio/Technology 9_: 835-838, 1991; Krimpenfort et al., Bio/Technology 9_: 844-847, 1991; Wall et al., J. Cell. Biochem. 49: 113-120, 1992; U.S. Patents Nos. 4,873,191 and 4,873,316; WIPO publications WO 88/00239, WO 90/05188, WO 92/11757; and GB 87/00458, which are incorporated herein by reference. Techniques for introducing foreign DNA sequences into mammals and their germ cells were originally developed in the mouse. See, e.g., Gordon et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77: 7380- 7384, 1980; Gordon and Ruddle, Science 214: 1244-1246, 1981; Palmiter and Brinster, Cell 41: 343-345, 1985; Brinster et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82: 4438-4442, 1985; and Hogan et al. (ibid.). These techniques were subsequently adapted for use with larger animals, including livestock species (see e.g., WIPO publications WO 88/00239, WO 90/05188, and WO 92/11757; and Simons et al.. Bio/Technology <5: 179-183, 1988). To summarize, in the most efficient route used to date in the generation of transgenic mice or livestock, several hundred linear molecules of the DNA of interest are injected into one of the pro-nuclei of a fertilized egg according to techniques which have become standard in the art. Injection of DNA into the cytoplasm of a zygote can also be employed.

Production in transgenic plants may also be employed. Expression may be generalized or directed to a particular organ, such as a tuber. See, Hiatt, Nature 344:469-479, 1990; Edelbaum et al., J. Interferon Res. 12:449-453, 1992; Sijmons et al., Bio/Technology 8.:217- 221, 1990; and European Patent Office Publication EP 255,378. TPO and EPO are purified using methods generally known in the art, such as affinity purification and separations based on size, charge, solubility and other properties of the protein. When the protein is produced in cultured mammalian cells, it is preferred to culture the cells in a serum-free culture medium in order to limit the amount of contaminating protein. The medium is harvested and fractionated. Preferred methods of fractionation include affinity chromatography on concanavalin A or other lectin, thereby making use of the carbohydrate present on the protein. TPO can also be purified using an immobilized MPL receptor protein or ligand-binding portion thereof or through the use of an affinity tag (e.g. polyhistidine, substance P or other polypeptide or protein for which an antibody or other specific binding agent is available) . A specific cleavage site may be provided between the protein of interest and the affinity tag. EPO has been purified from uremic patients exhibiting elevated EPO levels, see U.S. Patent Nos. 4,397,840, 4,303,650 and 3,865,801 and Miyake et al. J. Biol. Chem. 252:5558. 1977. EPO obtained from both uremic patients and recombinant methods have been purified using reverse-phase HPLC (Hewick et al. U.S. Patent No. 4,677,195) .

TPO proteins can be used therapeutically wherever it is desirable to increase proliferation of hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow, such as in the treatment of cytopenia and anemia, such as that induced by aplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, autoimmune diseases, AIDS, chemotherapy or radiation.

Compositions containing TPO will have useful application in the treatment of disorders characterized by low red blood cell production (anemia) , particularly when accompanied by low platelet production (thrombocytopenia) . Various chemotherapeutic treatments of cancers and disease states are known to result in a combination of low platelet and erythrocyte levels in patients.

Compositions of TPO have been found effective for increasing the level of circulating erythrocytes and erythrocyte precursor cells. Reduction in the circulating levels of these cells are known as anemia. The erythrocyte level in blood is measured as the amount of hemoglobin per 100 ml or as the volume of packed red blood cells per 100 ml of blood. Patients are diagnosed as anemic if their hematocrit levels fall below 11-13 gm/100 ml of blood (depending upon the age and sex of the patient) . The methods of the present invention are particularly useful for treatment of anemias associated with bone marrow failure, where a decrease in blood cell formation is associated with, for example, the toxic effects of chemotherapy.

TPO proteins have been found useful for simultaneous treatment of thrombocytopenia and anemia by increasing platelet production with a concurrent increase erythroid cell levels. Anemia and thrombocytopenia are associated with a diverse group of diseases and clinical situations that may act alone or in concert to produce the condition. Lowered platelet counts may be associated with anemia, for example, by dilutional losses due to massive transfusions, or abnormal destruction of bone marrow. For example, chemotherapeutic drugs used in cancer therapy may suppress development of platelet and erythroid progenitor cells in the bone marrow, and the resulting thrombocytopenia and anemia limit the chemotherapy and may necessitate transfusions. In addition, certain malignancies can impair platelet and erythrocyte production and distribution. Radiation therapy used to kill malignant cells also kills platelet and erythroid progenitor cells. Abnormal destruction of platelets and erythrocytes can result from hematologic disorders such as leukemia and lymphoma or metastatic cancers involving bone marrow. Other indications for the proteins of the present invention to treat concurrent anemia and thrombocytopenia include aplastic anemia and drug-induced marrow suppression resulting from, for example, chemotherapy or treatment of HIV infection with AZT.

Thrombocytopenia is manifested as increased bleeding, such as mucosal bleedings from the nasal-oral area or the gastrointestinal tract, as well as oozing from wounds, ulcers or injection sites. Symptoms of anemia include dyspnea with exertion, dizziness, fatigue, and pallor of the skin and mucous membranes. When associated with thrombocytopenia, retinal hemorrhage can be present. EPO has been used for stimulating erythrocyte production. EPO is a an acidic glycoprotein of approximately 34,000 dalton molecular weight and may occur in three forms: α, β , and asialo. The α and β forms differ slightly in carbohydrate components, but have the same potency, biological activity and molecular weight. The asialo form is an α or β form with the terminal carbohydrate (sialic acid) removed. Erythropoietin is present in very low concentrations in plasma when the body is in a healthy state and tissues are receiving sufficient oxygenation from the existing number of erythrocytes. See, for example, Lin et al., U.S. Patent 4,703,008; Lin et al., WO 85/02610; Fritsch et al. EP 0411678; Hewick et al., EP 0209539 and Hewick et al., U.S. Patent 4,677,195, which are incorporated herein by reference. In normal individuals, red blood cell production is precisely controlled to sufficiently oxygenate tissue without producing an overabundance of red blood cells and impeding circulation. A reduction in red blood cell production, resulting in tissue hypoxia, stimulates EPO expression and increases endogenous EPO found in plasma. EPO increases red blood cell production by stimulating the conversion of primitive precursor cells in the bone marrow into pro-erythroblasts which subsequently mature, synthesize hemoglobin and are released into the circulation as red blood cells.

To provide for the stimulatory effect of TPO and EPO for erythropoiesis, the present invention does not always require the administration of exogenous EPO. As stated previously, a reduction in the level of red blood cells will in some cases result in an elevation in the endogenous levels of EPO (greater than 500 mU/ml of plasma) and administration of TPO alone may be sufficient. In cases where expression of erythropoietin is not elevated, then erythropoietin is advantageoulsy administered with compositions of TPO. As a therapeutic, EPO is administered to uremic patients where the hemoglobin concentration is less than 10 gm/100 ml of blood. The route of administration can be either intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous (SC) and frequency varies from daily to weekly depending upon patient's physical condition (De Marchi et al. Clin. and Experim. Rheumatol. 11:429-444, 1993; Miller et al., N. Eng. J. of Med. 322:1689-1692. 1990; Nissenson et al., Annals of Int. Med. 114:402-416- 1991; Erslev, Sem. Oncol. 19 (8) Suppl. 8.:14-18, 1992 and PROCIT Epotin-alfa package insert, Amgen, Thousand Oaks, CA) .

