US 884645 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
No. 884,645. PATENTED APR. 14, 1908. A. G. EASTWOOD. SYSTEM FOR ELECTRIC RAILWAYS.
APPLICATION FILED FEB. 2, 1907.
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7 A. G. EASTWOOD.
SYSTEM FOR ELECTRIC RAILWAYS.
APPLICATION rm-m FEB. 2, 1907.
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0? 3 Ma y :1: Q- 0 3 Q "I In 1 I: 7 wrrwcssca: 3 7 INVEN OR 1 L m 2M F v VQW. 6W ATTORNEY No. 884,645.. PATENTED APR. 14, 1908. A. c. EASTWOOD.
SYSTEM FOR ELECTRIC RAILWAYS. Arrmonmx rum) 11:11.2, 1901.
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ARTHUR C. EASTWOOD, OF CLEVELAND, OHIO.
I SYSTEM FOR ELECTRIC RAILWAYS.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented April 14, 1908.
Application filed February 2, 1997. Serial No. 355,396.
To all whom it'may'concern:
Be it known that I, ARTHUR C. EAs'rwoon,
'a citizen of the United States, residing at thus adding to the comfort of Oleveland, in the county of Ouyahoga and State of Ohio, have invented or discovered new and. useful Improvements in S stems for Electric Railways, of which the fol owing is a specification.
-My invention relates to certain new and useful improvements in electric railways with articular reference to the means for-generat mg electric power and supplying it to any number of motors on a train.
The objects of my invention are to produce an electric railwa which may be operated without the use 0 large central power plants and without the necessity of installing an expensive system of transmission conductors; fwherein current may-be generated and sup plied. to the motors at a relatively low voltage, thus insurin f safety and freedom. from insulation troub es which are naturally present where high voltages are en'iployed; wherein the power generating apparatus, 'when working, will be operating at maximum efliciency wherein the energy delivered in descending rades and .in braking may be stored for future use instead of being wasted in the form of heat, as is'generally the case at present wherein the power generating apparatus may readily be placed at the rear of the train, 7 passengers by eliminating the smoke and cinders, which are so objectionable where a steam boiler is carried at the forward end of the train; wherein standard railway cars, such as are at present in use, may be placed between the motor cars in a train without the necessity of providing such cars with control conductors or power cables and eliminating flexible couplings or plug connectors between cars; and which i may be equipped at minimum expense and will possess maximum of flexibility.
For the operation of trunk lines it has been proposed to erect large power plants at intervals along therailway and to generate and transmit electric current at a relatively high voltage, current being supplied to the motors through the medium of a stationary conductor fed by the powerplant'. The greatest objections to this system of generating and distributing power are follows:
heavy investment in power plants is required. If losses of power in transmission are to be kept within reasonable limits, the investment in the transmission system must also throughout the length of the train.
be very. heavy. To secure reasonable cilicienoy in transmission very high voltages must be employed, thus int-rinluc; ments of danger and risk of brez down. Since each power plant must be of sui'iieient capacity to supply all trains which may at one time be operating on the section of road supplied by it, the various power plants for a considerable portion of the time may operate at very low output and at low efficiency on roads where trains run at infrequent intervals. If a single power plant or a section of the transmission system breaks down, an entire section of the road is rendered inoperative.
By means of my invention, all of the above objections are obviated. The investment in power generating apparatus need be only suliicient to meet the total demands of the road. and the power generating units will be worked at maximum eilicicncy: The niaximum distance to which electric power must be transmitted to a given train will be the length of the train, so that'no elaborate and expensive power transmission system required and a relatively low and sale voltage may be economically employed. Further, the disabling of a single power generating unit can effect the operation of only a single train.
In carrying out my invention, I provide each trainwith its own electric power-generating plant, which travels with the train and is preferably located at the rear thereof. I provide a number of cars in the train with electric driving motors and supply them. with power from the power plant on the train, the speed, power, and direction of rotation ofall the motors being simultaneously controllable from a single point,.preferably the forward end of the train. I preferably supply current from the power plant to the various motors on the train through the rails of the road and athird conducting rail or trolley wire. Of course, each car on. the train could. be equipped with a power eonduotor with the necessary detachable plug' CPI inc
connections or couplings between the cars;
thus forming a power conductor extending l. prefer, however, to use a stationary conductor, since with. this construction, ordinary cars, such. as might be used by roads not equipped ith electric power, could be placed between the various motor-driven oars without addition or alteration.
