Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUSRE44830 E1
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 12/662,682
Publication date8 Apr 2014
Filing date28 Apr 2010
Priority date28 Apr 2000
Also published asUSRE43694
Publication number12662682, 662682, US RE44830 E1, US RE44830E1, US-E1-RE44830, USRE44830 E1, USRE44830E1
InventorsThomas Sawitowski
Original AssigneeSharp Kabushiki Kaisha
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Stamping tool, casting mold and methods for structuring a surface of a work piece
US RE44830 E1
Abstract
A simple, cost-effective stamping or molding in the nanometer range is enabled using a stamping surface or molding face with a surface layer having hollow chambers that have been formed by anodic oxidation.
Images(3)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(45)
What is claimed is:
1. Method for producing a stamping tool with a structured stamping surface, comprising the steps of:
oxidizing a surface or covering layer of the stamping tool for forming the stamping surface at least partially anodally and forming open hollow chambers that are at least essentially uniformly shaped and at least essentially evenly distributed over the surface or surface area of the stamping surface without the use of a model.
2. Method according to claim 1, wherein the surface or covering layer is oxidized potentiostatically.
3. Method according to claim 1, wherein the surface layer or covering layer is oxidized with varying voltage.
4. Method according to claim 3, wherein the surface or covering layer is oxidized galvanostatically.
5. Method according to claim 1, wherein the surface or covering layer that is oxidized is formed of a material selected from the group consisting of aluminum, silicon, iron, steel and titanium.
6. Method according to claim 1, comprising the additional step of modifying the stamping surface at least one of before and after said oxidizing step for producing a rough structure.
7. Method for structuring a surface of a work piece in a nanometer range by means of a stamping tool with a structured stamping surface, comprising at least one of pressing and rolling a stamping surface, formed of an anodally oxidized surface or covering layer with open hollow chambers which have diameters in a nanometer range that have been created model-free by anodic oxidation, onto the surface to be structured.
8. Method according to claim 7, wherein the surface is first roughly structured in a first step by means of a first stamping tool and then is finely structured by means of a second stamping tool in a second step.
9. Method according to claim 8, wherein the surface is finely structured by means of said second stamping tool in said second step with a stamping force that is reduced relative to that applied with said first stamping tool.
10. Method according to claim 8, wherein the surface is finely structured by means of said second stamping tool in said second step after hardening of the surface structured by said first step.
11. Method for at least partially structuring a surface of a cast work piece, comprising the steps of: casting the work piece using a casting mold with a structured molding face having an anodally oxidized surface or covering layer with open hollow chambers created model-free by anodic oxidation.
12. Method according to claim 11, wherein the surface or covering layer is formed at least substantially of a material selected from the group consisting of aluminum oxide, silicon oxide, iron oxide, oxidized steel, and titanium oxide.
13. An anti-reflection surface, comprising:
a surface including at least one of projections of diameters in a nanometer range, and hollow chambers including diameters in a nanometer range, wherein the at least one of projections and hollow chambers on the anti-reflection surface are irregularly distributed, and wherein groups of the projections form larger projections of an order ranging from 0.1-50 micrometers, the larger projections including a surface having additional projections of 10-400 nm.
14. The anti-reflection surface according to claim 13, wherein the surface comprises an anodically oxidized material selected from the group consisting of aluminum, silicon, iron, steel and titanium.
15. The anti-reflection surface of claim 13, wherein the hollow chambers include diameters ranging from 10-500 nanometers.
16. The anti-reflection surface of claim 15, wherein the hollow chambers include diameters ranging from 15-200 nanometers.
17. The anti-reflection surface of claim 16, wherein the hollow chambers include diameters ranging from 20-100 nanometers.
18. The anti-reflection surface of claim 13, wherein the projections include diameters ranging from 10-400 nanometers.
19. A device, comprising the anti-reflection surface of claim 13.
20. A workpiece, comprising the anti-reflection surface of claim 13.
21. A device, comprising a workpiece, wherein the anti-reflection surface of claim 13 is a surface of the workpiece.
22. The anti-reflection surface of claim 13, wherein the projections include irregularly shaped projections.
23. The anti-reflection surface of claim 13, wherein the projections are of a somewhat conical shape.
24. The anti-reflection surface of claim 13, wherein the hollow chambers are irregularly shaped hollow chambers.
25. The anti-reflection surface of claim 13, wherein the hollow chambers are of a somewhat conical shape.
26. The anti-reflection surface of claim 13, wherein the anti-reflection surface is formed from an acrylic resin.
27. The anti-reflection surface of claim 26, wherein the acrylic resin is PMMA.
28. The anti-reflection surface of claim 13, wherein the hollow chambers include structural widths ranging from 30-600 nanometers.
29. An anti-reflection surface, comprising:
a surface including at least one of projections and hollow chambers distributed over the surface at a density of 109 to 1011/cm2, wherein the at least one of projections and hollow chambers have a substantially conical shape.
30. The anti-reflection surface according to claim 29, wherein the anti-reflection surface is formed of an anodically oxidized material selected from the group consisting of aluminum, silicon, iron, steel and titanium.
31. The anti-reflection surface of claim 29, wherein the hollow chambers of the anti-reflection surface includes diameters ranging from 10-500 nanometers.
32. The anti-reflection surface of claim 31, wherein the hollow chambers include diameters ranging from 15-200 nanometers.
33. The anti-reflection surface of claim 32, wherein the hollow chambers include diameters ranging from 20-100 nanometers.
34. The anti-reflection surface of claim 29, wherein the projections include diameters ranging from 10-400 nanometers.
35. The anti-reflection surface of claim 34, wherein groups of the projections form larger projections of an order ranging from 0.1-50 micrometers.
36. A device, comprising the anti-reflection surface of claim 29.
37. A workpiece, comprising the anti-reflection surface of claim 29.
38. A device, comprising a workpiece, wherein the anti-reflection surface of claim 29 is a surface of the workpiece.
39. The anti-reflection surface of claim 29, wherein the hollow chambers of the anti-reflection surface includes irregularly distributed hollow chambers.
40. The anti-reflection surface of claim 29, wherein the anti-reflection surface includes irregularly shaped hollow chambers.
41. The anti-reflection surface of claim 29, wherein the anti-reflection surface includes irregularly distributed projections.
42. The anti-reflection surface of claim 29, wherein the anti-reflection surface includes irregularly shaped projections.
43. The anti-reflection surface of claim 29, wherein the anti-reflection surface is formed from an acrylic resin.
44. The anti-reflection surface of claim 43, wherein the acrylic resin is PMMA.
45. The anti-reflection surface of claim 29, wherein the anti-reflection surface includes hollow chambers with structural widths ranging from 30-600 nanometers.
Description

Notice: This application is a reissue divisional of application Ser. No. 12/213,990, which is an application for reissue of U.S. Pat. No. 7,066,234. More than one reissue application has been filed for the reissue of U.S. Pat. No. 7,066,234. In particular, three applications for reissue of U.S. Pat. No. 7,066,234 have been filed. The reissue applications are application Ser. No. 12/213,990 filed on Jun. 26, 2008 and a divisional reissue of the broadening reissue of U.S. Pat. No. 7,066,234 (Ser. No. 12/213,990) filed on Apr. 28, 2010 (the present application), and a continuation reissue of the broadening reissue of U.S. Pat. No. 7,066,234 (Ser. No. 12/213,990) filed on Apr. 28, 2010 (the serial number of which is unknown).

