|Publication number||USRE42038 E1|
|Application number||US 12/604,814|
|Publication date||18 Jan 2011|
|Filing date||23 Oct 2009|
|Priority date||30 May 2003|
|Also published as||CA2527826A1, CA2527826C, CA2527829A1, CA2527829C, CA2527836A1, CA2527836C, CA2724292A1, CA2724292C, CA2737868A1, CA2737868C, CA2857208A1, EP1629408A2, EP1629408A4, EP1629408B1, EP1629460A2, EP1629460A4, EP1629460B1, EP1629624A2, EP1629624A4, EP1629624B1, US7420546, US7525537, US7587611, US7688314, US7783892, US8327152, US8495382, US8788813, US9124930, US9319405, US9342674, US20040239648, US20050081040, US20050093834, US20050160042, US20080317302, US20090213087, US20100005314, US20100182125, US20100318803, US20130111575, US20130305056, US20140298371, US20150178548, US20150347727, US20160308854, WO2004109454A2, WO2004109454A3, WO2004109455A2, WO2004109455A3, WO2004109455A8, WO2005001611A2, WO2005001611A3|
|Publication number||12604814, 604814, US RE42038 E1, US RE42038E1, US-E1-RE42038, USRE42038 E1, USRE42038E1|
|Inventors||David S. Abdallah, Barry W. Johnson, Kristen R. O. Riemenschneider|
|Original Assignee||Privaris, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (116), Non-Patent Citations (6), Referenced by (8), Classifications (27), Legal Events (9)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application is a divisional of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/858,290, filed Jun. 1, 2004, now abandoned entitled, “Man-Machine Interface for Controlling Access to Electronic Devices,” which claims priority to U.S. Patent Application No. 60/474,750 entitled “Secure Biometric Identification Devices and Systems for Various Applications,” filed May 30, 2003; each of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.
1. Field of the Invention
This invention relates generally to the field of electronic device user interfaces and authorization techniques, and more specifically to the field of fingerprint imaging sensors and touch screen display apparatuses.
2. Necessity of the Invention
Modern electronic devices have developed a myriad of functionalities and associated user interfaces. Many electronic devices use a display screen, such as a monitor or display apparatus, to provide feedback to the user. Handheld devices, such as the personal digital assistant and the cell phone, have an important user interface constraint—form factor. In both devices, manufacturers desire to minimize the size and weight of the device; as one means to accomplish this, the display is small and buttons are placed close together.
In recent years, manufacturers of many electronic devices have substituted touch screen technology for the traditional display. Touch screens have the same appearance and style of a traditional screen, but have the added ability to determine the location of applied pressure. This allows individuals to use a stylus in a similar manner as a person uses a mouse to point to icons on a monitor—the individual may touch the screen at the location of a particular icon. Software running on the device determines the location of the touch and determines the associated software function, such as opening an address book. Because the additional button control interface can be eliminated, manufacturers can make the display larger and simpler to use.
As the functionality of electronic devices expands, individuals may wish to protect certain data stored within the device. For example, the owner of a personal digital assistant may choose to use his PDA to send and receive private e-mail. If the data is particularly sensitive, a simple password or PIN combination may not be considered adequate security and the individual may desire to use biometric authentication on the device. The most common form of biometric authentication, fingerprint scanning, requires a hardware module that is typically the size of a postage stamp. On a device where size and weight are limited, the addition of this module can be costly.
There are three common types of fingerprint capture technologies: optical, capacitive, and ultrasonic. Each of the three technologies combines its associated hardware capture mechanism, which varies from type to type, and typically a software or firmware controller. This controller is often responsible for analyzing the captured image, extracting minutia points, and creating a final template. Minutiae are points that represent all of the unique characteristics of a fingerprint—one example is the location of an intersection of ridges or valleys in the print. A template is typically composed of thirty minutiae and can be used to uniquely identify a fingerprint. This allows the scanner or other storage device to store only the requisite data points without storing the entire image.
Of the three types of fingerprint capture technologies, optical scanners are the oldest and most common, and they are composed of a glass or plastic plate with a light source and a charge coupled device (CCD) beneath. The light source is typically an array of light emitting diodes (LEDs), and the CCD is an array of light-sensitive diodes. When the finger is placed on top of the plate, the LEDs illuminate the finger and each diode of the CCD records the light that touched it, creating an image in which the ridges are dark and the valleys are light. Optical scanners are fairly resistant to temperature fluctuations, and can provide an image quality of approximately 500 dots per inch (dpi). One major concern of this technology is that latent prints—“left over” fingerprints on the plate—can cause a superpositioning effect and create error. Additionally, these types of scanners are susceptible to “gummi bear attacks”, in which a fingerprint is lifted from a glass or other object, placed on a pliable and sticky material, such as a gummi bear, and can provide a false acceptance. One other point of note is that the plate must be quite large; this creates ease of use but may take unavailable real estate on a board.