For pharmaceutical use, TPO and EPO are formulated for parenteral, particularly intravenous or subcutaneous, delivery according to conventional methods. Intravenous administration will be by bolus injection or infusion over a typical period of one to several hours. In general, pharmaceutical formulations will include the hematopoietic proteins in combination with a pharmaceutically acceptable vehicle, such as saline, buffered saline, 5% dextrose in water or the like. Formulations may further include one or more excipients, preservatives, solubilizers, buffering agents, albumin to prevent protein loss on vial surfaces, etc. In addition, TPO and EPO may be combined with other cytokines, particularly early-acting cytokines such as stem cell factor, IL-3, IL-6, IL-11 or GM-CSF. When utilizing such a combination therapy, the cytokines may be combined in a single formulation or may be administered in separate formulations. Methods of formulation are well known in the art and are disclosed, for example, in Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences. Gennaro, ed. , Mack Publishing Co., Easton PA, 1990, which is incorporated herein by reference. Therapeutic doses of TPO will generally be in the range of 1 x 105 to 100 x 105 units/kg of patient weight per day, preferably 5 x 105 to 50 x 105 units/kg per day. Therapeutic doses of EPO will generally be in the range of 10-150 U/kg of patient weight per day, preferably 50-150 U/kg per day. For both TPO and EPO, the exact dose will be determined by the clinician according to accepted standards, taking into account the nature and severity of the condition to be treated, patient traits, etc. Determination of dose is within the level of ordinary skill in the art. The proteins will commonly be administered over a period of up to 28 days following chemotherapy, radiation therapy or bone-marrow transplant or until a platelet count of >20,000/mm3, preferably >50,000/mm3, a hematocrit of 30-33% and reticulocyte counts that are at least 2-fold over baseline are achieved. More commonly, the proteins will be administered over one week or more, often over a period of seven to fourteen days. In general, a therapeutically effective amount of TPO or EPO is an amount sufficient to produce a clinically significant increase in the proliferation and/or differentiation of lymphoid or myeloid progenitor cells, which will be manifested as an increase in circulating levels of mature cells (e.g. platelets or erythrocytes) . Treatment of platelet disorders will thus be continued until a platelet count of at least 20,000/mm3, preferably 50,000/mm3, is reached. Treatment of anemias will continued until hematocrit levels of 30-33% and a reticulocyte count of at least 2- fold over baseline, a level that adequate to have a significant impact upon hematocrit, are reached. As stated previously, a normal range for reticulocyte counts is 0.8% to 1.2%. TPO and EPO can also be administered in combination with other cytokines such as IL-3, -6 and -11; stem cell factor; G-CSF and GM-CSF. Within regimens of combination therapy, daily doses of other cytokines will in general be: GM-CSF, 5-15 .g/kg; IL-3, 1-5 g/kg; and G- CSF, 1-25 μg/kg. Combination therapy with GM-CSF, for example, is indicated in patients with low neutrophil levels. TPO and EPO can also be used ex vi vo, such as in autologous marrow culture. Briefly, bone marrow is removed from a patient prior to chemotherapy and treated with TPO, optionally in combination with EPO, optionally in combination with one or more additional cytokines. The treated marrow is then returned to the patient after chemotherapy to speed the recovery of the marrow. In addition, TPO, alone and in combination with EPO, can also be used for the ex vivo expansion of marrow or peripheral blood progenitor (PBPC) cells. Prior to chemotherapy treatment, marrow can be stimulated with stem cell factor (SCF) or G-CSF to release early progenitor cells into peripheral circulation. These progenitors can be collected and concentrated from peripheral blood and then treated in culture with TPO and EPO, optionally in combination with one or more other cytokines, including but not limited to SCF, G-CSF, IL-3, GM-CSF, IL-6 or IL- 11, to differentiate and proliferate into high-density megakaryocyte cultures, which can then be returned to the patient following high-dose chemotherapy. The invention is further illustrated by the following non-limiting examples.

Example I. Induction of Red Blood Cell Colony Formation

At physiological levels of EPO, the addition of TPO stimulates the production of erythroid colony forming units (CFU-E) above levels of production seen with EPO alone.

Bone marrow cells were isolated from BDFi mice

(Jackson Labs, Bar Harbor, ME) by femoral flushing. The cells (2 x 104/100 μl clot) were resuspended in medium containing α medium (Flow Laboratories, McLean, VA) supplemented with 30% fetal calf serum (Hyclone, Logan, UT) , 1% bovine serum albumin, 5 x 10~5 M J-mercaptoethanol; and 2 x 10"5 M CaCl2. One hundred-twenty U/ml recombinant mouse TPO were added to select for early erythroid progenitors (BFU-E) and late erythroid progenitor (CFU-E) colonies.

Units of TPO activity were determined using the following assay. A crude BHK/pZGmpl-1 transfectant cell line that produces mouse TPO as described in copending U.S. Patent Application No. 08/252,491, filed June 1, 1994, was grown in serum-free medium. An asymptotic mitogenic activity curve was generated using this standard solution (conditioned culture medium) and BaF3/MPLRl.l cells (IL-3-dependent cells expressing a stably transfected Type I mouse MPL receptor) . The point of 1/2 maximal activity (average of 16 curves) was assigned the value of 50 U/ml. The original standard solution was calculated to contain 26,600 U/ml mouse TPO.

For test samples, a culture supernatant or purified protein preparation was diluted in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 57 μM 2-mercaptoethanol, 2 mM L- glutamine, 1 mM sodium pyruvate, PSN, 10 mM HEPES and 10% heat inactivated fetal bovine serum, generally using 8-24 dilutions. Briefly, 100 μl of diluted test sample or standard sample and 100 μl BaF3 cells (final cell number added = about 500-10,000 cells/well) were combined in wells of a 96 well plate. Internal standards included eight 2-fold dilutions of 100 U/ml mouse TPO for mouse TPO assays, or eight 2-fold dilutions of 150 U/ml mouse TPO for human TPO assays. To each well was added 2 μl 3H- thymidine (1 μci/μl; Amersham) , and the plates were incubated overnight at 37βC.

The contents of each well of each plate were transferred to a filter/plate using a Packard apparatus. The filters were washed 8 times with water, and the filters were dried and counted. Units of TPO activity in each sample well were determined by comparison to the standard curve.

Human EPO (Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA) was added at varying concentrations in the range from 0 to 300 mUnits/ml with or without 120 units TPO. Clotting was initiated by the addition of 10% citrated bovine plasma.

The bone marrow cultures were incubated for two days at 37βC in a fully humidified atmosphere containing 5% C02. Erythroid colonies contained greater than 40 cells. After incubation, the clots were harvested, dried, stained with benzidine and erythroid colonies were counted (Broudy et al. Arch, of Bioche . and Biophys. 265:329-336, 1988). The results have been indexed to that of the maximal colony growth and represent the mean of at least three separate experiments of two to three replicate plates.

Figure 1 shows that at physiological concentrations of EPO, in the range of 0-100 mUnits/ml, the addition of 120 U/ml TPO results in a significant increase the number of erythroid progenitor cell colonies.

Example II. TPO-Induced Increase in Reticulocyte Counts

TPO-treated animals have elevated reticulocyte counts when compared to untreated animals.