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application is a continuation-in-part of International Patent Application No. PCT/EP02/07240 filed Jul. 1, 2002, which designated the United States and of International Patent Application No. PCT/EP01/04650 Apr. 25, 2001 which designated the United States.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

The present invention relates to a stamping tool having a structured stamping surface, a casting mold, a method for producing a stamping tool or a casting mold having a structured stamping surface, and methods for structuring a surface of a work piece.

2. Description of Related Art

Stamping constitutes a non-cutting manufacturing method for producing a relief-like or structured surface on a work piece. A stamping tool with a profiled or structured stamping surface is used for this. The stamping surface is pressed with such a stamping force onto the surface to be structured of the work piece or rolled on it, so that the work piece becomes plastic and flows into depressions in the stamping tool or the stamping surface. Due to the considerable stamping forces employed, the stamping tool and the stamping surface are usually made of metal.

Further, molding is known. A casting mold with a structured molding face can be used for producing a cast work piece with a structured surface by casting.

In the present invention, nanometer range is understood to mean profiling or structuring with structural widths of less than 1000 nm, especially of less than 500 nm. The structural width designates the dimension by which individual structural elements, such as bumps, are repeated, that is, for example, the average distance of adjacent bumps from one another or of depressions from one another.

It is very expensive to manufacture a stamping tool with a very finely structured or profiled stamping surface. To create a so-called “moth eye structure”—evenly arranged, egg carton-like bumps—or fine grooves in the nanometer range, it is known from practice to use a lighting pattern with periodic intensity modulation for illuminating photosensitive material via two interfering laser beams. After the illuminated material develops, a periodic surface structure results, which is molded into other materials using various replication methods and finally into nickel, for example, by electroforming. This type of manufacturing is very expensive and is suited only for structuring even surfaces.

In the nanometer range, lithographic methods for structuring a stamping surface of a stamping tool can still only be used in a limited way. It should be noted here that the wavelength of the visible light alone is already 400 to 750 nm. In each case, lithographic methods are very costly.

German Patent DE 197 27 132 C2 discloses the manufacturing of a stamping tool by means of electrolytic machining. During electrolytic machining, a metallic stamping surface of the stamping tool is treated electrolytically, wherein, being an anode in a fast-flowing electrolyte, the metal of the stamping surface is located at a minimal distance opposite a cathode and is dissolved in surface terms. The metal or the stamping surface contains the structure determined by the form of the cathode, and the cathode thus forms a recipient vessel that is shaped electrochemically. German Patent DE 197 27 132 C2 also provides the use of a cylindrical rotation electrode, whose covering surface presents a negative form of the desired stamping structure. Here, too, there is considerable expense involved and structuring in the nanometre range is at least only partly possible.

The use of anodally oxidized surface layers made of aluminum or magnesium in casting molds to increase resistance is known from Swiss Patent CH 251 451. However, the forming of hollow chambers by oxidation for structuring a molded article in the nanometer range is not disclosed.

Forming hollow chambers by anodic oxidation of aluminum is described in published European Patent Application EP 0 931 859 A1, for example.

However, the related art does not provide a cost-effective solution to production of a work piece, like a stamped piece, or casting with a surface structured in the nanometer range.

Consequently, there is a need for a stamping tool, a casting mold, a method for manufacturing a stamping tool or a casting mold, a method for structuring a surface of a work piece and a method for using a surface layer provided with open hollow chambers, wherein structuring in the nanometer range is enabled in a simple and cost-effective manner.

SUMMARY OF INVENTION

A primary object of the present invention is to provide a stamping tool, a casting mold, a method for manufacturing a stamping tool or a casting mold, a method for structuring a surface of a work piece and a method for using a surface layer provided with open hollow chambers, wherein structuring in the nanometer range is enabled in a simple and cost-effective manner.

One aspect of the present invention is to use a porous oxide layer, and especially a surface layer, formed via anodic oxidation and provided with open hollow chambers, as stamping surface of a stamping tool. This leads to several advantages.

First, an oxide layer, especially the preferably provided aluminum oxide, is relatively hard. With respect to the often very high stamping forces, this is an advantage for being able to stamp work pieces of various materials and for achieving a long tool life of the stamping tool.

Second, model-free oxidation is very easy and cost-effective to carry out. In particular, producing hollow chambers is (quasi) independent of the form and configuration of the cathodes employed, so a model or negative form is not required, as in electrolytic machining.

Third, the provided model-free forming of open hollow chambers via anodic oxidation enables structures to be manufactured in the nanometer range very easily and cost-effectively. In particular, structural widths of 500 nm and less, even 100 nm and less are possible.

Fourth, depending on choice of procedural conditions the configuration—regular or irregular—and the surface density of the hollow chambers can be varied as required.

Fifth, likewise, by simply varying the procedural conditions—especially by variation of the voltage during anodizing—the form of the hollow chambers, and thus, the structure of the stamping surface, can be adjusted and varied.

Sixth, the anodally oxidized surface layer can be used directly, thus without further molding, as the stamping surface of a stamping tool.

A further aspect of the present invention is to use a porous oxide layer, and especially a surface layer with open hollow chambers, formed by anodic oxidation directly or model-free, thus independent of a cathode form, as molding face or inner face of a casting mold. This has a number of advantages.

First, an oxide layer, especially the preferably provided aluminum oxide, is relatively hard. With respect to the often very high forces utilized in casting or molding, this is an advantage for being able to produce work pieces of various materials and for achieving a long shelf life of the casting mold.

Second, the model-free oxidation is very easy and cost-effective to carry out. Producing hollow chambers is (quasi) independent on the form and configuration of the cathodes used, and a model or negative form is therefore not required.

Third, the model-free forming of open hollow chambers as provided via anodic oxidation enables structures to be manufactured in the nanometer range very easily and cost-effectively. In particular, structural widths of 500 nm and less, even 100 nm and less are possible.

Fourth, depending on choice of procedural conditions the configuration—regular or irregular—and the surface density of the hollow chambers can be varied as required.

Fifth, likewise, by simply varying the procedural conditions—especially by variation of the voltage during anodizing—the form of the hollow chambers, and thus, the structure of the surface can be adjusted and varied.

Sixth, the anodally oxidized surface layer can be used directly, thus without further molding, as the surface of a casting mold.

Further advantages, properties, features and goals of the present invention will emerge from the following description of preferred embodiments with reference to the drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a very schematic sectional elevation of a stamping tool and a work piece structured therewith according to a first embodiment; and

FIG. 2 is a very schematic sectional elevation of a proposed casting mold and a work piece structured therewith according to an second embodiment.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

In a highly simplified sectional elevation, FIG. 1 shows a proposed stamping tool 1 with a structured, i.e., profiled or relief-like, stamping surface 2. The stamping surface 2 is formed by a side of a surface layer 3 which is provided with open hollow chambers 4 produced by anodic oxidation or an originally flat surface.

In the illustrative example, the surface layer is applied to a support 5 of the stamping tool 1. For example, the surface layer 3 is applied to the support 5 by plasma coating. However, the surface layer 3 can also be formed directly by the support 5, and thus can be a surface area of the support 5.

It is understood that the surface layer 3 can also be deposited on the support 5 using other methods.

In the illustrative example, the surface layer 3 preferably is made of aluminum which is applied to the support 5, especially via plasma coating, and adheres well to the support 5, which is preferably made of metal, especially iron or steel.

