|Publication number||US8895358 B2|
|Application number||US 12/557,763|
|Publication date||25 Nov 2014|
|Filing date||11 Sep 2009|
|Priority date||11 Sep 2009|
|Also published as||CN102024716A, CN102024716B, US20110062575|
|Publication number||12557763, 557763, US 8895358 B2, US 8895358B2, US-B2-8895358, US8895358 B2, US8895358B2|
|Original Assignee||Stats Chippac, Ltd.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (33), Referenced by (2), Classifications (56), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The present invention relates in general to semiconductor devices and, more particularly, to a semiconductor device and method of forming a cavity in a printed circuit board or substrate containing an encapsulant or dummy die having a CTE similar to the CTE of a large array WLCSP.
Semiconductor devices are commonly found in modern electronic products. Semiconductor devices vary in the number and density of electrical components. Discrete semiconductor devices generally contain one type of electrical component, e.g., light emitting diode (LED), small signal transistor, resistor, capacitor, inductor, and power metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET). Integrated semiconductor devices typically contain hundreds to millions of electrical components. Examples of integrated semiconductor devices include microcontrollers, microprocessors, charged-coupled devices (CCDs), solar cells, and digital micro-mirror devices (DMDs).
Semiconductor devices perform a wide range of functions such as high-speed calculations, transmitting and receiving electromagnetic signals, controlling electronic devices, transforming sunlight to electricity, and creating visual projections for television displays. Semiconductor devices are found in the fields of entertainment, communications, power conversion, networks, computers, and consumer products. Semiconductor devices are also found in military applications, aviation, automotive, industrial controllers, and office equipment.
Semiconductor devices exploit the electrical properties of semiconductor materials. The atomic structure of semiconductor material allows its electrical conductivity to be manipulated by the application of an electric field or base current or through the process of doping. Doping introduces impurities into the semiconductor material to manipulate and control the conductivity of the semiconductor device.
A semiconductor device contains active and passive electrical structures. Active structures, including bipolar and field effect transistors, control the flow of electrical current. By varying levels of doping and application of an electric field or base current, the transistor either promotes or restricts the flow of electrical current. Passive structures, including resistors, capacitors, and inductors, create a relationship between voltage and current necessary to perform a variety of electrical functions. The passive and active structures are electrically connected to form circuits, which enable the semiconductor device to perform high-speed calculations and other useful functions.
Semiconductor devices are generally manufactured using two complex manufacturing processes, i.e., front-end manufacturing, and back-end manufacturing, each involving potentially hundreds of steps. Front-end manufacturing involves the formation of a plurality of die on the surface of a semiconductor wafer. Each die is typically identical and contains circuits formed by electrically connecting active and passive components. Back-end manufacturing involves singulating individual die from the finished wafer and packaging the die to provide structural support and environmental isolation.
One goal of semiconductor manufacturing is to produce smaller semiconductor devices. Smaller devices typically consume less power, have higher performance, and can be produced more efficiently. In addition, smaller semiconductor devices have a smaller footprint, which is desirable for smaller end products. A smaller die size may be achieved by improvements in the front-end process resulting in die with smaller, higher density active and passive components. Back-end processes may result in semiconductor device packages with a smaller footprint by improvements in electrical interconnection and packaging materials.
In wafer level chip scale packages (WLCSP) and fan-out wafer level chip scale packages (FO-WLCSP), semiconductor die are stacked and vertically interconnected within the package. As the need for signal processing capacity increases, large arrays of stacked semiconductor die are commonly housed within the WLCSP and FO-WLCSP. The large array WLCSP/FO-WLCSP are mounted to a PCB. However, the large array WLCSP/FO-WLCSP can cause failures and reduce board level reliability, particularly during temperature cycling testing, due in part to stress induced by mismatches in the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) between the PCB and large array WLCSP/FO-WLCSP.
A need exists for large array WLCSP/FO-WLCSP on PCBs without adversely effecting board level reliability. Accordingly, in one embodiment, the present invention is a method of making a semiconductor device comprising the steps of providing a substrate, forming a cavity in a first surface of the substrate, depositing an encapsulant having a CTE in the cavity, forming an insulating layer over the substrate and encapsulant, removing a portion of the insulating layer to expose the encapsulant, forming a first conductive layer over the encapsulant, and mounting a semiconductor package having a CTE over the cavity. The semiconductor package is electrically connected to the first conductive layer. The CTE of the encapsulant is selected similar to the CTE of the semiconductor package to reduce stress between the semiconductor package and substrate.
