Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUSRE45717 E1
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 14/261,028
Publication date6 Oct 2015
Filing date24 Apr 2014
Priority date30 Oct 2007
Fee statusPaid
Also published asUS7766883, US8162903, US20090112164, US20100298699, WO2009058647A1
Publication number14261028, 261028, US RE45717 E1, US RE45717E1, US-E1-RE45717, USRE45717 E1, USRE45717E1
InventorsDavid M. Reilly, John F. Kalafut, Ralph H. Schriver
Original AssigneeBayer Medical Care Inc.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
System and method for proportional mixing and continuous delivery of fluids
US RE45717 E1
Abstract
A system and method for mixing and delivering fluids such as contrast media and saline is disclosed including at least two fluid sources, a pump, a joining fluid path for connecting the at least two fluid sources to an inlet to of the pump, and a valve device in the fluid path upstream of the pump. The valve device includes an actuator adapted to restrict flow in at least one of the respective fluid lines connecting the at least two fluid sources to the pump inlet. A patient interface device may be associated with an outlet of the pump. The valve device actuator is generally adapted to restrict the flow in at least one of the respective fluid lines such that a positional change in valve device actuator position provides a change in fluid mixture ratio of the fluids from the at least two fluid sources to the pump inlet.
Images(11)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(27)
The invention claimed is:
1. A system for mixing and delivering fluids, comprising:
a first fluid source configured to supply a first fluid;
at least a second fluid source configured to supply at least a second fluid;
a first fluid line in configured for fluid connection with the a first fluid source for supplying a first fluid;
at least a second fluid line in configured for fluid connection with the an at least second fluid source for supplying at least a second fluid;
a pump having an inlet and an outlet; and
a mixing stopcock valve having a first input port, at least a second input port, an outlet port, and a stopcock actuator,
wherein the first input port is in fluid communication with the first fluid line, the at least second input port is in fluid communication with the at least second fluid line, and the outlet port is in fluid communication with an the inlet of the pump,
wherein the stopcock actuator comprises an internal conduit defining a first conduit portion, a second conduit portion, and a third conduit portion of reduced diameter relative to the diameter of the first conduit portion, and
wherein a positional change in the a position of the stopcock actuator provides a change in the a fluid mixture ratio of the first and at least second fluids delivered to a patient.
2. The system as claimed in claim 1, wherein the first fluid and the at least second fluid comprise at least contrast media and a diluent.
3. The system as claimed in claim 1, wherein the stopcock actuator is adapted to simultaneously at least partially restrict flow in each of the fluid lines.
4. The system as claimed in claim 1, wherein the pump comprises a positive displacement pump.
5. The system as claimed in claim 4, wherein the positive displacement pump comprises a multi-chamber piston pump.
6. The system as claimed in claim 1, wherein the first fluid line has a first diameter, the at least second fluid line has an at least second diameter, and the first diameter differs from the at least second diameter.
7. The system as claimed in claim 1, further comprising a flow meter associated with at least one of the fluid lines.
8. The system as claimed in claim 1, wherein the pump comprises a peristaltic pump.
9. A The system as claimed in claim 1, further comprising:
a controller operatively associated with the mixing stopcock valve for controlling the positional movement change of the stopcock actuator; and
a flow meter associated with at least one of the fluid lines.
10. The system as claimed in claim 9, wherein the controller effects the positional change of the valve stopcock actuator at least in part based on feedback from the flow meter.
11. The system as claimed in claim 9, wherein the first fluid and the at least second fluid comprise at least contrast media and a diluent.
12. The system as claimed in claim 9, wherein the stopcock actuator is adapted to simultaneously at least partially restrict flow in each of the fluid lines.
13. The system as claimed in claim 9, further comprising a patient interface device associated with the outlet of the pump.
14. The system as claimed in claim 9, wherein the pump comprises a positive displacement pump.
15. The system as claimed in claim 14, wherein the positive displacement pump comprises a multi-chamber piston pump.
16. The system as claimed in claim 9, wherein the first fluid line has a first diameter, the at least second fluid line has an at least second diameter, and the first diameter differs from the at least second diameter, or the first input port has a first port diameter, the at least second input port has an at least second port diameter, and the first port diameter differs from the at least second port diameter.
17. The system as claimed in claim 9, wherein the pump comprises a peristaltic pump.
18. A method of mixing and delivering fluids from a first fluid source and at least a second fluid source using a fluid delivery system comprising a pump having an inlet and an outlet, and a mixing stopcock valve having a first input port, at least a second input port, an outlet port and a stopcock actuator comprising an internal conduit defining a first conduit portion, a second conduit portion, and a third conduit portion of reduced diameter relative to the diameter of the first conduit portion, the method comprising:
providing the fluid delivery system having a first fluid line with a first end and a second end, and at least a second fluid line with a first end and a second end;
connecting the first end of the first fluid line to the first fluid source, and the first end of the at least second fluid line to the at least second fluid source;
connecting the second end of the first fluid line to the first input port of the mixing stopcock valve, and the second end of the at least second fluid line to the at least second input port of the mixing stopcock valve; and
connecting the outlet port of the mixing stopcock valve to the inlet of the pump; and,
wherein actuating the stopcock actuator such that to effect a positional change in the a position of the stopcock actuator provides effects a change in the a fluid mixture ratio of a first fluid and at least a second fluid.
19. The method as claimed in claim 18, further comprising associating a patient interface device with the outlet of the pump.
20. The method as claimed in claim 18, wherein the first fluid line has a first diameter, the at least second fluid line has an at least second diameter, and the first diameter differs from the at least second diameter.
21. The method as claimed in claim 18, further comprising:
providing a flow meter associated with at least one of the fluid lines; and
providing a controller adapted to effect the positional change of the stopcock actuator at least in part based on feedback from the flow meter.
22. A method of manufacturing a system for mixing and delivering fluids, the method comprising:
providing a first fluid line having a first end configured for fluid connection with a first fluid source for supplying a first fluid;
providing at least a second fluid line configured for fluid connection with at least a second fluid source for supplying at least a second fluid;
providing a pump having an inlet and an outlet;
providing a mixing stopcock valve having a first input port configured for connecting to a second end of the first fluid line, at least a second input port configured for connecting to a second end of at least the second fluid line, and an outlet port configured for connecting to the inlet of the pump; and
providing a stopcock actuator on the mixing stopcock valve, the stopcock actuator comprising an internal conduit defining a first conduit portion, a second conduit portion, and a third conduit portion of reduced diameter relative to the diameter of the first conduit portion,
wherein the stopcock actuator is configured to provide a change in a fluid mixture ratio of the first fluid and at least the second fluid based on a position of the stopcock actuator.
23. The method as claimed in claim 22, further comprising:
providing a flow meter associated with at least one of the fluid lines; and
providing a controller adapted to effect a positional change of the stopcock actuator at least in part based on feedback from the flow meter.
24. The method as claimed in claim 22, wherein the first fluid line has a first diameter, the at least second fluid line has an at least second diameter, and wherein the first diameter differs from the at least second diameter.
25. The method as claimed in claim 22, wherein the outlet of the pump is configured for connection with a patient interface device.
26. The method as claimed in claim 22, further comprising:
connecting the second end of the first fluid line to the first input port of the mixing stopcock valve, and the second end of the at least second fluid line to the at least second input port of the mixing stopcock valve; and
connecting the outlet port of the mixing stopcock valve to the inlet of the pump.
27. The method as claimed in claim 22, further comprising:
actuating the stopcock actuator to effect a positional change in a position of the stopcock actuator to provide a change in a fluid mixture ratio of the first fluid and at least the second fluid.
Description
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

This application is a division of application Ser. No. 11/928,021, filed on Oct. 30, 2007, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

The embodiments of the invention disclosed herein relate generally to the field of diagnostic and therapeutic medical procedures involving the intravenous infusion of fluids such as contrast-enhanced radiographic imaging as an example and, more particularly, to a system capable of controlled proportional mixing and delivery of fluid mixtures to a patient. In one specific application, contrast media may be proportionally mixed with another fluid such as saline for continuous delivery to a patient undergoing a medical radiographic imaging procedure.

2. Description of Related Art

In many medical diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, a medical practitioner such as a physician injects a patient with a fluid. In recent years, a number of injector-actuated syringes and powered injectors for pressurized injection of fluids, such as contrast media (often referred to simply as “contrast”), have been developed for use in procedures such as angiography, computed tomography (“CT”), ultrasound, and NMR/MRI. In general, these powered injectors are designed to deliver a preset amount of contrast at a preset flow rate.

Angiography is an example of a radiographic imaging procedure wherein a powered injector may be used. Angiography is used in the detection and treatment of abnormalities or restrictions in blood vessels. In an angiographic procedure, a radiographic image of a vascular structure is obtained through the use of a radiographic contrast medium which is injected through a catheter. The vascular structures in fluid connection with the vein or artery in which the contrast is injected are filled with contrast. X-rays passing through the region of interest are absorbed by the contrast, causing a radiographic outline or image of blood vessels containing the contrast. The resulting images can be displayed on, for example, a video monitor and recorded.

In a typical contrast-enhanced radiographic imaging procedure such as angiography, the medical practitioner places a cardiac catheter into a vein or artery. The catheter is connected to either a manual or to an automatic contrast injection mechanism. A typical manual contrast injection mechanism includes a syringe in fluid connection with a catheter connection. The fluid path also includes, for example, a source of contrast, a source of flushing fluid, typically saline, and a pressure transducer to measure patient blood pressure. In a typical system, the source of contrast is connected to the fluid path via a valve, for example, a three-way stopcock. The source of saline and the pressure transducer may also be connected to the fluid path via additional valves, again such as stopcocks. The operator of the manual system controls the syringe and each of the valves to draw saline or contrast into the syringe and to inject the contrast or saline into the patient through the catheter connection.