The surface layer 3 is at least partially anodally oxidized in the illustrative example, to the depth of a covering layer 6, whereby the hollow chambers 4 are formed in the surface layer 3. The hollow chambers 4 are formed immediately and/or without any model or pattern, i.e., the arrangement, distribution, form and the like of the hollow chambers 4—as opposed to electrolytic machining—is, thus, at least essentially independent of the surface shape and the proximity of the cathode (not shown) used in oxidation. Moreover, according to the invention, the “valve effect,” namely the occurring, independent formation of hollow chambers 4 during oxidation or anodization of the surface layer 3—at least in particular in the so-called valve metals—is used. This immediate or undefined formation of the hollow chambers 4 does not preclude an additional (before or after) formation or structuring of the stamping surface 2 or the hollow chambers 4 by means of a negative form.

Depending on how completely or how deeply the surface layer 3 is oxidized, or whether the surface layer 3 is formed directly by the support 5, the surface layer 3 can correspond to the oxidized covering layer 6. In this case, for example, the intermediate layer 7, which is comprised of aluminum in the illustrative example, and which promotes very good adhesion between the covering layer 6 and the support 5, can be omitted.

For example, according to an alternative embodiment, the uncoated support 5 can be oxidized anodally on its surface forming the stamping surface 2 by formation of a porous oxide layer or hollow chambers 4. This is possible, for example, for a support 5 made of iron or steel, especially stainless steel. In this case, the surface layer 3 then corresponds to the covering layer 6, i.e., the oxidized layer.

Aluminum and iron or steel, especially stainless steel, have already been named as particularly preferred materials, used at least substantially for forming the anodally oxidized surface layer 3 or the covering layer 6. However, silicon and titanium as well as other valve metals, for example, can also be used.

In the illustrative example, the proportions in size are not presented true to scale. The stamping tool 1 or its stamping surface 2 preferably has a structural width S in the nanometer range, especially from 30 to 600 nm and preferably from 50 to 200 nm.

The hollow chambers 4 or their openings have an average diameter D of essentially 10 to 500 nm, preferably 15 to 200 nm and especially 20 to 100 nm.

In the illustrative example, the hollow chambers 4 are designed essentially lengthwise, wherein their depth T is preferably at least approximately 0.5 times the above-mentioned, average diameter D and especially approximately 1.0 to 10 times the diameter D.

Here, the hollow chambers 4 are designed at least substantially similarly in shape. In particular, the hollow chambers 4 are designed substantially cylindrically. However, the hollow chambers 4 can also present a form deviating therefrom, for example, they can be designed substantially conically.

In general, the hollow chambers 4 can also have a cross-section varying in its depth T, form and/or diameter. In addition to this, the hollow chambers 4 can be designed substantially conically as a rough structure, for example, and can be provided along their walls with many fine depressions (small hollow chambers) to fonts a fine structure in each case.

The hollow chambers 4 are preferably distributed at least substantially uniformly over the surface of the surface layer 3 or over the stamping surface 2. However, uneven distribution is also feasible.

The hollow chambers or their openings are preferably distributed over the stamping surface 2 with a surface density of 109 to 1011/cm2. In the illustrative example, the surface density is substantially constant over the stamping surface 2. However, the surface density can also vary partially on the stamping surface 2 as required.

The area of the openings of the hollow chambers 4 is, at the most, preferably 50% of the extension area of the stamping surface 2. A sufficiently high stability or carrying capacity of the stamping surface 2 or the surface layer 3/covering layer 6 is hereby achieved with respect to the high stresses arising during the stamping.

In general, the form, configuration, surface density and the like of the hollow chambers 4 can be controlled by corresponding choice of the procedural conditions during anodic oxidation. For example, with oxidation of aluminium under potentiostatic conditions—with at least substantially constant voltage—an at least substantially even cross-section of the hollow chambers 4 is achieved over their depth T, i.e., an at least substantially cylindrical form. Accordingly, the form of the hollow chambers 4 can be influenced by varying the voltage. For example, galvanostatic oxidation—i.e., at an at least substantially constant current—leads to a somewhat conical or hill-like form of the hollow chambers 4, so that a type of “moth eye structure” or the like can be formed in this way. The surface density of the hollow chambers 4, i.e., the number of hollow chambers 4 per surface unit of the stamping surface 2, depends inter alia on the voltage and the current during anodizing.

As required, the hollow chambers 4 can vary in their form, depth and/or surface density over the stamping surface 2, especially partially, and/or be designed only partly on the stamping surface 2.

If required, the stamping surface 2 can also be modified before and/or after oxidation—creation of the hollow chambers 4—for example, via a lithographic process, etching and/or other, preferably material-stripping methods, for example, to create a rough structure in the form of paths, ridges, areas with or without hollow chambers 4, large-surface bumps or depressions and the like on the stamping surface 2.

Chemical sizing, especially by partial etching of oxide material, can also be carried out to modify the stamping surface 2 or the hollow chambers 4. In this way, the surface ratio of the opening surfaces of the hollow chambers 4 to the extension area of the stamping surface 2 can be varied or increased. It is understood that other modifications of the stamping surface 2 or of the hollow chambers 4 can also be made, depending on reaction time and intensity.

A particular advantage of the proposed solution is that the stamping surface 2 can also be designed in a curved manner, for example, cylindrically, bulged, lenticular, or hemispherical. In particular, the stamping surface 2 can have practically any shape at all. Compared to the prior art, it is thus not necessary that the stamping surface 2 or the surface of the surface layer 3/covering layer 6 is at least substantially even.

The figure also shows a work piece 8, likewise in a highly simplified, not true-to-scale, sectional diagram, in the already stamped state, i.e., with a surface 9 already structured by the stamping tool 1. Stamping takes places especially by the stamping tool 1 being pressed with a corresponding stamping force onto the surface 9 of the work piece 8 to be structured, so that the material of the work piece 8 flows at least partially into the hollow chambers 4. Here, it is not necessary that the work piece 8, as illustrated diagrammatically in the figure, is designed in a monobloc manner. Instead, the work piece 8 can also present another type of surface layer or surface coating or the like, not illustrated here, which forms the surface 9 and is structured or designed in a relief-like manner by means of the stamping tool 1.

Instead of the stamp-like embossing, the stamping tool 1 can be unrolled with corresponding shaping/form of the to stamping surface 2 and/or the surface 9 to be structured. By way of example, the stamping surface 2 and/or the surface 9 to be structured can be designed in a curved manner—for example, cylindrically—or in a bulged manner, to enable reciprocal unrolling for structuring the surface 9.

Both a die stamping process and also a rolling stamp process can be realized with the proposed solution.

Furthermore, the proposed solution can be used for embossing as well as closed-die coining or coining. A corresponding abutment for the work piece 8 or a corresponding countertool is not illustrated for clarification purposes.

The proposed stamping tool 1 allows very fine structuring of the work piece 8 or its surface 9. If needed, the work piece 8 or the surface 9 can also be profiled or structured repeatedly, first with a rough structured stamping tool—optionally manufactured also in customary fashion—and then with the finer structured stamping tool 1 proposed here. A lower stamping force is employed, especially during the second stamping procedure using the finer stamping tool 1 and/or, in an intermediate step, the surface 9 is hardened in order not to fully neutralize the rough structure produced at first stamping, but to achieve superposition from the rough structure and the fine structure of both stamping tools. Thus, it is possible, for example, to create on the surface 9 relatively large bumps of the order of 0.1 to 50 μm, each with several, relatively small protrusions, for example, of the order of 10 to 400 nm, on the surface 9 of the work piece 8.