I prefer to provide a storage battery on the train which acts in parallel with the electric generator, such that, when a small amount of power is required to drive the train, surplus energ r Wlll be stored in the battery and-whcn more than average power is required the battery will discharge and assist the generator. The battery may also be used in absorbing the energy which must be given up when the speed of the train is reduced, the motors being temporarily connected as generators for the purpose of braking.
Where there are extended grades on the road and the travel is approximately e ually divided up and down grade, I ins'ta stationary storage batteries, the batteries being connected between the rails and the stationary power conductor. Trains descending the grade will store energy in the stationary battery and this energy will be given up in assisting other trains in ascending the grade. Where travel is unequally divided, the bulk of the traffic being lip-grade, I instal a stationary power generating plant delivering current at the point of grade, this plant acting in parallel with the plant on the train and furnishing the excess ower required to drive the train up the race. B these arrange ments, 1 am enah ed to wor the power gen-- erating apparatus on the train at substantially constant load and at high efliciency.
Referring to the accompanying drawings, Figure 1 1s a side. elevation of a train equipped in accordance with my invention. Fig. 2 is a plan view partly in section, and Fig. 3, a side elevation, partly in vertical section, of one form of traveling power plant which I may employ. Figs. 4 and 5 are diagrams of electrical control connections.
Fig. 6 1s a plan; and Fig. 7, an elevation oi a section of a roadway. Fig. 8 is a sectional view of the railway at a point where the con- 'trol and ower conductors overlap,together with an e evation of a car truck and contact shoes for the said conductors. 'Fig. 9 is a side elevation showing a portion of a railway with a power conductor and a contact shoe.
In Fig. 1, which represents a train of cars equipped in accordance with my invention, the cars, P, l, --P, and P, are each equipped with electric driving motors which are controlled from the leading car P. At the rear of the train and coupled thereto is a travclin power plant consisting of a boiler l), supp icd with water and fuel from a tendo! a; a steam engine 15, preferably of the rotary or turbine type; an electric generator 1; and a storage battery B". The generator l is preferably of the unipolar type, which may readily be operated at high speed, gunm'nllng direct current. no commutator being: l'vquil'od. 'lhc engine E, generator F and buttery l3" are preferably carried on a car i", scpzmtblu from the boiler, steam being transmit led from the boiler to the engine through a detachable connection 6'; or they may be carried on the same truck or la-tform or on the trucks which carry the lioiler, but readily separable therefrom. I prefer this construction from the fact that the engine and generator, being of the rotarytype, may be 0 erated for long periods \Vltlr out repair, whi e the boiler and firebox, being of necessity worked at high output, must he frequentlyput into the she for none inspection, cleaning, etc. n equippm a road, an excess of boilers may be provide so that the engine generators and batteries,
which constitute the more expensive parts' of the equipment, may be kept in almost constant operation. The battery B is so connected as to float in the system, storing energy or giving out energy according as the load on: the generator F'fiuctuates.
I preferably supply current from the gen erator F and the battery B to the motors on the various cars, P, P, P etc. through the agency of the stationary conductor N (Fig. 6) placed'parallel with the roadway. (lontacts, (Figs. 8 and 9) are carried by the cars which have been equipped with n'lotors, these contacts cooperating with the conductor N. The conductor N is divided into sections 12. as shown in Fig. 6, these sections being of such length that two trains will not be operated upon the same section at the same time. The sections it of the rciiduetor overlap at their ends by a distance equal to the length of the longest train to be operated, so that a train may pass from one section to the next without interruption of the circuit, but the same object may be otherwise accomplished.
Referring to Figs. 8 and-9, it will be noted that the overlapping sections n of the power conductor N are arranged to be engaged by the two contact shoes it carried by the links n; The links have each aslot n at its upper end to receive the guide bolt 72: secured to the bracket or support it on the car. 1t" .1s a shunt of flexible or braided co per Avire which transmits the current collected by the shoe directly to the bracket 12?, thereby relieving the join s of the links from carrying current. ds of the sections n curve down as shown on .li'ig. 9.