Capacitive sensors are much newer than optical scanners, and are composed of an array of cells; each cell has two adjacent conductor plates, which are embedded within an insulating layer. The insulating layer is typically a glass plate. When the linger is placed on top of the insulating layer, it creates a subsequent electric field between the finger and the conductor plates, creating capacitance. Because the surface of a finger is a succession of ridges and valleys, the electric field varies over the face of the finger as the distance from the plate to the finger varies. The capacitance or voltage may be determined from the electric field, and is commonly translated into an 8-bit grayscale image with approximately 200 to 300 grid points in both the x- and y-plane. This creates more detailed data than the optical sensor. Capacitive scanners are typically smaller than optical sensors because the cells are composed of semiconductor devices, rather than a CCD unit.
While capacitive scanners are cheaper and smaller than optical sensors, their durability is unknown due to their short time in use, and the small size can make it more difficult for an individual to enroll and authenticate properly. Most fingerprint sensors use direct current (DC) coupling, although a few companies are beginning to use alternating current (AC) coupling to penetrate to the live layer of the skin. Because the capacitive scanner is dependent on the electric field and capacitance between a finger and the glass plate, the scanner cannot be fooled by the “gummi bear attack” as described above; the dielectric constant for the finger is much different from a gummi bear, and so the capacitance will vary significantly.
The most accurate but least common finger-scanning technology is ultrasound imaging. In this type of sensor, two transducers are placed on the x- and y- axes of a plate of glass—one each for receiving and transmitting—for propagating ultrasound waves through a glass plate; when the finger is placed on top of the glass, the finger impedes the waves and the receiving transducer can measure the alteration in wave patterns. This type of scanner is very new and largely untested in a variety of conditions, but initial results show promise for the technology. It combines the large plate size and ease of use of the optical scanners with the ability to pervade dirt and residue on the scanner, an advantage of capacitive scanners.
Touch screens are quite similar to the fingerprint scanners described above. They recognize a finger pressure on the screen and typically calculate the center or peak point of the pressure. Current touch screen technologies fall under five different types of technology: analog resistive, capacitive, infrared, acoustic wave, and near field imaging. The analog resistive, capacitive and acoustic wave technologies are the most commonplace due to their clarity and endurance under a variety of conditions. Infrared is very sensitive to a light touch and may be impractical, while near field imaging is very new, suitable for very harsh conditions, and frequently cost-prohibitive. For these reasons only the first three technologies are examined in much detail. Similarly to the fingerprint scanning technology there is typically an associated software or firmware controller to perform requisite data analysis.
The analog resistive technology is composed of a glass plate and a plastic plate slacked over a flat-panel screen or display. Both the glass and plastic plates are coated with a transparent conductive material, such that the conductive material is sandwiched between the two plates. Tiny separator dots keep the two plates from touching under normal conditions, but when pressure is applied to the plastic plate, the dots move and the two surfaces come together to conduct electricity. An electronic controller instantly calculates the x- and y-coordinates, allowing resistive touch screen technologies to have very high precision and resolution. This also allows an individual to have relative freedom when selecting an object as a stylus; the individual may use a pen, finger, or other convenient utility.
Capacitive coupled technologies require the use of a conductive stylus—this may be a finger, but not a gloved hand because the cloth will prevent the conduction of charge. Capacitive technologies use a flat-panel display with a single glass plate resting on top. The glass plate is covered in a transparent metal oxide on the exterior surface; when the finger or alternate stylus comes into contact with the conductive surface; capacitive coupling occurs at the point of contact and draws electrical current. The controller registers the change in current and the x- and y-coordinates can be determined. As mentioned above, because the technology requires use of a conductive stylus, non-conductive surfaces will prevent the change in electrical current and will not have any effect on the touch screen. Furthermore, the exposed glass surface in this technology makes it susceptible to scratches and can inhibit correct operation of the screen.
Acoustic wave touch screens are more complicated than the capacitive and resistive technologies. There are two types of acoustic wave technologies: guided acoustic wave (GAW) and surface acoustic wave (SAW). Both use a single plate of glass placed on top of a flat-panel display, with a similar transducer arrangement as described above for the ultrasound imaging. GAW screens transmit a wave through the glass panel (using the glass as a waveguide), while SAW screens transmit the wave on the surface of the glass; in both technologies, transducers detect a dampening of the wave that occurs when pressure is applied to the glass, which is translated into x- and y- coordinates. Similarly to the capacitive coupled screens, SAW screens have stylus limitations; the stylus must be soft and able to absorb energy in order to dampen the wave, and are generally only practical in instances where the stylus is a finger. These types of touch screens also have the glass surface limitation described above.