The proposed solution very easily and cost-effectively enables very fine structuring of the surface 9. Accordingly, there is a very broad area of application. For example, such especially very fine structuring can be utilized in anti-reflex layers, for altering radiation emission of structured surfaces, in sensory analysis, in catalysis, in self-cleaning surfaces, in improving surface wettability and the like. In particular, the proposed solution also extends to the use of work pieces 8 with structured surfaces 9 that have been structured by use of the proposed stamping tool 1 for the purposes mentioned hereinabove.

In particular, the proposed solution is suited for stamping synthetic materials—for example, PMMA (polymethyl methacrylates), Teflon or the like, metals—for example, gold, silver, platinum, lead, indium, cadmium, zinc or the like, polymer coatings—for example, paints, dyes or the like, and inorganic coating systems etc.

Expressed in general terms, an essential aspect of the present invention according to the first embodiment is using a surface layer with hollow chambers formed by anodic oxidation as a bottom die or upper die, to enable surface structuring in the nanometer range.

Now, the second embodiment of the present invention is discussed with reference to FIG. 2.

In a highly simplified partial sectional elevation, FIG. 2 shows a proposed casting mold 11 with an at least partially structured, thus profiled or relief-like inner face or molding face 12. The face 12 is formed by a top or flat side of a surface layer 13 that is provided with open hollow chambers 14 produced by anodic oxidation.

In the illustrative example, the surface layer 13 is applied to a support 15 of the casting mold 11. For example, the surface layer 13 is applied to the support 15 by plasma coating. However, the surface layer 13 can also be formed directly by the support 15, and thus can be a surface area of the support 15.

It is understood that the surface layer 13 can also be deposited on the support 15 using other methods.

In the illustrative example, the surface layer 13 preferably comprises aluminum, which is applied to the support 15 especially via plasma coating, and adheres well to the support 15 that is preferably made of metal, especially iron or steel.

The surface layer 13 is at least partially anodally oxidized, in the illustrative example, to the depth of a covering layer 16, by means of which the hollow chambers 14 are formed in the surface layer 13 or covering layer 16. The hollow chambers 14 are formed directly or model-free, that is, the configuration, distribution, form and the like of the hollow chambers 14 is, compared to electrolytic machining, therefore at least substantially dependent on the surface shape and proximity of the cathodes (not illustrated here) used during oxidation. Rather, the ‘valve effect’ is made use of here, as per the invention, namely the automatic development of the hollow chambers 14 occurring during oxidation or anodizing of the surface layer 13, at least especially with so-called valve metals. Such direct and model-free production of the hollow chambers 14 does not exclude additional (prior or subsequent) forming or structuring of the face 12 or of the hollow chambers 14 by a negative form.

Depending on how completely or how deeply the surface layer 13 is oxidized, or whether the surface layer 13 is formed directly by the support 15, the surface layer 13 can correspond to the oxidized covering layer 16. In the illustrative example, in this case, for example, the intermediate layer 17, which is comprised of aluminum and which promotes very good adhesion between the covering layer 16 and the support 15, can be omitted.

For example, according to a design alternative the uncoated support 15 can be oxidized anodally on its surface forming the face 12 by formation of a porous oxide layer or hollow chambers 14. This is possible for example, for a support 15 made of iron or steel, especially stainless steel. In this case the surface layer 13 then corresponds to the covering layer 16, i.e., the oxidized layer.

Aluminum and iron or steel, especially stainless steel, have already been named as particularly preferred materials, used at least substantially for forming the anodally oxidized surface layer 13 or the covering layer 16. However, silicon and titanium as well as other valve metals for example, can also be used.

In the illustrative example, the proportions in size are not presented true to scale. The face 12 preferably has a structural width S in the nanometer range, especially of 130 to 600 nm and preferably of 50 to 200 nm. The hollow chambers 14 or their openings have an average diameter D of essentially 10 to 500 nm, preferably 15 to 200 nm and especially 20 to 100 nm.

In the illustrative example, the hollow chambers 14 are designed essentially lengthwise, wherein their depth T is preferably at least approximately 0.5 times the above-mentioned, average diameter D and especially approximately 1.0 to 10 times the diameter D.

The hollow chambers 14 are designed, here, at least substantially identically. In particular, the hollow chambers 14 are designed substantially cylindrically. However, the hollow chambers 14 can also present a form deviating therefrom, for example, they can be designed substantially conically.

In general the hollow chambers 14 can also have a cross-section varying in its depth T in form and/or diameter. In addition to this, the hollow chambers 14 can be designed substantially conically as a rough structure, for example, and can be provided with many fine depressions (small hollow chambers) along their walls to form a fine structure in each case.

The hollow chambers 14 are preferably distributed at least substantially uniformly over the surface of the surface layer 13 or over the face 12. However, uneven distribution is also feasible.

The hollow chambers or their openings are preferably distributed with a surface density of 109 to 1011/cm. In the illustrative example, the surface density is substantially constant over the face 12. However, the surface density can also vary selectively on the surface 12 as required.

The area of the openings of the hollow chambers 14 is at the most preferably 50% of the extension area of the face 12. A sufficiently high stability or carrying capacity of the face 12 or the surface layer 13/covering layer 16 is thereby achieved with respect to the high stresses arising partially from molding or casting.

In general, the form, configuration, surface density and the like of the hollow chambers 14 can be controlled by corresponding choice of the procedural conditions during anodic oxidation. For example, with oxidation of aluminium under potentiostatic conditions—i.e., at least at substantially constant voltage—an at least substantially uniform cross-section of the hollow chambers 14 is achieved over their depth T, i.e., an at least substantially cylindrical form. Accordingly, the form of the hollow chambers 14 can be influenced by varying the voltage. For example, galvanostatic oxidation, i.e., at an at least substantially constant current, leads to a somewhat conical or hill-like form of the hollow chambers 14, so that a type of “moth eye structure” or the like can be formed in this way. The area density of the hollow chambers 14, i.e., the number of hollow chambers 14 per area unit on the face 2, depends inter alia on the voltage and the current during anodizing.

As required, the hollow chambers 14 can vary in their form, depth and/or surface density over the face 2, especially partially, and/or be designed only partially on the face 12.

And, if required, the face 12 can also be modified before and/or after oxidation—thus, creation of the hollow chambers 14—for example, via a lithographic process, etching and/or other, preferably material-stripping methods, for example, to create a rough structure in the form of paths, ridges, areas with or without hollow chambers 14, large-surface bumps or depressions and the like on the face 12.

Mechanical processing and/or chemical sizing, especially by partial etching of oxide material, can also be carried out to modify the face 12 or the hollow chambers 14. In this way, the area ratio of the opening areas of the hollow chambers 14 to the extension area of the face 12 can be varied or increased. It is understood that other modifications of the face 12 or of the hollow chambers 14 can also be made, depending on reaction time and intensity.

A particular advantage of the proposed solution is that the face 12 can also be designed in practically any shape at all.

The figure also shows a molded article or work piece 18, likewise in a highly simplified, not true-to-scale, sectional diagram, in the already finished state, i.e., with a surface 19 already structured by the casting mold 11 after casting.

The proposed casting mold 11 allows very fine structuring of the work piece 18 or its surface 19. It is possible, for example, to create relatively large bumps of the order of 0.1 to 50 μm each with several, relatively small projections on the surface 19, for example, of the order of 10 to 400 nm, on the surface 19 of the work piece 18.