Automatic contrast injection mechanisms typically include a syringe connected to a powered injector having, for example, a powered linear actuator. Typically, an operator enters settings into an electronic control system of the powered injector for a fixed volume of contrast and a fixed rate of injection. In many systems, there is no interactive control between the operator and the powered injector except to start or stop the injection. A change in flow rate in such systems occurs by stopping the machine and resetting the injection parameters. Automation of contrast-enhanced imaging procedures using powered injectors is discussed, for example, in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,460,609; 5,573,515; and 5,800,397.

It is often desirable to deliver a mixture of contrast and a diluent such as saline to the patient undergoing the radiographic imaging procedure. Depending on a patient's particular physical characteristics, age, and the tissue to be imaged, the desirable concentration of contrast media varies. Medical practitioners can purchase pre-mixed solutions of contrast media in various discrete concentrations and this is a common practice in the medical field. Presently, contrast media is provided in sterilized glass bottles ranging in size from 20 ml to 200 ml. Plastic packages are also available. Presently used contrast media containers are single use which means that once a container is opened its contents must all be used for one patient and any residual unused contrast and the bottle must be discarded. As a result, a medical facility must purchase and stock many concentrations in multiple container sizes to provide the right amount of the right contrast concentration for a specific procedure while minimizing wastage of contrast remaining in any opened containers. This multitude of sizes and concentrations increases costs throughout the contrast supply chain. Contrast manufacturers are required to make many batches with various concentrations and package each in differently sized containers. The manufactures must have inventories of each concentration/container size on hand to quickly meet their customers' requests. Each concentration level and container size also entails an added regulatory burden.

In the end-use medical facility environment, there are additional costs due to the efforts required to purchase and stock various concentration/container sizes. Bulk storage space is required for stocking and cabinets are required in each procedure room. Moreover, labor and time are required to make sure the correct numbers of each container are kept in each procedure room. Finally, the present system results in waste and/or less than optimal studies if this complicated logistics chain fails at any point.

Presently, most medical facilities utilize a standard protocol for a given set of indications. For instance, for a CT scan of the liver, the protocol may call for 130 ml of contrast injected at 3 ml/s. This protocol is used for a wide variety of patient weights and physical conditions. One goal of this standardization is to minimize errors. Another goal is to decrease the likelihood of having to repeat the procedure, with the accompanying additional radiation and contrast dose to the patient. However, there are costs associated with this method. Many patients may get more contrast than they need for an image to be diagnostic. Overdosing wastes contrast but there is no way with the present contrast supply and delivery system to remedy this without stocking many more sizes of containers and being more judicious in the filling of injection syringes. Other patients may have studies that are less than optimal as they do not receive enough contrast and there is a much greater chance of having to repeat the procedure.

In angiography, there are no set protocols to the same extent as in CT because patient size determines vessel size which in turn determines the volume and flow rate required. This means that a fixed amount of contrast cannot be prepared ahead of time with any confidence that more will not be needed during the procedure or that a significant amount will not remain and be wasted at the end of the procedure. To avoid delays during an angiography procedure, the medical practitioner typically loads more contrast than the average amount to be used with the realization that some contrast is likely to be wasted.

A further result of the foregoing system is the accumulation of a significant amount of hazardous medical waste at the conclusion of the procedure. To save contrast, several small glass bottles may be opened per patient, one or more plastic syringes may be used, and various tubing arrangements may be used. Each of these items has an associated cost to purchase the item and an associated cost to properly dispose of the item.

Solutions have been proposed to overcome the foregoing problems associated with the use of a multiplicity of concentrations and container sizes and, further, to allow for more individualized contrast mixtures to be produced to meet individual patient requirements. For example, U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,592,940 and 5,450,847 to Kampfe et al. disclose a mixing system that allows for mixing contrast medium and saline “on site” at a medical facility. More particularly, the Kampfe et al. patents disclose an exemplary mixing system that involves withdrawing or removing predetermined amounts of contrast medium and a diluent (e.g., saline) from respective vessels and mixing these fluids in a mixing chamber and then delivering the mixed fluid to a suitable receiving container, such as a vial, bag, or syringe which is used to deliver the mixed fluid to a patient. Other contrast-diluent mixing systems are known from U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,901,283 to Evans, III et al. and 5,840,026 to Uber, III. et al., the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference. U.S. Pat. No. 7,060,049 to Trombley, III et al. discloses a system for injecting a multi-component enhancement medium into a patient that incorporates an agitating mechanism to maintain the medium in a mixed state for injection and this patent is also incorporated herein by reference. Within the representative “mixing” systems disclosed in the foregoing patents, simple mechanical mixing devices are used to mix the respective fluids. For example, in the systems disclosed by Evans, III et al. and Uber, III et al., the fluids to be mixed are joined together as they flow through a static mixer that contains helical vanes. In the Kampfe et al. patents, a bulk mechanical mixer is used to mix two sequential flows. In each of these cases, fluid mixture proportions are determined by controlled metering valves or other devices (e.g., peristaltic pumps) in the flow path.

Other devices are known for use in fluid delivery systems having medical applications to mix and dispense a mixed fluid, for example, in preset and “fixed” concentration ratios. For example, a selector valve such as that disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,957,082 to Fuson et al. is known to allow an operator to “dial-in” a selected fluid choice or mixture of fluids in a preset or predefined ratio. The Fuson et al. patent allows for the choice of a first fluid such as a drug, a second fluid such as saline, or preset “fixed” mixture ratio of the two fluids (e.g., a 50%-50% mixture) for delivery to a patient. U.S. Pat. No. 6,918,893 to Houde et al. discloses a selector valve having specific application in the delivery of contrast and saline in contrast-enhanced radiographic imaging procedures but this selector valve does not have the ability to dial in a desired mixture ratio of two fluids. The disclosure of U.S. Pat. No. 3,957,082 is incorporated herein for the selector valve teaching of this disclosure.

Double or dual pinch valves are also known for use in fluid handling systems to accomplish one or more of: alternating the flow of two fluids, blocking flow of the two fluids, or permitting simultaneous flow of the two fluids in a fluid path as disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 2,985,192 (Taylor et al.); 3,411,534 (Rose); 3,918,490 (Goda); 4,071,039 (Goof); 4,259,985 (Bergmann); and 4,484,599 (Hanover et al.). U.S. Pat. No. 6,871,660 to Hampsch discloses a solenoid operated double or dual pinch valve to provide alternating flow capability in a devices used in medical and pharmaceutical laboratory research. The various double or dual pinch valves disclosed in the foregoing patents, as indicated, have the ability to control the flow of the respective fluids through two channels by pinching none, one, or both of the channels through the pinch valve. Accordingly, these pinch valves allow for one channel to be completely open and the other to be completely closed so as to allow only one fluid to pass through the pinch valve, allow for both channels to completely open, or completely block both channels. As a result, these pinch valves provide no ability to mix or control the proportional mixing of two or more fluids in any desired proportion as provided in the embodiments disclosed herein in this disclosure. Such ability to mix or, more clearly, control the proportional mixing of two fluids has been attempted by varying the respective speeds at which two respective pump devices deliver fluids to a mixing fluid path, such as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,935,971 to Papoff et al., but such a system is in practice difficult to control as it involves regulating precisely motor speed of the motors driving the respective pump devices. As a result, such controlled, dual pump systems do not present a very accurate proportioned mixture to the output or delivery conduit. The foregoing shortcomings are overcome by the various embodiments described herein.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

In one embodiment, a system for mixing and delivering fluids such as contrast media and a diluent such as saline is disclosed comprising at least two fluid sources, a pump, a joining fluid path connecting the at least two fluid sources to an inlet to the pump, and a valve device in the fluid path upstream of the pump. The valve device comprises an actuator adapted to restrict flow in at least one of respective fluid lines connecting the at least two fluid sources to the pump inlet. A controller may be operatively associated with the valve device for controlling positional movement of the valve device actuator. A patient interface device, such as a catheter as an example, may be associated with an outlet of the pump. The valve device actuator is generally adapted to restrict the flow in at least one of the respective fluid lines such that an incremental positional change in valve device actuator position provides a substantially linear change in fluid mixture ratio of the fluids from the at least two fluid sources to the pump inlet.

The fluids may comprise at least contrast media and a diluent such as saline. The valve device actuator may be adapted to simultaneously at least partially restrict flow in each of the respective fluid lines. In one embodiment, the pump comprises a positive displacement pump, for example, a multi-chamber piston pump. In another embodiment, the pump comprises a peristaltic pump. The respective fluid lines may have different diameters. The respective fluid lines may comprise compressible tubing, and the valve device may comprise a pinch valve and the valve device actuator may comprise a pinch block adapted to restrict flow in at least one of the respective fluid lines via compression of the compressible tubing. Movement of the pinch block may be effected by a servomotor. The respective fluid lines may be joined via a branch connector having an outlet in fluid connection with the pump inlet. A flow meter may be associated with at least one of the respective fluid lines. The controller may effect positional change of the valve device actuator at least in part based on feedback from the flow meter.