The current from the generator, which is on one car, travels along the sections of the conductors, but it can not pass from one section to another unless the shoes 'n are in contact with two sections simultaneously, the shoes being electrically connected. The current would not be delivered to any motor car which does not have its motor in circuit with the conductor section to which the generator is delivering its current. Therefore, the overlapping sections should at least be as long as the distance between the generator car and the most distant motor car in a train.
. stepped series, each successive The conductor N, being required to transmit merely the current for one train throu h' a mean distance of approximately half t e length of the train, may be of relatively light section. The rails G form the return conductor of the circuit.
Referring now to Fig. 4, K is the control:
ling switchpreferably carried by the leading ca'r P of the train, and is represented as of the drum" or cylinder type, there being a row of relatively stationary contact fingers b, 1;, b 6, b cooperatin with a series of contact strips or segmental rings k to 1c, carried by the rotatable drum or cylinder.' The strips k to It are all connected in a strip below thestrip k extending farther from'the fingers than the oneabove it. These strips are shortand are in contact with their respective fingers only during the time the controller is at a corresponding speed osition. The successive strips k-k slight y overlap so that contact of a strip with its cooperatin finger will be made before contact of the ad acent strip with its fin er is broken. a
To furnis 1 energy for actuating the motorcontrolling devices,'which are carried by the motor-cars of the train, I have provided the storage battery B divided into the sections B B. These sections are connected to the contact fin ers b b of the controller K as follows: he section Bis connected to the contact-finger b by the wire a; the section B, to the contact-fingers b and b by the wire a; the section B, to the con tact fin ers b and b by the wirea, and so on, tie last section, B being connected tothe contact-fingers b and .6 by the wire a. The wires a -(L fork, the upper branches leading through resistances r r, respectively, to the upper member of each pair of contact-fingers and the lower branch shunting the corresponding resistance and leading to the lower member of each pair of contact-fingers.
The forward end of each contact-strip -Jc is notched, the upper ortion thereof being wide enough to cover t e upper member of the corresponding pair of contact-fingers, while the rear portion of each strip extends down far enough to cover the remaining member of thepair of'contact-fingers. It will be readily seen that, when the contact-strip 7r engages the contact-finger b the corresponding resistance 1" will be included in the circuit which starts from the left side of the battery section B and includes the wire (1 the con tact-finger b, the contact-stri k, the con nection between this strip it! the strip k, the cont-actiinger b, the resistance r and the wire a' to the right end of the said battery section? further advanced, the contact-fin er b comes into contact with the lower step 0 the strip k just after-the strip It has left contact with .so that thestrip w -tor F, one termina As the drum of the controller K is the finger b. The resistance r is then shortcircuited and the wire a cut out of the circuit sistances r 1, etc. in each case being shorta a, etc. being cut out of the battery circuit "ust after the as left the corresponding strips 75 k etc.
As the drum of the controller is revolved from the off-position, current from the successive sections of the battery B will be supplied through the control conductor M and the rails G to the controlling devices on the cars P, P P etc. of the train, the ste )-bystep rotation of the drum of the controller K causing a pro ressively larger number of battery cells tofie connected between the conductor M and the rails G. v Y
W is a reversing switch preferably of the form described in my pending application for United States patent, Serial N 0. 3 12,613. It will be seen that the operation of the reversing switch W, which, by a quarter revolution, moves the conductor will connect the contacts 1 and 2 and the strip w will connect thecon- .tacts 3 and 4, will reverse the connections of the battery-to the rail G- and the control-conductor M, thus reversing the direction of curstrips w and w just traced. The succeeding stripsand fingers are arranged in the same manner, the re- 1 circuited and the next preceding battery wire pair of preceding contact-fingers rent flow throughthe actuating devices of the motor controllers on cars P, P P and P.
The'control'circuits on each of the motor driven car's P to P tively, by the characters 12 to g). It is to be noted that one end. of the control-circuit on each car is connected to the rail G, preferably through the truck of the car, and the other end '0 the control-circuit on each car is connected to contact shoes m which cooperate with the control-conductor M, which is made sectional like the power conductor N, 'the shoes m being like the shoes W.
are designated, respecl The arrangement of the circuits on each motor driven car is more clearly shown in Fi 5, in which A is the armature and F the fie d wini'ling of a single driving motor. U is a reversing switch forreversing the direction.
of the motor, the terminals 5 and 8 being connected to the brushes of the armature; the
terminal 6, to one terminal of the resistance.