The proposed solution very easily and cost-effectively enables very fine structuring of the surface 19. Accordingly, there is a very broad area of application. For example, such especially very fine structuring can be utilized in anti-reflex layers, for altering radiation emission of structured surfaces, in sensory analysis, in catalysis, in self-cleaning surfaces, in improving surface wettability and the like.

Expressed in general terms, an essential aspect of the present invention is casting or molding a surface layer with hollow chambers formed directly or model-free by anodic oxidation, to enable surface structuring in the nanometer range.

The present invention is especially not limited to a casting mold 11 in the narrower sense. Rather, the surface layer 13 or covering layer 16 is to be understood as model for a general structuring of a surface, a tool, a work piece or the like in the nanometer range. In particular, the model may be molded in any way at all. In particular, no reshaping is required when molding. For example, with the work piece 18 to be manufactured having a structured surface 19, this can be a cast article, wherein the surface 19 is structured by casting or decanting or any molding of the mold 11.

In general, the present invention enables a simple, cost-effective stamping or molding in the nanometer range by a surface layer with hollow chambers formed by anodic oxidation being used as matrix or as casting mold.

TECHNICAL APPLICABILITY

The proposed solution very easily and cost-effectively enables very fine structuring of the surface. Accordingly, there is a very broad area of application. For example, such especially very fine structuring can be utilized in anti-reflex layers, for altering radiation emission of structured surfaces, in sensory analysis, in catalysis, in self-cleaning surfaces, in improving surface wettability and the like. In particular, the proposed solution also extends to the use of work pieces with structured surfaces that have been structured by use of the proposed stamping tool for the purposes mentioned hereinabove. Further, the proposed solution can be used for casting with practically any material, since aluminum oxide especially is highly resistant mechanically, thermally and/or chemically.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US233174323 May 194212 Oct 1943Marathon Paper Mills CoRoll spindle
US284919220 Oct 195526 Aug 1958Us Shaft CompanyCore engaging shaft
US338613028 Mar 19664 Jun 1968Dornbusch & Co FaEmbossing roll, in particular for the treatment of webs of thermoplastic material
US408579219 Feb 197625 Apr 1978General Battery CorporationMethod of casting lead alloy automotive battery parts
US4114983 *18 Feb 197719 Sep 1978Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing CompanyPolymeric optical element having antireflecting surface
US414820427 Jan 197810 Apr 1979Siemens AktiengesellschaftProcess of mechanically shaping metal articles
US419032118 Feb 197726 Feb 1980Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing CompanyMicrostructured transmission and reflectance modifying coating
US424025722 Feb 197323 Dec 1980The Singer CompanyHeat pipe turbo generator
US431058617 Apr 198012 Jan 1982Alcan Research And Development LimitedAluminium articles having anodic oxide coatings and methods of coloring them by means of optical interference effects
US454727528 Jan 198515 Oct 1985Showa Aluminum Kabushiki KaishaProcess for treating surface of aluminum foil for use as electrode of electrolytic capacitors
US458191327 Jul 198315 Apr 1986Luster Finish, Inc.Method for improving the release and finish characteristics of metal stamping dies
US47374479 Jun 198612 Apr 1988Pioneer Electronic CorporationProcess for producing micro Fresnel lens
US486388022 Mar 19885 Sep 1989Agency Of Industrial Science & Technology, Ministry Of International Trade & IndustryInSb device manufacturing by anodic oxidation
US515023127 Dec 199022 Sep 1992Canon Kabushiki KaishaImpact resistant ferroelectric liquid crystal apparatus
US52052101 Apr 199227 Apr 1993Walter MathisMethod and apparatus for dry printing using a hot embossing foil
US524994922 Apr 19915 Oct 1993Eastman Kodak CompanyApparatus for texturizing toner image bearing receiving sheets
US531809113 Nov 19927 Jun 1994Borgo-Nova SpaDie coating
US541521920 Jul 199316 May 1995Hagen Batterie AgGrid casting mold for the casting of lead grids for accumulators and methods for its manufacture
US542584815 Mar 199420 Jun 1995U.S. Philips CorporationMethod of providing a patterned relief of cured photoresist on a flat substrate surface and device for carrying out such a method
US559798423 Sep 199328 Jan 1997Sowal Technologies International Inc.Capacitance weighing mat with substantially rigid separators
US56561477 Jul 199512 Aug 1997Sharp Kabushiki KaishaMethod for fabricating a switching device by anodization
US56932085 Mar 19962 Dec 1997Alusuisse Technology & Management Ltd.Process for continuously anodizing strips or wires of aluminum
US569321026 Aug 19962 Dec 1997President Of Tohoku UniversityMethod of manufacturing porous alumina tube
US5694247 *1 May 19952 Dec 1997U.S. Philips CorporationOptical transmissive component with anti-reflection gratings
US580870726 Feb 199615 Sep 1998Canon Kabushiki KaishaDisplay apparatus
US581113710 Jun 199722 Sep 1998Casa Herrera, Inc.Dough Sheeter having independant internally-driven self-powered rollers
US602094510 Nov 19971 Feb 2000Dowa Mining Co., Ltd.Display device with a transparent optical filter
US60898489 Dec 199718 Jul 2000Syfal S.R.L.Apparatus for producing rollers with elastic silicone-based material layers
US60905233 Apr 199818 Jul 2000Nec CorporationMulti-resin material for an antireflection film to be formed on a workpiece disposed on a semiconductor substrate
US609624731 Jul 19981 Aug 20003M Innovative Properties CompanyEmbossed optical polymer films
US611169922 Sep 199829 Aug 2000Dai Nippon Printing Co. Ltd.Light diffusing film and its manufacture, a polarizing plate with a light diffusing layer, and a liquid crystal display apparatus
US613971326 Aug 199731 Oct 2000Nippon Telegraph And Telephone CorporationMethod of manufacturing porous anodized alumina film
US6175442 *25 May 199916 Jan 2001Intel CorporationAnti-reflection layer in spatial light modulators
US62661127 Jan 200024 Jul 2001Nec CorporationReflective liquid crystal display
US6309580 *30 Jun 199830 Oct 2001Regents Of The University Of MinnesotaRelease surfaces, particularly for use in nanoimprint lithography
US63489604 Nov 199919 Feb 2002Kimotot Co., Ltd.Front scattering film
US635435822 Nov 200012 Mar 2002Nomura Plating Co., Ltd.Continuous casting mold with tungsten alloy plating and method of producing the same
US635973514 Jan 199819 Mar 2002Fraunhofer Gesellschaft Zur Forderung Der Angewandten Forschung E.V.Antireflective coating and method of manufacturing same
US647640921 Apr 20005 Nov 2002Canon Kabushiki KaishaNano-structures, process for preparing nano-structures and devices
US656893131 May 200127 May 2003Idemitsu Petrochemical Co., Ltd.Emboss pattern processing apparatus
US669598714 May 200124 Feb 2004Pioneer CorporationProduction method for optical disc
