|Publication number||USRE35421 E|
|Application number||US 08/280,673|
|Publication date||7 Jan 1997|
|Filing date||27 Jul 1994|
|Priority date||14 Feb 1990|
|Also published as||DE69005285D1, DE69005285T2, EP0442156A1, EP0442156B1, US5133726|
|Publication number||08280673, 280673, US RE35421 E, US RE35421E, US-E-RE35421, USRE35421 E, USRE35421E|
|Inventors||Luis A. Ruiz, Sergio Lenchig G.|
|Original Assignee||Ruiz; Luis A., Lenchig G.; Sergio|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (15), Non-Patent Citations (8), Referenced by (67), Classifications (5), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The present invention is related to medical surgery equipment, particularly to a mechanical device for performing eye surgery, specifically Myopic Keratomileusis-In-Situ and Hyperopic Lamellar Keratotomy. More particularly, the invention is an improvement of such mechanical devices in that it makes the operation of resection completely automatic.
The latest technical advances in the medical field include the development over the last 20 years of procedures for operating on the eyes of patients suffering from myopia or hyperopia. Different methods and special instruments have been designed for performing this kind of surgery. One such instrument is a mechanical device bearing a cutting element for performing the operation of resection on the cornea of the eye. There are currently a few of these devices on the market. Known as microkeratomes (MKM), they are suitable for performing Myopic Keratomileusis-In-Situ and Hyperopic Lamellar Keratotomy. In all these devices the cutting element is moved by an electric or turbine motor. This movement is a transverse motion with respect to the direction of the cutting path. It is therefore necessary to push the blade-carrying device manually in order to make the cut. Surgical operations of this kind are presently performed in this manner, and though they have been quite successful, they involve some problems yet to be solved.
To obtain a precise correction of a visual defect, the dimensions of the resection that is made must be very precise. Since resecting is done manually, the precision of the resection depends on factors difficult to control, such as the pressure exerted by the surgeon's hand on the instrument and hence on the patient's eye, or the speed with which he pushes the instrument and its blade to make the resection. The higher the speed, the thinner the section will be, resulting in hypocorrection, and the lower the speed, the thicker the resection will be, resulting in hypercorrection. Moreover, since the sliding parts of the mechanical instrument are finely adjusted, irregular pressure or speed applied by the surgeon to the instrument may cause it to bind. The cutting would then be irregular and would produce irregular astigmatism in the patient's eye. Likewise, irregular pressure on the instrument and on the eye will affect the dimension of the resection.
One objective of this invention is to provide a mechanical device capable of performing eye surgery, that has a uniform cutting speed minimizing pressure changes on the eye. This device is pushed along by a force of sufficient magnitude evenly distributed so that the resection will be precise and the instrument will not bind along its cutting path.
A second objective is to provide a mechanical instrument capable of performing corneal resections in a completely automatic fashion, so that the "cleanness" of the cut will not be affected by the surgeon's hand.
This invention consists of an apparatus or device made up of three main parts: a motor and transmission shaft assembly, the shaper head assembly, and a retaining ring assembly. The device is specifically designed to perform corneal resections, which are specialized surgical operations in the medical area of ophthalmology. Automation of the device includes making the shaper head assembly move automatically and smoothly at a constant speed across the retaining ring assembly, which holds the eye in position for resection. The function of the motor and transmission shaft assembly is to impart and transmit a uniform mechanical motion, by a means of transmission, both to the cutting blade in the shaper head assembly and to the shaper head assembly. The transmission .Iadd.means .Iaddend.causes said .Iadd.blade .Iaddend.to oscillate transversally at a constant rate, and it causes the shaper head assembly to move longitudinally, smoothly and at a constant speed across the retaining ring assembly and thus across the cornea, therein making the desired resection.
For a better understanding of the invention, a detailed explanation of the same is given below with reference made to the attached drawings.
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of the mechanical device of this invention.
FIGS. 2, 2A and 2B are the top view, longitudinal section, and front view, respectively, of one end of the transmission shaft.
FIGS. 3, 3A and 3B are the front, lateral and bottom elevations of the pinion-bearing upper body of the shaper head assembly.
FIGS. 4, 4A and 4B are the front, lateral and top elevations of the blade holder.
FIGS. 5, 5A and 5B are the front, lateral and top views of the cutting element or blade.
FIGS. 6, 6A and 6B are the lateral elevation, cross section, and bottom elevation of the nut that fastens together the upper pinion-bearing body and the sliding skate of the shaper head assembly.
FIG. 7, 7A and 7B are the front, top and lateral elevations of the sliding skate.
FIGS. 8, 8A and 8B are the front, top and lateral elevations of the plate, whose thickness determines the thickness of resection.
FIG. 9 is a perspective view of the retaining ring assembly of this invention.
