|Publication number||US8431087 B2|
|Application number||US 11/526,393|
|Publication date||30 Apr 2013|
|Filing date||25 Sep 2006|
|Priority date||25 Sep 2006|
|Also published as||US20080078394|
|Publication number||11526393, 526393, US 8431087 B2, US 8431087B2, US-B2-8431087, US8431087 B2, US8431087B2|
|Inventors||Rafael Ostrowski, Martin Debreczeny|
|Original Assignee||Covidien Lp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (188), Non-Patent Citations (12), Classifications (34), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The present disclosure relates to a carbon dioxide detector having a borosilicate substrate.
This section is intended to introduce the reader to various aspects of art that may be related to various aspects of the present invention, which are described and/or claimed below. This discussion is believed to be helpful in providing the reader with background information to facilitate a better understanding of the various aspects of the present invention. Accordingly, it should be understood that these statements are to be read in this light, and not as admissions of prior art.
Respiratory gasses may be readily distinguished from non-respiratory gasses by carbon dioxide content. Exhaled respiratory gas in a human typically contains between 3% and 5% carbon dioxide. In contrast, ambient air has only approximately 0.03% carbon dioxide. Normal esophageal gas has similarly low levels of carbon dioxide.
The detection of respiratory gasses via carbon dioxide content may be useful in a variety of circumstances. For example, one may determine whether an endotracheal tube has been correctly placed in the trachea rather than in the esophagus by detecting the presence of carbon dioxide in air exiting the tube. If carbon dioxide levels consistent with respiration are present, then the tube is correctly placed. If only low carbon dioxide levels consistent with placement in the esophagus are present, then the tube may have been incorrectly placed and may need to be removed and reinserted correctly. Additionally, if a tracheal tube is present in the trachea, but carbon dioxide levels in respired gas are low, this may be indicative of perfusion failure.
Continued detection of carbon dioxide in respired gas may also be useful in determining if an endotracheal tube has been dislodged and if breathing and perfusion continue to be normal.
Current products can detect carbon dioxide in respired air using various chemicals sensitive to the presence of carbon dioxide on a substrate such as cellulose filter paper, for example Whatman paper.
Certain aspects commensurate in scope with the disclosed embodiments are set forth below. It should be understood that these aspects are presented merely to provide the reader with a brief summary of certain forms the invention might take and that these aspects are not intended to limit the scope of the invention. Indeed, the invention may encompass a variety of aspects that may not be set forth below.
The present disclosure relates to a carbon dioxide detector having a borosilicate substrate.
In one embodiment it relates to a carbon dioxide detector having a borosilicate substrate and a carbon dioxide responsive indicator solution disposed on the borosilicate substrate.
In another embodiment it relates to a carbon dioxide detector system having a carbon dioxide detector, a housing containing the carbon dioxide detector, and an air intake operably connected to the housing to allow air to reach the carbon dioxide detector. The carbon dioxide detector may include a borosilicate substrate and a carbon dioxide responsive indicator solution disposed on the borosilicate substrate.
In another embodiment it relates to a carbon dioxide detector system having a means for detecting carbon dioxide. The means may include a borosilicate substrate. It may also include a housing means to contain the means for detecting carbon dioxide and an air intake means operably to allow air to reach the means for detecting carbon dioxide.
In another embodiment it relates to a resuscitation system having a carbon dioxide detector system, a resuscitator housing fitted with the carbon dioxide detector system, and a bag attached to the resuscitator housing. The carbon dioxide detector system may have a carbon dioxide detector, a housing containing the carbon dioxide detector, and an air intake operably connected to the housing to allow air to reach the carbon dioxide detector. The carbon dioxide detector may include a borosilicate substrate and a carbon dioxide responsive indicator solution disposed on the borosilicate substrate.
Another embodiment relates to a method of manufacturing a carbon dioxide detector. The method may include wetting a borosilicate substrate with a carbon dioxide responsive indicator solution and drying the indicator solution to immobilize it on the substrate and form a dried carbon dioxide detector.
Another embodiment relates to a method of detecting carbon dioxide concentration in an air sample. The method may include exposing a carbon dioxide detector to the air sample. The carbon dioxide detector may include a borosilicate substrate and a carbon dioxide responsive indicator solution disposed on the borosilicate substrate. The method may also include determining the color of the indicator solution, wherein the color of the indicator solution indicates the carbon dioxide concentration in the air sample.
Still another embodiment relates to a carbon dioxide detector having a carbon dioxide responsive indicator solution disposed on a borosilicate substrate. The detector may retain acceptable carbon dioxide sensitivity for at least 7 days at a temperature of approximately 60° C.
Another example method relates to detecting carbon dioxide in a breath-to-breath manner. To perform this method, one may attach to a subject a carbon dioxide detector having a carbon dioxide responsive indicator solution disposed on a borosilicate substrate. One may measure the carbon dioxide in respired air at an interval corresponding to every breath of the subject.
Yet another example method of detecting carbon dioxide includes providing an air sample to a carbon dioxide detector having a carbon dioxide responsive indicator solution disposed on a borosilicate substrate. One may measure the carbon dioxide in the air sample in a time frame between approximately 1 to 20 seconds.
Another embodiment relates to a carbon dioxide detector having a carbon dioxide responsive indicator solution disposed on a borosilicate substrate. The detector may retain acceptable carbon dioxide sensitivity during at least two hours of exposure to humid air.
An example method for determining whether a gaseous sample contains a predetermined concentration of carbon dioxide includes contacting the gaseous sample with a carbon dioxide detector having a carbon dioxide sensitive indicator disposed on a borosilicate substrate to detect carbon dioxide in the gaseous sample.
Another embodiment relates to an endotracheal device. The device may include a tubular housing having one end adapted for insertion into a subject's trachea and an other end adapted for placement external of the subject, the housing defining a lumen therethrough from one end to the other end for allowing bidirectional passage of air into and out of the subject to ventilate the subject's lungs. It may also include a carbon dioxide detector having a carbon dioxide sensitive indicator disposed on a borosilicate substrate placed within the lumen for determining the presence of carbon dioxide therein while still permitting unimpeded bidirectional flow of air therethrough to ventilate the subject's lungs.
Yet another embodiment relates to carbon dioxide detector that includes a borosilicate substrate; and a carbon dioxide responsive indicator solution disposed on the borosilicate substrate, wherein the indicator solution changes from purple to tan in the presence of carbon dioxide above a first level.
Yet another embodiment relates to carbon dioxide detector that includes a borosilicate substrate; and a carbon dioxide responsive indicator solution disposed on the borosilicate substrate, wherein the indicator solution changes color in less than 1 second in the presence of carbon dioxide above a first level.
Finally, another embodiment relates to carbon dioxide detector that includes a borosilicate substrate; and a carbon dioxide responsive indicator solution disposed on the borosilicate substrate, wherein the indicator solution is adapted to change from color in the presence of carbon dioxide after a shelf life of greater than five years.
A more complete understanding of the present disclosure thereof may be acquired by referring to the following description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings. These drawings represent only certain embodiments of the present disclosure.
While the present disclosure is susceptible to various modifications and alternative forms, specific example embodiments thereof have been shown in the drawings and are herein described in detail. It should be understood, however, that the description herein of specific example embodiments is not intended to limit the disclosure to the particular forms disclosed herein, but on the contrary, this disclosure is to cover all modifications and equivalents as defined by the appended claims.
