|Publication number||USRE43317 E1|
|Application number||US 11/397,887|
|Publication date||17 Apr 2012|
|Priority date||8 May 2000|
|Also published as||USRE44835|
|Publication number||11397887, 397887, US RE43317 E1, US RE43317E1, US-E1-RE43317, USRE43317 E1, USRE43317E1|
|Inventors||Robert D. Fraser, Alexander D. Grinberg, John D. Malone, Bradley Moore, Michael J. O'Neil, Mark C. Boomer|
|Original Assignee||Depuy Spine, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (147), Non-Patent Citations (9), Referenced by (11), Classifications (24), Legal Events (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/566,514, filed on May 8, 2000, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,478,800 entitled “Medical Installation Tool,” which is expressly incorporated herein by reference.
The invention relates to a tool for inserting prostheses within the body, and more particularly to tools for inserting prostheses, such as artificial discs and cages, within an intervertebral space.
Spinal surgery involves many challenges as the long-term health and mobility of the patient often depends on the surgeon's technique and precision. One type of spinal surgery involves the removal of the natural disc tissue that is located between adjacent vertebral bodies. Procedures are known in which the natural, damaged disc tissue is replaced with an interbody cage or fusion device, or with a disc prosthesis.
The insertion of an article, such as an artificial disc prosthesis, presents the surgeon with several challenges. The adjacent vertebral bodies collapse upon each other once the natural disc tissue is removed. These bodies must be separated to an extent sufficient to enable the placement of the prosthesis. However, if the vertebral bodies are separated, or distracted, to beyond a certain degree, further injury can occur. The disc prosthesis must also be properly positioned between the adjacent vertebral bodies. Over-insertion, or under-insertion of the prosthesis can lead to pain, postural problems and/or limited mobility or freedom of movement.
Specialized tools have been developed to facilitate the placement of devices, such as disc prosthesis, between adjacent vertebral bodies of a patient's spine. Among the known tools for performing such procedures are separate spinal distractors and insertion devices. The use of separate tools to distract the vertebral bodies and insert a disc prosthesis or graft can prove cumbersome. Further, the use of some distractors can cause over-distraction of the vertebral bodies.
Exemplary devices for installing prosthesis and/or grafts between vertebral bodies are disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,431,658 and 5,505,732. U.S. Pat. No. 5,431,658 discloses a facilitator device for the insertion of bone grafts between two adjacent vertebrae. The disclosed tool has two flat, tong-like guides that distract the vertebrae as a screw-type inserter forces the graft between the distracted vertebrae. U.S. Pat. No. 5,505,732 discloses an apparatus and a method of inserting spinal implants. The intervertebral space is first distracted and a hollow sleeve having teeth at one end is then driven into the vertebrae that are adjacent the disc space. A drill is then passed through the hollow sleeve, removing the disc and the bone in preparation for receiving the spinal implant, which is then inserted through the sleeve.
Despite existing tools and technologies, there remains a need to provide a device to facilitate the proper and convenient insertion of an object, such as a disc prosthesis, between adjacent vertebral bodies while minimizing the risk of further injury to the patient.
The present invention provides a device useful for implanting prostheses, such as artificial spinal discs and cages, within a patient in a safe and efficient manner. The installation tool of the invention generally includes a pair of opposed levers, each of which has a proximal handle portion and a distal portion. A fulcrum is disposed between the two levers to enable proper operation of the tool. The tool further includes a pusher block that is positioned between the two levers and is selectively movable between an initial location distal of the fulcrum and a final location adjacent the distal end of the levers. The pusher block includes a proximal end, a distal end, and a bore extending at least partially therethrough. A pusher rod, which facilitates movement of a pusher block, has a distal end extending into the bore in the pusher block and a proximal, handle end.