FIGS. 9A, 9B, 9C, 9D, 9E, 9F, 9G, 9H and 9J show the component parts of the retaining ring assembly of FIG. 9.
FIG. 10 is a sketch of the mechanical device in the process of performing a corneal resection on an eye.
A description is given in this section, which reference to the attached drawings, of the mechanical device of this invention, which is capable of performing eye surgery of the resection type shaping, or myopic and Hiperopic shaping.
The mechanical device 10, specifically designed to perform surgical operations on eyes to correct for myopia and hyperopia, is shown in perspective, as a complete unit, in FIG. 1. The device is drawn in said FIG. 1 as though it were transparent, to reveal several of its essential internal parts. Said mechanical device 10 is basically made up of the following main component parts.
The motor and transmission shaft assembly 20, the figure shows only the end of the transmission shaft that fits into the upper body 30, this end of the shaft being the only part of said assembly of interest to this invention. No description will be given of the motor and the rest of the shaft because they are well-known elements of the prior art and do not form part of this invention.
An upper body 30, which comprises a means of transmitting motion to the cutting element 50 (see also FIGS. 5, 5A and 5B).
A sliding skate 70, to which the upper body 30 is immovably fitted, and which in turn is fitted onto the fixation ring 90 in such a way as to be free to slide across it.
A plate 80, which slides into said skate 70 up to a predetermined fixed position. Said plate 80 defines the thickness of the resection.
A fastening nut 60, whose function is to hold the upper body 30 and said sliding plane 70 immovably joined together, these two parts together forming the shaper head.
A retaining ring assembly 90, whose function in the apparatus as a whole is to fix the eye in position and at the same time to provide a fixed support along which the shaper head will slide to resect the corneal disc with the blade 50. The blade 50 is fitted into the blade holder 40, which in turn .Iadd.is .Iaddend.inserted into said upper body of the shaper head. This retaining ring is able to work with or without vaccum or with pressure only.
Following the above general identification of the main parts of said mechanical device 10, a detailed description is given below of each one of them to explain how the device works and thus make clear the object and scope of this invention.
FIGS. 2, 2A and 2B show the end of the transmission shaft of the motor and transmission shaft assembly 20. At the extreme end of the shaft end 28 there is a threaded area 22 working as an endless pinion, and at the very tip projects a small spindle that is parallel to but not concentric with said shaft 28; this spindle will hereafter be referred to as the eccentric 21. No description will be given of the other parts of the transmission shaft, for they are well known parts in the .[.ant.]. .Iadd.art .Iaddend.of flexible shafts; such parts include jacket 29 and other components. Said shaft end 28 is introduced through a hole in the threaded area 35 (see FIGS. 3A and 3B) of the upper body 30 (see FIG. 1) and moved further into said body. Once said shaft point 28 is in place it becomes mechanically connected in its threaded area 22 to a pinion-shaft 31 (see, FIG. 1) that changes the direction of the axis of rotation by 90° with respect to the transmission shaft 20. Rotation is imparted to said pinion-shaft 31 upon mutual engagement of the two, that is the threaded area 22 of the transmission shaft and the threaded area of the pinion-shaft 31. The eccentric 21 fits into a vertical slot along the body of the blade holder 40. An oscillating motion is imparted to said blade holder 40 by the eccentric 21 as the eccentric revolves with the transmission shaft. (See FIG. 1).
Said upper body 30 is shown in detail in FIGS. 3, 3A, and 3B, and is manufactured out of surgical-grade stainless steel. Said upper body has a cylindrical threaded area 35 that is cut straight on the underside and has a cylindrical hole through which is inserted the shaft end 28 referred to above; a pinion-shaft 31, which engages to said threaded area 22 of said shaft end 28, said pinion shaft 31 runs through said upper body, juts out of the opposite lateral walls of said body, and is connected at each end to a pinion 32. In each one of said lateral walls of said upper body there are two forced in-shafts fitted with pinions 33 and 34, pinion 33 being engaged with pinion 32 and being larger in diameter, while pinion 34 being engaged with pinion 33 and being in turn larger in diameter. The relationship between the diameters of the set of pinions being chosen according to the required blade advancing speed. Toward the central part of the upper body, on the underside, there is a cavity 37 with a rectangular section and rounded ends. The blade holder 40 fits into this cavity 37. On the straight-cut part of the threaded area 35, toward the beginning of the thread on the body, there are two protruding pins 36 whose function will be understood from the description of the sliding skate 70 given below.
FIGS. 4, 4A and 4B show the blade holder 40, which has the shape of a rectangular parallelepiped with rounded corners, comprising on one of its wider faces three horizontal, triangular wedge-shaped slots. On the opposite side, the vertical slot referred to above is located. This is the vertical slot into which the eccentric 21 will be inserted to impart the transverse oscillatory motion to said blade holder 40. On the top side of the blade holder (see FIGS. 4 and 4B) there is a boss shaped like an inverted "C" in the center, with two circles above and below the "C " (see hatched area in FIG. 4B).