Ten male BALB/c mice (Simonsen Labs, Gilroy, CA; approximately 8 weeks old) were divided into a TPO-treated group of five animals and a sham group of five animals. A 12.5 kU dose of mouse recombinant TPO was prepared in 20 mM Tris (pH 8.1), 0.9% NaCl and 0.25% rabbit serum albumin (RSA) . The sham animals were treated with buffer alone. Each animal was given a 0.2 ml intraperitoneal injection once daily with either 12.5 kU TPO or buffer for six consecutive days. On day=0, the animals were bled, and complete blood counts (CBC) , including reticulocyte counts, were determined for each animal. On day=6, the animals were bled and sacrificed, and CBCs and reticulocyte counts were measured. For the sham treated animals, the reticulocyte counts went from a baseline at d=0 of 4.5% to 8.7% at d=6, and for the TPO-treated animals, the reticulocyte counts went from a baseline at d=0 of 5.3% to 12.0% at d=6.

Example III. Increase in Erythropoiesis in TPO- and EPO-Treated Animals

TPO administered to animals that had been treated with radiation and a chemotherapeutic drug showed increased erythropoietic recovery when compared to untreated animals.

Four to six-week old, female BDFi mice (Simonsen Labs) were irradiated by exposure to 137cs using a Gammacell 40 irradiator (Nordion International Inc. , Kanata, Ontario, Canada) and treated with 1.2 mg of carboplatin (Bristol Laboratories, Princeton, NJ) injected intraperitoneally on day=0. The mice were treated either with TPO or TPO buffer only. TPO or TPO buffer was administered on day=l through day=14. The mice were divided to three groups as follows:

Group 1: 8 mice treated with 500 cGy radiation + 1.2 mg carboplatin + TPO buffer

Group 2: 8 mice treated with 500 cGy radiation + 1.2 mg carboplatin + 25 kU TPO/day for 14 days Group 3: 8 mice treated with 500 cGY radiation +

1.2 mg carboplatin + 75 kU TPO/day for 14 days

TPO was prepared in a buffer containing 20 mM Tris (pH 8.1), 0.9% NaCl and 0.25% RSA. The mice were bled and CBCs were measured on days 0 (to establish baseline) , 4, 6, 8, 10, 11 (CBC and reticulocyte counts), 13 (CBC and reticulocyte counts), 15, 18, 20, 22 and 25 (CBC and reticulocyte counts) and then sacrificed.

Figure 2 demonstrates that Group 2 and Group 3,

TPO-treated animals, had a statistically shorter period of red blood cell nadir and their red blood cell levels recovered to baseline significantly faster than animals treated with buffer only.

From the foregoing, it will be appreciated that, although specific embodiments of the invention have been described herein for purposes of illustration, various modifications may be made without deviating from the spirit and scope of the invention. Accordingly, the invention is not limited except as by the appended claims.

SEQUENCE LISTING

(1) GENERAL INFORMATION:

(i) APPLICANT: University of Washington Seattle WA 98195

(ii) TITLE OF INVENTION: Methods of Stimulating Erythropoiesis Using Hematopoietic Proteins.

(iii) NUMBER OF SEQUENCES: 6

(iv) CORRESPONDENCE ADDRESS:

(A) ADDRESSEE: Zy oGenetics, Inc.

(B) STREET: 1201 Eastla e Avenue East

(C) CITY: Seattle

(D) STATE: WA

(E) COUNTRY: USA

(F) ZIP: 98102

(v) COMPUTER READABLE FORM:

(A) MEDIUM TYPE: Floppy disk

(B) COMPUTER: IBM PC compatible

(C) OPERATING SYSTEM: PC-DOS/MS-DOS

(D) SOFTWARE: Patentln Release #1.0, Version #1.25

(vi) CURRENT APPLICATION DATA:

(A) APPLICATION NUMBER:

(B) FILING DATE:

(C) CLASSIFICATION:

(viii) ATTORNEY/AGENT INFORMATION:

(A) NAME: Parker, Gary E

(B) REGISTRATION NUMBER: 31-648

(C) REFERENCE/DOCKET NUMBER: 94-09PC

(ix) TELECOMMUNICATION INFORMATION:

(A) TELEPHONE: 206-442-6673

(B) TELEFAX: '206-442-6678 (2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID N0:1:

(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:

(A) LENGTH: 1062 base pairs

(B) TYPE: nucleic acid

(C) STRANDEDNESS: double

(D) TOPOLOGY: linear

(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: cDNA

(ix) FEATURE:

(A) NAME/KEY: CDS

(B) LOCATION: 1..1059

(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID N0:1:

ATG GAG CTG ACT GAA TTG CTC CTC GTG GTC ATG CTT CTC CTA ACT GCA 48 Met Glu Leu Thr Glu Leu Leu Leu Val Val Met Leu Leu Leu Thr Ala 1 5 10 15

AGG CTA ACG CTG TCC AGC CCG GCT CCT CCT GCT TGT GAC CTC CGA GTC 96 Arg Leu Thr Leu Ser Ser Pro Ala Pro Pro Ala Cys Asp Leu Arg Val 20 25 30

CTC AGT AAA CTG CTT CGT GAC TCC CAT GTC CTT CAC AGC AGA CTG AGC 144 Leu Ser Lys Leu Leu Arg Asp Ser His Val Leu His Ser Arg Leu Ser 35 40 45

CAG TGC CCA GAG GTT CAC CCT TTG CCT ACA CCT GTC CTG CTG CCT GCT 192 Gin Cys Pro Glu Val His Pro Leu Pro Thr Pro Val Leu Leu Pro Ala 50 55 60

GTG GAC TTT AGC TTG GGA GAA TGG AAA ACC CAG ATG GAG GAG ACC AAG 240 Val Asp Phe Ser Leu Gly Glu Trp Lys Thr Gin Met Glu Glu Thr Lys 65 70 75 80

GCA CAG GAC ATT CTG GGA GCA GTG ACC CTT CTG CTG GAG GGA GTG ATG 288 Ala Gin Asp He Leu Gly Ala Val Thr Leu Leu Leu Glu Gly Val Met 85 90 95

GCA GCA CGG GGA CAA CTG GGA CCC ACT TGC CTC TCA TCC CTC CTG GGG 336 Ala Ala Arg Gly Gin Leu Gly Pro Thr Cys Leu Ser Ser Leu Leu Gly 100 105 110 CAG CTT TCT GGA CAG GTC CGT CTC CTC CTT GGG GCC CTG CAG AGC CTC 384 Gin Leu Ser Gly Gin Val Arg Leu Leu Leu Gly Ala Leu Gin Ser Leu 115 120 125

CTT GGA ACC CAG CTT CCT CCA CAG GGC AGG ACC ACA GCT CAC AAG GAT 432 Leu Gly Thr Gin Leu Pro Pro Gin Gly Arg Thr Thr Ala His Lys Asp 130 135 140

CCC AAT GCC ATC TTC CTG AGC TTC CAA CAC CTG CTC CGA GGA AAG GTG 480 Pro Asn Ala He Phe Leu Ser Phe Gin His Leu Leύ Arg Gly Lys Val 145 150 155 160

CGT TTC CTG ATG CTT GTA GGA GGG TCC ACC CTC TGC GTC AGG CGG GCC 528 Arg Phe Leu Met Leu Val Gly Gly Ser Thr Leu Cys Val Arg Arg Ala 165 170 175