R, and the terminal 7, to one terminal of the field F. The remaining terminal of the field F is connected to the shoe n which is in sliding contact with the conductor-rail N, whose function is to conduct to the car-motors the propulsion current enerated by the generaof the generator bein connected to the conductor N and the other to the rails G.
The I'GSiSEEHGG R is divided into sections R R3-R governed by" the devices which control the speed and power 'of the motor. The sections of resistance are indicated as controlled by magnetically operated switches S, S S the closure of each switch serving to short-circuit a section of the resistance connected to its terminals in the well known way. As shown, the terminals of the sections of the resistance are connected respectively to one of the contacts of the several switches S, S", etc. while the second contact of each of the said switches is connected to a common wire J, leading to therail G. The switches may he of any type, the one shown being merely diagrammatic or intended to show the presence of automatic magnetically operated switches. The pair of contacts of the switcl'ics are closed by the action of the windings C, G etc. on their plunger-like cores having'at their bottoms the 'bars 8, which. bridge the members of the several pairs of contacts when the windings energize the cores so to lift the said bars into engagement with the said contacts. The windings of said switches are in series between the conductors leading to the rail G and the shoe m on the control-conductor M. The plungers of the switches are shown as provided with successively heavier weights or bars so that e stepby-step increase in voltage be tween the rail (1 and the control-conductor M, which is obtained by rotating the drum of the controller K, will cause the successive closure of the switches S, S 5, etc., thus increasing the speed of the motor because the closure ol each switch cuts out a section of the resistance ll.
The reversing switch U is indicated as opera-ted in one direction or the other by electro-magnets having windings u and M2.
to is the winding of e polarized relay which controls the circuits of the windings u and M2. VJhen the polarized armature u of the relay is on the contact u as shown, the coil 11/ of the reversing switch is energized, it being in series through the armature u with the conductors lending to the rail G and the shoe m Vlhen, however,'the direction'of the current-flow through the coil u of the relay is reversed (this bein caused by operation of.
the reversing-switeh w of the controller K), the armature u of the relay is attracted, opening the circuit of coil u, endclosing the circuit of coil L P, thereby actuating the reversing switch U and causing the armature A to rotate in the reverse direction. The energization ol the winding moves the blade 20 so as to bridge the contacts 5 and 6, and the blade w so as to connect the contacts 7 and 8. v
It will be readily understood that when the controller K on the leading car is operated so as to bring the strips on the drum successively into contact with their respective liners b, If, 1), tc, the controllinq switches 5*, S etc. on each oi the camfil Pf. P and P" are operated; when the controller K.
is returned to the original ell-position. thecircuits of the motors on each of'the cars 15 to the rail G.
verse direction'end their speed and power will be controlled. as before. My invention,
therefore, affords very simple means for con-' trolling the speed, power and direction of rotsttion of a plurality of motors on various cars of a train from a single point.
For the sake of simplicity l have shown a storage battery 13 as a source of power for actuating the control devices on the various cars of the train. Of course, other devices such, for example, as a motor generator, might be enu'iloyed for the purpose, the requirements being that a variable voltage be avails-hie and that each stop of the controlling swi. c K corresponds to at certain delinitc voltage between the control-conductor M and the rails G. Further, I have indicated but a single motor for each of the cars P to P. Of course, at number of motors might be applied to each ear and the speed and power or these motors might be varied by altering the'grouping of their windings; or, if the motors be of the alternating current type, the resistance R might be replaced by a controllable hIfiDSfOIHlGl or reactance. While 1 have shown the switches S, S S, etc. as o erated bv power furnished by the battery l3,
it is evident that the switches might be operated by con'ipressed air or other power controlled by relays, the relays in turn being under the control of the switch K in a manner the equivalent of that shown and described.