US683709623 Jan 20034 Jan 2005Midwest Research Institute, Inc.Low-power gas chromatograph
US68742624 Apr 20035 Apr 2005Nikon CorporationMethod for manufacturing master substrate used for manufacturing grooved molding substrate, method for manufacturing stamper for manufacturing grooved molding substrate, method for manufacturing grooved molding substrate, grooved molding substrate, memory medium, memory device, and computer
US688867620 Mar 20033 May 2005Nokia CorporationMethod of making polarizer and antireflection microstructure for mobile phone display and window
US706623428 Oct 200227 Jun 2006Alcove Surfaces GmbhStamping tool, casting mold and methods for structuring a surface of a work piece
US708840923 May 20058 Aug 2006Hitachi Displays, Ltd.Liquid crystal display apparatus
US742539514 Sep 200516 Sep 2008Hitachi Displays, Ltd.Liquid crystal display device
US78350806 Feb 200716 Nov 2010Sharp Kabushiki KaishaAntireflective member, optical element, display device, method of making stamper and method of making antireflective member using the stamper
US2001003592928 Mar 20011 Nov 2001Kazuhiro NakamuraAnti-glare and anti-reflection film, polarizing plate, and image display device
US2001005144228 Jun 200113 Dec 2001Dina KatsirMethod for producing high surface area foil electrodes
US2002004435110 Aug 200118 Apr 2002Reflexite CorporationLight polarizer
US2002004435613 Mar 200118 Apr 2002Fumihiro ArakawaAntireflection film
US2002008962019 Jul 200111 Jul 2002Kyoko YamamotoAnisotropic scattering film and liquid crystal display
US2002017179330 Apr 200221 Nov 2002Colorlink, Inc.Achromatic compound retarder
US200300675742 Oct 200210 Apr 2003Nitto Denko CorporationLaminated quarter-wave plate or circularly polarizing plate, liquid-crystal display device using the same and method for producing the same
US2003020547528 Oct 20026 Nov 2003Alcove Surfaces GmbhStamping tool, casting mold and methods for structuring a surface of a work piece
US2003021473928 Apr 200320 Nov 2003Akihiro FunamotoReflective plate, method of making same, and reflective type liquid crystal display using the reflective plate
US2004009164228 Oct 200313 May 2004Takashi MurakamiMethod for forming anti-glare layer and anti-glare film, and ink-jet apparatus for forming anti-glare layer
US2004015997718 Feb 200319 Aug 2004Perfetto Robert S.Method and apparatus for applying a decorative pattern to a surface
US2004016344117 Feb 200426 Aug 2004Alcove Surfaces GmbhStamping tool, casting mold and methods for structuring a surface of a work piece
US2004018887426 Mar 200430 Sep 2004Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.Method and equipment for producing antiglare and antireflection film and antiglare and antireflection film
US2004021924917 Sep 20034 Nov 2004Yong-Chen ChungUniform pressing apparatus
US2005005770113 Aug 200417 Mar 2005Elop Electro-Optics Industries Ltd.System and method for varying the reflectance or transmittance of light
US2005007457920 Feb 20037 Apr 2005Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd.Antireflection structure
US2005007933131 Aug 200414 Apr 2005Omron CorporationManufacturing method of optical device provided with resin thin film having micro-asperity pattern
US2005009321029 Oct 20045 May 2005Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.Method for producing optical element having antireflection structure, and optical element having antireflection structure produced by the method
US2005010425310 Nov 200419 May 2005Ryuichi KatsumotoProduction method and production apparatus of pattern-indented sheet
US2005015064318 Jun 200314 Jul 2005Daniel ChartouniHeat exchanger
US2005019548621 Jan 20058 Sep 2005Hiroshi SasakiAnti-reflecting membrane, and display apparatus, optical storage medium and solar energy converting device having the same, and production method of the membrane
US2006005038719 Oct 20059 Mar 2006Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd.Antireflection film
US2006025626314 May 200416 Nov 2006Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Liquid crystal display device having form birefringent compensator
US2007001488618 Sep 200618 Jan 2007Michael HennesseyMethod and apparatus for forming microstructures on polymeric substrates
US200700183453 Nov 200525 Jan 2007Bing-Huan LeeNanoimprint lithograph for fabricating nanoadhesive
US200701596986 Feb 200712 Jul 2007Sharp Kabushiki KaishaAntireflective member, optical element, display device, method of making stamper and method of making antireflective member using the stamper
US2008003205824 Aug 20077 Feb 2008Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd.Antireflection film
US2008010260329 Nov 20051 May 2008Shin-Etsu Handotai Co., Ltd.Method for Producing Direct Bonded Wafer and Direct Bonded Wafer
US200801299335 Dec 20075 Jun 2008Semiconductor Energy Laboratory Co., Ltd.Anti-reflection film and display device
US2009021191226 Mar 200927 Aug 2009Sharp Kabushiki KaishaAntireflective member, optical element, display device, method of making stamper and method of making antireflective member using the stamper
US2009025282526 Mar 20098 Oct 2009Sharp Kabushiki KaishaAntireflective member, optical element, display device, method of making stamper and method of making antireflective member using the stamper
US2009025699727 Oct 200615 Oct 2009Kenji MisonoLiquid Crystal Display Device
US2009029602110 Nov 20083 Dec 2009Junghoon LeeOptical sheet, backlight unit, and liquid crystal display
US2010003381926 Aug 200911 Feb 2010Ulrike SchulzOptical Element with an Anti-Fog Layer and Method for its Production
CA2407209A125 Apr 200123 Oct 2002Alcove Surfaces GmbhStamping tool, method for structuring a surface of a workpiece and use of an anodized surface layer
CH251451A Title not available
CN251451A Title not available
CN1078049A30 Apr 19933 Nov 1993三星电管株式会社Optical phase-retardation compensating film
CN1455270A23 Apr 200312 Nov 2003欧姆龙株式会社Reflection board and method for making same, and reflection type liquid crystal displaying device
CN1501100A29 Oct 20032 Jun 2004柯尼卡美能达控股株式会社Method for forming anti-glare layer and anti-glare film, and ink-jet apparatus for forming anti-glare layer
CN1534314A7 Nov 20036 Oct 2004富士胶片株式会社Dazzle reflection preventing film mfg. method and its device, and dazzle reflection preventing film
CN1591047A30 Aug 20049 Mar 2005欧姆龙株式会社Method for mfg optical element having resin film with micro concave-convex pattern
DE1108536B14 Oct 19528 Jun 1961Hard Aluminium Surfaces LtdVerfahren zur Bildung ultraharter Oberflaechen auf Aluminium und Aluminiumlegierungen durch anodische Oxydation
DE10020877C128 Apr 200025 Oct 2001Alcove Surfaces GmbhStamping tool has a structured stamping surface with an anodically oxidized surface layer or a covering layer having open hollow chambers produced by anodic oxidation
DE19536194A128 Sep 19953 Apr 1997Glasbau Gmbh AsAquarium or paludarium with fish etc and plants
DE19701568C117 Jan 199723 Jul 1998Karlsruhe ForschzentStructured layer formation for micro-engineered functional system
DE19727132A126 Jun 19977 Jan 1999Hueck Engraving GmbhVerfahren und Vorrichtung zur Herstellung einer Prägestruktur auf einem der Oberflächenformung von Preßlaminaten dienenden Prägewerkzeug