CCA CCC ACC ACA GCT GTC CCC AGC AGA ACC TCT CTA GTC CTC ACA CTG 576 Pro Pro Thr Thr Ala Val Pro Ser Arg Thr Ser Leu Val Leu Thr Leu 180 185 190

AAC GAG CTC CCA AAC AGG ACT TCT GGA TTG TTG GAG ACA AAC TTC ACT 624 Asn Glu Leu Pro Asn Arg Thr Ser Gly Leu Leu Glu Thr Asn Phe Thr 195 200 205

GCC TCA GCC AGA ACT ACT GGC TCT GGG CTT CTG AAG TGG CAG CAG GGA 672 Ala Ser Ala Arg Thr Thr Gly Ser Gly Leu Leu Lys Trp Gin Gin Gly 210 215 220

TTC AGA GCC AAG ATT CCT GGT CTG CTG AAC CAA ACC TCC AGG TCC CTG 720 Phe Arg Ala Lys He Pro Gly Leu Leu Asn Gin Thr Ser Arg Ser Leu 225 230 235 240

GAC CAA ATC CCC GGA TAC CTG AAC AGG ATA CAC GAA CTC TTG AAT GGA 768 Asp Gin He Pro Gly Tyr Leu Asn Arg He His Glu Leu Leu Asn Gly 245 250 255

ACT CGT GGA CTC TTT CCT GGA CCC TCA CGC AGG ACC CTA GGA GCC CCG 816 Thr Arg Gly Leu Phe Pro Gly Pro Ser Arg Arg Thr Leu Gly Ala Pro 260 265 270

GAC ATT TCC TCA GGA ACA TCA GAC ACA GGC TCC CTG CCA CCC AAC CTC 864 Asp He Ser Ser Gly Thr Ser Asp Thr Gly Ser Leu Pro Pro Asn Leu 275 280 285 CAG CCT GGA TAT TCT CCT TCC CCA ACC CAT CCT CCT ACT GGA CAG TAT 912 Gin Pro Gly Tyr Ser Pro Ser Pro Thr His Pro Pro Thr Gly Gin Tyr 290 295 300

ACG CTC TTC CCT CTT CCA CCC ACC TTG CCC ACC CCT GTG GTC CAG CTC 960 Thr Leu Phe Pro Leu Pro Pro Thr Leu Pro Thr Pro Val Val Gin Leu 305 310 315 320

CAC CCC CTG CTT CCT GAC CCT TCT GCT CCA ACG CCC ACC CCT ACC AGC 1008 His Pro Leu Leu Pro Asp Pro Ser Ala Pro Thr Pro Thr Pro Thr Ser 325 330 335

CCT CTT CTA AAC ACA TCC TAC ACC CAC TCC CAG AAT CTG TCT CAG GAA 1056 Pro Leu Leu Asn Thr Ser Tyr Thr His Ser Gin Asn Leu Ser Gin Glu 340 345 350

GGG TAA 1062 Gly

(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID N0:2:

(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:

(A) LENGTH: 353 amino acids

(B) TYPE: amino acid (D) TOPOLOGY: linear

(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: protein

(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID N0:2:

Met Glu Leu Thr Glu Leu Leu Leu Val Val Met Leu Leu Leu Thr Ala 1 5 10 15

Arg Leu Thr Leu Ser Ser Pro Ala Pro Pro Ala Cys Asp Leu Arg Val 20 25 30

Leu Ser Lys Leu Leu Arg Asp Ser His Val Leu His Ser Arg Leu Ser 35 40 45

Gin Cys Pro Glu Val His Pro Leu Pro Thr Pro Val Leu Leu Pro Ala 50 55 60 Val Asp Phe Ser Leu Gly Glu Trp Lys Thr Gin Met Glu Glu Thr Lys 65 70 75 80

Ala Gin Asp He Leu Gly Ala Val Thr Leu Leu Leu Glu Gly Val Met 85 90 95

Ala Ala Arg Gly Gin Leu Gly Pro Thr Cys Leu Ser Ser Leu Leu Gly 100 105 110

Gin Leu Ser Gly Gin Val Arg Leu Leu Leu Gly Ala Leu Gin Ser Leu 115 120 125

Leu Gly Thr Gin Leu Pro Pro Gin Gly Arg Thr Thr Ala His Lys Asp 130 135 140

Pro Asn Ala He Phe Leu Ser Phe Gin His Leu Leu Arg Gly Lys Val 145 150 155 160

Arg Phe Leu Met Leu Val Gly Gly Ser Thr Leu Cys Val Arg Arg Ala 165 170 175

Pro Pro Thr Thr Ala Val Pro Ser Arg Thr Ser Leu Val Leu Thr Leu 180 185 190

Asn Glu Leu Pro Asn Arg Thr Ser Gly Leu Leu Glu Thr Asn Phe Thr 195 200 205

Ala Ser Ala Arg Thr Thr Gly Ser Gly Leu Leu Lys Trp Gin Gin Gly 210 215 220

Phe Arg Ala Lys He Pro Gly Leu Leu Asn Gin Thr Ser Arg Ser Leu 225 230 235 240

Asp Gin He Pro Gly Tyr Leu Asn Arg He His Glu Leu Leu Asn Gly 245 250 255

Thr Arg Gly Leu Phe Pro Gly Pro Ser Arg Arg Thr Leu Gly Ala Pro 260 265 270

Asp He Ser Ser Gly Thr Ser Asp Thr Gly Ser Leu Pro Pro Asn Leu 275 280 285

Gin Pro Gly Tyr Ser Pro Ser Pro Thr His Pro Pro Thr Gly Gin Tyr 290 295 300 Thr Leu Phe Pro Leu Pro Pro Thr Leu Pro Thr Pro Val Val Gin Leu 305 310 315 320

His Pro Leu Leu Pro Asp Pro Ser Ala Pro Thr Pro Thr Pro Thr Ser 325 330 335

Pro Leu Leu Asn Thr Ser Tyr Thr His Ser Gin Asn Leu Ser Gin Glu 340 345 350

Gly

(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:3:

(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:

(A) LENGTH: 1486 base pairs

(B) TYPE: nucleic acid

(C) STRANDEDNESS: double

(D) TOPOLOGY: linear

(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: cDNA

(vii) IMMEDIATE SOURCE: (B) CLONE: 1081

(ix) FEATURE:

(A) NAME/KEY: CDS

(B) LOCATION: 105..1241

(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID N0:3:

CCTCGTGCCG GTCCTGAGGC CCTTCTCCAC CCGGACAGAG TCCTTGGCCC ACCTCTCTCC 60

CACCCGACTC TGCCGAAAGA AGCACAGAAG CTCAAGCCGC CTCC ATG GCC CCA GGA 116

Met Ala Pro Gly 1

AAG ATT CAG GGG AGA GGC CCC ATA CAG GGA GCC ACT TCA GTT AGA CAC 164 Lys He Gin Gly Arg Gly Pro He Gin Gly Ala Thr Ser Val Arg His 5 10 15 20 CTG GCC AGA ATG GAG CTG ACT GAT TTG CTC CTG GCG GCC ATG CTT CTT 212 Leu Ala Arg Met Glu Leu Thr Asp Leu Leu Leu Ala Ala Met Leu Leu 25 30 35