The present disclosure relates to a calorimetric carbon dioxide detector having a borosilicate substrate.
In a specific embodiment, shown in
Substrate 12 may include any borosilicate-containing material. Specifically, it may include borosilicate fibers. These fibers may be produced using any conventional methods, such as melt blowing and spinning. The substrate may include a mesh of borosilicate fibers. More specifically, it may include a thin, highly porous mesh to facilitate rapid infiltration of carbon dioxide gas into the substrate.
Borosilicate may be sufficiently hydrophilic to allow indicator solution 14 to spread evenly over substrate 12 and be well absorbed when it is first applied. Indicator solution 14 may then be dried, but still retain sufficient water to allow reaction with carbon dioxide. However, the borosilicate substrate may also not be so hydrophobic that its shelf-life is compromised.
The borosilicate-containing material may also include an acrylic binder. In specific embodiments, this binder may be no more than 5% by weight or volume of the total substrate without indicator. Metrigard® membranes containing acrylic binder sold by Pall Corporation (New York) or a similar acrylic binder may be used.
Indicator solution 14 may contain an indicator, such as a chromogenic dye, in a solution. Indicator solution may be coated onto or impregnated into substrate 12. It may have a surface exposed to or near air or gas within carbon dioxide detector 10. Indicator solution 14 may be able to respond rapidly and positively to the presence or absence of certain concentrations of carbon dioxide. More specifically, it may be able to respond to concentrations of carbon dioxide normally present in air respired from a human, such as between approximately 2% and 5% or higher. Indicator solution 14 may also be able to respond to concentrations of carbon dioxide in air respired from a human with perfusion failure, such as concentrations between approximately 0.5% and 2%. Finally, indicator solution 14 may show no response to carbon dioxide concentrations normally present in external air or esophageal air, such as concentrations below approximately 0.5% and more specifically, concentrations between 0.03% and 0.5%.
Response times to changing carbon dioxide levels in detected air may be between approximately 1 and 20 seconds. Further, a borosilicate substrate 12 may exhibit virtually instantaneous response times of less than 1 second, which is an improvement over typical colorimetric carbon dioxide detection systems. Response may include a colorimetric indication, such as change of the indicator from one color to a very distinct second color. However, once the color begins to change, the change from one color to the other color may be virtually instantaneous as seen by the human eye.
In order to attain the above response properties, the indicator in indicator solution 14 may have a pK lower by 1.0-1.5 pH units than the pH of indicator solution 14. This difference allows indicator solution 14 to not change color instantly when exposed to air, allowing detector system 10 to be removed from packaging then connected to another device, such as a resuscitator. However, due to a greater resistance to negative effects of air exposure when a borosilicate or borosilicate+acrylic substrate is used as opposed to cellulose filter paper, an indicator pK outside of this range may still be acceptable. In general, any pK sufficient to allow carbon dioxide detector 10 to remain exposed to room or outside air for at least 15 minutes, at least 30 minutes, at least 60 minutes, or at least 120 minutes without significant color change may be sufficient.
Indicator solution 14 may include an alkaline solution containing hydroxyl ions or amine residues that react chemically with carbon dioxide to form a carbonate and/or a bicarbonate or carbamate moiety. This reaction may be represented by the following equations:
This reaction depletes the hydroxyl ion or amine at the interface between indicator solution 14 and air and this lowers the pH at the surface of indicator solution 14 where it is adjacent or nearly adjacent to air. This depletion results in the diffusion of new base from elsewhere in indicator solution 14 to its surface to maintain a surface pH similar to that of indicator solution 14 overall.
More specifically, the concentration of OH− or amine in the bulk of indicator solution 14 impregnated in or coated on substrate 12 helps determine the rate of diffusion of base to the surface of indicator solution 14. The rate of the chemical reaction at this surface is determined by the nature of each specific reacting species. The rate of reaction at the surface of indicator solution 14 may be expressed by the equation R═KA[CO2][A], where [x] represents the concentration of a species in moles/liter and KA is a constant specific for reactant species A. In a specific embodiment, A is the indicator.
The balance of base between the surface and remainder of indicator solution 14 is also influenced by the contact time between the surface and the gas to which it is exposed, the composition of substrate 12, which determines the diffusivity constant for A and thus the rate of diffusion of A to the surface, and the concentration of carbon dioxide in the gas, which determines the rate of diffusion of carbon dioxide into or near the surface of the indicator where it may react with the indicator.
The concentration of OH− or amine in indicator solution 14, the rate of the chemical reaction, the contact time between the indicator surface and the gas and the diffusivity constant for A may all be pre-determined by the manner in which carbon dioxide detector 10 is constructed and the manner in which it is used. This leaves the concentration of carbon dioxide in the gas the only variable parameter with significant effect, allowing for its measurement.
The concentration of OH− or amine in indicator solution 14 and the rate of the chemical reaction may be selected such that the pH near the surface of indicator solution 14 decreases sufficiently in the presence of a certain concentration of carbon dioxide to cause a color change in indicator solution 14. For example, the color change may occur if the concentration of carbon dioxide in the tested air is greater than approximately 2%. This color change may occur within 1 to 20 seconds of exposure of carbon dioxide detector 10 to the air. In a specific example, a concentration of OH− sufficient to produce a pH of 9.6+/−0.2 in indicator solution 14 is sufficient to provide this sensitivity.
Embodiments of the present disclosure may also be utilized in areas other than breath-related carbon dioxide detectors. For example, they may be used to monitor the air in gas storage rooms, as an indicator in food packaging, as an air freshness indicator on airplanes or other areas where air is recycled, such as spacecraft, or as a room air freshness indicator for any enclosed space where a high density of people may gather. Sensitivity of the indicator solution and thus the detector may be selected to meet the needs of these and other embodiments. For example, some embodiments may need to be sensitive to and perhaps change color at different carbon dioxide concentrations than are recommended for a breath-related detector.
As noted above, the indicator may have a pK sufficiently lower than the pH of indicator solution 14 so that a color change does not occur upon exposure to room or outside air for a certain time period. Exposure to air causes the pH at the surface of indicator solution 14 to gradually decrease, but if such decrease is sufficiently slow, the desired time period without color change limitation may still be met.
The indicator used may affect which base is used to provide an alkaline indicator solution 14. For example, if the pK of the indicator is too low it is possible that with certain bases the pH of the indicator will not drop low enough to cause a color change in the presence of an elevated carbon dioxide concentration. For example, when a sodium hydroxide base is used the carbonate reaction product is water soluble and also a base. This buffers a pH decrease and may prevent the pH from reaching a level able to trigger a color change in the indicating element if the indicator has a low pK.
Calcium hydroxide may be used as a base in embodiments of this description. Calcium hydroxide serves as a source of hydroxyl ions but its carbonate reaction product with carbon dioxide is insoluble and therefore unable to buffer indicator solution 14 against a decrease in pH. Thus calcium hydroxide may be used with indicators having relatively low pKs, such as metacresol purple rather than, for example, thymol blue or phenol phthalein. This also allows for increased resistance to color change when exposed to room or external air. However, the use of a borosilicate or borosilicate+acrylic substrate 12 may allow use of a buffering source of hydroxyl ions in indicator solution 14.