In another embodiment, the present invention is a method of making a semiconductor device comprising the steps of providing a substrate, forming a cavity in a first surface of the substrate, mounting a stress compensating structure having a CTE in the cavity, forming an insulating layer over the substrate and stress compensating structure, removing a portion of the insulating layer to expose the stress compensating structure, forming a conductive layer over the stress compensating structure, and mounting a semiconductor package having a CTE over the cavity. The semiconductor package is electrically connected to the conductive layer. The CTE of the stress compensating structure is selected similar to the CTE of the semiconductor package to reduce stress between the semiconductor package and substrate.
In another embodiment, the present invention is a method of making a semiconductor device comprising the steps of providing a substrate, forming a cavity in a first surface of the substrate, disposing a stress compensating structure having a CTE in the cavity, forming a conductive layer over the stress compensating structure, and mounting a semiconductor package having a CTE over the cavity. The semiconductor package is electrically connected to the conductive layer. The CTE of the stress compensating structure is selected similar to the CTE of the semiconductor package to reduce stress between the semiconductor package and substrate.
In another embodiment, the present invention is a semiconductor device comprising a substrate having a cavity formed in a first surface of the substrate. A stress compensating structure having a CTE is disposed in the cavity. A conductive layer is formed over the stress compensating structure. A semiconductor package having a CTE is mounted over the cavity. The semiconductor package is electrically connected to the conductive layer. The CTE of the stress compensating structure is selected similar to the CTE of the semiconductor package to reduce stress between the semiconductor package and substrate.
The present invention is described in one or more embodiments in the following description with reference to the figures, in which like numerals represent the same or similar elements. While the invention is described in terms of the best mode for achieving the invention's objectives, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that it is intended to cover alternatives, modifications, and equivalents as may be included within the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims and their equivalents as supported by the following disclosure and drawings.
Semiconductor devices are generally manufactured using two complex manufacturing processes: front-end manufacturing and back-end manufacturing. Front-end manufacturing involves the formation of a plurality of die on the surface of a semiconductor wafer. Each die on the wafer contains active and passive electrical components, which are electrically connected to form functional electrical circuits. Active electrical components, such as transistors and diodes, have the ability to control the flow of electrical current. Passive electrical components, such as capacitors, inductors, resistors, and transformers, create a relationship between voltage and current necessary to perform electrical circuit functions.
Passive and active components are formed over the surface of the semiconductor wafer by a series of process steps including doping, deposition, photolithography, etching, and planarization. Doping introduces impurities into the semiconductor material by techniques such as ion implantation or thermal diffusion. The doping process modifies the electrical conductivity of semiconductor material in active devices, transforming the semiconductor material into an insulator, conductor, or dynamically changing the semiconductor material conductivity in response to an electric field or base current. Transistors contain regions of varying types and degrees of doping arranged as necessary to enable the transistor to promote or restrict the flow of electrical current upon the application of the electric field or base current.
Active and passive components are formed by layers of materials with different electrical properties. The layers can be formed by a variety of deposition techniques determined in part by the type of material being deposited. For example, thin film deposition may involve chemical vapor deposition (CVD), physical vapor deposition (PVD), electrolytic plating, and electroless plating processes. Each layer is generally patterned to form portions of active components, passive components, or electrical connections between components.
The layers can be patterned using photolithography, which involves the deposition of light sensitive material, e.g., photoresist, over the layer to be patterned. A pattern is transferred from a photomask to the photoresist using light. The portion of the photoresist pattern subjected to light is removed using a solvent, exposing portions of the underlying layer to be patterned. The remainder of the photoresist is removed, leaving behind a patterned layer. Alternatively, some types of materials are patterned by directly depositing the material into the areas or voids formed by a previous deposition/etch process using techniques such as electroless and electrolytic plating.