GCA GTG GCA AGA CTA ACT CTG TCC AGC CCC GTA GCT CCT GCC TGT GAC 260 Ala Val Ala Arg Leu Thr Leu Ser Ser Pro Val Ala Pro Ala Cys Asp 40 45 50

CCC AGA CTC CTA AAT AAA CTG CTG CGT GAC TCC CAC CTC CTT CAC AGC 308 Pro Arg Leu Leu Asn Lys Leu Leu Arg Asp Ser His Leu Leu His Ser 55 60 65

CGA CTG AGT CAG TGT CCC GAC GTC GAC CCT TTG TCT ATC CCT GTT CTG 356 Arg Leu Ser Gin Cys Pro Asp Val Asp Pro Leu Ser He Pro Val Leu 70 75 80

CTG CCT GCT GTG GAC TTT AGC CTG GGA GAA TGG AAA ACC CAG ACG GAA 404

Leu Pro Ala Val Asp Phe Ser Leu Gly Glu Trp Lys Thr Gin Thr Glu

85 90 95 100

CAG AGC AAG GCA CAG GAC ATT CTA GGG GCA GTG TCC CTT CTA CTG GAG 452 Gin Ser Lys Ala Gin Asp He Leu Gly Ala Val Ser Leu Leu Leu Glu 105 110 115

GGA GTG ATG GCA GCA CGA GGA CAG TTG GAA CCC TCC TGC CTC TCA TCC 500 Gly Val Met Ala Ala Arg Gly Gin Leu Glu Pro Ser Cys Leu Ser Ser 120 125 130

CTC CTG GGA CAG CTT TCT GGG CAG GTT CGC CTC CTC TTG GGG GCC CTG 548 Leu Leu Gly Gin Leu Ser Gly Gin Val Arg Leu Leu Leu Gly Ala Leu 135 140 145

CAG GGC CTC CTA GGA ACC CAG CTT CCT CTA CAG GGC AGG ACC ACA GCT 596 Gin Gly Leu Leu Gly Thr Gin Leu Pro Leu Gin Gly Arg Thr Thr Ala 150 155 160

CAC AAG GAC CCC AAT GCC CTC TTC TTG AGC TTG CAA CAA CTG CTT CGG 644 His Lys Asp Pro Asn Ala Leu Phe Leu Ser Leu Gin Gin Leu Leu Arg 165 170 175 180

GGA AAG GTG CGC TTC CTG CTT CTG GTA GAA GGT CCC ACC CTC TGT GTC 692 Gly Lys Val Arg Phe Leu Leu Leu Val Glu Gly Pro Thr Leu Cys Val 185 190 195 AGA CGG ACC CTG CCA ACC ACA GCT GTC CCA AGC AGT ACT TCT CAA CTC 740 Arg Arg Thr Leu Pro Thr Thr Ala Val Pro Ser Ser Thr Ser Gin Leu 200 205 210

CTC ACA CTA AAC AAG TTC CCA AAC AGG ACT TCT GGA TTG TTG GAG ACG 788 Leu Thr Leu Asn Lys Phe Pro Asn Arg Thr Ser Gly Leu Leu Glu Thr 215 220 225

AAC TTC AGT GTC ACA GCC AGA ACT GCT GGC CCT GGA CTT CTG AGC AGG 836 Asn Phe Ser Val Thr Ala Arg Thr Ala Gly Pro Gly Leu Leu Ser Arg 230 235 240

CTT CAG GGA TTC AGA GTC AAG ATT ACT CCT GGT CAG CTA AAT CAA ACC 884 Leu Gin Gly Phe Arg Val Lys He Thr Pro Gly Gin Leu Asn Gin Thr 245 250 255 260

TCC AGG TCC CCA GTC CAA ATC TCT GGA TAC CTG AAC AGG ACA CAC GGA 932 Ser Arg Ser Pro Val Gin He Ser Gly Tyr Leu Asn Arg Thr His Gly 265 270 275

CCT GTG AAT GGA ACT CAT GGG CTC TTT GCT GGA ACC TCA CTT CAG ACC 980 Pro Val Asn Gly Thr His Gly Leu Phe Ala Gly Thr Ser Leu Gin Thr 280 285 290

CTG GAA GCC TCA GAC ATC TCG CCC GGA GCT TTC AAC AAA GGC TCC CTG 1028 Leu Glu Ala Ser Asp He Ser Pro Gly Ala Phe Asn Lys Gly Ser Leu 295 300 305

GCA TTC AAC CTC CAG GGT GGA CTT CCT CCT TCT CCA AGC CTT GCT CCT 1076 Ala Phe Asn Leu Gin Gly Gly Leu Pro Pro Ser Pro Ser Leu Ala Pro 310 315 320

GAT GGA CAC ACA CCC TTC CCT CCT TCA CCT GCC TTG CCC ACC ACC CAT 1124 Asp Gly His Thr Pro Phe Pro Pro Ser Pro Ala Leu Pro Thr Thr His 325 330 335 340

GGA TCT CCA CCC CAG CTC CAC CCC CTG TTT CCT GAC CCT TCC ACC ACC 1172 Gly Ser Pro Pro Gin Leu His Pro Leu Phe Pro Asp Pro Ser Thr Thr 345 350 355

ATG CCT AAC TCT ACC GCC CCT CAT CCA GTC ACA ATG TAC CCT CAT CCC 1220 Met Pro Asn Ser Thr Ala Pro His Pro Val Thr Met Tyr Pro His Pro 360 365 370 AGG AAT TTG TCT CAG GAA ACA TAGCGCGGGC ACTGGCCCAG TGAGCGTCTG 1271 Arg Asn Leu Ser Gin Glu Thr 375

CAGCTTCTCT CGGGGACAAG CTTCCCCAGG AAGGCTGAGA GGCAGCTGCA TCTGCTCCAG 1331

ATGTTCTGCT TTCACCTAAA AGGCCCTGGG GAAGGGATAC ACAGCACTGG AGATTGTAAA 1391

ATTTTAGGAG CTATTTTTTT TTAACCTATC AGCAATATTC ATCAGAGCAG CTAGCGATCT 1451

TTGGTCTATT TTCGGTATAA ATTTGAAAAT CACTA 1486

(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:4:

(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:

(A) LENGTH: 379 amino acids

(B) TYPE: amino acid (D) TOPOLOGY: linear

(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: protein

(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:4:

Met Ala Pro Gly Lys He Gin Gly Arg Gly Pro He Gin Gly Ala Thr 1 5 10 15

Ser Val Arg His Leu Ala Arg Met Glu Leu Thr Asp Leu Leu Leu Ala 20 25 30

Ala Met Leu Leu Ala Val Ala Arg Leu Thr Leu Ser Ser Pro Val Ala 35 40 45

Pro Ala Cys Asp Pro Arg Leu Leu Asn Lys Leu Leu Arg Asp Ser His 50 55 60

Leu Leu His Ser Arg Leu Ser Gin Cys Pro Asp Val Asp Pro Leu Ser 65 70 75 80

He Pro Val Leu Leu Pro Ala Val Asp Phe Ser Leu Gly Glu Trp Lys 85 90 95

Thr Gin Thr Glu Gin Ser Lys Ala Gin Asp He Leu Gly Ala Val Ser 100 105 110 Leu Leu Leu Glu Gly Val Met Ala Ala Arg Gly Gin Leu Glu Pro Ser 115 120 125