The pusher rod and/or pusher block can be adapted to mate to a variety of prosthesis devices. In one embodiment, the pusher block can include a blind bore and a distal end of the pusher rod can mate with the blind bore in the pusher block. The pusher block can thus include a distally facing surface having surface features adapted to conform to or mate with complementary surface features on a prosthesis. In another embodiment, the bore can extend entirely through the pusher block to allow a distal end of the pusher rod to extend through the bore in the pusher block. The pusher rod can thus include a distal tip that is effective to mate to a prosthesis.
In yet another embodiment, the rod can include a first externally threaded distal portion and a second externally threaded distal portion. The second distal portion is positioned proximal to the first distal portion, and has a diameter greater than a diameter of the first distal portion. The bore of the pusher block can include a threaded proximal opening, a distal opening, and a chamber formed therebetween. The proximal opening is threadingly matable with the second distal portion of the rod to allow the second distal portion of the rod to be threadingly inserted through the proximal opening and positioned within the chamber. The diameter of the distal opening of the pusher block should be less than the diameter of the proximal opening of the pusher block to prevent the second threaded portion of the rod from extending through the distal opening in the pusher block. The threaded second distal portion is preferably freely rotatable within the chamber of the pusher block. The threaded first distal portion of the rod extends through the distal opening in the pusher block and includes a distal tip which is adapted to mate to a prosthesis.
In other aspects of the invention the bore extends entirely through the pusher block and a distal tip of the pusher rod is adapted to extend through the bore in the pusher block. The distal tip of the pusher rod is further adapted to mate to a grasping element effective to releasably engage a prosthesis. The grasping element can include an elongate proximal portion with a bore formed therein and a distal portion that is effective to releasably engage a prosthesis. The proximal portion has an outer diameter that is adapted to fit within the bore of the distal end of the pusher block. The distal portion of the grasping can include opposed first and second components that are movable between a first, open position, and a second, closed position that is effective to engage a prosthesis. In use, the distal end of the rod threadingly engages the bore of the grasping element. Rotation of the rod in a first direction is effective to cause the elongate proximal portion of the grasping element to move proximally within the bore of the pusher block, thereby moving the first and second components to the second, closed position. Rotation of the rod in a second, opposed direction is effective to cause the elongate proximal portion of the grasping element to move distally out of the bore of the pusher block and move the first and second components to the first, open position. The first and second components can optionally include at least one surface feature effective to engage a prosthesis.
In yet another embodiment, a medical device installation kit can be provided having a pair of opposed levers, a fulcrum disposed between the levers for allowing pivotal movement of the levers with respect to each other, and a plurality of prosthesis installation assemblies. Each assembly is adapted to be slidably disposed between the levers and movable between a first, proximal position and a second, distal portion. A handle portion can be provided on each assembly for moving the prosthesis installation assembly between the first and second positions. Each assembly further includes a distal prosthesis effecting element adapted to place a prosthesis between adjacent bone structures.
In one embodiment, one of the prosthesis installation assemblies includes a pusher block having a proximal end, a distal end, and a bore extending therethrough, a pusher rod slidably disposed between the levers and extending through the bore in the pusher block, and a grasping element effective to releasably engage a prosthesis. In another embodiment, one of the prosthesis installation assemblies includes a pusher rod having a proximal handle portion and a distal portion having a distal tip adapted to positively engage a prosthesis. A pusher block can be provided having a bore extending therethrough and adapted to receive a distal portion of the pusher rod. In yet another embodiment, one of the prosthesis installation assemblies can include a pusher rod having an externally threaded first distal portion and an externally threaded second distal portion. The second distal portion has a diameter greater than the first distal portion, and is positioned proximal to the first distal portion. The assembly further includes a pusher block having a bore extending entirely therethrough having a threaded proximal opening that is threadingly matable with the second distal portion of the rod, and a distal opening having a diameter less than the diameter of the second distal portion of the rod. A chamber having a diameter greater than the diameter of the second distal portion of the pusher rod is disposed between the first and second openings of the pusher block. In other aspects, one of the prosthesis installation assemblies can include a pusher block having a bore extending therethrough, a pusher rod extending through the bore in the pusher block, and a plurality of connector elements having a proximal portion adapted to mate to a distal tip of the pusher rod, and a distal portion adapted to mate to a prosthesis.