Depositing a thin film of material over an existing pattern can exaggerate the underlying pattern and create a non-uniformly flat surface. A uniformly flat surface is required to produce smaller and more densely packed active and passive components. Planarization can be used to remove material from the surface of the wafer and produce a uniformly flat surface. Planarization involves polishing the surface of the wafer with a polishing pad. An abrasive material and corrosive chemical are added to the surface of the wafer during polishing. The combined mechanical action of the abrasive and corrosive action of the chemical removes any irregular topography, resulting in a uniformly flat surface.
Back-end manufacturing refers to cutting or singulating the finished wafer into the individual die and then packaging the die for structural support and environmental isolation. To singulate the die, the wafer is scored and broken along non-functional regions of the wafer called saw streets or scribes. The wafer is singulated using a laser cutting tool or saw blade. After singulation, the individual die are mounted to a package substrate that includes pins or contact pads for interconnection with other system components. Contact pads formed over the semiconductor die are then connected to contact pads within the package. The electrical connections can be made with solder bumps, stud bumps, conductive paste, or wirebonds. An encapsulant or other molding material is deposited over the package to provide physical support and electrical isolation. The finished package is then inserted into an electrical system and the functionality of the semiconductor device is made available to the other system components.
Electronic device 50 may be a stand-alone system that uses the semiconductor packages to perform one or more electrical functions. Alternatively, electronic device 50 may be a subcomponent of a larger system. For example, electronic device 50 may be a graphics card, network interface card, or other signal processing card that can be inserted into a computer. The semiconductor package can include microprocessors, memories, application specific integrated circuits (ASIC), logic circuits, analog circuits, RF circuits, discrete devices, or other semiconductor die or electrical components.
In some embodiments, a semiconductor device has two packaging levels. First level packaging is a technique for mechanically and electrically attaching the semiconductor die to an intermediate carrier. Second level packaging involves mechanically and electrically attaching the intermediate carrier to the PCB. In other embodiments, a semiconductor device may only have the first level packaging where the die is mechanically and electrically mounted directly to the PCB.
For the purpose of illustration, several types of first level packaging, including wire bond package 56 and flip chip 58, are shown on PCB 52. Additionally, several types of second level packaging, including ball grid array (BGA) 60, bump chip carrier (BCC) 62, dual in-line package (DIP) 64, land grid array (LGA) 66, multi-chip module (MCM) 68, quad flat non-leaded package (QFN) 70, and quad flat package 72, are shown mounted on PCB 52. Depending upon the system requirements, any combination of semiconductor packages, configured with any combination of first and second level packaging styles, as well as other electronic components, can be connected to PCB 52. In some embodiments, electronic device 50 includes a single attached semiconductor package, while other embodiments call for multiple interconnected packages. By combining one or more semiconductor packages over a single substrate, manufacturers can incorporate pre-made components into electronic devices and systems. Because the semiconductor packages include sophisticated functionality, electronic devices can be manufactured using cheaper components and a streamlined manufacturing process. The resulting devices are less likely to fail and less expensive to manufacture resulting in a lower cost for consumers.
BGA 60 is electrically and mechanically connected to PCB 52 with a BGA style second level packaging using bumps 112. Semiconductor die 58 is electrically connected to conductive signal traces 54 in PCB 52 through bumps 110, signal lines 114, and bumps 112. A molding compound or encapsulant 116 is deposited over semiconductor die 58 and carrier 106 to provide physical support and electrical isolation for the device. The flip chip semiconductor device provides a short electrical conduction path from the active devices on semiconductor die 58 to conduction tracks on PCB 52 in order to reduce signal propagation distance, lower capacitance, and improve overall circuit performance. In another embodiment, the semiconductor die 58 can be mechanically and electrically connected directly to PCB 52 using flip chip style first level packaging without intermediate carrier 106.
A cavity 128 is formed in surface 124 having an area approximately the size as semiconductor package 140 later mounted over the cavity. Cavity 128 can be formed by laser, drilling, router, skiving, or scoring. In one embodiment, for PCB 120 having a thickness of 100-800 micrometers (μm), cavity 128 is formed to a depth of 50-600 μm.
An electrically conductive layer 134 is formed over conductive layer 122, encapsulant 130, and insulating layer 132 using a patterning and metal deposition process such as PVD, CVD, sputtering, electrolytic plating, and electroless plating process. Conductive layer 134 can be one or more layers of Al, Cu, Sn, Ni, Au, Ag, or other suitable electrically conductive material. One portion of conductive layer 134 is electrically connected to conductive layer 122. Other portions of conductive layer 134 can be electrically common or electrically isolated depending on the design and function of the semiconductor device.