Another aspect disclosed herein relates to a method for mixing and delivering fluids such as contrast media and a diluent such as saline to a patient. Such a method generally includes providing a joining fluid path connecting at least two fluid sources to an inlet to a pump, providing a valve device including a valve device actuator in the fluid path upstream of the pump, and restricting the flow in at least one of the respective fluid lines with the valve device actuator. The valve device actuator is generally adapted to restrict flow in at least one of respective fluid lines connecting the at least two fluid sources to the pump inlet. The flow is restricted in at least one of the respective fluid lines by the valve device actuator such that an incremental positional change in valve device actuator position provides a substantially linear change in fluid mixture ratio of the fluids from the at least two fluid sources to the pump inlet.

The fluids may again comprise contrast media and a diluent such as saline. Another feature of the method relates to associating a patient interface device, such as a catheter as an example, with an outlet of the pump. In one alternative, the valve device actuator simultaneously at least partially restricts flow in each of the respective fluid lines. A further feature of the method relates to associating a flow meter with at least one of the respective fluid lines. In one embodiment, the pump comprises a positive displacement pump. In another embodiment, the pump comprises a peristaltic pump. The respective fluid lines may have different diameters. As noted hereinabove, the respective fluid lines may comprise compressible tubing, and the method may further comprise at least partially compressing the compressible tubing of at least one of the respective fluid lines with the valve device actuator to restrict flow. In one embodiment, the valve device may comprise a pinch valve and the valve device actuator may comprise a pinch block adapted to restrict flow in at least one of the respective fluid lines via compression of the compressible tubing. A flow meter may be associated with at least one of the respective fluid lines and the method may further comprise a controller effecting positional change of the valve device actuator at least in part based on feedback from the flow meter.

Further details and advantages will become clear upon reading the following detailed description in conjunction with the accompanying drawing figures, wherein like parts are identified with like reference numerals throughout.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a schematic view of a fluid delivery system wherein two fluids may be delivered through use of two pumps to a patient.

FIG. 2 is a schematic view of a fluid delivery system wherein multi-fluids may be delivered to a patient through use of a single pump.

FIG. 3 is a schematic view of an embodiment of a system capable of controlled proportional mixing of fluids and continuous or intermittent delivery thereof to a patient.

FIG. 4 is a perspective view of a portion of the system shown in FIG. 3 showing a pump and a valve device of the system.

FIG. 5 is a plan view of the valve device provided in the system of FIGS. 3-4.

FIG. 6 is a front and partial cross-sectional view of the valve device of FIG. 5.

FIG. 7 is a graphical representation of contrast medium concentration as a function of position of the valve device of FIGS. 5-6.

FIG. 8 is a perspective view of an embodiment of a mixing stopcock valve having applications in mixing two (or more) fluids.

FIG. 9 is a front view of the mixing stopcock of FIG. 8.

FIGS. 10A-10E are respective cross-sectional views of the mixing stopcock valve of FIGS. 8-9 showing various operational states of the valve.

FIG. 11 is a schematic view of a variation of the fluid delivery system of FIG. 2 incorporating a controlled mixing stopcock valve pursuant to FIGS. 8-10.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

For purposes of the description hereinafter, spatial orientation terms, if used, shall relate to the referenced embodiment as it is oriented in the accompanying drawing figures or otherwise described in the following detailed description. However, it is to be understood that the embodiments described hereinafter may assume many alternative variations and configurations. It is also to be understood that the specific devices illustrated in the accompanying drawing figures and described herein are simply exemplary and should not be considered as limiting.

FIG. 1 illustrates an exemplary system 10 for delivering contrast media and a diluent, such as saline, to a patient in a sequential or simultaneous manner via the use of two pump platforms. While system 10 is described in the context of the delivery of contrast and saline, for example, to a patient, system 10 may be applicable for situations where it is desired to supply any two fluids to a patient intravenously. It will be further appreciated that system 10 may be readily expanded to deliver multi-fluids (e.g., more than two fluids) to a patient. In the illustrated and non-limiting example, contrast media of similar or different concentrations is contained in respective conventional containers 12, 14. Respective and optional delivery reservoirs 16, 18 are associated with contrast containers 12, 14. A contrast fluid path 20 joins or connects the respective contrast reservoirs 16, 18 to a manual or automatic selector valve 22 provided in contrast fluid path 20. Contrast fluid path 20 includes a first input line 24 and a second input line 26 connecting the respective reservoirs 16, 18 to first and second input ports 28, 30, respectively, to selector valve 22. An output port 32 of selector valve 22 is associated with or connected to a first pump 34 and, in particular, an inlet port 36 of first pump 34. First pump 34 may be of conventional design such as the positive displacement, multi-piston pump disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,197,000 to Reilly et al. incorporated herein by reference. Motive forces to operate first pump 34 are provided by a pump servomotor 38 and pump drive 40. Outlet port 42 of first pump 34 is associated or connected to a patient P via patient fluid path 44 and the output from first pump 34 to patient P is controlled by interposing a stopcock 46 in patient fluid path 44. Stopcock 46 has an input port associated with the outlet port 42 of first pump 34 and further includes an outlet port associated with a waste reservoir 48. Other features of stopcock 46 are described hereinafter.

Another portion of system 10 is a diluent delivery portion 50 wherein a diluent such as saline is provided in a conventional IV bag type container 52. A second pump 54, which is typically identical to first pump 34, has an outlet 55 connected to the patient fluid path 44 via stopcock 46 to provide saline solution to patient P and/or saline flush to fluid path 44. Second pump 54 is provided with its own pump servomotor 56 and pump drive 58. Diluent container 52 is connected via a diluent fluid path 60 to a second input port on stopcock 46 so as to provide diluent supply and flush to patient fluid path 44. As shown in FIG. 1, stopcock 46 has a first input port A associated outlet port 42 of pump 46 34, a second input port B associated with associated outlet port 55 of second pump 54, a first outlet port C associated with patient fluid path 44, and a second outlet port D associated with waste reservoir 48. Selector valve 22 may be automatically or remotely operated via control of a valve servomotor 62 and associated valve drive 64 and may be, for example, an automated stopcock. If desired, stopcock 46 may be automated in a similar manner to selector valve 22. A controller (not shown) may be provided to automate operation of system 10 via control of pump servomotors 38, 56 and valve servomotor 62.

In operation, selector valve 22 may be operated to select the contents of one of the two provided contrast-containers 12, 14 which allows pump 34 to extract the selected contrast medium via contrast fluid path 20 and selector valve 22 and deliver the selected contrast medium to patient fluid path 44 via stopcock 46. Saline may be delivered to patient fluid path 44 via stopcock 46 by operation of second pump 54 and diluent fluid path 60. Pumps 34, 54 may be alternately operated to sequentially supply selected contrast medium and saline to patient fluid path 44. Alternatively, both pumps 34, 54 may be operated simultaneously, with mixing of the selected contrast medium and saline occurring in the patient fluid path 44 and/or in stopcock 46. Stopcock 46 is desirably configured to permit at least partial simultaneous fluid communication to be present between pump outlet 42 of first pump 34 and pump outlet 55 of second pump 54 with patient fluid path 44 to permit simultaneous delivery of both contrast medium and saline to patient fluid path 44.

Typically, mixing of the selected contrast media and saline to achieve any desired proportional mixture of these fluids is accomplished by controlling the flow rate delivered by the respective pumps 34, 54. However, this is also a disadvantage with system 10 as two separate pumps 34, 54 must be operated and, further, their operations coordinated to deliver a desired, proportioned mixture of contrast and saline to patient fluid path 44. This arrangement is similar to that disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,935,971 to Papoff et al. discussed previously, wherein the operating speeds of two peristaltic pumps must be controlled and coordinated to obtain a desired proportional mixture of two fluids. In system 10, similar control of pumps 34, 54 is necessary to obtain a desired mixture ratio or proportional mixture of contrast and saline. The pump control aspects of U.S. Pat. No. 3,935,971 to Papoff et al. applicable to the control of pumps 34, 54 are incorporated herein by reference.

Mixing of the selected contrast medium and saline may also be accomplished with use of a “mixing” stopcock valve for stopcock 46, such as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,957,082 to Fuson et al., incorporated by reference previously (but as a two-fluid version of this valve), rather than by operational control of pumps 34, 54. However, a preferred mixing stopcock valve 300 particularly suitable for this application is discussed herein in connection with FIGS. 8-10 which accounts for upstream pressure and/or viscosity differences between contrast medium and saline which is not a feature or consideration of the Fuson et al. mixing stopcock. It is noted that selector valve 22 may also be a mixing stopcock valve as disclosed in the Fuson et al. patent (but as a two-fluid version of this valve) if it is desired to mix the contents of contrast containers 12, 14 in a preset or “fixed” proportional mixture prior to delivering this contrast mixture to first pump 34. However, again, such a known mixing stopcock valve as disclosed by Fuson et al. does not account for upstream pressure and/or viscosity differences which may be present between the contrast media present in contrast containers 12, 14 as does the mixing stopcock valve 300 illustrated in FIGS. 8-10 and discussed herein. Use of mixing stopcock valve 300 in system 10 permits pumps 34, 54 to operate at the same or substantially the same speeds, which proportional mixing being accomplished by valve 300, as described herein.