The function of said boss is to receive the blade 50 shown in FIGS. 5, 5A and 5B. Toward the center of said blade there is an essentially rectangular-shaped hole with rounded ends that fits perfectly onto the boss of the blade holder 40. Said blade holder is then introduced into said cavity 37 in the upper body 30 in such a way that the blade is held parallel to the underside of the upper body 30.
Said upper body 30 is then joined to the sliding skate 70 shown in FIGS. 7, 7A and 7B. The sliding .[.plane.]. .Iadd.skate .Iaddend.70 has a threaded area 74 which has a straight cut and which follows and inclined plane with respect to the plane formed by the dovetails 76. On said plane there is a rectangular-shaped recess 77 with rounded ends like cavity 37 in the upper body 30. Said upper body 30, with all its elements described above duly assembled, is so placed that the cut face of the threaded area 35 coincides with the cut face of the threaded area 74 of the sliding skate 70. In this way the two pins 36 on the body 30 are inserted into the two holes 78 provided in the sliding skate, and the blade holder 40 coincides with the recess 77 so that the cutting element 50 becomes duly secured. Then the two parts, the upper body 30 and the sliding skate 70, are fixed together as a single unit by screwing on the fastening nut 60 over the thread formed by the threaded parts 35 and 74. The blade is thus in the proper position for making a resection; although free to move transversally because the length of the cavity 37 in the upper body 30 is somewhat greater than the length of the blade holder 40.
With reference again to FIGS. 7, 7A and 7B, two parallel slots 75 can be seen above a rectangular-shaped opening in the body of the sliding skate 70. Plate 80 is inserted into said opening in a sliding manner along said slots 75 (see FIG. 1). The thickness of the plate determines the depth of resection, thus a resection of predetermined depth can be made by using a plate of appropriate thickness. FIGS. 8, 8A and 8B show the general form of plate 80. FIG. 8B highlights a part of the plate that is shaped like a rectangular parallelepiped and has two circular holes 82. These holes serve to retain plate 80 in position in the sliding skate 70 when the holes fit over the spheres 71 located in the body of the sliding skate 70. The springs 72, which are held in place by the screws 73, keep said spheres pressed outward.
All the parts described above make up the mobile means of the mechanical device once they are assembled together. This mobile means is the cutting instrument. (See FIG. 10).
The fixed part or support of the mechanical device is the retaining ring assembly 90, which is shown in FIG. 9. As can be seen, it is circular in shape and has a circular concentric hole 98. When said retaining ring assembly 90 is placed over the patient's eyeball, the cornea will appear centered on said hole 98 and protruding through it. FIGS. 9D, 9E and 9F show an upper ring 96 with two parallel toothed tracks 91 on it which run across ring 90 along the sides of hole 98. FIG. 9E shows two V-shaped grooves 94 that run parallel to the tracks 91. The dovetails 76 of the sliding skate 70 (see FIG. 7) are inserted into these grooves 94 in such a way that each one of the tracks 91 engages one of the pinions 34 of the upper body 30.
With reference again to FIG. 9, a description is given below of the retaining ring assembly 90, which comprises three components:
A slender upper ring 96 that has the hole 98, the tracks 91, the grooves 94 and two small holes 99 (see FIGS. 9D, 9E and 9F).
An inner ring 95 that has an outer thread and two pins 92 which will be inserted into the holes 99 in the upper ring 96. The inside of said ring 95 is shaped like a circular seat in which the patient's eyeball will be adjusted (see FIGS. 9A, 9B and 9C).
An outer ring 97 with an inner thread that serves to hold together the two preceding rings, the three together forming the complete eye retaining ring assembly (see FIGS. 9G, 9H and 9J).
The apparatus is thus ready to fulfill its purpose of resecting the cornea of the patient's eye.
Next, the transmission shaft is connected by inserting the shaft end 28 (FIGS. 2 and 2A) through hole 38 in the upper body 30 until the eccentric 21 enters the vertical slot of the blade holder 40 and the threaded area 22 of the shaft end 28 engages the pinion shaft 31 (see FIGS. 3, 3A, 4B and 1).
It only remains now to start the motor for the resection to be made automatically, precisely and safely (see FIG. 10). The high degree of resecting precision obtained in this way ensures that the patient under treatment will receive the required visual correction.
It is to be understood that the above description of the invention is made to exemplify the preferred embodiment and in no way limits the scope of this invention. One skilled in the art will realize that it is possible to make modifications or variations without departing from the spirit or scope of this invention.
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|International Classification||A61F9/00, A61F9/013|
|27 Jan 2000||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8
|23 Apr 2002||AS||Assignment|
|12 Jan 2004||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 12
|19 May 2004||AS||Assignment|