Various colorless compounds may be used to provide an alkaline indicator solution 14. These include, but are not limited to calcium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, lithium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, potassium carbonate, sodium barbitol, tribasic sodium phosphate, dibasic sodium phosphate, potassium acetate, monoethanolamine, diethanolamine, and piperidine. However, if an acrylic-bound borosilicate is used as a substrate, no base may be needed.
Various pH sensitive indicators may also be used in indicator solution 14. These include, but are not limited to metacresol purple, thymol blue, cresol red, phenol red, xylenol blue, a 3:1 mixture of cresol red and thymol blue, bromothymol blue, neutral red, phenolphthalein, rosolic acid, α-naphthelphthalein, and orange I. Other pH indicators, the color change that occurs, and the relevant pH as well as other information may be found in the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 8-17, 75th Edition 1994.
Indicator solution 14 may also contain a hygroscopic, high-boiling, transparent, colorless, water-miscible liquid. This liquid may entrap sufficient water in indicator solution 14 when it is coated onto or impregnated into substrate 12 to allow reaction of the surface of indicator 14 with carbon dioxide present in carbon dioxide detector 10.
Example hygroscopic, high-boiling, transparent, colorless, water-miscible liquids that may be used in indicator solution 14 include, but are not limited to glycerol, propylene glycol, monoethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, and aliphatic alcohols. In specific embodiments, glycerol and propylene glycol or mixtures thereof may be used because of their antiseptic and non-toxic properties. Acrylic binder used in some embodiments of the disclosure also increases the hydrophobicity of substrate 12 and may thus decrease the need for a hygroscopic, high-boiling, transparent, colorless, water-miscible liquid in indicator solution 14.
Indicator solution 14 may be in an aqueous solution, or it may not be in solution in water. It may require or benefit from the presence of water, or may function independently of water. Indicator solution 14 may also be any type of chromogenic agent. For example, it may be a chromogenic agent that does not go into solution in water, but that nevertheless relies on nearby water.
When used, an acrylic binder provides a more basic environment for an indicator and also increases the hydrophobicity of the substrate. A basic environment may help keep the color of the indicator appropriate in a low CO2, such as less than 0.5%, environment. Acrylic is an electron rich compound, which makes it a good Bronstead and Lewis base. The resulting ability to accept protons from proton rich compounds and to donate a pair of electrons to electron poor compounds allows the indicator to remain unreacted. Enough carbonic acid is formed to affect the indicator, but some of the acid is reacted by the acrylic.
A desired ratio of proton acceptance to compound concentration may be determined for different detectors. Varying the concentration of the acrylic binder will have an effect on the amount of carbonic acid available to react with the indicator when carbon dioxide is present in larger amounts. Thus, carbon dioxide detectors 10 that also contain acrylic binder in substrate 12 may not need sodium carbonate because the binder itself may provide a more basic environment for the indicator. When acrylic binder is used, the final color of dried indicator may also be less sensitive to changes in the pH of indicator solution 14. This may allow for a decrease in the amount of indicator in indicator solution 14 by as much as approximately 66% as compared to cellulose-based carbon dioxide detectors.
In a specific embodiment, used herein with all Metrigard® membrane tests, indicator solution 14 may include 0.0169 g of cresol red, 275 mL triethylene glycol, and 725 mL deionized water. This indicator solution may lack carbonate.
Indicator solution 14 may be immobilized on substrate 12 by drying, which removes a substantial amount of water. However, the reaction between the indicator and carbon dioxide may require water. Therefore, some water may be absorbed by indicator solution 14 and/or substrate 12 before use. For example, water may be absorbed from ambient air. In a specific embodiment, sufficient water may be absorbed in the time period required to remove carbon dioxide detector 10 from protective packaging and begin its actual use. For example, sufficient water may be absorbed by indicator solution 14 in less than 10, 5 or 1 seconds after the opening of any protective packaging.
Indicator solution 14 may also be placed on substrate 12 in various other forms or using other methods. For example, it may be provided in a hydrogel. Substrate 12 may also be treated, for example by plasma treatment, prior to administration of indicator solution 14.
Use of a borosilicate substrate may result in desirable response time and shelf life of a carbon dioxide detector, while retaining the capacity of the detector to cycle from one color to another quickly from breath to breath. For example, in some carbon dioxide detectors, reaction of the substrate with cresol red, which is used as a color indicator, eventually changes the color indicator irreversibly from purple to yellow. This change makes the detector color insensitive to the presence or absence of carbon dioxide. As a result, the detector system is no longer functional. Although packaging can help prevent this sensor aging, it nevertheless may limit shelf life. Borosilicate substrates do not react with cresol red. As a result, the same shelf life as is obtained with other substrates may be achieved with borosilicate and more cost effective packaging, or, a longer shelf life even in the same packaging may be achieved. In certain embodiments, the shelf life of a borosilicate-based carbon dioxide detector may be greater than 5 years, great than 10 years, or greater than 14 years. Further, while the shelf life of a borosilicate-based carbon dioxide detector may be greatly improved, the packaging employed may be reduced, due to the stability of the borosilicate-based carbon dioxide detector. While other calorimetric carbon dioxide detection systems may employ dessicants to extend their shelf lives, a borosilicate-based carbon dioxide detector may achieve a long shelf life (e.g. several years) without the use of a dessicant.
Additionally, the borosilicate substrate 12 may exhibit an improved color cycling pattern in the presence of carbon dioxide. For example, with use of a common indicator solution 14, such as metacresol purple, the substrate 12 may change from a deep purple to a light tan color, rather than purple to yellow, in the presence of carbon dioxide. One advantage of a purple-to-tan color change rather than a purple-to-yellow color change is that the contrast ratio between purple and tan is particularly advantageous, allowing a healthcare worker to distinguish finer gradations of carbon dioxide levels. Further, the purple-to-tan color change is also helpful for people with color blindness, which most often impairs acuity in the green-yellow-red portion of the spectrum.
Aging of borosilicate and cellulose detector systems was evaluated under exposure to room air. A detector system having cellulose as a substrate was exposed to room temperature. Color transition from purple to yellow results are shown in
Indicator Color (CR Scale) in all Tables and Figures where used was determined using a Hunterlab LS6000 calorimeter and gas concentrations of 0.03, 1 and 2% CO2 (balance N2). The CR Scale is computed from the standard CIELab color scale as follows: CR=1.371*(a−b)+41.1. The CR color scale was devised so that a value of 0 corresponds to a bright yellow color while a value of 100 corresponds to deep purple. For the data shown in
After only one day of exposure to air at room temperature, a significant transition from purple to yellow had taken place when a cellulose substrate was used-. In contrast, using a similar carbon dioxide detector with a borosilicate and acrylic substrate (
Colorimetry of Carbon Dioxide Detectors after Aging at Room
Indicator Color (CR Scale)
Borosilicate + acrylic
In Table 1, Metrigard® borosilicate membrane having acrylic binder (Pall Corporation, New York) was used in the borosilicate and acrylic detector.
Colorimetry of Carbon Dioxide Detectors after Accelerated Aging
at 60° C.
Indicator Color (CR Scale)
Borosilicate + acrylic
In Table 2, Metrigard® borosilicate membrane having acrylic binder (Pall Corporation, New York) was used in the borosilicate and acrylic detector.
The performance of the borosilicate and acrylic binder-based detector described above was further evaluated sealed in a pouch in the absence of desiccant under accelerated aging conditions at even higher temperatures and for longer periods of time. Test conditions were otherwise as indicated above. These results are provided in Table 3.