FIG. 2 illustrates a variation of system 10 referred to as system 10a which eliminates second pump 54 by directly connecting diluent container 52a via diluent fluid path 60a to a third input port 66a of selector valve 22a. Accordingly, contrast media from contrast containers 12a, 14a and saline from diluent container 52a are each connected through single selector valve 22a so that any one of these three fluids may be provided via pump 34a to patient fluid path 44a. However, in this specific configuration, typically only one fluid at a time may be provided to patient P via patient fluid path 44a providing only the ability to provide sequential flow of the fluids to patient P. As a result, modified system 10a lacks the ability to mix contrast media and diluent such as saline, proportionally or otherwise, and deliver a mixture of contrast and diluent to patient P without modification to selector valve 22a. While it may be possible to replace selector valve 22a with the mixing stopcock valve disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,957,082 to Fuson et al. which allows an operator to “dial-in” a selected fluid choice or a preset proportional mixture of fluids (e.g., a 50%-50% mixture), the Fuson et al. stopcock valve does not account for upstream pressure and/or viscosity differences, as noted previously, which may be present between the fluids entering such a stopcock as does mixing stopcock valve 300 described herein in connection with FIGS. 8-10. In general, the conventional mixing stopcock valve disclosed by Fuson et al. is limited in application to permitting full fluid flow from a first fluid sources, full fluid flow from a second fluid source, or at most a few preset or “fixed” proportional mixture settings for the two fluids to be delivered to a patient and, hence, does not permit a full range of fluid mixture ratios or proportions to be delivered to a patient as provided by the system 100 discussed herein in connection with FIGS. 3-7. The operational control of pumps 34, 54 in system 10 discussed previously may provide a fuller range of fluid mixture ratios or proportions to be delivered to a patient but respective operational control of pumps 34, 54 is difficult in practice to achieve with accuracy particularly when the two fluids have significantly different viscosities as is the case with contrast media and saline. It will be clear that, if desired, additional fluid sources may be provided in system 10a with each having an additional input line to selector valve 22a.

FIG. 3 is a schematic representation of an embodiment of a system 100 capable of controlled proportional mixing of fluids and further capable of intermittent or continuous delivery of a proportional mixed fluid to a patient. In one example, the fluids may be contrast media and saline which may be proportionally mixed in any desired mixture ratio and delivered either intermittently or continuously to a patient undergoing medical radiographic imaging procedure. System 100 is described for exemplary purposes in the context of contrast media and saline and the controlled proportional mixing and delivery thereof to a patient P to explain the features of the invention. However, this specific application or explanation should not be considered as precluding the use of system 100 in other situations. Generally, system 100 is suitable for use in any situation where it is desired to mix two (or more) fluids in a controlled proportional manner and deliver such as a mixed fluid intermittently or continuously to a patient undergoing a medical procedure involving intravenous fluid infusion, such as the proportional mixing of a drug with a diluent such as saline as an example. A full range of proportional mixtures between two (or more) fluids may be obtained as outputs to the patient P as described herein. Moreover, it is explicitly noted that the principle of operation of system 100 may be expanded to multi-fluids (e.g., three or more) if desired. System 100 has similar architecture to systems 10, 10a discussed previously with certain alterations and additions as described herein. Accordingly, in view of the foregoing, it is expressly noted that system 100 is not limited to just two fluids and is specifically not limited to contrast and saline as fluids which may be handled by system 100.

In system 100, contrast media of similar or different concentrations is contained in respective conventional containers 112, 114. Respective and optional contrast reservoirs 116, 118 are associated with contrast containers 112, 114. A contrast fluid path 120 joins or connects the respective reservoirs 116, 118 to a manual or, desirably, automatic selector valve 122 provided in contrast fluid path 120. Contrast fluid path 120 includes a first input line 124 and a second input line 126 connecting the respective contrast reservoirs 116, 118 to first and second input ports 128, 130 to selector valve 122. An output port 132 of selector valve 122 is associated with or connected to a pump 134 and, in particular, an inlet port 136 of pump 134 via a joining fluid path 200 which is associated with an intervening valve device 210. The details of joining fluid path 200 and valve device 210 are described hereinafter.

Pump 134 may be of conventional design such as the positive displacement, multi-piston pump disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,197,000 to Reilly et al., previously incorporated herein by reference. Motive forces to operate pump 134 are provided by a pump servomotor 138 and pump drive 140. An outlet port 142 of pump 134 is associated or connected to a patient P via patient fluid path 144 and the output from pump 134 to patient P is controlled by interposing a stopcock 146 in patient fluid path 144. Stopcock 146 has an input port associated with the outlet port 142 of pump 134 and further includes an outlet port associated with a waste reservoir 148. Peristaltic pumps may also be used as in place of the positive displacement pump disclosed by Reilly et al. Peristaltic pumps are well-known in the medical filed for delivery fluids to patients.

Another portion of system 100 is a diluent delivery portion 150 wherein a diluent such as saline is provided in a conventional IV bag type container 152. Diluent container 152 is connected via joining fluid path 200 to inlet port 136 of pump 134. Valve device 210 is operable to control the flow of contrast and saline in joining fluid path 200 to achieve desired proportional mixing of contrast and saline entering pump 134 via pump inlet 136. As shown in FIG. 3, stopcock 146 has a first input port A associated outlet port 142 of pump 136, and first and second outlet ports C, D associated with patient fluid path 144 and waste reservoir 148, respectively. Selector valve 122 may be automatically or remotely operated via control of a valve servomotor 162 and associated valve drive 164. If desired, stopcock 146 may be an automated stopcock, for example, and automated in a similar manner to selector valve 122. Selector valve 122 may also be a “mixing” stopcock valve as disclosed in the Fuson et al. patent described previously (but a two-fluid version of this valve), if it is desired to mix the contents of contrast containers 112, 114 in preset or “fixed” proportions or ratios prior to delivering this contrast mixture to joining fluid path 200. As noted previously, the Fuson et al. “mixing” stopcock valve does not account for upstream pressure and/or viscosity differences which may be present between the contrast media present in contrast containers 112, 114 as does mixing stopcock valve 300 discussed herein in connection with FIGS. 8-10.

Referring further to FIG. 4-7, further details of system 100 including joining fluid path 200 and valve device 210 are shown. Joining fluid path 200 comprises a first fluid branch or line 202 to conduct selected contrast medium to the pump inlet 136 of pump 134 and a second fluid branch or line 204 to conduct diluent (typically saline) to the pump inlet 136 of pump 134. The first and second fluid lines 202, 204 are joined via a joining connector 206, such as a conventional T-connector or a conventional Y-connector as shown. Joining connector 206 is in fluid communication with pump inlet 136 to provide selected contrast medium and saline as a mixture to pump 134 which delivers this fluid mixture to patient fluid path 144 via stopcock 146. Desirably, first and second fluid lines 202, 204 are conventional medical tubing made of a flexible and resiliently compressible material, such as medical grade silicone tubing. As shown in FIG. 5, each of the first and second fluid lines 202, 204 comprises a portion or length L associated with valve device 210 so that valve device 210 is operable to act upon this length L of the first and second fluid lines 202, 204 to restrict fluid flow in one or both of the first and second fluid lines 202, 204.

As best illustrated in FIG. 6, it will be apparent that first and second fluid lines 202, 204 may have different diameters with the second “diluent” fluid line 204 having a smaller diameter than the first “contrast” fluid line 202. This illustration is relevant for contrast media and saline as the fluids to be mixed in system 100 and should not be considered as limiting or exhaustive. The diameters of fluid lines 202, 204 may be set as necessary to achieve controlled proportional mixing of two fluids to deliver a desired mixture ratio of these fluids to pump 134, as described herein. In the case of contrast and saline, which have significantly different viscosities, diluent fluid line 204 is typically smaller in diameter than contrast fluid line 202 as saline has a lower viscosity than typical contrast media. However, in the case where system 100 is used to mix two fluids of similar viscosity and upstream head pressure, the diameters of fluid lines 202, 204 may be roughly or exactly equal. Generally, the fluid associated with fluid line 202 in system 100 has a higher viscosity than the fluid associated with fluid line 204 in system 100 and this generally translates into fluid line 202 having a larger diameter than fluid line 204 to achieve proportional mixing in a “linear” manner pursuant to the discussion herein.

In one embodiment, valve device 210 may be a dual pinch valve that includes a valve actuator 212 operably associated with the first and second fluid lines 202, 204 associated with valve device 220. In the illustrated configuration, valve device 210 comprises a base 214 having two laterally disposed, spaced apart, and upstanding sidewalls 216. The base 214 comprises an upstanding dividing portion 218 in an area 220 defined between sidewalls 216. Sidewalls 216 and dividing portion 218 define a pair of generally parallel channels 222, 224 which accommodate first and second fluid lines 202, 204, respectively. In particular, channels 222, 224 accommodate the length L of the first and second fluid lines 202, 204 which are to be operably engaged by valve actuator 212 as described herein. In one embodiment, valve actuator 212 comprises a pinch block 226 which is movable laterally or horizontally in area 220 to apply compressive forces to one or both of the first and second fluid lines 202, 204. Pinch block 226 is movable in a lateral, side-to-side manner in area 220 by a coupled drive mechanism 228 and servomotor 230. A feature of the configuration of valve device 210 relates to pinch block 226 being appropriately sized, configured, and positioned in area 220 such that both the first and second fluid lines 202, 204 are in a partial state of compression in channels 222, 224 and, thereby, provide flow restriction to the respective fluids passing through the first and second fluid lines 202, 204, namely contrast and saline. Such mutual compression of fluid lines 202, 204 aid in “linear” proportional mixing of contrast and saline during operation of system 100 as described herein. A flow meter 232 is associated with at least one of the fluid lines 202, 204, typically the second “saline” fluid line 204 to measure flow rate of saline to pump inlet 136 of pump 124. Moreover, check valves 234 may be provided in fluid lines 202, 204 to prevent backflow to contrast media containers 112, 114 and diluent container 152 during operation of system 100. A control device or controller 240 is provided in system 100 to control operation of the system 100. As such, controller 240 is electronically connected for two-way communication with at least pump servomotor 138 and pinch block servomotor 230 used to control movement pinch block 226, and desirably in two-way communication with flow meter 232 and selector valve servomotor 162, although flow meter 232 may be adapted just to provide saline flow rate information to controller 240.