Cys Leu Ser Ser Leu Leu Gly Gin Leu Ser Gly Gin Val Arg Leu Leu 130 135 140

Leu Gly Ala Leu Gin Gly Leu Leu Gly Thr Gin Leu Pro Leu Gin Gly 145 150 155 160

Arg Thr Thr Ala His Lys Asp Pro Asn Ala Leu Phe Leu Ser Leu Gin 165 170 175

Gin Leu Leu Arg Gly Lys Val Arg Phe Leu Leu Leu Val Glu Gly Pro 180 185 190

Thr Leu Cys Val Arg Arg Thr Leu Pro Thr Thr Ala Val Pro Ser Ser 195 200 205

Thr Ser Gin Leu Leu Thr Leu Asn Lys Phe Pro Asn Arg Thr Ser Gly 210 215 220

Leu Leu Glu Thr Asn Phe Ser Val Thr Ala Arg Thr Ala Gly Pro Gly 225 230 235 240

Leu Leu Ser Arg Leu Gin Gly Phe Arg Val Lys He Thr Pro Gly Gin 245 250 255

Leu Asn Gin Thr Ser Arg Ser Pro Val Gin He Ser Gly Tyr Leu Asn 260 265 270

Arg Thr His Gly Pro Val Asn Gly Thr His Gly Leu Phe Ala Gly Thr 275 280 285

Ser Leu Gin Thr Leu Glu Ala Ser Asp He Ser Pro Gly Ala Phe Asn 290 295 300

Lys Gly Ser Leu Ala Phe Asn Leu Gin Gly Gly Leu Pro Pro Ser Pro 305 310 315 320

Ser Leu Ala Pro Asp Gly His Thr Pro Phe Pro Pro Ser Pro Ala Leu 325 330 335

Pro Thr Thr His Gly Ser Pro Pro Gin Leu His Pro Leu Phe Pro Asp 340 345 350 Pro Ser Thr Thr Met Pro Asn Ser Thr Ala Pro His Pro Val Thr Met 355 360 365

Tyr Pro His Pro Arg Asn Leu Ser Gin Glu Thr 370 375

(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID N0:5:

(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:

(A) LENGTH: 4823 base pairs

(B) TYPE: nucleic acid

(C) STRANDEDNESS: double

(D) TOPOLOGY: linear

(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: DNA (genomic)

(ix) FEATURE:

(A) NAME/KEY: CDS

(B) LOCATION: join(632..644, 876..1003, 1290..1376, 3309..3476,

3713..4375)

(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID NO:5:

CTTTCTTGCT TTCTTTCTTT CTTTCTTTCT TTCTTTTTTT TTTTTGAGAC GGAGTTTCAC 60

TCTTATTGCC CAGGCTGGAG TGCAATGGTG CGATCTCGGC TCACCACAAC CTCCGCCTCC 120

CAGGTACAAG CGATTCTCCT GTCTCAGCCT CCCAAGTAGC TTGGATTACA GGCATGAACC 180

ACCACACCCT GCTAGTTTTT TTGTATTTCG TAGAGCCGGG GTTTCACCAT GTTAGTGAGG 240

CTGGTGGCGA ACTCCTGACC TCAGGTGATC CACCCGCCTT GGACTCCCAA AGTGCTGGGA 300

TTACAGGCAT GAGCCACTGC ACCCGGCACA CCATATGCTT TCATCACAAG AAAATGTGAG 360

AGAATTCAGG GCTTTGGCAG TTCCAGGCTG GTCAGCATCT CAAGCCCTCC CCAGCATCTG 420

TTCACCCTGC CAGGCAGTCT CTTCCTAGAA ACTTGGTTAA ATGTTCACTC TTCTTGCTAC 480

TTTCAGGATA GATTCTTCAC CCTTGGTCCG CCTTTGCCCC ACCCTACTCT GCCCAGAAGT 540

GCAAGAGCCT AAGCCGCCTC CATGGCCCCA GGAAGGATTC AGGGGAGAGG CCCCAAACAG 600 GGAGCCACGC CAGCCAGACA CCCCGGCCAG A ATG GAG CTG ACT G GTGAGAACAC 654

Met Glu Leu Thr 1

ACCTGAGGGG CTAGGGCCAT ATGGAAACAT GACAGAAGGG GAGAGAGAAA GGAGACACGC 714

TGCAGGGGGC AGGAAGCTGG GGGAACCCAT TCTCCCAAAA ATAAGGGGTC TGAGGGGTGG 774

ATTCCCTGGG TTTCAGGTCT GGGTCCTGAA TGGGAATTCC TGGAATACCA GCTGACAATG 834

ATTTCCTCCT CATCTTTCAA CCTCACCTCT CCTCATCTAA G AA TTG CTC CTC 886

Glu Leu Leu Leu 5

GTG GTC ATG CTT CTC CTA ACT GCA AGG CTA ACG CTG TCC AGC CCG GCT 934 Val Val Met Leu Leu Leu Thr Ala Arg Leu Thr Leu Ser Ser Pro Ala 10 15 20

CCT CCT GCT TGT GAC CTC CGA GTC CTC AGT AAA CTG CTT CGT GAC TCC 982 Pro Pro Ala Cys Asp Leu Arg Val Leu Ser Lys Leu Leu Arg Asp Ser 25 30 35 40

CAT GTC CTT CAC AGC AGA CTG GTGAGAACTC CCAACATTAT CCCCTTTATC 1033 His Val Leu His Ser Arg Leu 45

CGCGTAACTG GTAAGACACC CATACTCCCA GGAAGACACC ATCACTTCCT CTAACTCCTT 1093

GACCCAATGA CTATTCTTCC CATATTGTCC CCACCTACTG ATCACACTCT CTGACAAGGA 1153

TTATTCTTCA CAATACAGCC CGCATTTAAA AGCTCTCGTC TAGAGATAGT ACTCATGGAG 1213

GACTAGCCTG CTTATTAGGC TACCATAGCT CTCTCTATTT CAGCTCCCTT CTCCCCCCAC 1273

CAATCTTTTT CAACAG AGC CAG TGC CCA GAG GTT CAC CCT TTG CCT ACA 1322

Ser Gin Cys Pro Glu Val His Pro Leu Pro Thr 50 55

CCT GTC CTG CTG CCT GCT GTG GAC TTT AGC TTG GGA GAA TGG AAA ACC 1370 Pro Val Leu Leu Pro Ala Val Asp Phe Ser Leu Gly Glu Trp Lys Thr 60 65 70

CAG ATG GTAAGAAAGC CATCCCTAAC CTTGGCTTCC CTAAGTCCTG TCTTCAGTTT 1426 Gin Met 75 CCCACTGCTT CCCATGGATT CTCCAACATT CTTGAGCTTT TTAAAAATAT CTCACCTTCA 1486