The results of Table 3, as compared to those of Table 2, indicate that in some embodiments, a detector having a borosilicate substrate may be less sensitive to aging and have a longer shelf-life in the absence of desiccant rather than in its presence. Retention of acceptable carbon dioxide sensitivity during accelerated aging tests correlates with shelf-life.
Colorimetry of Borosilicate Carbon Dioxide Detectors after Accelerated Aging
Aged 60° C.
Aged 70° C.
Aged 80° C.
Based on these test results, a borosilicate based detector may be provided in packaging without desiccant. This packaging may include gas-impermeable metallic foil. The device may also be sealed under an atmosphere substantially devoid of carbon dioxide. For example, the device may be sealed in packaging currently in use for carbon dioxide detector systems but without the need for desiccant.
Cellulose filter paper is strongly hydrophilic so that in warm, humid air, water is rapidly absorbed into the substrate. This reduces the responsivity of an indicator to changes in carbon dioxide concentration. The inhalation responsivity of a cellulose-based detector after exposure to humid air for certain time periods as compared to a detector of the present disclosure having a borosilicate and acrylic substrate is shown in
A cellulose-based detector as compared to a detector of the current invention with borosilicate and acrylic substrate displays similar sensitivity to exhalation after exposure to humid air. This is in contrast to results achieved during inhalation described above. These levels of responsiveness are expected because the chemical reaction necessary for color change during exhalation is less sensitive to humidity. These results are also presented in
Response Time of Carbon Dioxide Detectors after Exposure
to Humid Air
Yellow to Purple
Yellow (Exhalation) (sec)
In Table 4, Metrigard® borosilicate membrane having acrylic binder (Pall Corporation, New York) was used in the borosilicate and acrylic detector.
The performance of carbon dioxide detectors in humid air is significant to clinical use because exhaled breath contains considerable amounts of water. Thus, performance in humid conditions is indicative of performance with actual patients. It may affect the use-life of a detector. Accordingly, carbon dioxide detectors having a borosilicate and acrylic substrate show faster breath-to-breath response than those having a cellulose fiber substrate such as paper. This faster response is also facilitated by the highly porous nature of borosilicate, which allows easier penetration of air than does a cellulose fiber substrate. This may indicate a longer use-life of the borosilicate substrate detector.
In another specific embodiment, shown in
Parts of detector system 20, such as housing 24 and/or air intake 26 may be made from a rigid material. For example, they may be made from a plastic, such as a clear colorless, transparent plastic. By way of further example, housing 24 and/or air intake 26 may be made from polyethylene, polypropylene, an acrylic polymer such as PLEXIGLAS® polymer, polycarbonate, nylon, polysytrene, and styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer. At least a portion of housing 24 may be clear so as to allow viewing of carbon dioxide detector 10.
Air intake 26 may also serve to couple detector system 20 with any further system. It may be releasably secured to housing 24, such as by a threaded engagement, or it may form an integral unit with housing 24. Air intake 26 may also have a threaded engagement, tab or grooves, or other features to allow it to be releasably secured to any further system. For example, a pressure fit is used to couple the detector system to the manual resuscitator in the current INdGO/IndCA™ products (Nellcor, Tyco Healthcare, California).
Color indicators 28 may approximately match the color of indicator solution 14 in the presence of difference levels of carbon dioxide. Color indicators 28 may also include written or other visual information to allow a user to determine what carbon dioxide concentrations are indicated by various colors. For example, region A may show one or various shades that correlate with a low carbon dioxide concentration, such as below approximately 0.5% or between approximately 0.03% and 0.5%. In a specific embodiment, region A may contain shades of purple. Region C may show one or various shades that correlate with a high carbon dioxide concentration typical of respired air, such as above approximately 2% or between 2% and 5%. In a specific embodiment, region C may contain shades of yellow. Optional region B may indicate carbon dioxide concentrations above that of normal or esophageal air, but below that corresponding with normal respiration. For example, region B may indicate carbon dioxide concentrations common in respired air of a patient suffering from perfusion failure. Region B may show one or various shades that correlate with carbon dioxide concentrations of between approximately 0.5% and 2%. In one specific embodiment, region B may contain shades of grayish purple.
In yet another specific embodiment, shown in
In another embodiment of the disclosure shown in
Detection may include in-stream detection, such as in the current EasyCap™ (Nellcor, Tyco Healthcare, California) system. It may also include “side-stream” detection, such as in the current INdCA™ product (Nellcor, Tyco Healthcare, California). The detection system may be modified to facilitate either form of detection.
Carbon dioxide detector 10 may be prepared by forming substrate 12 then impregnating or coating it with indicator solution 14. Substrate 12 may then be dried to immobilize indicator solution 14 on it. Substrate 12 may then be incorporated into a detector system such as those shown in
Carbon dioxide detector 10 may be used by providing air to it. The air then infiltrates substrate 12 and any carbon dioxide in the air reacts with indicator solution 14. This may produce a color change in the indicator. Carbon dioxide detector 10 may specifically be used to detect air from an endotracheal tube. Such systems and methods are discussed in the U.S. patent publication No. 20080077036, titled “CARBON DIOXIDE-SENSING AIRWAY PRODUCTS AND TECHNIQUE FOR USING THE SAME” to Clark R. Baker Jr., Roger Mecca, Michael P. O'Neil, and Rafael Ostrowski filed on Sep. 25, 2006, the specification of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. The presence of carbon dioxide may indicate proper placement of the tube in the trachea of a patient rather than in the esophagus. Carbon dioxide detector 10 may be able to detect such incorrect placement in sufficiently little time to allow removal of the tube and placement in the trachea before the patient suffers serious injury or death. Change color back and forth between a low carbon dioxide color to a high color dioxide color may indicate whether the patient is breathing normally. Change of color to one indicating low concentrations of carbon dioxide still above concentrations in air may indicate perfusion failure in the patient.
Carbon dioxide detector 10 may be used to monitor any patient benefiting from an endotracheal tube or other endotracheal system, e.g. a resuscitator fitted with a mask. More specifically, if may be used to monitor a human patient, such as a trauma victim, an anesthetized patient, a cardiac arrest victim, a patient suffering from airway obstruction, or a patient suffering from respiratory failure.