DE19727132C226 Jun 19973 Feb 2000Hueck Engraving GmbhVerfahren und Vorrichtung zur Herstellung einer Prägestruktur auf einem der Oberflächenformung von Preßlaminaten dienenden Prägewerkzeug
DE29722268U117 Dec 19975 Mar 1998Unicor Rohrsysteme GmbhFormbacken aus Aluminium oder Aluminiumlegierung
DE102007009512A127 Feb 200728 Aug 2008Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e.V.Optical element with anti-fogging polymer layer, for use e.g. as spectacle lenses or display covers, has a reflection-reducing nano-structure formed on the surface of the polymer layer
EP0481753A216 Oct 199122 Apr 1992Canon Kabushiki KaishaMolding roll, method for manufacturing it, and apparatus for forming substrate sheet for optical recording medium
EP0732426A18 Mar 199618 Sep 1996Alusuisse-Lonza Services AGProcess for continuously anodising aluminium strips or wires
EP0792951A16 Nov 19953 Sep 1997Kabushiki Kaisha Kobe Seiko ShoVacuum chamber made of aluminum or its alloy, and surface treatment and material for the vacuum chamber
EP0805044B117 Mar 199723 Oct 2002Automated Packaging Systems, Inc.Thermal imprinter and method
EP0931859A126 Aug 199728 Jul 1999Nippon Telegraph And Telephone CorporationMethod of manufacturing porous anodized alumina film
EP1016621A221 Dec 19995 Jul 2000Canon Kabushiki KaishaMethod for producing narrow pores and structure having the narrow pores, and narrow pores and structure produced by the method
EP1089114B114 Sep 200022 Aug 2012Daicel Chemical Industries, Ltd.Anisotropic light-scattering film
EP1473594A226 Nov 20033 Nov 2004Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.Apparatus for embossing a flexible substrate with a pattern carried by an optically transparent compliant media
EP1785748A110 Nov 200516 May 2007C.R.F. Societa' Consortile per AzioniAnti-reflection nano-metric structure based on anodised porous alumina and method for production thereof
EP1972997B112 Mar 20084 Jul 2012Obducat ABNano-imprinting apparatus and method
FR2762862A1 Title not available
FR2762862B1 Title not available
GB2266599B Title not available
JP4265729B2 Title not available
JP4368384B2 Title not available
JP4565816B2 Title not available
JP6032675B2 Title not available
JP2000052421A Title not available
JP2000071290A Title not available
JP2000199809A Title not available
JP2001066626A Title not available
JP2001074919A Title not available
JP2001264520A Title not available
JP2001517319T5 Title not available
JP2002031721A Title not available
JP2002079523A Title not available
JP2002079535A Title not available
JP2002107714A Title not available
JP2002169025A Title not available
JP2002182199A Title not available
JP2002318383A Title not available
JP2003004904A Title not available
JP2003043203A Title not available
JP2003149413A Title not available
JP2003248122A Title not available
JP2003302532A Title not available
JP2003319733A Title not available
JP2003531962A Title not available
JP2004205990A Title not available
JP2004223724A Title not available
JP2004223836A Title not available
JP2004272059A Title not available
JP2005132660A Title not available
JP2005144698A Title not available
JP2005156695A Title not available
JP2005161531A Title not available
JP2005181740A Title not available
JP2005234554A Title not available
JP2005249982A Title not available
JP2005338256A Title not available
JP2006039450A Title not available
JP2006062240A Title not available
JP2006098623A Title not available
JP2006208726A Title not available
JP2007073696A Title not available
JP2007086283A Title not available
JP2007098742A Title not available
JP2007156145A Title not available
JP2007199522A Title not available
JP2007203576A Title not available
JP2007281099A Title not available
JP2008209867A Title not available
JP2009052147A5 Title not available
JP2009217278A Title not available
JPH075693Y2 Title not available
JPH0516228Y2 Title not available
JPH0516230Y2 Title not available
JPH0825026A Title not available
JPH0825026B2 Title not available
JPH0885117A Title not available
JPH0973072A Title not available
JPH1016008A Title not available
JPH1046382A Title not available
JPH1068816A Title not available
JPH02254192A Title not available
JPH03203773A Title not available
JPH05323371A Title not available
JPH07104272B2 Title not available
JPH07306408A Title not available
JPH08321381A Title not available
JPH09155972A Title not available
JPH09322674A Title not available
JPH10121292A Title not available
JPH10186136A Title not available
JPH11200090A Title not available
JPS6144607Y2 Title not available
JPS53103754U Title not available
JPS63303714A Title not available
WO1998039673A114 Jan 199811 Sep 1998Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e.V.Anti-reflection coating and method for producing same
WO1998048996A117 Apr 19985 Nov 1998GuialMethod for making a calender roll and thermoplastic sheets or films obtained by calendering with such a roll
WO2003073410A127 Feb 20034 Sep 2003Innovative Solutions & Support, Inc.Improved low reflectivity flat panel display
WO2005050627A315 Nov 200417 Aug 2006Aprilis IncHolographic data storage media with structure surfaces
WO2006043244A119 Oct 200527 Apr 2006Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Roller micro-contact printer with pressure control
WO2006059586A129 Nov 20058 Jun 2006Shin-Etsu Handotai Co., Ltd.Method for manufacturing direct bond wafer, and direct bond wafer
WO2006059686A11 Dec 20058 Jun 2006Sharp Kabushiki KaishaReflection preventing material, optical element, display device, stamper manufacturing method, and reflection preventing material manufacturing method using the stamper
WO2007040023A113 Sep 200612 Apr 2007Konica Minolta Opto, Inc.Process for producing film with rugged pattern and production apparatus therefor
WO2008082421A15 Jan 200710 Jul 2008Sabic Innovative Plastics Ip B.V.Antireflective surfaces, methods of manufacture thereof and articles comprising the same
WO2009107294A119 Nov 20083 Sep 2009シャープ株式会社Roller type nano-imprint device, mold roll for the roller type nano-imprint device, fixed roll for the roller type nano-imprint device, and nano-imprint sheet manufacturing method
WO2009147858A14 Jun 200910 Dec 2009シャープ株式会社Antireflection film, optical element comprising antireflection film, stamper, process for producing stamper, and process for producing antireflection film
Non-Patent Citations
Reference
1"Electrodeposited nanoporous TiO2 film by a two-step replication process from anodic porous alumina" by P. Hoyer et al., Journal of Materials Science Letters 15(1996) 1228-1230.
2"Fabrication of a Nanostructured Diamond Honeycomb Film" by Hideki Masuda et al., Adv. Matter. 2000, 12, No. 6.
3"Fabrication of Gold Nanodot Array Using Anodic Porous Alumina as an Evaporation Mask" by Hideka Masuda et al., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. vol. 35 (1996) pp. L126-L129, Part 2, No. 1B, Jan. 15, 1996.
4"Fabrication of Porous TiO2Films Using Two-Step Replication of Microstructure of Anodic Alumina" by Hideki Masuda et al., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. vol. 31 (1992) pp. L17775-L17777, Part 2, No. 12B, Dec. 15, 1992.
5"Highly ordered nanochannel-array architecture in anodic alumina" by Hideki Masuda et al., Appl. Phys. Lett, 71 (19), Nov. 10, 1997.