In operation, system 100 in the exemplary embodiment outlined in the foregoing delivers a mixture of contrast and saline in any desired proportion or mixture ratio and, with appropriate control of pump 134, this proportional fluid mixture may be delivered to patient P continuously or intermittently as desired. Moreover, system 100 may be controlled such that for incremental or discrete changes in position of valve actuator 212, substantially linear fluid mixture ratio changes between contrast and saline are obtained at the pump inlet 136 which is then delivered by pump 134 via stopcock 146 to patient fluid path 144 and patient P. In system 100, flow rate of saline is determined or known as an input to controller 240 from flow meter 232 and total output flow from pump 134 is a known quantity as a positive-displacement type pump (e.g., operational feedback from pump servomotor 138). From these inputs to controller 240, the amount of contrast needed for a desired proportional mixture at pump inlet 136 may be calculated by controller 240. Controller 240 may then control positioning of pinch block 226 via pinch block servomotor 230 based on the feedback from flow meter 232 and pump servomotor 138. Since flow rate of contrast and saline in fluid lines 202, 204 relates to pressure drop in each line and this changes with viscosity of the respective fluids, differential diametrical sizing of fluid lines fluid lines 202, 204 may be used to provide a generally linear mixing ratio response with positional change of pinch block 226. In other words, controller 240 may continuously change lateral position of pinch block 226 based on inputs (feedback) from flow meter 232 and pump servomotor 138 to provide more or less compression to one or the other of contrast and saline fluid lines 202, 204 which are pre-selected in advance such that this changing compression results in a generally linear mixture ratio response change at pump inlet 136. Accordingly, this result is achieved by sizing fluid lines 202, 204 appropriately and feedback control of pinch block 226 in area 220 such that for each incremental or discrete change in horizontal, side-to-side position of pinch block 226 in area 220, one and, typically, both of the first and second fluid lines 202, 204 will undergo different degrees of compression (more or less) in channels 222, 224 and, therefore, restriction and as a result the concentration of contrast media entering pump inlet 136 changes by substantially a directly proportional or “linear” amount. This directly proportional or linear relationship between pinch block 226 position and contrast medium concentration is reflected in FIG. 7 illustrating a specific implementation or example of operation of system 100.

In the specific and non-limiting example resulting in the graphical model shown in FIG. 7, first or contrast fluid line 202 may have a diameter of 0.187 in and second or saline fluid line 204 may have a diameter of 0.062 in. First and second fluid lines 202, 204 are disposed in respective channels 222, 224. Valve device actuator 212, namely, pinch block 226 is disposed in area 220 such that pinch block 226 at least partially compresses both fluid lines 202, 204 restricting fluid flow of contrast and saline therein, respectively. Flow rate of saline is determined or known from flow meter 232 and total output flow from pump 134 is a known quantity as described previously. As further described previously, change in lateral or side-to-side position of pinch block 226 is controlled by drive mechanism 228 and accompanying servomotor 230. A software algorithm is desirably provided in a control device or controller 240 to control with precision the movement of pinch block 226 in area 220. Such controlled movement of pinch block 226 controls with generally equal precision the amount of compression or restriction in one or both of fluid lines 202, 204. FIG. 7 illustrates that with appropriate relative sizing between fluid lines 202, 204 and feedback control of pinch block 226, incremental positional changes of pinch block 226 result in substantially directly proportional or linear changes in contrast concentration to pump inlet 136 of pump 134 over a range of fluid flows. Accordingly, if it is desired to adjust contrast concentration down or up, movement of pinch block 226 permits additional or less saline pass through valve device 210. For example, if additional saline is required to adjust the desired ratio, pinch block 226 is controlled in response to provide less restriction or compression of saline fluid line 204 while further restricting or compressing contrast fluid line 202. While the foregoing operation of system 100 was described in a manner indicating that both fluid lines 202, 204 are each in partial compression during operation of system 100, it will be clear to those skilled in the art that this need not always be the case and that the system 100 may be configured such that only one fluid line is compressed at a time during operation of system 100.

In the foregoing non-limiting example, the relationship between the change in position of pinch block 226 and the contrast medium concentration has been described as substantially linear. However, it should be noted that nonlinear relationships can be obtained by variations of system 100. For example, for some incremental changes in position of pinch block 226, the concentration of contrast medium may change exponentially or by some other nonlinear factor. For example, if the position changes by an amount x, the concentration may increase by an amount proportional to xn. Such nonlinear relationships may be achieved depending upon several factors including the particular sizes and configurations of the components of system 100, fluid viscosities of the fluids involved, upstream pressure differential, and flow rates utilized.

While the foregoing system 100 and its operation was described with reference to two specific fluids, namely, contrast and saline, this should not be considered as limiting as noted previously. Additionally, system 100 may be expanded to accommodate additional fluids beyond just the two-fluid application discussed hereinabove. This may be accomplished, for example, by adding a third fluid source and an accompanying third flow path in joining flow path 200 passing through valve device 210 and configuring valve device 210 and, namely, valve actuator 212 to act upon this third or additional flow path. In such a situation, pinch block 226 may be sized and configured to include depending portions that can simultaneously compress or pinch two or more of the multi-flow flow paths. For example, in a three-fluid modification, an additional “middle” side wall 216 could be provided to operate on a “middle” flow path so that the modified pinch block 226 can compress it in addition to one of the other two paths. In this manner, two of the three flow paths may be restricted while the other is unrestricted. Alternatively, two separately controlled pinch blocks 226 may be used on respective sides of the “middle” flow path so that the pinching is independently performed by each pinch block 226, allowing the two pinch blocks to move in opposite directions. Moreover, while it was indicated in the foregoing that both fluid lines 202, 204 of joining flow path 200 are each typically at least partially compressed or restricted during operation of valve device 210 and valve actuator 212, fluid lines 202, 204 and valve device 210 and, namely, valve actuator 212 may be designed such that only one of these fluid lines 202, 204 needs to compressed at any given time to achieve proportional fluid mixing and desirably linear proportional fluid mixing while the other fluid line remains in an uncompressed or normal state.

Referring to FIGS. 8-10, a “mixing” stopcock valve 300 is illustrated which may be used in the foregoing systems 10, 10a, 100 in the specific locations/applications identified hereinabove. Mixing stopcock valve 300 is adapted to provide proportional mixing of two (and potentially multiple fluids) which have differing upstream pressures and/or viscosities to realize, according to one feature, accurate proportional mixtures of the two fluids. As described previously, mixing-type stopcock valves are generally known, for example, from Fuson et al. However, the mixing-type stopcock valve described in Fuson et al. assumes that upstream pressure and/or viscosity differences are non-existent or minimal between the two or more fluids being mixed in this valve. In the case of contrast media and saline as examples, viscosity of the two fluids differs substantially such that if the Fuson et al. valve were used with contrast and saline, the preset or fixed proportional mixtures, for example, a 50%-50% mixture in one selection position, designed to result from this valve will not occur with any accuracy. The mixing stopcock 300 of FIGS. 8-10 overcomes this limitation with the prior art as differences in upstream pressure and/or viscosity are accounted for in the structure of the valve.

Mixing stopcock valve 300 comprises a stopcock body 302 formed of plastic material, desirably a medical grade plastic material. A stopcock actuator 304 is disposed in a valve chamber 306 defined by stopcock body 302. Additionally, stopcock body 302 defines a plurality of input ports, namely, a contrast input port 308 and a saline input port 310 in the illustrated embodiment. While mixing stopcock valve 300 is described with reference to contrast and saline for illustrative purposes only, it will be clear that mixing stopcock 300 valve is suitable for applications where it is desired to mix any two (or possibly more) fluids of differing upstream pressure and/or viscosity. Stopcock body 302 further defines an outlet port 312. Inlet ports 308, 310 and outlet port 312 may be configured as luer-type connectors as illustrated. Inlet ports 308, 310 comprise contrast and saline inlet ports 308, 310 in the present example.

Stopcock actuator 304 defines a generally T-shaped internal conduit 314. Internal conduit 314 includes a first conduit portion 316 and a second conduit portion 318 of generally similar or equal diameter, and further defines a third conduit portion 320 of reduced diameter relative to the diameters of first and second conduit portions 316, 318. The relative difference in diameters between third conduit portion 320 and first and second portions 316, 318 accounts for upstream pressure and/or viscosity differences between the fluids to be conducted through stopcock valve 300 as in the present case involving contrast and saline. Relative diameter sizing between third conduit portion 320 and first and second portions 316, 318 to account for upstream pressure and/or fluid viscosity differences is readily within the skill of those skilled in the art.