While embodiments of this disclosure have been depicted, described, and are defined by reference to specific example embodiments of the disclosure, such references do not imply a limitation on the disclosure, and no such limitation is to be inferred. The subject matter disclosed is capable of considerable modification, alteration, and equivalents in form and function, as will occur to those ordinarily skilled in the pertinent art and having the benefit of this disclosure. The depicted and described embodiments of this disclosure are examples only, and are not exhaustive of the scope of the disclosure. For example, the substrate may be formed in a variety of ways; various indicators, alkali sources and other components may be used in the indicator solution; the indicator solution may be placed on the substrate in a variety of ways; multiple indicators may be used to detect narrower ranges of carbon dioxide concentration; and the system may take a variety of shapes.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2136236||25 Apr 1936||8 Nov 1938||B draper|
|US2638096||8 Nov 1949||12 May 1953||Waldhaus Edith A||Apparatus for oral anesthesia|
|US2880072||2 Aug 1956||31 Mar 1959||Drager Otto H||Method of determining carbon dioxide in gases|
|US2890177||26 Dec 1956||9 Jun 1959||Air Reduction||Carbon dioxide indicator|
|US2904033||4 Mar 1957||15 Sep 1959||Shane Sylvan M||Breathing indicator|
|US3067015||29 Jan 1960||4 Dec 1962||Ray F Lawdermilt||Spoilage indicator for food containers|
|US3068073||22 Apr 1960||11 Dec 1962||Mine Safety Appliances Co||Determination of carbon dioxide|
|US3113842||20 Oct 1961||10 Dec 1963||Corning Glass Works||Gas detection apparatus|
|US3114610||17 May 1961||17 Dec 1963||Martin Marietta Corp||Continuous sampling gas analyzer|
|US3238020||26 Jul 1961||1 Mar 1966||Du Pont||Acid-base test materials|
|US3363833||15 Jun 1965||16 Jan 1968||Laerdal Asmund Sigurd||Elastic bag for artificial respiration apparatus|
|US3373735||21 Oct 1965||19 Mar 1968||John P. Gallagher||Medical-surgical tube|
|US3420635||28 Mar 1966||7 Jan 1969||Aseptic Thermo Indicator Co||Fruit ripeness telltale|
|US3467601||3 Aug 1965||16 Sep 1969||Auergesellschaft Gmbh||Colorimetric indicator|
|US3505022||5 May 1969||7 Apr 1970||Manley J Luckey||Method and apparatus for determining intoxication|
|US3507623||2 Apr 1968||21 Apr 1970||Mine Safety Appliances Co||Article for the determination of carbon monoxide|
|US3556122||26 Mar 1969||19 Jan 1971||Laerdal A S||Valve for artificial respiration apparatus|
|US3612048||19 Feb 1970||12 Oct 1971||Takaoka Kentaro||Rebreathing apparatus for anesthesia|
|US3615233||28 Jul 1969||26 Oct 1971||Chemetron Corp||Disposable carbon dioxide absorber|
|US3659586||20 May 1969||2 May 1972||Univ Johns Hopkins||Percutaneous carbon dioxide sensor and process for measuring pulmonary efficiency|
|US3694164||11 Dec 1970||26 Sep 1972||Bjorksten Research Lab Inc||Carbon dioxide sensors|
|US3754867||20 Sep 1971||28 Aug 1973||Bjorksten Res Lab Inc||Carbon dioxide sensing system|
|US3830630||21 Jun 1972||20 Aug 1974||Triangle Environment Corp||Apparatus and method for alcoholic breath and other gas analysis|
|US4003709||2 Oct 1975||18 Jan 1977||Visual Spoilage Indicator Company||Visual spoilage indicator for food containers|
|US4019862||23 Jun 1976||26 Apr 1977||Corning Glass Works||CO2 measurement and reagents therefor|
|US4077404||19 Oct 1976||7 Mar 1978||H. B. W. Medical Instruments Manufacturing Company, Inc.||Breathing equipment such as resuscitators|
|US4106502||18 Nov 1976||15 Aug 1978||Margaret M. Laurence||Resuscitator|
|US4144306||13 Feb 1978||13 Mar 1979||Eastman Kodak Company||Element for analysis of liquids|
|US4277251||15 Feb 1980||7 Jul 1981||Dragerwerk Aktiengesellschaft||Method and device for determining the alcohol content of a person's breathing|
|US4287153||30 Nov 1979||1 Sep 1981||Towsend Marvin S||Disposable article with non-leachable saline water indicator|
|US4332771||2 Feb 1981||1 Jun 1982||Dragerwerk Aktiengesellschaft||Method and device for determining the alcohol content of a person's breathing|
|US4346584||20 Oct 1980||31 Aug 1982||Boehringer John R||Gas analyzer|
|US4366821||15 Sep 1980||4 Jan 1983||Marie C. Kercheval||Breath monitor device|
|US4389372||13 Jul 1981||21 Jun 1983||Lalin Hill S||Portable holder assembly for gas detection tube|
|US4438067||28 Apr 1982||20 Mar 1984||Battelle Memorial Institute||Test strips for analyzing dissolved substances|
|US4548906||11 May 1984||22 Oct 1985||Fuji Shashin Film Kabushiki Kaisha||Integral multilayer analytical element for the analysis of ammonia or an ammonia forming substrate and a method for the detection thereof using the same|
|US4557900||28 Sep 1982||10 Dec 1985||Cardiovascular Devices, Inc.||Optical sensor with beads|
|US4557901||29 Oct 1982||10 Dec 1985||Konishiroku Photo Industry Co., Ltd.||Analytical element|
|US4691701||28 Jul 1986||8 Sep 1987||Tudor Williams R||Carbon dioxide detector|
|US4728499||13 Aug 1986||1 Mar 1988||Fehder Carl G||Carbon dioxide indicator device|
|US4734125||8 Jan 1987||29 Mar 1988||Bayer Aktiengesellschaft||5-acylamido-1-aryl-pyrazoles, composition containing them and herbicidal method of using them|
|US4774941||11 Dec 1986||4 Oct 1988||Intertech Resources Inc.||Resuscitator bag|
|US4780411||11 Sep 1985||25 Oct 1988||Bayer Aktiengesellschaft||Water-absorbing, essentially water-free membrane for reagent substrates and methods of preparing the same|
|US4788153||8 Oct 1987||29 Nov 1988||Eastman Kodak Company||Method for the determination of bilirubin and an element useful therein|
|US4790327||27 Jul 1987||13 Dec 1988||George Despotis||Endotracheal intubation device|
|US4805623||4 Sep 1987||21 Feb 1989||Vander Corporation||Spectrophotometric method for quantitatively determining the concentration of a dilute component in a light- or other radiation-scattering environment|
|US4824640||27 Oct 1986||25 Apr 1989||Bayer Aktiengesellschaft||Transparent test strip system|
|US4879999||5 Jun 1987||14 Nov 1989||Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System||Device for the determination of proper endotracheal tube placement|
|US4890619||14 Apr 1987||2 Jan 1990||Hatschek Rudolf A||System for the measurement of the content of a gas in blood, in particular the oxygen saturation of blood|
|US4928687||11 Oct 1988||29 May 1990||The University Of Florida||CO2 diagnostic monitor|
|US4945918||4 May 1988||7 Aug 1990||Abernathy Charles M||Method and apparatus for monitoring a patient's circulatory status|
|US4994117||31 Mar 1988||19 Feb 1991||Fehder Carl G||Quantitative carbon dioxide detector|