GCTTGGCCAC CCTAACCCAA TCTACATTCA CCTATGATGA TAGCCTGTGG ATAAGATGAT 1546

GGCTTGCAGG TCCAATATGT GAATAGATTT GAAGCTGAAC ACCATGAAAA GCTGGAGAGA 1606

AATCGCTCAT GGCCATGCCT TTGACCTATT CCCGTTCAGT CTTCTTAAAT TGGCATGAAG 1666

AAGCAAGACT CATATGTCAT CCACAGATGA CACAAAGCTG GGAAGTACCA CTAAAATAAC 1726

AAAAGACTGA ATCAAGATTC AAATCACTGA AAGACTAGGT CAAAAACAAG GTGAAACAAC 1786

AGAGATATAA ACTTCTACAT GTGGGCCGGG GGCTCACGCC TGTAATCCCA GCACTTTGGG 1846

AGGCCGAGGC AGGCAGATCA CCTGAGGGCA GGAGTTTGAG AGCAGCCTGG CCAACATGGC 1906

GAAACCCCGT CTCTACTAAG AATACAGAAT TAGCCGGGCA TGGTAGTGCA TGCCTGTAAT 1966

CCCAGCTACT TGGAAGGCTG AAGCAGGAGA ATCCCTTGAA CCCAGGAGGT GGAGGTTGTA 2026

GTGAGCTGAG ATCATGCCAA TGCACTCCAG CCTGGGTGAC AAGAGCAAAA CTCCGTCTCA 2086

AAAAGAAAAA AAAATTCTAC ATGTGTAAAT TAATGAGTAA AGTCCTATTC CAGCTTTCAG 2146

GCCACAATGC CCTGCTTCCA TCATTTAAGC CTCTGGCCCT AGCACTTCCT ACGAAAAGGA 2206

TCTGAGAGAA TTAAATTGCC CCCAAACTTA CCATGTAACA TTACTGAAGC TGCTATTCTT 2266

AAAGCTAGTA ATTCTTGTCT GTTTGATGTT TAGCATCCCC ATTGTGGAAA TGCTCGTACA 2326

GAACTCTATT CCGAGTGGAC TACACTTAAA TATACTGGCC TGAACACCGG ACATCCCCCT 2386

GAAGACATAT GCTAATTTAT TAAGAGGGAC CATATTAAAC TAACATGTGT CTAGAAAGCA 2446

GCAGCCTGAA CAGAAAGAGA CTAGAAGCAT GTTTTATGGG CAATAGTTTA AAAAACTAAA 2506

ATCTATCCTC AAGAACCCTA GCGTCCCTTC TTCCTTCAGG ACTGAGTCAG GGAAGAAGGG 2566

CAGTTCCTAT GGGTCCCTTC TAGTCCTTTC TTTTCATCCT TATGATCATT ATGGTAGAGT 2626

CTCATACCTA CATTTAGTTT ATTTATTATT ATTATTTGAG ACGGAGTCTC ACTCTATCCC 2686

CCAGGCTGGA GTGCAGTGGC ATGATCTCAA CTCACTGCAA CCTCAGCCTC CCGGATTCAA 2746 GCGATTCTCC TGTCTCAGTC TCCCAAGTAG CTGGGATTAC AGGTGCCCAC CACCATGCCC 2806

AGCTAATTTG TGTATTTGTG GTAGAGATGG GGTTTCACCA TGTTGGGCAG GCTGATCTTG 2866

AACTCCTGAC CTCAGGTGAT CCACCTGCCT CAGCCTCCCA AAGTGCTGGG ATTACAGGCG 2926

TGAGCCACTG CACCCAGCCT TCATTCAGTT TAAAAATCAA ATGATCCTAA GGTTTTGCAG 2986

CAGAAAGAGT AAATTTGCAG CACTAGAACC AAGAGGTAAA AGCTGTAACA GGGCAGATTT 3046

CAGCAACGTA AGAAAAAAGG AGCTCTTCTC ACTGAAACCA AGTGTAAGAC CAGGCTGGAC 3106

TAGAGGACAC GGGAGTTTTT GAAGCAGAGG CTGATGACCA GCTGTCGGGA GACTGTGAAG 3166

GAATTCCTGC CCTGGGTGGG ACCTTGGTCC TGTCCAGTTC TCAGCCTGTA TGATTCACTC 3226

TGCTGGCTAC TCCTAAGGCT CCCCACCCGC TTTTAGTGTG CCCTTTGAGG CAGTGCGCTT 3286

CTCTCTTCCA TCTCTTTCTC AG GAG GAG ACC AAG GCA CAG GAC ATT CTG GGA 3338

Glu Glu Thr Lys Ala Gin Asp He Leu Gly 80 85

GCA GTG ACC CTT CTG CTG GAG GGA GTG ATG GCA GCA CGG GGA CAA CTG 3386 Ala Val Thr Leu Leu Leu Glu Gly Val Met Ala Ala Arg Gly Gin Leu 90 95 100

GGA CCC ACT TGC CTC TCA TCC CTC CTG GGG CAG CTT TCT GGA CAG GTC 3434 Gly Pro Thr Cys Leu Ser Ser Leu Leu Gly Gin Leu Ser Gly Gin Val 105 110 115

CGT CTC CTC CTT GGG GCC CTG CAG AGC CTC CTT GGA ACC CAG 3476

Arg Leu Leu Leu Gly Ala Leu Gin Ser Leu Leu Gly Thr Gin 120 125 130

GTAAGTCCCC AGTCAAGGGA TCTGTAGAAA CTGTTCTTTT CTGACTCAGT CCCCCTAGAA 3536

GACCTGAGGG AAGAAGGGCT CTTCCAGGGA GCTCAAGGGC AGAAGAGCTG ATCTACTAAG 3596

AGTGCTCCCT GCCAGCCACA ATGCCTGGGT ACTGGCATCC TGTCTTTCCT ACTTAGACAA 3656

GGGAGGCCTG AGATCTGGCC CTGGTGTTTG GCCTCAGGAC CATCCTCTGC CCTCAG 3712

CTT CCT CCA CAG GGC AGG ACC ACA GCT CAC AAG GAT CCC AAT GCC ATC 3760 Leu Pro Pro Gin Gly Arg Thr Thr Ala His Lys Asp Pro Asn Ala He 135 140 145 TTC CTG AGC TTC CAA CAC CTG CTC CGA GGA AAG GTG CGT TTC CTG ATG 3808 Phe Leu Ser Phe Gin His Leu Leu Arg Gly Lys Val Arg Phe Leu Met 150 155 160

CTT GTA GGA GGG TCC ACC CTC TGC GTC AGG CGG GCC CCA CCC ACC ACA 3856 Leu Val Gly Gly Ser Thr Leu Cys Val Arg Arg Ala Pro Pro Thr Thr 165 170 175 180

GCT GTC CCC AGC AGA ACC TCT CTA GTC CTC ACA CTG AAC GAG CTC CCA 3904 Ala Val Pro Ser Arg Thr Ser Leu Val Leu Thr Leu Asn Glu Leu Pro 185 190 195

AAC AGG ACT TCT GGA TTG TTG GAG ACA AAC TTC ACT GCC TCA GCC AGA 3952 Asn Arg Thr Ser Gly Leu Leu Glu Thr Asn Phe Thr Ala Ser Ala Arg 200 205 210

ACT ACT GGC TCT GGG CTT CTG AAG TGG CAG CAG GGA TTC AGA GCC AAG 4000 Thr Thr Gly Ser Gly Leu Leu Lys Trp Gin Gin Gly Phe Arg Ala Lys 215 220 225

ATT CCT GGT CTG CTG AAC CAA ACC TCC AGG TCC CTG GAC CAA ATC CCC 4048 He Pro Gly Leu Leu Asn Gin Thr Ser Arg Ser Leu Asp Gin He Pro 230 235 240