FIG. 10A-10E illustrate operation of mixing stopcock 300 wherein the various positions of stopcock actuator 304 permit full contrast, full saline, or a mixture of contrast and saline to be delivered to outlet port 312. In FIG. 10A, an “off” or no-flow position of stopcock valve 300 is illustrated, wherein stopcock actuator 304 is positioned such that internal conduit 314 is unaligned with inlet ports 308, 310 and outlet port 312 thereby blocking flow into or from internal conduit 314. In FIG. 10B, stopcock actuator 304 is positioned such that first and second conduit portions 316, 318 of internal conduit 314 are aligned with contrast port 308 and outlet port 312, respectively, to permit delivery of contrast only to outlet port 312. In FIG. 10C, stopcock actuator 304 is positioned such that second conduit portion 318 and reduced diameter third conduit portion 320 are aligned are aligned with saline port 310 and outlet port 312, respectively, to permit delivery of saline only to outlet port 312. It is noted that due to the lower viscosity of saline, the reduced diameter third conduit portion 320 permits a similar flow rate of saline to result in outlet port 312 as obtained in the contrast-only setting shown in FIG. 10A. In FIG. 10D, stopcock actuator 304 is positioned such that first conduit portion 316 and reduced diameter third conduit portion 320 are aligned are aligned with saline port 310 and contrast port 308, respectively, to permit delivery of an accurate 50%-50% mixture of saline and contrast to outlet port 312 via second conduit portion 318 of internal conduit 314. In FIG. 10D, by aligning the reduced diameter third conduit portion 320 with contrast port 308 more restriction is present to the high viscosity contrast medium while less restriction is present to the lower viscosity saline passing through saline port 310 and first conduit portion 316. These relative differences in restriction of flow due to diameter differences results in the combining of contrast and saline in an accurate 50%-50% mixture. As shown in FIGS. 8-9, the contrast only setting of FIG. 10B is represented by a “C” tab mark on stopcock body 302, the saline only setting of FIG. 10C is represented by a “S” tab mark on stopcock body 302, and other proportional mixtures between full contrast and full saline are denoted by tab marks 322 on stopcock body 302. For example, tab mark 322(2) corresponds to a 50%-50% mixture of contrast and saline (FIG. 10D), while tab mark 322(1) corresponds to a 75% saline-25% contrast mixture and tab mark 322(3) corresponds to a 75% contrast-25% saline mixture.

FIG. 10E illustrates a further aspect of mixing stopcock 300 wherein a “custom mix” of contrast and saline may be obtained. Gradations representing these custom proportional mixtures may be visually and tactilely provided on the stopcock body 302 by providing a plurality of tab marks similar to tab marks 322 discussed previously between tab mark “S” and tab mark “C” as an example. In FIG. 10E, stopcock actuator 304 is positioned such that first conduit portion 316 is in fluid communication but not aligned directly with saline port 310 resulting in restricted flow of saline, and reduced diameter third conduit portion 320 is in fluid communication but not aligned directly with contrast port 308 resulting in restricted flow of contrast. As such, a specific proportional mixture of contrast and saline is delivered to outlet port 312 when the stopcock actuator 304 is in the orientation shown in FIG. 10E.

As stopcock actuator 304 is rotated clockwise, the flow restriction between third conduit portion 320 and contrast port 308 decreases and, concurrently, the flow restriction between first conduit portion 316 and saline port 310 also decreases. Since the diameter of third conduit portion 320 is less than that of first conduit portion 316, the rate of flow increases faster through third conduit portion 320 than through first conduit portion 316. This result occurs because a larger percentage of third conduit portion 320 comes into increased fluid communication with contrast port 308 more quickly than occurs between first conduit portion 316 and saline port 310 through the same angle of rotation of stopcock actuator 304. Because the flow rate of contrast increases faster and more fluid area is opened to flow more quickly than on the saline “side” as stopcock actuator 304 is rotated clockwise, the concentration of contrast medium flowing through second conduit portion 318 increases with clockwise rotation of the stopcock actuator 304. Once third conduit portion 320 first comes into substantially unrestricted fluid communication with the contrast port 308 (but still less than a direct alignment between third conduit port 320 and contrast port 308 as in FIG. 10D), some flow restriction between first conduit portion 316 and saline port 310 is still present. Thus, maximum concentration of contrast will occur when the third conduit portion 320 first comes into substantially unrestricted fluid communication with contrast port 308. This maximum concentration is greater than 50% because the maximum amount of contrast is able to flow though third conduit portion 320, but first conduit portion 316 is not fully aligned with saline port 310, as in the orientation shown in FIG. 10D, and some flow restriction is still present. As stopcock actuator 304 is rotated further clockwise, the concentration of contrast decreases as the saline flow restriction is removed and more saline is able to flow through first conduit portion 316. Eventually, first conduit portion 316 is fully aligned with saline port 310 as in the orientation shown in FIG. 10D, making the making the mixture flow present in outlet port 312 a 50% contrast/50% saline mixture.

As the stopcock actuator 304 is rotated either clockwise or counterclockwise from the orientation shown in FIG. 10D, the flow of saline will initially decrease as the flow of contrast remains the same. This is again due to the diameter differences between third conduit portion 320 and first conduit portion 316, whereby first conduit portion 316 is almost immediately subject to flow restriction while third conduit portion 320 remains substantially unrestricted. Thus, concentration of contrast will again increase to greater than 50%. Once third conduit portion 320 begins to close as stopcock actuator 304 is continued to be rotated either clockwise or counterclockwise, the rate of flow decreases faster through third conduit portion 320 than through first conduit portion 316 and the concentration of contrast in the mixture again falls. This result is again due to the diameter differences between the third conduit portion 320 and first conduit portion 316. At some point in the rotation of stopcock actuator 304, flow of saline also ceases as the stopcock actuator 304 is placed in the “OFF” position illustrated in FIG. 10A.

The rate at which contrast medium concentration increases with rotation of stopcock actuator 304 depends upon the relative shapes (e.g., diameters) and relative cross-sectional areas of first conduit portion 316 and third conduit portion 320 open to fluid flow. These relative shapes and cross-sections may be sized and configured such that the percentage of contrast medium will vary in a substantially linear proportion to rotation of stopcock actuator 304. In other words, mixing stopcock 300 may be configured such that for a known angle of rotation of stopcock actuator 304, a substantially directly proportional increase or decrease in concentration of contrast medium is obtained in outlet port 312. For example, rotating stopcock actuator 304 of mixing stopcock 300 can cause the concentration of contrast in the fluid mixture in outlet port 312 to range from substantially 0% in the fluid mixture to a percentage greater than 50%, which can be as much as about 80-90% in the fluid mixture. The rate of change in fluid mixture ratio or proportion may be substantially linear or directly proportion between the foregoing minimum and maximum contrast concentrations.

FIG. 11 illustrates a system 10b which is a variation of system 10a of FIG. 2 and applies the advantages of the “custom mix” application of FIG. 10E to a fluid delivery system comprising two fluids of differing viscosity, such as contrast and saline as an example. The details of system 10b are generally similar to system 10a except that diluent delivery portion 50a is deleted from system 10b and one of contrast containers 12a, 14a, container 14a as an example, is now filled with diluent such as saline and identified in FIG. 11 with reference character 52b for consistency with the foregoing disclosure. Accordingly, fluid path 20b carries both contrast and saline in this embodiment. Additionally, selector valve 22a is replaced with mixing stopcock valve 300, as illustrated, having the features described hereinabove and particularly has the features described in connection with FIG. 10E, namely a “custom mix” capability. Moreover, stopcock valve 300 may be automated in a similar manner to valve 22a. With the positioning of stopcock valve 300 in system 10b, custom proportional mixing, which changes in a substantially linear or directly proportional manner, may be accomplished between contrast medium from container 12b and diluent (e.g., saline) from container 52b which are intended to be exemplary and non-limiting examples of two fluids that may be mixed and delivered by system 10b. Pump 34b may thereby deliver a custom proportional mixture of fluids to patient fluid path 44b via stopcock 46b. A controller 240b similar to controller 240 described previously may be used to control operation of pump 34b via pump servomotor 38b and operation of automatic stopcock valve 300 via valve servomotor 62b. Additionally, controller 240b receives saline flow rate data from flow meter 232b associated with saline fluid path 50b and total flow data via electronic communication with pump servomotor 38b in a similar manner to that described with respect to system 100 discussed hereinabove. As will be clear from the foregoing discussion of controller 240 in system 100, controller 240b provides continuous input to valve servomotor 62b which controls rotational positioning of stopcock actuator 304 to maintain or achieve a desired proportional “custom mix” of contrast and saline to pump inlet 36b. As described previously, flow meter 32b and pump servomotor 38b provide the feedback information or data to controller 240b to allow controller 240b to make continuous rotational updates of stopcock actuator 304 to maintain or achieve the desired proportional “custom mix” of contrast and saline to pump inlet 36b. In other words, controller 240b operates in an analogous manner to controller 240 described previously but in system 10b rotational positional movement of stopcock actuator 304 is used to achieve the desired result of directly proportional or linear changes in contrast concentration to pump inlet 36b of pump 34b over a range of fluid flows.