The operation of my invention may be explained as follows :The operator in the *ar l" turns the handle of the controller'K so as to cause the strips 7c and is} to contact with the lingers b, b whereupon current from the section B of the battery 13 llows through cont-hots l and 3 of the reversing switch W Leaving the rail G as indicated in Fig. 5, the current divides; one portion passes from the rail G through the winding u of the polarized relay, and thence to the contact shoe m" and returns through the control-coiuluctorhti and the contacts 2 and 4 of the s *itch W to the terminal of the battery B. This completes the circuit through the coil 21 of the polarized relay, and assuming that thc current llo'ws in such a (lll'OCtlOll as to repel the armature u so thst it makes contact with the terminal u, as shown, a second circuit is established from the rail G through the ormature a of the relay, the contact u the coil u of the reversing switch U, thence to the contact shoe m and through the controlconductor M to the battery. This energizes the actuating coil 'u" of the reversing switch, which we will assume causes the contact str p 20 to bridge the contacts 5.und 7 and the contact strip 10 to bridge the contacts it end 8v Current from the control battery also passes from the rail G through the contacts of theswitch S to the rails G,
'. those already in circuit.
armature of bringing it into contact with the switch. coils C to GIin series. The switch S having a lunger of lighter weight than the others c oses first, and estabhshes the main circuit throughthe motorfas follows: From the power-conductor N through the contact shoe n, the motor field winding F, the contacts 7 and 5 of the reversing switch U, the motor armature A, the contacts 8 and 6 of the reversing, switch U, the entire resistance R to R and thence through the through which the current returns to the travehng power plant.
When the controller K has been rotated so as to bring the strip k in contact with the fingers b and b the battery section b will be placed in series with the section B. As the controller is further rotated to bring the successive strips in contact with their res ective fingers, the successive sections of the battery will be connected in series with This causes successive closure of the magnetic switches S 8, etc., which short-circuit the controlling resistance in an obvious manner until, when switch S closes, all of the resistance is shortcircuited and the motor should operate at full speed.
To reverse the direction of motion of the IILOtOIS, the operator throws the reversing switch W, Fig. 4, so that contacts 1 and 2 are connected together, and contacts 3 and 4 are connected together. When the controllerK is then operated in such amanner that the strips 76, k are in contact with the lingers b, b, current will pass from the first section B of the battery B through contacts 1 and 2 of the reversing switch W, thence to the control conductor M, and through all of the switch-actuating coils and through the winding of the )olarized relay in a reverse direction from that previously described, since the polarity existing between the control-conductor M and the rails G has been reversed. This reversal of the direction of current flow will cause the polarized relay to attract its terminal 11, which is in connection with the I actuating coil o of the -reversing switch.
This completes the circuit through the coil a and causes the contact strip to to bridge the contacts 5 and 6 and the contact strip w to bridge the contacts 7 and 8. The switches S to S will act the same asbefore, since their action depends merely upon the amount of current flowing through their windin s and not upon its direction. -Switch S wi 1, therefore, close as before and establish the main circuit'through the motor'as follows: Current will flow from the power-conductor N through the contact shoes 12 the field F, the contacts 7 and 8 of the reversing switch, the armature A,,contacts 5 and 6 of the reversing switch U to the control resistance, thence through all of the resistances R to R and through the contacts of the switch 8 to the rails G, thence returning to the power-house. It will be neted that the di- By dividing the control-conductor M into I sections, I prevent any interference with the motor-controlling devices of one train by another train. The potential between the rails G and M determines the number of the switches S, 8, etc. thrown in and, therefore, the speed of the train. Obviously if the corn trol-conductor were continuous along the railway and a number of trains were on the railway at the same timefthe motornian of each train might have his operating controller K one diflerent point, so that the control-batteries B on the various trains would tend to produce varyin difl'erences of potential between the controj-conductor M and the rails G, according to the number of battery cells admitted into circuit by the various controllers. This would, of course, set up cross-circuits between the control ap aratus of the various trains and interfere with proper control.
Fig. 6 is a )lan, and Fig. 7, an elevation of a section of double track railway. G, G are one air of rails and G- l, the rails of the para lel track. N and N are the respective stationary power-conductors for the two tracks, and M, M, the control-conductors. A grade is indicated at H. A battery T is located at or near the point of grade and is connected to the rails and power conductor in such manner that trains descending the grade may be caused to store energy in they battery by connecting the motors on the train to act as generators.
A generator F driven by a suitable prime I mover such as a steam engine or water wheel delivers electric power at the point of grade and is adapted to cooperate with the generator on a train ascending the grade. The battery T is also arranged to give u energy stored by trains descending the grade in assisting trains running in. the opposite direction in' mounting the grade. I
It is to be understood that portions of my system may be modified While others remain unchanged, and that the details and combinations thereof may he variously constructed and arranged without sacrificing the characteristic features thereof, as specified, in the claims.