A multitude of single-purpose display apparatuses, fingerprint sensors and touch screens are available commercially. Furthermore, several companies offer commercial products that embed fingerprint-scanning hardware within display apparatus technology. One such example, Ethentica and Philips FDS' (a wholly owned subsidiary of Philips Corporation) joint venture TactileSense™ finger scanning hardware, comprises a transparent optical sensor that can be embedded into a pane of glass. The TactileSense optical sensor comprises several a unique TactileSense polymer, a silicon glass camera/CCD, and a control ASIC. The TactileSense polymer is placed on top of the silicon camera, which is embedded within glass to provide hardness and durability. The TactileSense polymer is the heart of the sensor, comprising five layers: insulating, black-coat, transparent conductive, light-emitting phosphor, and base. The insulating and black-coat layers enhance the performance of the sensor by preventing liquid or other particles from entering the sensor, and by preventing sunlight from entering the sensor. The chief layers are the transparent conductive and light-emitting phosphor layers, which serve to supply current to the polymer and to illuminate the fingerprint. When a finger is placed on the TactileSense polymer, the polymer illuminates the fingerprint and creates an image. The silicon camera detects the illumination, and the ASIC converts it to digital format for processing.
U.S. Pat. No. 6,327,376 to Harkin describes a fingerprint sensor comprised of an array of sensing elements. The sensing elements use both capacitive and optical techniques to generate the image; the device is constructed using a transparent conductive material for the electrodes contained within. However, despite the inclusion of the sensor within a display apparatus, there is little discussion of using the display as a touch screen or user navigation interface.
U.S. Pat. No. 6,501,846 to Dickinson et al. discloses a method and system for computer access and cursor control using a relief object image generator. The relief object image generator is capable of capturing a 2-D image based on the 3-D relief of an object, such as a finger. The apparatus of Dickinson's invention can be used to simultaneously authenticate an individual's fingerprint, and move a cursor on a screen or perform other control-related functions related to the movement of the individual's finger. This application is targeted primarily at replacing mice, function keys, and other control mechanisms on devices where space is limited. However, Dickinson does not address use of biometric recognition incorporated with touch screen user navigation.
DigitalPersona also offers fingerprint-scanning hardware that is transparent and can be placed over display apparatuses, marketed as U.are.U Crystal™. This hardware is also comprised of an optical sensor that uses completely transparent materials. It is ultra-thin, enabling it to be placed in mobile or other electronic devices where real estate is a significant concern. Again, however, this product does not demonstrate any of the touch screen properties as exhibited in the current invention.
The invention disclosed herein describes a man-machine interface device for controlling access to electronic devices. The man-machine interface device comprises an electronic display apparatus that is capable of presenting graphic text, images, icons, and other data typically shown on a screen, while further including a transparent finger touch sensor region that is seated above the display apparatus. This finger touch sensor region is responsible for determining the presence and absence of a finger, and is further responsible for generating fingerprint images when a finger is detected. The man-machine interface device also includes a controller unit that is coupled to the display apparatus, the finger touch sensor region, and at least one electronic device. The controller unit is capable of controlling data flow between the display apparatus, the finger touch sensor region and the electronic device, and for calculating finger touch locations based on a fingerprint image generated by the transparent finger touch sensor region. It can receive text from the electronic device, which is intended for presentation on the display apparatus, or conversely send a fingerprint image to the electronic device, among other functions.
The method of the invention describes a process for authenticating individuals and verifying their security privileges to access sensitive data, based on a finger-touch selection of an icon presented on the display apparatus of the man-machine interface device.
FIG. 1: Apparatus
101 Finger touch sensor region
102 Display apparatus
FIG. 2: Apparatus, based on optical sensor technology
102 Display apparatus
201 Charge coupled device
202 Glass or plastic plate
203 Light source
FIG. 3: Apparatus, based on capacitive sensor technology
102 Display apparatus
302 Glass plate, coated with transparent metal oxide
303 Electric field
FIG. 4: Apparatus, based on ultrasonic/acoustic wave technology
102 Display apparatus
402 Glass plate
403 Ultrasonic/acoustic wave generator
FIG. 5: Authenticating to the apparatus
501 Human thumb
502 E-mail icon
FIG. 6: Method for authenticating
601 Is there a finger present?
602 Create a fingerprint image
603 Calculate the location of the finger touch
604 Is there an icon at the finger touch location?
605 Is there a function associated with the icon?
606 Does the function require fingerprint authentication?
607 Does the fingerprint match a stored fingerprint?
608 Determine access rights for matched fingerprint
609 Allow user access to function?
610 Authorize user access to function
The apparatus of the invention is a primary man-machine interface device that incorporates biometric authentication into a touch-sensitive display. Juxtaposing these two technologies provides a simple user interface, and additionally, an economy of space for handheld or portable devices that require ease-of-use along with biometric authentication; devices can use the functionality of a display, control keys or buttons, and a fingerprint sensor, by replacing them with the man-machine interface device of this invention.