The installation tool of the invention can be used in the following manner. Once the natural, damaged disc tissue is removed from a patient and the area is prepared to receive an artificial prosthesis, such as an artificial disc, the artificial disc is loaded between the levers of the installation tool so that a posterior side of the disc abuts a distal end of the pusher block. The distal tip of the levers is then positioned between the vertebral bodies such that the outwardly facing surfaces of each lever contacts opposed vertebral bodies. Once this position is achieved, the pusher rod is advanced distally, causing the pusher block and the artificial disc to likewise move distally along the inner surfaces of the levers. As the artificial disc and the pusher rod move distally, or forward, the levers separate and also cause vertical separation of the adjacent vertebral bodies. To achieve the proper position of the artificial disc, the distal facing surfaces of the pusher block should contact the vertebral bodies. Once such contact is achieved between the distal facing surfaces of the pusher block and the vertebral bodies, the artificial disc is properly positioned. This tool thus enables the proper positioning of the artificial disc between the vertebral bodies, without over-insertion or under-insertion of the artificial disc, while minimizing the degree of distraction of the vertebrae. To remove the tool, a slaphammer or similar device can be used to apply a proximally directed force to the tool to extract the blade tips without removing the implant.
The invention will be more fully understood from the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:
The present invention provides an installation tool that is useful for the efficient and effective placement of an article, such as an artificial disc or cage, between adjacent vertebral bodies. The installation tool can be provided as a kit having modular components which allow the surgeon to select from among a variety of components to assemble an installation tool that is optimized for its intended use. Although the invention is described primarily with reference to being used to install an artificial disc between adjacent vertebral bodies, it is understood that the installation tool of the invention can be used to place other elements between vertebral bodies, or in other locations within a patient's body. Exemplary elements that can be placed between vertebral bodies include, but are not limited to interbody cages, fulsion devices, spacers, grafts, and the like.
As shown in
Preferably the levers 12 and 14 are elongate elements that are mirror images of each other. There is no absolute top or bottom of the tool 10 since it is possible to use either surface as a “top” surface. For ease of reference, however, levers will sometimes be described herein with reference to an illustrated orientation. For example, lever 12, and components thereof, may sometimes be referred to as the top, upper, or superior lever while lever 14 may sometimes be referred to as the bottom, lower, or inferior lever.
With further reference to
The proximal portion 12B of each lever may include an indented region 28 for receiving the fulcrum 16. As shown in
The proximal region of each lever 12B, 14B may also include a bore 30A, 30B which is adapted to seat a bolt 32 that enables control of the spacing between levers so that the pusher block accurately engages the metal portion of the artificial disc. As shown in
The distal portion of each lever 12A, 14A features side surfaces 46, 48, outwardly facing surfaces 38, 40 (illustrated as top and bottom surfaces in
The distal portions 12A, 14A of the levers 12, 14 can also have blade tips 50A, 50B formed at the distal ends of the levers. The blade tips are sized and configured to facilitate their placement between vertebral bodies 201, 202. The outwardly facing surfaces 52A, 52B of blade tips may be configured to have surfaces that are beveled or radiused. In one embodiment illustrated in
The thickness of the levers, measured at the blade tips when the tool is closed, as shown in
As shown in
One of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that the size and shape of the levers may vary. Generally, however, the overall length of the levers is about 200 to 400 mm, with proximal portion 12B, 14B (proximal end to shoulder 26) having a length of about 100 to 300 mm and the distal portion 12A, 14A (shoulder 26 to blade tips) having a length of about 100 to 300 mm.