|US4999306||28 Apr 1988||12 Mar 1991||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Composition, apparatus and method for sensing ionic components|
|US5005572||31 Jan 1989||9 Apr 1991||Brigham & Women's Hospital||CO2 indicator and the use thereof to evaluate placement of tracheal tubes|
|US5109840||14 Feb 1991||5 May 1992||Specialty Packaging Licensing Company||Resuscitator having directional control valve with internal "PEEP" adjustment valve|
|US5124129||29 Jan 1990||23 Jun 1992||Mallinckrodt Medical, Inc.||Carbon dioxide indicator|
|US5156159||9 Apr 1990||20 Oct 1992||University Of Florida||CO2 diagnostic monitor with rupturable container|
|US5166075||24 Apr 1992||24 Nov 1992||Nellcor Incorporated||Method for determining whether respiratory gas is present in a gaseous sample|
|US5179002||25 Apr 1991||12 Jan 1993||Nellcor Incorporated||Apparatus for determining whether respiratory gas is present in a gaseous sample|
|US5197464||14 Dec 1990||30 Mar 1993||Babb Albert L||Carbon dioxide detection|
|US5204922||22 Oct 1991||20 Apr 1993||Puritan-Bennett Corporation||Optical signal channel selector|
|US5250095 *||16 Aug 1988||5 Oct 1993||Rutgers University||Method for making porous glass optical fiber sensor|
|US5279289||15 Oct 1991||18 Jan 1994||Kirk Gilbert M||Resuscitator regulator with carbon dioxide detector|
|US5291879||23 Jul 1992||8 Mar 1994||Babb Albert L||Carbon dioxide detection (II)|
|US5322612||13 Aug 1992||21 Jun 1994||Yamatake-Honeywell Co., Ltd.||Carbon dioxide gas detection element|
|US5361758||9 Oct 1991||8 Nov 1994||Cme Telemetrix Inc.||Method and device for measuring concentration levels of blood constituents non-invasively|
|US5375592||8 Apr 1993||27 Dec 1994||Kirk; Gilbert M.||Carbon dioxide detector and shield|
|US5456249||5 Jan 1994||10 Oct 1995||Kirk; Gilbert M.||Resuscitator with carbon dioxide detector|
|US5468451||22 Jun 1993||21 Nov 1995||Minco Ab||Device for indicating the presence of carbon dioxide in a patient's exhaled air|
|US5472668||1 Oct 1990||5 Dec 1995||Abbey Biosystems Limited||Carbon dioxide monitor|
|US5480611||11 Jan 1993||2 Jan 1996||Mills; Andrew||Carbon dioxide detector|
|US5494032||23 May 1994||27 Feb 1996||Sandia Corporation||Oximeter for reliable clinical determination of blood oxygen saturation in a fetus|
|US5494640||29 Aug 1994||27 Feb 1996||Hitachi, Ltd.||Device for identifying at least one gaseous component in a gaseous or liquid sample|
|US5517985||2 Nov 1994||21 May 1996||Kirk; Gilbert M.||Carbon dioxide detector and shield|
|US5520997||6 Jun 1995||28 May 1996||The B. F. Goodrich Company||Formaldehyde-free latex for use as a binder or coating|
|US5634426||22 Feb 1995||3 Jun 1997||Tomlinson; Bruce||Absorption depletion indicators for anesthetic gas administration systems|
|US5679884||11 Aug 1995||21 Oct 1997||Kirk; Gilbert M.||Resuscitator with carbon dioxide detector|
|US5714121||28 Sep 1995||3 Feb 1998||Optical Sensors Incorporated||Optical carbon dioxide sensor, and associated methods of manufacture|
|US5749358||10 Oct 1996||12 May 1998||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Incorporated||Resuscitator bag exhaust port with CO2 indicator|
|US5783110||17 Apr 1997||21 Jul 1998||R-Tect, Inc.||Composition for the detection of electrophilic gases and methods of use thereof|
|US5846836||29 Oct 1996||8 Dec 1998||Southwest Research Institute||Reversible detector for gaseous carbon dioxide|
|US5849594||19 Dec 1995||15 Dec 1998||Sealed Air (Nz) Limited||Carbon dioxide sensitive material|
|US6055447||18 Jun 1998||25 Apr 2000||Institute Of Critical Care Medicine||Patient CO2 Measurement|
|US6058933||3 Apr 1998||9 May 2000||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Incorporated||Resuscitator bag exhaust port with CO2 indicator|
|US6123075||3 Oct 1996||26 Sep 2000||Mallinckrodt, Inc.||Resuscitator regulator with carbon dioxide detector|
|US6216024||24 Sep 1998||10 Apr 2001||Institute Of Critical Care Medicine||Method and device for assessing perfusion failure in a patient|
|US6265221||1 Dec 1997||24 Jul 2001||Noster System Ab||Device for trapping and assaying C14 labelled carbon dioxide and method of use|
|US6319723||12 Nov 1998||20 Nov 2001||Eldon L. Jeffers||Parts per trillion detector|
|US6378522||31 Aug 1999||30 Apr 2002||Smiths Industries Public Limited||Respiration assemblies and indicators|
|US6427687||4 Apr 2000||6 Aug 2002||Mallinckrodt, Inc.||Resuscitator regulator with carbon dioxide detector|
|US6428748||31 Jan 2001||6 Aug 2002||Grouptek, Inc.||Apparatus and method of monitoring an analyte|
|US6436347||30 May 2000||20 Aug 2002||Mincor Ab||Indicator device|
|US6502573||15 Nov 2001||7 Jan 2003||Mercury Enterprises, Inc.||Portable single patient use carbon dioxide detector|
|US6576474||5 Aug 2002||10 Jun 2003||Grouptek, Inc.||Apparatus and method of monitoring an analyte|
|US6654622||1 Dec 1999||25 Nov 2003||Linde Medical Sensors Ag||Device for the combined measurement of the arterial oxygen saturation and the transcutaneous CO2 partial pressure on an ear lobe|
|US6670115 *||27 Oct 2000||30 Dec 2003||Biotronic Technologies, Inc.||Devices and methods for detecting analytes using electrosensor having capture reagent|
|US6677159||2 Dec 1998||13 Jan 2004||Southwest Research Institute||Reversible detector for gaseous carbon dioxide|
|US6709403||7 Jan 2003||23 Mar 2004||Mercury Enterprises, Inc.||Manometer CO2 detector combination|
|US6731963||7 Sep 2001||4 May 2004||Orsense Ltd.||Device for enhancement and quality improvement of blood-related signals for use in a system for non-invasive measurements of blood-related signals|
|US6802812||27 Jul 2001||12 Oct 2004||Nostix Llc||Noninvasive optical sensor for measuring near infrared light absorbing analytes|
|US6816266||19 Nov 2002||9 Nov 2004||Deepak Varshneya||Fiber optic interferometric vital sign monitor for use in magnetic resonance imaging, confined care facilities and in-hospital|
|US6929008||8 Oct 2002||16 Aug 2005||Vital Signs, Inc.||Carbon dioxide indicating apparatus, particularly, disk-like carbon dioxide indicating apparatus|
|US6934571||16 Aug 2002||23 Aug 2005||Bioasyst, L.L.C.||Integrated physiologic sensor system|
|US7017578||4 Nov 2004||28 Mar 2006||Tresnak Rick J||Endotracheal tube system and method of use|
|US7024235||30 Dec 2003||4 Apr 2006||University Of Florida Research Foundation, Inc.||Specially configured nasal pulse oximeter/photoplethysmography probes, and combined nasal probe/cannula, selectively with sampler for capnography, and covering sleeves for same|