6"Impedance measurements of a Platinum Cylindrical Porous Electrode Replicated from Anodic Porous Alumia", by Takashi Ohmori et al, J. Electrochem, Soc., vol. 144, No. 4, Apr. 1997.
7"Ordered Metal Nanohole Arrays Made by a Two-Step Replication of Honeycomb Structures of Anodic Alumina" by Hideki Masuda et al., Science, vol. 268, Jun. 9, 1995.
8"Preparation of microporous metal membranes by two-step replication of the microstructure of anodic alumina" by Hideki Masuda et al., Thin Solid Films, 223 (1993).
9"Standard electrode potential (data page)," from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, Anonymous, Feb. 10, 2011.
10Armin Plichta et al. "Flexible Glass Substrates," Flexible Flat Panel Displays, Edited by G.P. Crawford, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., XP002631694, 2005, pp. v-xvii, 35-45, and 48-55.
11Decision on Grant for corresponding Russian patent application No. 2010147914 issued on Jul. 12, 2012 (in English).
12English translation of the International Preliminary Report on Patentability (Chapter I) for international patent application No. PCT/JP2009/007140 dated Aug. 25, 2011.
13F.A. Lowenheim, "Electroplating," McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1978, pp. 452-459.
14Hideki Masuda et al. "Fabrication of a Nanostructured Diamond Honeycomb Film." Adv. Mater. 2000, 12, No. 6.
15Hideki Masuda et al. "Fabrication of Gold Nanodot Array Using Anodic Porous Alumina as an Evaporation Mask." Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. vol. 35 (1996) pp. L126-L129, Part 2, No. 1B, Jan. 15, 1996.
16Hideki Masuda et al. "Fabrication of Porous TiO2Films Using Two-Step Replication of Microstructure of Anodic Alumina." Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. vol. 31 (1992) pp. L17775-L17777, Part 2, No. 12B, Dec. 15, 1992.
17Hideki Masuda et al. "Highly ordered metallic nanochannel-array architecture in anodic alumina." Solid State Physics (1996) vol. 31 No. 5, pp. 493-499, and partial English translation thereof.
18Hideki Masuda et al. "Highly ordered nanochannel-array architecture in anodic alumina." Appl. Phys. Lett, 71 (19) Nov. 10, 1997.
19Hideki Masuda et al. "Ordered Metal Nanohole Arrays Made by a Two-Step Replication of Honeycomb Structures of Anodic Alumina." Science, vol. 268, Jun. 9, 1995.
20Hideki Masuda et al. "Preparation of microporous metal membranes by two-step replication of the microstructure of anodic alumina." Thin Solid Films, 223 (1993).
21International Preliminary Report on Patentability and Written Opinion for international patent application No. PCT/JP2009/002530 dated Jan. 20, 2011.
22International Preliminary Report on Patentability for PCT/JP2008/002078 dated Feb. 24, 2010.
23International Preliminary Report on Patentability for PCT/JP2009/000739 dated Oct. 5, 2010.
24International Search Report for PCT/JP2008/070307 mailed Jan. 27, 2009.
25International Search Report for PCT/JP2009/000739 mailed May 19, 2009.
26International Search Report for PCT/JP2009/007140.
27International Search Report for PCT/JP2009/070555 mailed Mar. 16, 2010.
28Japanese Notice of Allowance for corresponding JP application 2001-580058.
29Japanese Notice of Allowance for corresponding JP application 2008-303126.
30Kumao Ebihara, Kinzoku Binran (or "Metal Handbook"), Dec. 20, 1982, pp. 1311-1313, and Partial English translation thereof.
31Masuda et al., Proceedings (Lecture Notes) of the 52nd joint lecture meeting of applied physics related societies (2005 spring in Saitama University) 30p-ZR-9, p. 112.
32Notice of Allowance for corresponding U.S. Appl. No. 12/213,990 dated May 9, 2012.
33O. Schwartz et al., "Pererabotka plastmass," Saint Petersburg, 2005, pp. 47-48, 300-304.
34Office Action for corresponding U.S. Appl. No. 12/213,990 dated Jan. 30, 2012.
35Office Action for corresponding U.S. Appl. No. 12/662,683 dated May 31 2012.
36Office Action for corresponding U.S. Appl. No. 12/662,683 dated Oct. 5, 2011.
37Office Action for corresponding U.S. Appl. No. 12/733,055 dated Apr. 17, 2012.
38Office Action for corresponding U.S. Appl. No. 12/733,055 dated Oct. 14, 2011.
39Office Action for corresponding U.S. Appl. No. 12/735,032 dated Apr. 5, 2011.
40Office Action for corresponding U.S. Appl. No. 12/735,032 dated Aug. 26, 2011.
41Office Action for corresponding U.S. Appl. No. 12/735,032 dated Feb. 3, 2012.
42Office Action for corresponding U.S. Appl. No. 12/735,297 dated Oct. 26, 2012.
43Office Action for corresponding U.S. Appl. No. 12/735,855 dated Oct. 1, 2012.
44Office Action for corresponding U.S. Appl. No. 12/805,189 dated Apr. 13, 2011.
45Office Action for corresponding U.S. Appl. No. 12/805,189 dated May 17, 2012.
46Office Action for corresponding U.S. Appl. No. 12/805,189 dated Oct. 17, 2011.
47Office Action for corresponding U.S. Appl. No. 12/864,072 dated Jul. 5, 2011.
48Office Action for corresponding U.S. Appl. No. 12/921,285 dated Jul. 12, 2011.
49Office Action for corresponding U.S. Appl. No. 12/921,285 dated Mar. 16, 2011.
50Office Action for corresponding U.S. Appl. No. 12/921,285 dated May 4, 2012.
51Office Action for corresponding U.S. Appl. No. 12/921,285 dated Oct. 25, 2012.
52Office Action for corresponding U.S. Appl. No. 12/922,705 dated Feb. 27, 2012.
53Office Action for corresponding U.S. Appl. No. 12/992,705 dated Apr. 8, 2011.
54Office Action for corresponding U.S. Appl. No. 13/064,157 dated Dec. 13, 2011.
55Office Action for corresponding U.S. Appl. No. 13/064,157 dated May 4, 2012.
56Office Action for Japanese patent application No. 2010-516094 dated Sep. 14, 2010.
57Office Action for Japanese patent application No. 2010-516713 dated Oct. 5, 2010.
58Office Action for U.S. Appl. No. 12/213,990 dated May 18, 2010.
59Office Action for U.S. Appl. No. 12/735,032 dated Nov. 8, 2010.
60Office Action for U.S. Appl. No. 12/801,915 dated Oct. 18, 2010.
61Office Action for U.S. Appl. No. 12/864,072 dated Feb. 14, 2011.
62P. Hoyer et al. "Electrodeposited nanoporous TiO2 Film by a two-step replication process from anodic porous alumina." Journal of Materials Science Letters 15 (1996) 1228-1230.
63R.B.C. Cayless, "Alloy and Temper Designation Systems for Aluminum and Aluminum Toys," AMS Handbook, vol. 2, ASM International, 1990, pp. 15-20.
64S.J. Wilson, et al., "The optical properties of 'moth eye' antireflection surface," Optica Acta, 1982, vol. 29, No. 7, pp. 993-1009.
65Silman et al., "Protective and Decorative Coatings for Metals," Finishing Publication Ltd. Teddington, Middlesex, England, 1978, pp. 456-464.
66Takashi Ohmori et al. "Impedance measurements of a Platinum Cylindrical Porous Electrode Replicated from Anodic Porous Alumina." J. Elecrochem, Soc. vol. 144, No. 4, Apr. 1997.
67Tatsuo Uchida et al., "Reflective Liquid-Crystal Displays," MRS Bulletin, vol. 27, No. 11, Nov. 1, 2002, pp. 876-879, XP55017950.
68Y. Kanamori et al., "100 nm period silicon antireflection structures fabricated using a porous alumina membrane mask," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 78, No. 2, Jan. 8, 2001, pp. 142-143.
69Y.F. Chu et al., "Design of Pores in Alumina," Journal of Catalysis 41, 1976, pp. 384-396.
Classifications
U.S. Classification428/141, 428/156
International ClassificationD06N7/04, B32B3/00