While embodiments of a system capable of capable of controlled proportional mixing and delivery of fluid mixtures to a patient and, in one particular application, the controlled proportional mixing of contrast medium with saline for delivery to a patient undergoing a medical imaging procedure was provided in the foregoing description, those skilled in the art may make modifications and alterations to these embodiments without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention. Accordingly, the foregoing description is intended to be illustrative rather than restrictive. The invention described hereinabove is defined by the appended claims and all changes to the invention that fall within the meaning and the range of equivalency of the claims are to be embraced within their scope.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US17488109 Feb 192825 Feb 1930Barney WandelSyringe
US20622852 May 19341 Dec 1936Sam BergmanSyringe
US233508518 Mar 194123 Nov 1943Colonnade CompanyValve construction
US248584227 Jul 194625 Oct 1949Pennington William ADifferential anesthesia valve
US259083814 May 19471 Apr 1952Boggs Raymond HAutomatic shutoff valve
US270254727 Feb 195022 Feb 1955Antonina S GlassMotor-driven medical injection apparatus and cartridges therefor
US298519224 Jul 195923 May 1961American Cyanamid CoDouble pinch valve
US305735027 Jun 19589 Oct 1962Baxter Don IncAdministration set
US315720112 Apr 196217 Nov 1964Cardiosonics Medical Instr ComFluid exchange valve
US341153428 Dec 196619 Nov 1968TracorFour-way valve
US345015220 Feb 196717 Jun 1969Acrolab Instr CoFluid pressure operated proportioning transmitter and controller
US346435913 Nov 19672 Sep 1969Medimeter Corp TheApparatus for moving fluid from one system to a second system
US370134529 Sep 197031 Oct 1972Medrad IncAngiographic injector equipment
US383437212 Jan 197310 Sep 1974S TurneyDisposable manifold with atmospheric vent
US386513423 Apr 197311 Feb 1975Cornelius CoSanitary valve
US391849020 Dec 197311 Nov 1975Goda GeorgeFluid switching apparatus
US393597123 May 19743 Feb 1976Consiglio Nazionale Delle RicercheDouble pump device for mixing two or more liquids with variable relative ratios and concentrations
US395708226 Sep 197418 May 1976Arbrook, Inc.Six-way stopcock
US406114216 Jun 19766 Dec 1977Sandoz, Inc.Apparatus for controlling blood flow
US407103917 Mar 197631 Jan 1978Sven Karl Lennart GoofFluid pressure controlled valve assembly
US408096725 Aug 197628 Mar 1978Ivac CorporationParenteral syringe pump drive system with installation indicator means
US40943189 Jul 197613 Jun 1978Burron Medical Products, Inc.Electronic control means for a plurality of intravenous infusion sets
US412162219 Jul 197724 Oct 1978Transcodan, Sven Husted-AndersenMultitube valve
US423015124 Jan 197928 Oct 1980Jonsson Ulf R SPinch valve
US424303118 Dec 19786 Jan 1981Abbott LaboratoriesIntravenous pump filter protector
US425998518 Dec 19787 Apr 1981Brunswick CorporationThree-way solenoid-operated pinch valve assembly
US432883427 Aug 198011 May 1982Scm CorporationPinch valve
US435133227 Mar 198128 Sep 1982Whitney Douglass GSplit nut for injector
US437098210 Sep 19801 Feb 1983Medrad, Inc.Method and apparatus for injecting and for controlling the pressure of fluid being injected into a catheter
US43963855 Dec 19802 Aug 1983Baxter Travenol Laboratories, Inc.Flow metering apparatus for a fluid infusion system
US44641726 Jan 19817 Aug 1984Lichtenstein Eric StefanComputer-control medical care system
US446891415 Dec 19804 Sep 1984Biomed Design, Inc.Apparatus for filling petri dishes
US446912118 Jan 19824 Sep 1984Stanadyne, Inc.Cycle valves
US448459923 Sep 198327 Nov 1984Organon Teknika CorporationPinch-type pressure- or flow-regulating valve
US449115613 Sep 19821 Jan 1985The Lee CompanyMultiple way pinch valve
US455903614 Dec 198317 Dec 1985Wunsch Richard EApparatus for controlling administration of multiple intravenous solutions and medications
US463781714 Nov 198520 Jan 1987Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing CompanySequence valve for piggyback IV administration with occlusion failure sensing
US468410210 Oct 19864 Aug 1987Cobe Laboratories, Inc.Pinch valve
US47101668 Nov 19851 Dec 1987Quest Medical, Inc.Automated drug additive infusion system
US4819637 *1 Sep 198711 Apr 1989Interventional Therapeutics CorporationSystem for artificial vessel embolization and devices for use therewith
US482199628 Jan 198718 Apr 1989Baxter Travenol Laboratories, Inc.Fluid flow control valve and transfer set
US48388562 Jul 198713 Jun 1989Truckee Meadows Research & DevelopmentFluid infusion flow control system
US485432424 Feb 19888 Aug 1989Medrad, Inc.Processor-controlled angiographic injector device
US485812715 Apr 198815 Aug 1989Kdl Technologies, Inc.Apparatus and method for measuring native mammalian blood viscosity
US49254447 Aug 198715 May 1990Baxter Travenol Laboratories, Inc.Closed multi-fluid delivery system and method
US49367533 Jun 198826 Jun 1990The Aro CorporationDiaphragm pump with interchangeable valves and manifolds
US49464344 Feb 19887 Aug 1990Haemonetics CorporationDisposable manifold and valve
US496779716 Aug 19896 Nov 1990Manska Wayne ETap valve
US499354626 Mar 199019 Feb 1991Southard Stanley RSelf draining soap dish
US500252815 Dec 198926 Mar 1991Aubrey PalestrantPercutaneous irrigation and drainage system
US505708115 Jun 199015 Oct 1991Sherwood Medical CompanyPeristaltic infusion device
US508403112 Sep 198928 Jan 1992Research Medical, Inc.Cardioplegia three-way double stopcock
US509784021 Jun 199024 Mar 1992Utah Medical Products, Inc.Medical pressure multiplexing system
US510438725 May 199014 Apr 1992St. Jude Medical, Inc.Bi-planar fluid control valve
US51139064 Sep 199019 May 1992Hoegner Marcelo AMultiple rotary control valve for use with a sterilizing apparatus
US51178701 Apr 19912 Jun 1992Beckman Instruments, Inc.Pinch valve
US51360269 Apr 19914 Aug 1992Behringwerke AktiengesellschaftProcess for removing toxins from protein solutions
US51432574 Dec 19901 Sep 1992Kelrus Corp.System for proportioned liquid dispensing
US519007114 Feb 19912 Mar 1993Akos SulePinch valve assembly
US519960423 Sep 19916 Apr 1993Sultan Chemists, Inc.Irrigation system and method for delivering a selected one of multiple liquid solutions to a treatment site
US520532217 Jun 199227 Apr 1993Puritan-Bennett CorporationMethod and apparatus for flow control for sensor calibration
US520764228 Apr 19894 May 1993Baxter International Inc.Closed multi-fluid delivery system and method
US533605131 Dec 19929 Aug 1994Yehuda TamariInline non-invasive pressure monitoring system for pumps
US53563756 Apr 199218 Oct 1994Namic U.S.A. CorporationPositive pressure fluid delivery and waste removal system
US53777189 Jul 19933 Jan 1995Hydro Systems CompanySelecting and dispensing valve
US538385817 Aug 199224 Jan 1995Medrad, Inc.Front-loading medical injector and syringe for use therewith
US545084724 Oct 199119 Sep 1995Schering AktiengesellschaftProcess for making doses formulation of contrast media from concentrate
US546060922 Nov 199324 Oct 1995Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.Electromechanical inflation/deflation system
US54622517 Jan 199431 Oct 1995Kawabe; RyuMethod and apparatus for controlling the flow of fluids
US5478318 *2 Aug 199426 Dec 1995Yoon; InbaeMultiluminal endoscopic portal
US551585130 Jul 199314 May 1996Goldstein; James A.Angiographic fluid control system
US552946319 Apr 199425 Jun 1996Cordis CorporationPumping apparatus for perfusion and other fluid catheterization procedures
US55692081 Aug 199529 Oct 1996Merit Medical Systems, Inc.System for managing delivery of contrast media
US557350517 Jun 199412 Nov 1996Johnson; Gilbert H.Variable ratio blood-additive solution device and delivery system
US557351520 Apr 199512 Nov 1996Invasatec, Inc.Self purging angiographic injector
US558467128 Nov 199417 Dec 1996Sherwood Medical CompanyApparatus for delivering fluid to a patient
US559294019 Sep 199514 Jan 1997Schering AktiengesellschaftProcess for making doses formulation of contrast media from concentrate
US573041830 Sep 199624 Mar 1998The Kipp GroupMinimum fluid displacement medical connector
US58003977 Oct 19971 Sep 1998Invasatec, Inc.Angiographic system with automatic high/low pressure switching
US5806519 *22 Sep 199515 Sep 1998Medrad, Inc.Total system for contrast delivery
US581706816 Jan 19976 Oct 1998Urrutia; HectorApparatus for controlling flow of biological/medical fluids to and from a patient
US584002621 Sep 199424 Nov 1998Medrad, Inc.Patient specific dosing contrast delivery systems and methods
US586579721 Jan 19972 Feb 1999Zeeman; Mary L.Fluid deliver system
US58823437 Oct 199716 Mar 1999Invasatec, Inc.Dual port syringe
US588521628 Aug 199723 Mar 1999Medrad, Inc.Total system for contrast delivery
US590174519 Jun 199711 May 1999The Hoover CompanyMulti-solution dispensing valve
US591619714 Feb 199729 Jun 1999Medrad, Inc.Injection system, pump system for use therein and method of use of pumping system