|US7127278||2 Jan 2004||24 Oct 2006||University Of Florida Research Foundation, Inc.||Specially configured lip/cheek pulse oximeter/photoplethysmography probes, selectively with sampler for capnography, and covering sleeves for same|
|US7140370||21 Apr 2004||28 Nov 2006||Chrickemil, L.L.C.||Endotracheal tube system and method of use|
|US7319894||13 Sep 2006||15 Jan 2008||Edwards Lifesciences Corporation||Continuous spectroscopic measurement of total hemoglobin|
|US7341560||5 Oct 2004||11 Mar 2008||Rader, Fishman & Grauer Pllc||Apparatuses and methods for non-invasively monitoring blood parameters|
|US7392074||21 Jan 2005||24 Jun 2008||Nonin Medical, Inc.||Sensor system with memory and method of using same|
|US7440788||26 Aug 2004||21 Oct 2008||Kelvyn Enterprises, Inc.||Oral health measurement clamping probe, system, and method|
|US20020128544||30 Jan 2002||12 Sep 2002||Diab Mohamed K.||Signal processing apparatus|
|US20030003593||5 Aug 2002||2 Jan 2003||Grouptek, Inc., A Delaware Corporation||Apparatus and method of monitoring an analyte|
|US20030133123||10 Jan 2002||17 Jul 2003||Ming-Hsiung Yeh||Sensor formulation for the detection of gas composition and method of making same|
|US20030199095||14 Jun 2002||23 Oct 2003||Kohei Yuyama||Ink composition for sensing carbon dioxside gas, carbon dioxside indicator using the same, package provided with the carbon dioxside indicator, and method for sensing pinhole using the same|
|US20040065329||8 Oct 2002||8 Apr 2004||Vital Signs Inc.||Carbon dioxide indicating apparatus, particularly, disk-like carbon dioxide indicating apparatus|
|US20040184024||27 Jan 2004||23 Sep 2004||Hitachi, Ltd.||Optical measurement apparatus for a living body|
|US20040230108||30 Dec 2003||18 Nov 2004||Melker Richard J.||Novel specially configured nasal pulse oximeter/photoplethysmography probes, and combined nasal probe/cannula, selectively with sampler for capnography, and covering sleeves for same|
|US20040260161||2 Jan 2004||23 Dec 2004||Melker Richard J.||Novel specially configured lip/cheek pulse oximeter/photoplethysmography probes, selectively with sampler for capnography, and covering sleeves for same|
|US20050016543||26 Aug 2004||27 Jan 2005||Vital Signs Inc.||Carbon dioxide indicating apparatus, particularly, disk-like carbon dioxide indicating apparatus|
|US20050039751||29 Jul 2004||24 Feb 2005||Smiths Group Plc||Resuscitators, parts and assemblies|
|US20050049468||3 Sep 2003||3 Mar 2005||Sven-Erik Carlson||Increasing the performance of an optical pulsoximeter|
|US20050059869||15 Sep 2003||17 Mar 2005||John Scharf||Physiological monitoring system and improved sensor device|
|US20050113704||26 Nov 2003||26 May 2005||Lawson Corey J.||Patient monitoring system that incorporates memory into patient parameter cables|
|US20060020179||20 Jul 2005||26 Jan 2006||Optical Sensors, Inc.||Noninvasive detection of a physiologic parameter with a probe|
|US20060167351||21 Jan 2005||27 Jul 2006||Nonin Medical Inc.||Sensor system with memory and method of using same|
|US20070060809||13 Sep 2006||15 Mar 2007||Higgins Michael J||Continuous spectroscopic measurement of total hemoglobin|
|US20070078318||30 Sep 2005||5 Apr 2007||Carl Kling||Mucosal sensor for the assessment of tissue and blood constituents and technique for using the same|
|US20080076980||22 Sep 2006||27 Mar 2008||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Incorporated||Medical sensor for reducing signal artifacts and technique for using the same|
|US20080076981||22 Sep 2006||27 Mar 2008||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Incorporated||Medical sensor for reducing signal artifacts and technique for using the same|
|US20080076994||22 Sep 2006||27 Mar 2008||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Incorporated||Medical sensor for reducing signal artifacts and technique for using the same|
|US20080076995||22 Sep 2006||27 Mar 2008||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Incorporated||Medical sensor for reducing signal artifacts and technique for using the same|
|US20080076996||22 Sep 2006||27 Mar 2008||Nellcor Puritan Bennett Incorporated||Medical sensor for reducing signal artifacts and technique for using the same|
|US20080108887||8 Jan 2008||8 May 2008||Higgins Michael J||Continuous spectroscopic measurement of total hemoglobin|
|US20080139908||13 Nov 2007||12 Jun 2008||Charles Dean Kurth||Multi-Wavelength Spatial Domain Near Infrared Oximeter to Detect Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia|
|US20080262328||23 Jan 2006||23 Oct 2008||Medrad, Inc.||Pulse Oximetry Grip Sensor and Method of Making Same|
|USD478522||8 Oct 2002||19 Aug 2003||Vital Signs, Inc.||Carbon dioxide indicator|
|DE1007525B||12 Aug 1955||2 May 1957||Draegerwerk Ag||Verfahren zum Nachweis von Kohlensaeure in Luft oder anderen Gasen|
|EP0257916A1||12 Aug 1987||2 Mar 1988||Nellcor Incorporated||Indicator device|
|EP0307625B1||12 Aug 1988||20 Apr 1994||Engström Medical Ab||Optical gas analyzer|
|EP0410851B1||18 Jul 1990||28 Dec 1994||Commissariat A L'energie Atomique||Fiberoptic active chemical sensor and fabrication method of the same|
|EP0451719B1||5 Apr 1991||27 Dec 1996||Hitachi, Ltd.||Device for identifying at least one gaseous component in a gaseous or liquid sample, and identification method|
|EP0481719A1||15 Oct 1991||22 Apr 1992||Puritan-Bennett Corporation||Method of stabilizing a carbon dioxide sensor|
|EP0509998B1||1 Oct 1990||3 Jan 1996||JOHNSON & JOHNSON PROFESSIONAL PRODUCTS LIMITED||Carbon dioxide monitor|
|EP0592632B1||31 Mar 1993||4 Aug 1999||Centre National De La Recherche Scientifique||Method for measuring the concentration of carbon dioxide dissolved in sea water, and device therefor|
|EP0601171B1||22 Jun 1993||17 Sep 1997||Minco Ab||A device for indicating the presence of carbon dioxide in a patient's exhaled air|
|EP0858594B1||25 Sep 1996||23 Apr 2003||Optical Sensors Incorporated||Optical carbon dioxide sensor, and associated methods of manufacture and use|
|EP0943093B1||1 Dec 1997||12 Nov 2003||Noster System AB||Device for trapping and assaying carbon dioxide and method of use|
|EP01022558A2||Title not available|
|EP1022558A3||17 Jan 2000||14 Mar 2001||Anritsu Corporation||Gas detecting apparatus using laser absorption spectroscopy|
|EP1039294A2||23 Mar 2000||27 Sep 2000||Analytical Developments Limited||A method and apparatus for the analysis of a liquid carrying a suspension of organic matter|
|EP1039294A3||23 Mar 2000||18 Oct 2000||Analytical Developments Limited||A method and apparatus for the analysis of a liquid carrying a suspension of organic matter|
|EP1153294B1||20 Jan 2000||22 Oct 2003||Mincor AB||Indicator device|
|EP1245947A1||25 Sep 1996||2 Oct 2002||Optical Sensors Incorporated||Carbon dioxide sensor|