Fingerprint scanning typically requires more detail, precision, and data analysis then touch screen technology. The most common use of fingerprint scanning is comparison between a new, “live” fingerprint, and an older stored fingerprint, where the comparison is typically between minutiae points calculated for both fingerprints. This can be used to verify or identify an individual who has already been entered into a system. If the fingerprint scanner fails to accurately analyze a print, the scanner may provide a false acceptance—reporting that the new fingerprint is the same as the old, when they actually are not—or false rejection—reporting that the two fingerprints are different when they are not. However, if a touch screen registers a touch location incorrectly, it is only a minor inconvenience to recalibrate the touch screen and renavigate the user interface.
The primary embodiment of the man-machine interface device 100 incorporates a transparent finger touch sensor region 101, an electronic display apparatus 102, and a controller 103, as seen in FIG. 1. The finger touch sensor region 101 is layered on top of the display apparatus 102, and is capable of determining the presence and absence of finger touches. It can additionally generate fingerprint images, which are transmitted to, and used by, the controller 103. The display apparatus 102 must be capable of presenting graphic data, text, images, icons and other information, and may range from a cathode ray tube display, such as a television or monitor, to a liquid crystal display. The controller 103 is coupled to the finger touch sensor region 101 and the display apparatus 102, as well as peripheral electronic devices, such as a PDA.
One alternate embodiment of the apparatus 100 is based on optical fingerprint scanner technology, and can be seen in
Another alternate embodiment of the apparatus 100 is based on the ultrasonic imaging fingerprint sensor and the acoustic wave touch screen. This can be seen in FIG. 4. Again a glass panel 402 is placed on the display apparatus 102. Ultrasonic waves 405 are propagated by means of an ultrasonic or acoustic wave generator 403 either through or on top of the glass panel 402, using it as a wave guide. When a finger is placed on the finger touch sensor region 101 it interferes with the traveling wave, generating the fingerprint or touch location. Because the wave guide is based on the principle of total internal reflection, the angle of incidence of the propagating wave 405 must be such that it doesn't interfere with the optical properties of the display apparatus 102 behind it. This is affected by the thickness of the glass panel 402 and the frequency of the propagating wave 405.
Regardless of the embodiment of the apparatus 100, the controller 103 must be capable of receiving data from a peripherally-connected electronic device and displaying it on the display apparatus 102. The controller 103 must also be able to receive fingerprint images from the finger touch sensor region 101, and to calculate the location of finger touch events from these images. Additionally, the controller 103 is responsible for calculating minutiae points of a fingerprint associated with a finger touch on the finger touch sensor region 101. Any calculated data, such as a location or minutiae, can be transmitted from the controller 103 back to the peripheral device. If required, the controller 103 may be capable of storing fingerprint minutiae points, and/or comparing fingerprint minutiae points. In one preferred embodiment of the invention, the location can be determined by extrapolating the center point of the finger touch on the finger touch sensor region 101. However, the algorithmic choice does not fall within the scope of this invention; the location can be determined by any appropriate method.
The peripherally-connected electronic device referred to above is the device using the man-machine interface device. For example, if the man-machine interface device were to be used as a replacement for the touch screen and buttons on a personal digital assistant (PDA), the PDA would be considered the peripherally-connected electronic device. It is responsible for sending data to the controller 103 for display on the display apparatus 102, and for requesting and receiving finger touch data. Additionally, the peripherally-connected electronic device is responsible for maintaining the association between icons or text pictured on the display apparatus 102, and accessing rights for said functions. The method of the invention provides fingerprint authentication for functions represented by an icon on a display. In the primary embodiment, the method is employed while using the man-machine interface device 100 installed in a PDA, but can be used with other suitable technology; examples explained herein will employ both. The method is intended to replace traditional user interface and authentication methods. For example, the PDA may receive e-mail, which the intended recipient wishes to keep secure. The PDA stores a registered fingerprint for the intended recipient that is associated with the security privileges of the e-mail program. Additionally, the PDA displays an icon on the display apparatus 102 that accesses the e-mail program on selection.
If the function does not require authentication, the PDA directly authorizes access to the function. However, in this example with e-mail, the function does require fingerprint authentication. The PDA examines stored fingerprints, verifying the new image against the stored images (step 607), until a match is found. If a match is found, the PDA determines the security privileges associated with the fingerprint (step 608) and determines if the e-mail function is among these privileges (step 609). If not, the method terminates (step 611); if it is, the PDA allows access to the e-mail function (step 610), and then terminates the authentication method (step 611).