In one embodiment, illustrated in
The fulcrum 16 may assume virtually any size and shape that is able to render it effective to separate a substantially intermediate portion of levers while allowing the proximal, handle portion 12B, 14B to be closed together and result in the opening or separation of the distal portion 12A, 14A. Generally, the height of the vertical side walls 62 is in the range of about 20 to 70 mm while the height of the core section 78 (shown in
One of ordinary skill in the art will further appreciate that the fulcrum may take on a variety of other shapes, sizes and mounting configurations. The embodiment described above is intended to represent one exemplary fulcrum design and mounting configuration.
The bolt 32, as noted above, can be used to adjust the height/spacing of the levers. One of bores 30A, 30B, has internal threads 37 that mate with threaded portion 36 of bolt 32. Tightening or loosening of the bolt will result in increasing or decreasing the spacing/distance between the levers.
The pusher block 18, as illustrated in
In another embodiment, shown in
Referring back to
As noted above, a pusher rod 20 may be utilized to actuate pusher block 18. The pusher rod 20 is preferably an elongate, cylindrical member having a proximal end 20B and a distal end 20A. The rod is adapted to be positioned between the proximal ends 12B, 14B of the levers 12, 14 so that it extends into or through the bore 80 in fulcrum 16. The rod 20 can be adapted to mate to the pusher block 18 such that forward and rearward movement of the pusher rod will directly move the pusher block. Alternatively, the pusher block 18 can include a bore extending entirely therethrough, and the rod 20 can be disposed through the bore to mate directly to a prosthesis, or to mate to a connector element which, in turn, mates to a prosthesis.
The pusher rod 20 can optionally include a stop feature to prevent the levers 12, 14 from being removed from the recessed formed in the pusher block. As shown in
The pusher block 18 and pusher rod 20 can include a variety of features, e.g. connector elements, for joining the block 18 to the rod 20, or for mating the rod 20 and/or the block 18 to a prosthesis 24. By way of non-limiting example,
In use, the rod 20 b is inserted into the proximal opening 406 of the pusher block 18. The distal tip 413 and connector segment 412 can be inserted through the bore until the threaded annular flange 411 engages the threaded region 403 of the pusher block 18 b. The flange 411 can then be rotated and thus threaded through the bore 403 to position the flange 411 in the chamber 408. Further distal movement of the rod 20 b will insert the distal tip 413 and a substantial portion of the connector rod 412 through the distal opening 405 of the pusher block 18 b. The lack of threads, and the size differential, in the distal opening 405 will, however, prevent the annular flange 411 from exiting the chamber. Once the annular flange 411 is positioned in the chamber, the rod 20 b is free to rotate. The rod 20 b can then be rotated to positively engage a prosthesis, or to detach the rod from a prosthesis. In an exemplary embodiment, the threads formed on the annular flange 411 are oriented in a direction opposite to the threads 415 formed on the distal tip 413. This allows the rod 20 b to be detached from a prosthesis without allowing the rod 20 b to be threadingly removed through the proximal opening 406.
A person having ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that the annular flange 411, and the distal tip 413 can employ a variety of engagement elements other than threads. For example, other locking elements include snap-fit engagements, frictional engagements, bayonet-type locks, leur locks, or any other type of connector.
The distal portion 504 of the grasper 500 is oriented to extend in a direction substantially transverse to the longitudinal axis l of the instrument and includes first and second wing-like components 508, 509, each positioned on opposed sides of the longitudinal axis l, and separated from one another by a gap 513. The first and second components 508, 509 are not attached to each other, but include a proximally extending portion 510, 511 which mates to the proximal portion 502. The proximally extending portions 510, 511 taper inwardly toward the proximal portion 502. As a result, the grasper 500 incrementally increases in diameter d toward the distal portion 504 of the grasper 500. In an exemplary embodiment, the gap 513 allows the first and second components 508, 509 to be pinched together.