A solder masking layer 136 is formed over PCB 120 with openings to expose conductive layer 134 for next level interconnect. The opening in solder masking layer 136 may not precisely overlap the opening in insulating layer 132.
An electrically conductive bump material is deposited over bottom surface 126 of PCB 120 and electrically connected to conductive layer 122 using an evaporation, electrolytic plating, electroless plating, ball drop, or screen printing process. The bump material can be Al, Sn, Ni, Au, Ag, Pb, Bi, Cu, solder, and combinations thereof, with an optional flux solution. For example, the bump material can be eutectic Sn/Pb, high-lead solder, or lead-free solder. The bump material is bonded to conductive layer 122 using a suitable attachment or bonding process. In one embodiment, the bump material is reflowed by heating the material above its melting point to form spherical balls or bumps 138. In some applications, bumps 138 are reflowed a second time to improve electrical contact to conductive layer 122. The bumps can also be compression bonded to conductive layer 122. Bumps 138 represent one type of interconnect structure that can be formed over conductive layer 122. The interconnect structure can also use bond wires, stud bump, micro bump, or other electrical interconnect on either the top surface or bottom surface of PCB 120.
The electronic system 148 has semiconductor package 140 mounted over cavity 128 in PCB 120, as described in
A cavity 158 is formed in surface 154 having an area approximately the size as a semiconductor die later mounted over the cavity. Cavity 158 can be formed by laser, drilling, router, skiving, or scoring. In one embodiment, for PCB 150 having a thickness of 100-800 μm, cavity 158 is formed to a depth of 50-600 μm.
A dummy die 160 is mounted in cavity 158 with die attach adhesive 162. Dummy die 160 may have an active surface or no active surface. For example, the dummy die can have only the inductor on the surface. An optional encapsulant or molding compound is deposited around dummy die 160 using a paste printing, compressive molding, transfer molding, liquid encapsulant molding, vacuum lamination, spin coating, or other suitable applicator. The encapsulant can be polymer composite material, such as epoxy resin with filler, epoxy acrylate with filler, or polymer with proper filler. The top surface of dummy die 160 is co-planar with top surface 154.
An insulating or passivation layer 164 is formed over PCB 150 and dummy die 160. The insulating layer 164 can be one or more layers of photosensitive insulation polymer material. The insulating layer 164 is formed using lamination, printing, spin coating, or spray coating. A portion of insulating layer 164 is removed by an etching process or laser drilling to expose conductive layer 152 and dummy die 160.
An electrically conductive layer 166 is formed over conductive layer 152, dummy die 160, and insulating layer 164 using a patterning and metal deposition process such as PVD, CVD, sputtering, electrolytic plating, and electroless plating process. Conductive layer 166 can be one or more layers of Al, Cu, Sn, Ni, Au, Ag, or other suitable electrically conductive material. One portion of conductive layer 166 is electrically connected to conductive layer 152. Other portions of conductive layer 166 can be electrically common or electrically isolated depending on the design and function of the semiconductor device.
A solder masking layer 168 is formed over PCB 160 with openings to expose conductive layer 166 for next level interconnect. The opening in solder masking layer 168 may not precisely overlap the opening in insulating layer 164.
An electrically conductive bump material is deposited over bottom surface 156 of PCB 150 and electrically connected to conductive layer 152 using an evaporation, electrolytic plating, electroless plating, ball drop, or screen printing process. The bump material can be Al, Sn, Ni, Au, Ag, Pb, Bi, Cu, solder, and combinations thereof, with an optional flux solution. For example, the bump material can be eutectic Sn/Pb, high-lead solder, or lead-free solder. The bump material is bonded to conductive layer 152 using a suitable attachment or bonding process. In one embodiment, the bump material is reflowed by heating the material above its melting point to form spherical balls or bumps 170. In some applications, bumps 170 are reflowed a second time to improve electrical contact to conductive layer 152. The bumps can also be compression bonded to conductive layer 152. Bumps 170 represent one type of interconnect structure that can be formed over conductive layer 122. The interconnect structure can also use bond wires, stud bump, micro bump, or other electrical interconnect.