While the description above refers to particular embodiments of the present invention, it will be understood that many modifications may be made without departing from the spirit thereof. The accompanying claims are intended to cover such modifications as would fall within the true scope and spirit of the present invention.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4353056||5 Jun 1980||5 Oct 1982||Siemens Corporation||Capacitive fingerprint sensor|
|US4993068||27 Nov 1989||12 Feb 1991||Motorola, Inc.||Unforgeable personal identification system|
|US5053608||16 Aug 1988||1 Oct 1991||Senanayake Daya R||Personal identification system|
|US5131038||7 Nov 1990||14 Jul 1992||Motorola, Inc.||Portable authentification system|
|US5280527||14 Apr 1992||18 Jan 1994||Kamahira Safe Co., Inc.||Biometric token for authorizing access to a host system|
|US5325442||19 Feb 1993||28 Jun 1994||U.S. Philips Corporation||Fingerprint sensing device and recognition system having predetermined electrode activation|
|US5420936||29 Mar 1994||30 May 1995||International Business Machines Corporation||Method and apparatus for accessing touch screen desktop objects via fingerprint recognition|
|US5469506||27 Jun 1994||21 Nov 1995||Pitney Bowes Inc.||Apparatus for verifying an identification card and identifying a person by means of a biometric characteristic|
|US5526428||29 Dec 1993||11 Jun 1996||International Business Machines Corporation||Access control apparatus and method|
|US5591949||6 Jan 1995||7 Jan 1997||Bernstein; Robert J.||Automatic portable account controller for remotely arranging for payment of debt to a vendor|
|US5613012||17 May 1995||18 Mar 1997||Smarttouch, Llc.||Tokenless identification system for authorization of electronic transactions and electronic transmissions|
|US5615277||28 Nov 1994||25 Mar 1997||Hoffman; Ned||Tokenless security system for authorizing access to a secured computer system|
|US5799098||3 Apr 1997||25 Aug 1998||Calspan Corporation||Fingerprint identification system|
|US5805719||18 Mar 1997||8 Sep 1998||Smarttouch||Tokenless identification of individuals|
|US5838812||25 Jul 1996||17 Nov 1998||Smarttouch, Llc||Tokenless biometric transaction authorization system|
|US5852670||30 Dec 1997||22 Dec 1998||Harris Corporation||Fingerprint sensing apparatus with finger position indication|
|US5856824||25 Jun 1996||5 Jan 1999||International Business Machines Corp.||Reshapable pointing device for touchscreens|
|US5857028||15 May 1997||5 Jan 1999||Frieling; Edward||Computer access control by finger anatomy and comprehension testing|
|US5870723||29 Aug 1996||9 Feb 1999||Pare, Jr.; David Ferrin||Tokenless biometric transaction authorization method and system|
|US5920640||16 May 1997||6 Jul 1999||Harris Corporation||Fingerprint sensor and token reader and associated methods|
|US5933134||25 Jun 1996||3 Aug 1999||International Business Machines Corporation||Touch screen virtual pointing device which goes into a translucent hibernation state when not in use|
|US5943043||5 Dec 1996||24 Aug 1999||International Business Machines Corporation||Touch panel "double-touch" input method and detection apparatus|
|US5952641||21 Nov 1996||14 Sep 1999||C-Sam S.A.||Security device for controlling the access to a personal computer or to a computer terminal|
|US5952998||15 Jan 1997||14 Sep 1999||Compaq Computer Corporation||Transparent touchpad with flat panel display for personal computers|
|US5963679||26 Jan 1996||5 Oct 1999||Harris Corporation||Electric field fingerprint sensor apparatus and related methods|
|US5991408||16 May 1997||23 Nov 1999||Veridicom, Inc.||Identification and security using biometric measurements|
|US6028950||10 Feb 1999||22 Feb 2000||The National Registry, Inc.||Fingerprint controlled set-top box|
|US6037882||30 Sep 1997||14 Mar 2000||Levy; David H.||Method and apparatus for inputting data to an electronic system|
|US6038666||22 Dec 1997||14 Mar 2000||Trw Inc.||Remote identity verification technique using a personal identification device|
|US6041410||22 Dec 1997||21 Mar 2000||Trw Inc.||Personal identification fob|
|US6084968||29 Oct 1997||4 Jul 2000||Motorola, Inc.||Security token and method for wireless applications|
|US6154879||5 Feb 1999||28 Nov 2000||Smarttouch, Inc.||Tokenless biometric ATM access system|
|US6167517||9 Apr 1998||26 Dec 2000||Oracle Corporation||Trusted biometric client authentication|
|US6181328||2 Mar 1998||30 Jan 2001||International Business Machines Corporation||Method and system for calibrating touch screen sensitivities according to particular physical characteristics associated with a user|
|US6181803||30 Sep 1996||30 Jan 2001||Intel Corporation||Apparatus and method for securely processing biometric information to control access to a node|