The first and second components 508, 509 each include a distally facing wall 520, 521. The walls 520, 521 can have a shape that conforms to the shape of a prosthesis, and preferably the walls are slightly concave to fit around a substantially cylindrical or disc-shaped prosthesis 600, as shown. Each component 508, 509 can include a protruding element 515, 516 disposed on the distally facing wall 520, 521 that is effective to engage a prosthesis 600. The protruding elements 515, 516 can be, for example, triangle-shaped, diamond shaped, or hook-like members which, when placed into openings 518 formed in the prosthesis 600, are effective to engage the prosthesis 600.
In use, the grasper 500 is inserted into the bore 80 d in the pusher block 18 d and it is mated to the rod 20. The protruding elements 515, 516 are inserted into the openings 518 formed in the prosthesis 600, and the rod 20 is rotated to engage the grasper 600, thereby moving the grasper 600 proximally. As the grasper 600 is pulled in a proximal direction by the rod 20, the tapered portion of the grasper 500 is pulled into bore 80 d, thereby causing the first and second components 508, 509 to be pinched together. As a result, the protruding elements 515, 516 grasp and retain the prosthesis 600. The prosthesis 600 can then be positioned between adjacent vertebrae and, once positioned, the rod 20 can be rotated in the opposite direction to release the grasper 500, thereby allowing the first and second components 508, 509 to return to their separated state, thus releasing the prosthesis 600.
In an exemplary embodiment, the pusher block 18, includes a recessed region 19 formed in each of the side walls of the pusher block 18 d to allow the grasper 500 to be inserted into the bore 80 d. The first and second components 508, 509, when mated to the pusher block 18 d, sit within the recessed region 19. The rod 20 preferably includes a stop surface (not shown) to prevent further insertion of the rod 20 through the bore 80 d in the pusher block 18 d. The stop surface should be positioned to allow a distal portion of the rod 20 to extend through the bore 80 d to engage the grasper 500.
The depth of insertion of the cage 600 between the vertebral bodies is dependant on the length of the grasper 500 and the depth of the recessed portion 19. For example, the length of the grasper 500 and the depth of the recessed portion 19 can be substantially the same such that the distal end of the pusher block is aligned with the distal end of the grasper. In use, the distal ends of the pusher block and the grasper align with the outer edge of the adjacent vertebrae. As a result, the implanted disc is substantially aligned with the outer edge of the adjacent vertebrae. Alternatively, the grasper 500 can have a length greater than the depth of the recessed portion 19 such that the depth of insertion of the disc is substantially equal to the different between the length of the grasper 500 and the depth of the recessed portion 19.
Although T-shaped handles and protrusions 302, 304 are illustrated, one of ordinary skill in the art will readily appreciate that the handles can have a variety of configurations for allowing use of a slap hammer with the instrument.
With reference to
As shown in
The result of this selective adjustability is shown in
FIGS. 1 and 8A-8D sequentially illustrate the use of tool 10 for the installation of an artificial disc 24. The tool is first assembled as shown in
The installation tool of the present invention can also be provided as a kit having modular components which allow the surgeon to select from among a variety of components to assemble an installation tool that is optimized for its intended use. The kit preferably includes several different rods, pusher blocks, and connectors elements, such as grasper 500, each adapted to be used with a particular implant. For example, the kit can include three types of pusher blocks, each adapted to mate with a particular prosthesis. As shown in
One of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate further features and advantages of the invention based on the above-described embodiments. Accordingly, the invention is not to be limited by what has been particularly shown and described, except as indicated by the appended claims. All publication and references cited herein are expressly incorporated herein by reference in their entity.
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|Cooperative Classification||A61F2002/4687, A61F2002/4629, A61F2002/4628, A61F2002/30235, A61F2/4611, A61F2002/4622, A61B2017/0256, A61F2002/30848, A61F2/4465, A61F2002/4623, A61F2002/4681, A61F2002/30769, A61F2002/4627, A61F2002/4475, A61F2002/30787, A61F2230/0069, A61F2/446, A61F2230/0034, A61F2/442, A61F2002/30187, A61F2002/30912|