I claim 1. In a railway system, a'train of. cars, a source of electric current on one of said cars,
electric translating devices on certain ofsaid cars, and a stationary. conductor along said railway for connecting said translating devices with said source ofcurrent.-
2. In a railway-system, a source of electric current traveling on said railway, atrain of cars, electric translatingdevices on certain lating devices with said source'of current.
4. In a railway system, asource of electric current traveling on said railway, a train of cars, electric translating. devices on certain of said cars, a stationary sectional conductoralong said railway and connected by a traveling connection with said source of current and with the translating devices on said cars.
5. Ina railway system, a train of cars, a, source of electric power on said train, elec-= tric driving motors on certain of said cars, and a stat onary power conductor along said railway,, adapted to connect said electric driving motors with said traveling source of power.
cars theme 6. In a railway system, a train of cars, a source of electric power on said train, electric driving motors also on said train, and a sectional stationary power conductor along said railway, adapte to connect'said electric driving motors with said traveling source of power. I
7. In a railway system, rails a train of a source of electric power on said train, QicOtIIC driving motors on certain of said cars, a stationary power conductor along said railway, and traveling contacts carried by said train whereby the said driving motors may be connected to said source of power through said stationary power conductor and the rails of said railway. ,8. In a railway system, a train of'cars, a source of electric power on said train, electric driving motors on certain of said cars, a stationary power conductor along said railway for connecting said motors with said source of power, said power conductor being divided into insulated sections, and means for maintaining the connection between said driving motors and said source of power when the. train is passingfrom one insulated section to another.
9. In a railway system, rails, a train of cars thereon, a traveling source of electric power, electric motors and controlling devices therefor on certain of the cars of said train, and a stationary power conductor along said railwa which, together with the rails of said rai way, is adapted to connect said motors ter-switch to the, operating mechanism of said controlling devices.
11'. In a railway system, a train of cars, a
. traveling source of power, electric motors on certain of said cars, means for connecting said motors to saidtraveling sourceof power; and means for controlling said motors-1n unison from a single pdint, said connecting means and said controlling -Ineansbeing independent of the cars not equipped with electric motors.
. 12. In a railway system, atrain of cars, a I
source of'electric power on said train, electric motors on certainof the cars OfSBJd train, and means independent .of the cars not equipped with electric motors for connecting said motors to said source of power-and' for controlling the speed of said motors.
' 13. In a railwaysystem, atrain of cars, a
source of electric power on said train, electric motors on certain of the cars of said train,
'and means independent of the cars not equipped with electric motors for connecting said motors to said source of power and for controlling the speed-and direction of motion of said motors.
14. In an electric railway system, a stationary' power conductor adjacent to the railway, a traveling electric power plant adapted to said railwayfand a traveling con nection between the power conductor and the power plant. for ener izing the former. 15. In an electric rai way system, a stationary power conductor ad acent to the railway, a traveling electric power plant adapted to said railway, and atraveling: connection between the said power conductor and power plant 'for enemgizing'the former,v said power conductor being composed of insulating.sec- I tions with their ends overlapping.
16. In an electric railway system, a statlonary power conductor adjacent to the railway, a traveling electric power plant adapted to said railway, and a traveli nection between the said conwer con uctor and power plant for energizing the letter,
said power conductor being oomposedof insulated sections withtheir ends overlapping power-adaptedfto travel on said railway for I energizing said power conductor.
' -l8. In an electric rsiilway system; a sectional pow er oonductoradjacent thereto, "a
tre veli ng power plant for. consecutively energizmg the sections of-.,sa1d power conductor,
and a stationary source o f'power for supplying additional energy through certeinbf the sections of said power conductor. I
l9'. power distribution system/for ele cR trio railways, embreqinge stetionery power conductor adjacent-t0 the railway, and a, power plant moviible along s'eid railway and adopted tocreate a. difference of potential between said stationary power jeonduetor end the rails of seid'railway.
trio railways, embracing ajstationary source of electricienergy, meansvfor stormg electricalenergy, "a source Of-BlQGtIlC energy movable on said ,railwey ineombinatio'n with a stationary power eo ndu'eto'r divided into insulaited sections and" means for connectingsairl sections, to the, several sourees of Signed at State, county and ci'ty o'f New York, this 31st day of January, A. D. 1907; ARTHUR-a C. EASTWOOD.
KARL EENNING, *WM. L- PIERQEi 20. fioiver distributing system for elect