|US6182221||21 Oct 1999||30 Jan 2001||Trw Inc.||Remote identity verification technique using a personal identification device|
|US6185316||12 Nov 1997||6 Feb 2001||Unisys Corporation||Self-authentication apparatus and method|
|US6219793||8 Sep 1997||17 Apr 2001||Hush, Inc.||Method of using fingerprints to authenticate wireless communications|
|US6256022||6 Nov 1998||3 Jul 2001||Stmicroelectronics S.R.L.||Low-cost semiconductor user input device|
|US6268788||15 Sep 1998||31 Jul 2001||Litronic Inc.||Apparatus and method for providing an authentication system based on biometrics|
|US6282304||14 May 1999||28 Aug 2001||Biolink Technologies International, Inc.||Biometric system for biometric input, comparison, authentication and access control and method therefor|
|US6282649||14 Jul 1998||28 Aug 2001||International Business Machines Corporation||Method for controlling access to electronically provided services and system for implementing such method|
|US6292173||11 Sep 1998||18 Sep 2001||Stmicroelectronics S.R.L.||Touchpad computer input system and method|
|US6317834||29 Jan 1999||13 Nov 2001||International Business Machines Corporation||Biometric authentication system with encrypted models|
|US6327376||3 Dec 1998||4 Dec 2001||U.S. Philips Corporation||Electronic apparatus comprising fingerprint sensing devices|
|US6353889||13 May 1998||5 Mar 2002||Mytec Technologies Inc.||Portable device and method for accessing data key actuated devices|
|US6366682||30 Oct 1998||2 Apr 2002||Indivos Corporation||Tokenless electronic transaction system|
|US6367017||7 Oct 1998||2 Apr 2002||Litronic Inc.||Apparatus and method for providing and authentication system|
|US6466781||23 Oct 2000||15 Oct 2002||Siemens Aktiengesellschaft||Biometric authentication technology for wireless transceiver activation|
|US6484260||24 Apr 1998||19 Nov 2002||Identix, Inc.||Personal identification system|
|US6487662||3 Nov 1999||26 Nov 2002||Jurij Jakovlevich Kharon||Biometric system for biometric input, comparison, authentication and access control and method therefor|
|US6490680||4 Dec 1998||3 Dec 2002||Tecsec Incorporated||Access control and authorization system|
|US6498861||18 Jul 2000||24 Dec 2002||Activcard Ireland Limited||Biometric security encryption system|
|US6501846||24 Apr 1998||31 Dec 2002||Ethentica, Inc.||Method and system for computer access and cursor control using a relief object image generator|
|US6529885||24 Sep 1999||4 Mar 2003||Oracle Corporation||Methods and systems for carrying out directory-authenticated electronic transactions including contingency-dependent payments via secure electronic bank drafts|
|US6532298||14 Sep 1999||11 Mar 2003||Iridian Technologies, Inc.||Portable authentication device and method using iris patterns|
|US6581161||2 Mar 1999||17 Jun 2003||International Business Machines Corporation||System, apparatus and method for controlling access|
|US6603462||2 May 2001||5 Aug 2003||Multidigit, Inc.||System and method for selecting functions based on a finger feature such as a fingerprint|
|US6609198||5 Aug 1999||19 Aug 2003||Sun Microsystems, Inc.||Log-on service providing credential level change without loss of session continuity|
|US6615264||9 Apr 1999||2 Sep 2003||Sun Microsystems, Inc.||Method and apparatus for remotely administered authentication and access control|
|US6618806||6 Jul 1999||9 Sep 2003||Saflink Corporation||System and method for authenticating users in a computer network|
|US6636973||8 Sep 1998||21 Oct 2003||Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.||Secure and dynamic biometrics-based token generation for access control and authentication|
|US6657538||7 Nov 1997||2 Dec 2003||Swisscom Mobile Ag||Method, system and devices for authenticating persons|
|US6662166||11 Jun 2001||9 Dec 2003||Indivos Corporation||Tokenless biometric electronic debit and credit transactions|
|US6668332||15 Feb 2000||23 Dec 2003||International Business Machines Corporation||Functional clock observation controlled by JTAG extensions|
|US6671808||30 Mar 1999||30 Dec 2003||Rainbow Technologies, Inc.||USB-compliant personal key|
|US6681034||15 Jul 1999||20 Jan 2004||Precise Biometrics||Method and system for fingerprint template matching|
|US6719200||11 Jul 2000||13 Apr 2004||Precise Biometrics Ab||Checking of right to access|
|US6728881||1 Oct 1999||27 Apr 2004||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army||Fingerprint and signature identification and authorization card and pen|
|US6735695||20 Dec 1999||11 May 2004||International Business Machines Corporation||Methods and apparatus for restricting access of a user using random partial biometrics|