|EP1266944A1||8 Dec 2000||18 Dec 2002||Otsuka Pharmaceutical Factory, Inc.||Ink composition for detecting carbon dioxide and carbon dioxide indicator using the same, and package having carbon dioxide indicator therein|
|EP1327874A2||10 Jan 2003||16 Jul 2003||Becton, Dickinson and Company||Sensor formulation for the detection of gas composition and method for making same|
|EP1491135A2||12 Apr 1993||29 Dec 2004||Hema Metrics, Inc.||Method and apparatus for monitoring blood constituents|
|EP1986543B1||22 Feb 2006||14 Dec 2011||DexCom, Inc.||Analyte sensor|
|GB1043988A||Title not available|
|GB2405100B||Title not available|
|JP07072081A||Title not available|
|JP08145979A||Title not available|
|JP08247997A||Title not available|
|JP09318528A||Title not available|
|JP2003072857A||Title not available|
|JP2004177247A||Title not available|
|JP2005054048A||Title not available|
|JPH1073560A||Title not available|
|WO1990001695A1||18 Jul 1989||22 Feb 1990||Mallinckrodt, Inc.||Carbon dioxide indicator|
|WO1990003819A1||5 Oct 1989||19 Apr 1990||University Of Florida||Co2 diagnostic monitor|
|WO1991005252A1||1 Oct 1990||18 Apr 1991||Abbey Biosystems Limited||Carbon dioxide monitor|
|WO1992020404A1||13 May 1992||26 Nov 1992||Smith Charles A||Single patient use disposable carbon dioxide absorber|
|WO1993020431A1||31 Mar 1993||14 Oct 1993||Centre National De La Recherche Scientifique||Method for measuring the concentration of carbon dioxide dissolved in sea water, and device therefor|
|WO1994000756A1||22 Jun 1993||6 Jan 1994||Minco Ab||A device for indicating the presence of carbon dioxide in a patient's exhaled air|
|WO1996019727A1||19 Dec 1995||27 Jun 1996||Sealed Air (Nz) Limited||A carbon dioxide sensitive material|
|WO1996024054A1||16 Nov 1995||8 Aug 1996||Icor Ab||A colorimetric device for indicating carbon dioxide|
|WO1997010496A1||11 Sep 1996||20 Mar 1997||Icor Instruments Ab||A device for measuring the concentration of carbon dioxide in a gas|
|WO1997012227A1||25 Sep 1996||3 Apr 1997||Optical Sensors Incorporated||Optical carbon dioxide sensor, and associated methods of manufacture and use|
|WO1998026283A1||1 Dec 1997||18 Jun 1998||Noster System Ab||Device for trapping and assaying carbon dioxide and method of use|
|WO2000029830A1||12 Nov 1999||25 May 2000||Leica Microsystems, Inc.||Refractometer and method for qualitative and quantitative measurements|
|WO2000043778A1||20 Jan 2000||27 Jul 2000||Mincor Ab||Indicator device|
|WO2000045608A1||18 Jan 2000||3 Aug 2000||Digilens Inc.||Optical sensor|
|WO2001004624A1||6 Jul 2000||18 Jan 2001||Sensormetrix International Limited||Carbon dioxide sensor|
|WO2001044385A1||8 Dec 2000||21 Jun 2001||Toppan Printing Co., Ltd.||Ink composition for detecting carbon dioxide and carbon dioxide indicator using the same, and package having carbon dioxide indicator therein|
|WO2004077035A1||27 Feb 2004||10 Sep 2004||Gas Sensors Solutions Limited||Optical co2 and combined 02/co2 sensors|
|WO2006124696A1||15 May 2006||23 Nov 2006||Children's Hospital Medical Center||Multi-wavelength spatial domain near infrared oximeter to detect cerebral hypoxia-ischemia|
|WO2007013054A1||25 Apr 2006||1 Feb 2007||Boris Schwartz||Ear-mounted biosensor|
|WO2007086856A1||26 Jan 2006||2 Aug 2007||Nonin Medical, Inc.||Sensor system with memory and method of using same|
|1||Current Projects CapnoProbe(TM)SL Monitoring System posted on the company's web site; Optical Sensors Incorporated | Projects . . . http://126.96.36.199/projects.htm Copyright 2003.|
|2||Current Projects CapnoProbe™SL Monitoring System posted on the company's web site; Optical Sensors Incorporated | Projects . . . http://188.8.131.52/projects.htm Copyright 2003.|
|3||International Search Report with Written Opinion PCT/US2007/079699, 14 pages, mailed Apr. 29, 2008.|
|4||J.A. Berman et al.; "The Einstein Carbon Dioxide Detector"; Anesthesiology, vol. 60, No. 6; pp. 613-614 (1984).|
|5||Jessy Deshane et al.; "Heme oxygenase-1 expression in disease states"; Acta Biochimica Polonica, vol. 52, No. 2; pp. 273-284 (2005).|
|6||M.R. Shahriari, Q. Zhou, and G.H. Sigel, Jr., Porous optical fibers for high-sensitivity ammonia-vapor sensors,1988,Optical Society of America, May 1988, vol. 13, No. 5, pp. 407-409.|
|7||P.K. Birmingham et al.; "Esophageal Intubation: A Review of Detection Techniques"; Anesth. Analg.; vol. 65; pp. 886-891 (1986).|
|8||S.G.R.G. Barton et al.; "Expression of heat shock protein 32 (hemoxygenase-1) in the normal and inflamed human stomach and colon: an immunohistochemical study"; Cell Stress & Chaperones, vol. 8, No. 4; pp. 329-334 (2003).|
|9||Shahriari M R et al: Porous Optical Fibers for High-Sensitivity Ammonia-Vapor Sensors, Optics Letters USA, vol. 13, No. 5, May 1988.|
|10||Shai Efrati, MD et al.; "Optimization of Endotracheal Tube Cuff Filling by Continuous Upper Airway Carbon Dioxide Monitoring"; Anesth. Analg; vol. 101, pp. 1081-1088 (2005).|
|11||Shai Efrati, MD; "Is Capnometry the Optimum Method for Assessing the Adequacy of Endotracheal Tube Cuff Seal?"; Anesthesia & Analgesia; vol. 103, No. 2; pp. 505-506 (Aug. 2006).|
|12||Shaw-Fang Yet et al.; "Heme Oxygenase 1 in Regulation of Inflammation and Oxidative Damage"; Methods in Enzymology; vol. 353, pp. 163-176 (2002).|
|U.S. Classification||422/420, 422/68.1, 422/422, 422/82.05, 422/429, 435/287.9, 422/423, 422/424, 435/13, 435/287.8, 422/428, 422/426, 422/400, 422/421, 422/427, 436/169, 422/425, 435/287.7, 422/82.06, 435/288.7, 422/401, 436/164, 436/170, 435/287.1, 435/283.1|
|Cooperative Classification||A61M2016/103, A61M2230/432, A61B5/0836, G01N31/223, B01J20/28033, B01J20/2803, B01J20/10, B01J2220/49|
|25 Sep 2006||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: NELLCOR PURITAN BENNETT INCORPORATED, CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:OSTROWSKI, RAFAEL;DEBRECZENY, MARTIN;REEL/FRAME:018332/0245
Effective date: 20060920
|8 Nov 2012||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: COVIDIEN LP, MASSACHUSETTS
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:NELLCOR PURITAN BENNETT LLC;REEL/FRAME:029262/0826
Effective date: 20120929
Owner name: NELLCOR PURITAN BENNETT LLC, COLORADO
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:NELLCOR PURITAN BENNETT INCORPORATED;REEL/FRAME:029262/0421
Effective date: 20061220
|26 Nov 2012||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: COVIDIEN LP, MASSACHUSETTS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:NELLCOR PURITAN BENNETT LLC;REEL/FRAME:029345/0117
Effective date: 20120929
|28 Sep 2016||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4