GGA TAC CTG AAC AGG ATA CAC GAA CTC TTG AAT GGA ACT CGT GGA CTC 4096 Gly Tyr Leu Asn Arg He His Glu Leu Leu Asn Gly Thr Arg Gly Leu 245 250 255 260

TTT CCT GGA CCC TCA CGC AGG ACC CTA GGA GCC CCG GAC ATT TCC TCA 4144 Phe Pro Gly Pro Ser Arg Arg Thr Leu Gly Ala Pro Asp He Ser Ser 265 270 275

GGA ACA TCA GAC ACA GGC TCC CTG CCA CCC AAC CTC CAG CCT GGA TAT 4192 Gly Thr Ser Asp Thr Gly Ser Leu Pro Pro Asn Leu Gin Pro Gly Tyr 280 285 290

TCT CCT TCC CCA ACC CAT CCT CCT ACT GGA CAG TAT ACG CTC TTC CCT 4240 Ser Pro Ser Pro Thr His Pro Pro Thr Gly Gin Tyr Thr Leu Phe Pro 295 300 305

CTT CCA CCC ACC TTG CCC ACC CCT GTG GTC CAG CTC CAC CCC CTG CTT 4288 Leu Pro Pro Thr Leu Pro Thr Pro Val Val Gin Leu His Pro Leu Leu 310 315 320 CCT GAC CCT TCT GCT CCA ACG CCC ACC CCT ACC AGC CCT CTT CTA AAC 4336 Pro Asp Pro Ser Ala Pro Thr Pro Thr Pro Thr Ser Pro Leu Leu Asn 325 330 335 340

ACA TCC TAC ACC CAC TCC CAG AAT CTG TCT CAG GAA GGG TAAGGTTCTC 4385 Thr Ser Tyr Thr His Ser Gin Asn Leu Ser Gin Glu Gly 345 350

AGACACTGCC GACATCAGCA TTGTCTCGTG TACAGCTCCC TTCCCTGCAG GGCGCCCCTG 4445

GGAGACAACT GGACAAGATT TCCTACTTTC TCCTGAAACC CAAAGCCCTG GTAAAAGGGA 4505

TACACAGGAC TGAAAAGGGA ATCATTTTTC ACTGTACATT ATAAACCTTC AGAAGCTATT 4565

TTTTTAAGCT ATCAGCAATA CTCATCAGAG CAGCTAGCTC TTTGGTCTAT TTTCTGCAGA 4625

AATTTGCAAC TCACTGATTC TCAACATGCT CTTTTTCTGT GATAACTCTG CAAAGACCTG 4685

GGCTGGCCTG GCAGTTGAAC AGAGGGAGAG ACTAACCTTG AGTCAGAAAA CAGAGGAAGG 4745

GTAATTTCCT TTGCTTCAAA TTCAAGGCCT TCCAACGCCC CCATCCCCTT TACTATCATT 4805

CTCAGTGGGA CTCTGATC 4823

(2) INFORMATION FOR SEQ ID NO:6:

(i) SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS:

(A) LENGTH: 353 amino acids

(B) TYPE: amino acid (D) TOPOLOGY: linear

(ii) MOLECULE TYPE: protein

(xi) SEQUENCE DESCRIPTION: SEQ ID N0:6:

Met Glu Leu Thr Glu Leu Leu Leu Val Val Met Leu Leu Leu Thr Ala 1 5 10 15

Arg Leu Thr Leu Ser Ser Pro Ala Pro Pro Ala Cys Asp Leu Arg Val 20 25 30

Leu Ser Lys Leu Leu Arg Asp Ser His Val Leu His Ser Arg Leu Ser 35 40 45 Gin Cys Pro Glu Val His Pro Leu Pro Thr Pro Val Leu Leu Pro Ala 50 55 60

Val Asp Phe Ser Leu Gly Glu Trp Lys Thr Gin Met Glu Glu Thr Lys 65 70 75 80

Ala Gin Asp He Leu Gly Ala Val Thr Leu Leu Leu Glu Gly Val Met 85 90 95

Ala Ala Arg Gly Gin Leu Gly Pro Thr Cys Leu Ser Ser Leu Leu Gly 100 105 110

Gin Leu Ser Gly Gin Val Arg Leu Leu Leu Gly Ala Leu Gin Ser Leu 115 120 125

Leu Gly Thr Gin Leu Pro Pro Gin Gly Arg Thr Thr Ala His Lys Asp 130 135 140

Pro Asn Ala He Phe Leu Ser Phe Gin His Leu Leu Arg Gly Lys Val 145 150 155 160

Arg Phe Leu Met Leu Val Gly Gly Ser Thr Leu Cys Val Arg Arg Ala 165 170 175

Pro Pro Thr Thr Ala Val Pro Ser Arg Thr Ser Leu Val Leu Thr Leu 180 185 190

Asn Glu Leu Pro Asn Arg Thr Ser Gly Leu Leu Glu Thr Asn Phe Thr 195 200 205

Ala Ser Ala Arg Thr Thr Gly Ser Gly Leu Leu Lys Trp Gin Gin Gly 210 215 220

Phe Arg Ala Lys He Pro Gly Leu Leu Asn Gin Thr Ser Arg Ser Leu 225 230 235 240

Asp Gin He Pro Gly Tyr Leu Asn Arg He His Glu Leu Leu Asn Gly 245 250 255

Thr Arg Gly Leu Phe Pro Gly Pro Ser Arg Arg Thr Leu Gly Ala Pro 260 265 270

Asp He Ser Ser Gly Thr Ser Asp Thr Gly Ser Leu Pro Pro Asn Leu 275 280 285 Gin Pro Gly Tyr Ser Pro Ser Pro Thr His Pro Pro Thr Gly Gin Tyr 290 295 300

Thr Leu Phe Pro Leu Pro Pro Thr Leu Pro Thr Pro Val Val Gin Leu 305 310 315 320

His Pro Leu Leu Pro Asp Pro Ser Ala Pro Thr Pro Thr Pro Thr Ser 325 330 335

Pro Leu Leu Asn Thr Ser Tyr Thr His Ser Gin Asn Leu Ser Gin Glu 340 345 350

Gly

Non-Patent Citations
Reference
1 *DATABASE MEDLINE FILE SERVER STN KARLSRUHE; TAKAHASHI ET AL
2 *EVATT ET AL: "RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THROMBOPOIESIS AND ERYTHROPOIESIS:WITH STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF PREPARATIONS OF THROMBOPOIETIN AND ERYTHROPOIETIN", BLOOD, vol. 48, no. 4, pages 547 - 558, XP002001520
3 *MCDONALD: "THROMBOPOIETIN.ITS BIOLOGY,CLINICAL ASPECTS,AND POSSIBILITIES", THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC HEMATOLOGY/ONCOLOGY, vol. 14, no. 1, pages 8 - 21, XP002001521
Referenced by
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Classifications
International ClassificationA61K38/18, C12N5/00, A61K38/19, G01N33/50, C07K14/715, C07K14/705, A61K35/12, C07K14/47, C12N5/0787
Cooperative ClassificationC07K14/705, C12N2501/145, A61K38/196, A61K38/1816, A61K2035/124, G01N33/5008, G01N33/5005, C12N2501/22, C07K14/715, C12N5/0642, G01N33/5011, C07K14/47
European ClassificationC12N5/06B11G, G01N33/50D2, C07K14/47, C07K14/705, A61K38/19, C07K14/715, G01N33/50D, G01N33/50D2B
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