|US6751734||21 Mar 2000||15 Jun 2004||Nec Corporation||Authentication executing device, portable authentication device, and authentication method using biometrics identification|
|US6757411||1 Oct 2001||29 Jun 2004||Liska Biometry Inc.||Method and system for fingerprint encoding and authentication|
|US6765470||5 Feb 2001||20 Jul 2004||Fujitsu Limited||Mobile electronic apparatus having function of verifying a user by biometrics information|
|US6766040||2 Oct 2000||20 Jul 2004||Biometric Solutions, Llc||System and method for capturing, enrolling and verifying a fingerprint|
|US6775776||27 Jun 2000||10 Aug 2004||Intel Corporation||Biometric-based authentication in a nonvolatile memory device|
|US6786397||12 Nov 2002||7 Sep 2004||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Computer system control via interface surface with coded marks|
|US6819219||13 Oct 2000||16 Nov 2004||International Business Machines Corporation||Method for biometric-based authentication in wireless communication for access control|
|US6832317||11 May 2001||14 Dec 2004||Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.||Personal computer security mechanism|
|US6836843||29 Jun 2001||28 Dec 2004||Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.||Access control through secure channel using personal identification system|
|US6839688||19 Aug 2002||4 Jan 2005||Diebold, Incorporated||Method of using an automated banking machine|
|US6844660||21 Jul 2003||18 Jan 2005||Cross Match Technologies, Inc.||Method for obtaining biometric data for an individual in a secure transaction|
|US6848052||21 Mar 2001||25 Jan 2005||Activcard Ireland Limited||High security personalized wireless portable biometric device|
|US6850147||1 Apr 2002||1 Feb 2005||Mikos, Ltd.||Personal biometric key|
|US6850252||5 Oct 2000||1 Feb 2005||Steven M. Hoffberg||Intelligent electronic appliance system and method|
|US6853739||13 May 2003||8 Feb 2005||Bio Com, Llc||Identity verification system|
|US6857073||16 Oct 2002||15 Feb 2005||Equifax Inc.||System and method for authentication of network users|
|US6862443||17 Dec 2001||1 Mar 2005||Ford Global Technologies, Llc||Remote communication system for use with a vehicle|
|US6870946||30 Jul 1999||22 Mar 2005||Secugen Corporation||Compact optical fingerprint capturing and recognition system|
|US6870966||23 May 2000||22 Mar 2005||Silverbrook Research Pty Ltd||Sensing device|
|US6871193||30 May 2001||22 Mar 2005||Verizon Corporate Services Group||Method and system for partitioned service-enablement gateway with utility and consumer services|
|US6871287||21 Jan 2000||22 Mar 2005||John F. Ellingson||System and method for verification of identity|
|US6871784||7 Feb 2001||29 Mar 2005||Trijay Technologies International Corporation||Security in mag-stripe card transactions|
|US6876757||28 May 2002||5 Apr 2005||Geometric Informatics, Inc.||Fingerprint recognition system|
|US6877097||21 Mar 2001||5 Apr 2005||Activcard, Inc.||Security access method and apparatus|
|US6879243||14 Feb 2002||12 Apr 2005||Penco Products, Inc.||Electronically-controlled locker system|
|US6879710||5 Apr 2000||12 Apr 2005||Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha||Authentication apparatus using a display/fingerprint reader|
|US6879966||22 Mar 2001||12 Apr 2005||Indivos Corporation||Tokenless biometric electronic financial transactions via a third party identicator|
|US6880749||29 Aug 2002||19 Apr 2005||Diebold, Incorporated||Automated transaction system and method|
|US6880750||16 Aug 2002||19 Apr 2005||Randolph M. Pentel||Remote ordering device|
|US6883709||12 Feb 2002||26 Apr 2005||Famous Horse, Inc.||Biometric identification and security system associated with cash register|
|US6886096||14 Nov 2002||26 Apr 2005||Voltage Security, Inc.||Identity-based encryption system|
|US6886101||30 Oct 2002||26 Apr 2005||American Express Travel Related Services Company, Inc.||Privacy service|
|US6886104||23 Jun 2000||26 Apr 2005||Cross Match Technologies||Rechargeable mobile hand-held fingerprint scanner with a data and power communication interface|
|US6888445||20 May 2003||3 May 2005||Bradley L. Gotfried||Vehicle identification system|
|US6898577||18 Mar 1999||24 May 2005||Oracle International Corporation||Methods and systems for single sign-on authentication in a multi-vendor e-commerce environment and directory-authenticated bank drafts|
|US6901154||13 Aug 2001||31 May 2005||Activcard Ireland Limited||Method of detecting authorised biometric information sensor|
|US6901155||22 Dec 2000||31 May 2005||National University Of Singapore||Wavelet-enhanced automated fingerprint identification system|
|US6901266||6 May 2003||31 May 2005||Daniel A. Henderson||Method and apparatus for an improved call interrupt feature in a cordless telephone answering device|