US594793525 Nov 19977 Sep 1999Medrad, Inc.Syringes, syringe plungers and injector systems
US607969127 Apr 199827 Jun 2000Dragone; Rocco V.Pinch valve assembly
US609950224 Oct 19978 Aug 2000Acist Medical Systems, Inc.Dual port syringe
US6197000 *13 Apr 19996 Mar 2001Medrad, Inc.Injection system, pump system for use therein and method of use of pumping system
US622104524 Oct 199724 Apr 2001Acist Medical Systems, Inc.Angiographic injector system with automatic high/low pressure switching
US630611722 May 200023 Oct 2001Medrad, Inc.Multi-patient fluid dispensing
US633971830 Jul 199915 Jan 2002Medrad, Inc.Programmable injector control
US63440309 Jun 20005 Feb 2002Acist Medical Systems, Inc.Random speed change injector
US643607228 Jul 199920 Aug 2002Deka Products Limited PartnershipMedical irrigation pump and system
US647167421 Apr 200029 Oct 2002Medrad, Inc.Fluid delivery systems, injector systems and methods of fluid delivery
US648866027 Nov 19993 Dec 2002Ulrich Gmbh & Co. KgInjector for applying fluids, especially contrast agents in X-ray and nuclear spin tomography
US655812527 Nov 19996 May 2003Ulrich Gmbh & Co. KgInjector for applying fluids fitted with a pressure measuring system
US657593012 Mar 199910 Jun 2003Medrad, Inc.Agitation devices and dispensing systems incorporating such agitation devices
US66268624 Apr 200030 Sep 2003Acist Medical Systems, Inc.Fluid management and component detection system
US663826312 Oct 199928 Oct 2003Durect CorporationRegulation of drug delivery through flow diversion
US664353717 Nov 20004 Nov 2003Medrad, Inc.Programmable injector control
US664801721 Mar 200218 Nov 2003Ferton Holding S.A.Valve arrangement for a medical apparatus
US66524895 Feb 200125 Nov 2003Medrad, Inc.Front-loading medical injector and syringes, syringe interfaces, syringe adapters and syringe plungers for use therewith
US66561579 Jun 20002 Dec 2003Acist Medical Systems, Inc.Infinitely refillable syringe
US667610419 Nov 200213 Jan 2004Premetec AbDevice for controlling the flow of liquid using a tube
US66820444 Nov 200127 Jan 2004Wayne L. MillerPinch valve
US67089449 Jan 200223 Mar 2004Delphi Technologies, Inc.Flow control system and valve for controlling a fluid flow
US67490909 Sep 200215 Jun 2004Trek Bicycle CorporationDual bladder sports hydration system
US68576172 Feb 200422 Feb 2005Forberg Hans-JuergenRoller pincher for setting the regulation cross-section of a flexible tubing
US686603912 Sep 200115 Mar 2005Bespak PlcDispensing apparatus
US68666546 Sep 200215 Mar 2005Medrad, Inc.Pressure isolation mechanisms and fluid delivery systems including pressure isolation mechanisms
US687166019 Jun 200229 Mar 2005Bioanalytical Systems, Inc.Pinch valve and method of operating same
US68808083 May 200219 Apr 2005Acist Medical Systems, Inc.Gamma-stable high pressure stopcock
US688907429 Dec 20003 May 2005Medrad, Inc.Patient specific dosing contrast delivery systems and methods
US689299628 Jan 200217 May 2005Jovanka StarchevichFlow regulator
US69012834 Mar 200231 May 2005Medrad, Inc.Adjusting a condition of a fluid medium to produce an image of a patient
US69188932 Oct 200219 Jul 2005Scimed Life Systems, Inc.Multiple port fluid control valves
US69292357 Apr 200316 Aug 2005Massachusetts Institute Of TechnologyApparatus for flow rate control
US69292367 Apr 200316 Aug 2005Massachusetts Institute Of TechnologyApparatus for flow rate control
US695345022 Aug 200211 Oct 2005Baxa CorporationApparatus and method for administration of IV liquid medication and IV flush solutions
US695345331 Jul 200111 Oct 2005Angiodynamics, Inc.Contrast medium delivery system and associated method
US695805324 Nov 199925 Oct 2005Medrad, Inc.Injector providing drive member advancement and engagement with syringe plunger, and method of connecting a syringe to an injector
US704705830 Jan 200216 May 2006Medrad, Inc.Apparatuses, systems and methods for extravasation detection
US706004912 May 200313 Jun 2006Medrad, Inc.Injection system having an agitation mechanism for circulating a fluid medium
US709421618 Oct 200122 Aug 2006Medrad, Inc.Injection system having a pressure isolation mechanism and/or a handheld controller
US71532889 Aug 200526 Dec 2006Acist Medical Systems, Inc.System for detecting air
US726766711 Jul 200211 Sep 2007Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.Fluid management system for coronary intervention
US756632014 Feb 200228 Jul 2009Acist Medical Systems, Inc.Fluid injector system
US761839712 Apr 200617 Nov 2009Medrad, Inc.Fluid delivery system with pump cassette
US766212416 Apr 200216 Feb 2010Acist Medical Systems, Inc.System and method for multiple injection procedures on heart vessels
US776688330 Oct 20073 Aug 2010Medrad, Inc.System and method for proportional mixing and continuous delivery of fluids
US813320520 Nov 200713 Mar 2012Medrad, Inc.Fluid delivery system having a plurality of resilient pressurizing chambers
US200200889544 Nov 200111 Jul 2002Miller Wayne L.Pinch value
US2002013028328 Jan 200219 Sep 2002Jovanka StarchevichFlow regulator
US2002018361619 Apr 20025 Dec 2002Acist Medical System, Inc.Medical injection system
US2003007123311 Oct 200217 Apr 2003Stewart Neil G.Fluid flow adjustment mechanism
US2004006404130 May 20021 Apr 2004Lazzaro Frank A.Front-loading medical injector and syringes, syringe interfaces, syringe adapters and syringe plungers for use therewith
US200400928858 Aug 200313 May 2004Douglas DuchonFluid management and component detection system
US2004024102327 May 20032 Dec 2004Pinkerton Harry E.Positive displacement pump having piston and/or liner with vapor deposited polymer surface
US2005010444420 Dec 200419 May 2005Callan Gerald W.Pressure isolation mechanisms, method of use thereof and fluid delivery systems including pressure isolation mechanisms
US2005023057530 Sep 200420 Oct 2005Zelenski Karen MMobile fluid delivery system with detachable pedestal
US2005023440716 Apr 200420 Oct 2005Spohn Michael AFluid delivery system, fluid control device, and methods associated with the fluid delivery system and fluid control device
US2005023442816 Apr 200420 Oct 2005Spohn Michael AFluid delivery system, fluid path set, sterile connector and improved drip chamber and pressure isolation mechanism
US200502458831 Jul 20053 Nov 2005Baldwin Brian EApparatus and method for administration of IV liquid medication and IV flush solutions
US2005027305621 Mar 20058 Dec 2005Haury John AControl device for a fluid delivery system
US2006010800822 Nov 200525 May 2006Industrie Borla S.P.A.Flow component for medical infusion / transfusion lines
US200601552485 Aug 200313 Jul 2006Satoru HashimotoFluid control device
US200601674156 Aug 200327 Jul 2006Shigeru NemotoMedicine liquid injection device for injecting plural kinds of medicine liquid without mixing them
US2006017863229 Sep 200510 Aug 2006Trombley Frederick W IiiInjector system with a manual control device
US2007006087411 Sep 200615 Mar 2007Nesbitt Matthew TApparatus and methods for controlling and automating fluid infusion activities
US200702046126 Mar 20066 Sep 2007Klimowicz Michael AShape memory alloy latching valve
US2007024443731 Mar 200618 Oct 2007Luis CastilloFluid delivery system with bulk container and pump assembly
US2011000280210 Dec 20086 Jan 2011Medrad, Inc.Continuous fluid delivery system
US2012024401825 Mar 201127 Sep 2012Reilly David MPumping devices, systems including multiple pistons and methods for use with medical fluids
US2014022482920 Sep 201214 Aug 2014Bayer Medical Care Inc.Continuous Multi-Fluid Delivery System and Method
USRE380743 Apr 20028 Apr 2003Angiodynamics, Inc.Contrast medium delivery system and associated method
CA2045070A120 Jun 19911 Feb 1992Kazuaki MizoguchiControl system for dsa and ptca
EP1172124A211 Jul 200116 Jan 2002Sidam di Azzolini Graziano E C. S.a.s.Three-way valve with self-supporting body for medical use
JPH06142199A Title not available
JPH06142200A Title not available
WO2000010629A119 Aug 19992 Mar 2000Medrad, Inc.Connector and tubing assembly for use with a syringe
WO2001052921A217 Jan 200126 Jul 2001Societe Des Produits Nestle S.A.Valve arrangement
WO2003015851A120 Aug 200227 Feb 2003Scimed Life Systems, Inc.Pressure transducer protection valve
WO2006056828A112 Aug 20051 Jun 2006Thierry NavarroVolumetric pump with reciprocated and rotated piston
Non-Patent Citations
Reference
1International Search Report, Written Opinion, and International Preliminary Report on Patentability from corresponding PCT Application No. PCT/US2008/80885.
Classifications
International ClassificationA61M5/142, A61M5/00, A61M5/168
Cooperative ClassificationA61M5/16827, A61M5/1422, A61M5/007
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
21 Oct 2015FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 4
27 Oct 2015ASAssignment
Owner name: BAYER HEALTHCARE LLC, NEW JERSEY
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:BAYER MEDICAL CARE, INC.;REEL/FRAME:036965/0244
Effective date: 20151019