A semiconductor package or component 172 is mounted over cavity 158 containing dummy die 160 with contact pads 174 oriented toward PCB 150. Semiconductor package 172 is a WLCSP or FO-WLCSP containing a plurality of stacked semiconductor die. Each semiconductor die contains analog or digital circuits implemented as active devices, passive devices, conductive layers, and dielectric layers formed within the die and electrically interconnected according to the electrical design and function of the die. For example, the circuit may include one or more transistors, diodes, and other circuit elements formed within the active surface of the die to implement analog circuits or digital circuits, such as DSP, ASIC, memory, or other signal processing circuit. Semiconductor package 172 may also contain IPD, such as inductors, capacitors, and resistors, for RF signal processing. A typical RF system requires multiple IPDs in one or more semiconductor packages to perform the necessary electrical functions. Bumps 178 electrically connect contact pads 174 to conductive layer 166. Bumps 178 can be Al, Sn, Ni, Au, Ag, Pb, Bi, Cu, solder, and combinations thereof.
The electronic system 180 has semiconductor package 172 mounted over cavity 158 in PCB 150. Semiconductor package 172 is a WLCSP or FO-WLCSP containing a large array of stacked semiconductor die for additional signal processing capability. Semiconductor package 172 has a base material such as silicon, germanium, gallium arsenide, indium phosphide, or silicon carbide, for structural support. Dummy die 160, with optional encapsulant, is a stress compensating structure selected to have a CTE substantially similar to or matching the CTE of the base material of semiconductor package 172, e.g., silicon having a CTE of 2-10×10−6/° C. The reliability of electronic system 180 is enhanced by mounting semiconductor package 172 over cavity 158 containing dummy die 160 because the CTE of the dummy die is selected to be similar to the CTE of the base material of the semiconductor package. Any expansion or contraction of semiconductor package 172 due to temperature variation is transmitted through conductive layer 134 and compensated by dummy die 160 having a similar thermal expansion property. The substantially similar CTE of semiconductor package 172 and dummy die 160 reduces stress and associated failures, particularly during temperature cycling testing.
While one or more embodiments of the present invention have been illustrated in detail, the skilled artisan will appreciate that modifications and adaptations to those embodiments may be made without departing from the scope of the present invention as set forth in the following claims.
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|U.S. Classification||438/108, 257/778|
|International Classification||H01L23/00, H01L23/538, H01L23/13, H01L23/31, H01L23/498, H01L21/00, H01L29/40|
|Cooperative Classification||H01L2924/00014, H01L2924/12042, H01L2924/181, H01L2224/04105, H01L2224/16235, H01L2924/1306, H01L2924/12041, H01L2224/48247, H01L2224/73267, H01L2924/13091, H01L2924/01013, H01L2924/014, H01L2924/15311, H01L2924/15153, H01L2224/16225, H01L24/48, H01L23/49816, H01L2924/10329, H01L2924/19041, H01L23/49827, H01L2224/73265, H01L2924/15183, H01L2924/01032, H01L2224/82102, H01L2924/30105, H01L2924/01078, H01L2224/24227, H01L2924/01029, H01L24/24, H01L23/13, H01L2924/01079, H01L2224/32225, H01L2924/01006, H01L2924/01004, H01L2924/01322, H01L2924/14, H01L23/3128, H01L2224/48091, H01L23/5389, H01L2224/16, H01L2924/01033, H01L2924/01082, H01L2924/01047, H01L2224/76155, H01L2924/1433, H01L2924/01049, H01L2924/00|
|11 Sep 2009||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: STATS CHIPPAC, LTD., SINGAPORE
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:LIN, YAOJIAN;REEL/FRAME:023218/0407
Effective date: 20090911
|6 Aug 2015||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: CITICORP INTERNATIONAL LIMITED, AS COMMON SECURITY
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:STATS CHIPPAC, INC.;STATS CHIPPAC LTD.;REEL/FRAME:036288/0748
Effective date: 20150806
|7 Apr 2016||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: STATS CHIPPAC PTE. LTE., SINGAPORE
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:STATS CHIPPAC LTD.;REEL/FRAME:038378/0161
Effective date: 20160329