|US6901382||17 Nov 1998||31 May 2005||Diebold, Incorporated||Automated banking machine and system|
|US6985502||19 Nov 2001||10 Jan 2006||Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.||Time-division multiplexed link for use in a service area network|
|US7420546||24 Nov 2004||2 Sep 2008||Privaris, Inc.||Man-machine interface for controlling access to electronic devices|
|US7525537||29 Aug 2008||28 Apr 2009||Privaris, Inc.||Man-machine interface for controlling access to electronic devices|
|US20020122026||1 Mar 2001||5 Sep 2002||Bergstrom Dean Warren||Fingerprint sensor and position controller|
|US20020191029||17 Apr 2002||19 Dec 2002||Synaptics, Inc.||Touch screen with user interface enhancement|
|US20090213087||27 Apr 2009||27 Aug 2009||Abdallah David S||Man-machine interface for controlling access to electronic devices|
|WO2001041032A1||29 Nov 2000||7 Jun 2001||David Russell||Methods, systems, and apparatuses for secure interactions|
|1||English translation of Office Action for Japanese Patent Application No. 2006-533547, mailed on Aug. 14, 2008, 1 page.|
|2||English translation of Office Action for Japanese Patent Application No. 2009-533547, mailed on Nov. 25, 2006, 3 pages.|
|3||International Search Report and Written Opinion for PCT/US04/17270, mailed on Dec. 1, 2004; 6 pages.|
|4||Office Action for Canadian Patent Application No. 2,527,829, mailed on Apr. 1, 2010; 4 pages.|
|5||Office Action for U.S. Appl. No. 12/201,568, mailed on Oct. 2, 2008; 6 pages.|
|6||Office Action for U.S. Appl. No. 12/430,702, mailed on Jun. 24, 2009; 6 pages.|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US8111243 *||30 Mar 2006||7 Feb 2012||Cypress Semiconductor Corporation||Apparatus and method for recognizing a tap gesture on a touch sensing device|
|US8610686||7 Feb 2012||17 Dec 2013||Cypress Semiconductor Corporation||Apparatus and method for recognizing a tap gesture on a touch sensing device|
|US9094388||1 May 2013||28 Jul 2015||Dmitri Tkachev||Methods and systems for identifying, verifying, and authenticating an identity|
|US9304624||5 Sep 2014||5 Apr 2016||Apple Inc.||Embedded authentication systems in an electronic device|
|US9495531||5 Feb 2016||15 Nov 2016||Apple Inc.||Embedded authentication systems in an electronic device|
|US20070229466 *||30 Mar 2006||4 Oct 2007||Cypress Semiconductor Corporation||Apparatus and method for recognizing a tap gesture on a touch sensing device|
|US20150294516 *||10 Apr 2014||15 Oct 2015||Kuo-Ching Chiang||Electronic device with security module|
|WO2013007573A1||4 Jul 2012||17 Jan 2013||Robert Bosch Gmbh||An electronic device providing different accesses to different users through single user interface|
|U.S. Classification||345/173, 345/156|
|International Classification||G06F3/041, G07C9/00|
|Cooperative Classification||H04L63/0823, G06F2221/0771, G06F21/31, H04L63/06, H04L63/102, G06F21/10, H04L63/0861, H04L9/3231, H04N21/4415, G06F21/72, G06K9/00087, G06F17/3028, G06K9/6201, G06F21/75, G06F21/85, G06F21/6209, G06K9/00013, G06F21/32, H04N21/25875|
|European Classification||G06K9/00A1, G06F21/32, G06F21/62A, G06F21/85|
|7 Oct 2010||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: PRIVARIS, INC., VIRGINIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:ABDALLAH, DAVID S.;JOHNSON, BARRY W.;OLVERA, KRISTEN R.;SIGNING DATES FROM 20031022 TO 20031023;REEL/FRAME:025109/0721
Owner name: PRIVARIS, INC., VIRGINIA
Free format text: NUNC PRO TUNC ASSIGNMENT;ASSIGNORS:ABDALLAH, DAVID S.;JOHNSON, BARRY W.;RIEMENSCHNEIDER, KRISTEN R.O.;REEL/FRAME:025109/0728
Effective date: 20090313
|26 Jan 2011||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: HARBERT VENTURE PARTNERS, LLC, VIRGINIA
Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:PRIVARIS, INC.;REEL/FRAME:025700/0888
Effective date: 20071108
|8 Mar 2011||CC||Certificate of correction|
|14 Mar 2012||SULP||Surcharge for late payment|
|14 Mar 2012||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|10 Dec 2012||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: HARBERT VENTURE PARTNERS, LLC, VIRGINIA
Free format text: RELEASE BY SECURED PARTY;ASSIGNOR:PRIVARIS, INC.;REEL/FRAME:029433/0371
Effective date: 20080430
|2 Jul 2013||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: APPLE INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:PRIVARIS INC.;REEL/FRAME:030726/0268
Effective date: 20121219
|2 Aug 2013||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: APPLE INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:PRIVARIS INC.;REEL/FRAME:030935/0054
Effective date: 20121219
|17 Feb 2016||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8