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Publication numberUS8175802 B2
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 12/020,118
Publication date8 May 2012
Priority date28 Jun 2007
Fee statusPaid
Also published asUS20090005965
Publication number020118, 12020118, US 8175802 B2, US 8175802B2, US-B2-8175802, US8175802 B2, US8175802B2
InventorsScott Forstall, Gregory N. Christie, Robert E. Borchers, Kevin Tiene
Original AssigneeApple Inc.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Adaptive route guidance based on preferences
US 8175802 B2
Abstract
Adaptive route guidance can include analyzing route progressions associated with one or more routes based on multiple user preferences. The adaptive route guidance can provide one or more preferred routes based on the user preferences including those derived from historical selection or use, which can be presented to a user for navigation purposes.
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Claims(30)
1. A method comprising:
receiving, from one or more applications, a plurality of preferences associated with a user;
identifying destination information associated with the user, wherein the destination information is derived from at least one of historical information, date information, time information, or calendar information;
identifying one or more potential routes comprising a plurality of route progressions based on a current location and the destination information, wherein the current location is obtained using a positioning system;
analyzing the plurality of route progressions based on the plurality of preferences associated with the user, wherein the analysis comprises reordering the potential routes based on the plurality of preferences; and
presenting one or more preferred routes to the user based on the analysis.
2. The method of claim 1, further comprising weighting the plurality of route progressions based on the plurality of preferences associated with the user and using the weights to produce a score for each route progression.
3. The method of claim 1, further comprising retrieving route information associated with the plurality of route progressions and analyzing the plurality of route progressions based on the plurality of preferences and the route information.
4. The method of claim 3, further comprising providing an estimated time associated with the one or more preferred routes presented to the user, the estimated time being based on route information comprising traffic information.
5. The method of claim 1, further comprising receiving a selection from among the one or more preferred routes from the user.
6. The method of claim 1, further comprising identifying the destination information based on user input.
7. The method of claim 1, wherein the plurality of preferences comprise at least two of road preferences, traffic preferences, scenery preferences, traffic control device preferences, restaurant preferences, city preferences, or speed preferences.
8. The method of claim 7, further comprising inferring one or more of the plurality of preferences based upon adherence to a presented route or a number of times the route has previously been traversed.
9. The method of claim 1, wherein analyzing the plurality of route progressions based on the plurality of preferences comprises:
weighting the route progressions based on preference strengths and scores associated with the route progressions; and
comparing the weighted route progressions.
10. The method of claim 1, wherein the plurality of preferences are retrieved from a preference data store.
11. The method of claim 1, further comprising:
analyzing route progressions associated with a selected route during navigation of the route;
comparing the analysis to alternative route progressions associated with one or more alternative routes based on the plurality of preferences; and
presenting a recommended alternative route based on the comparison.
12. The method of claim 1, further comprising:
collecting traversed route data;
deriving one or more preferences based upon the traversed route data;
using the derived one or more preferences to analyze the plurality of route progressions.
13. The method of claim 1, wherein the destination information is received from a user through a graphical user interface that includes a touch screen.
14. The method of claim 1, wherein a destination that includes a final destination and a plurality of waypoints is derived from the destination information.
15. A system comprising:
a preference engine operable to receive a plurality of user preferences from one or more applications;
a destination engine operable to identify destination information, wherein the destination information is derived from at least one of historical information, date information, time information, or calendar information;
a routing engine operable to identify a plurality of routes each route comprising a plurality of route progressions, the identification of the plurality of routes being based on a current location and the destination information, wherein the current location is obtained using a positioning system;
an analysis engine operable to analyze the plurality of route progressions based upon the plurality of user preferences, wherein the analysis comprises reordering the plurality of routes based on the plurality of user preferences; and
a presentation engine operable to present one or more preferred routes to the user based on the analysis engine.
16. The system of claim 15, wherein the analysis engine is further operable to weight the plurality of route progressions based on the plurality of user preferences and use the weights to produce a score for each route progression.
17. The system of claim 15, wherein the analysis engine is further operable to retrieve route information associated with the plurality of route progressions and to analyze the plurality of route progressions based on the plurality of user preferences and route information.
18. The system of claim 17, wherein the analysis engine is operable to derive an estimated time associated with the plurality of routes, and the presentation engine is operable to provide an estimated time associated with the plurality of routes presented to the user, the estimated time being based on route information.
19. The system of claim 15, wherein the presentation engine is further operable to receive a selection from among the one or more preferred routes from the user.
20. The system of claim 15, wherein the destination engine is operable to identify the destination information based on user input.
21. The system of claim 15, wherein the plurality of user preferences comprise at least two of road preferences, traffic preferences, scenery preferences, traffic control device preferences, restaurant preferences, city preferences, or speed preferences.
22. The system of claim 15, wherein the analysis engine is further operable to weight the route progressions based on the preferences and to compare the weighted route progressions.
23. The system of claim 15, wherein the preference engine is further operable to retrieve the plurality of preferences from a preference data store.
24. The system of claim 15, wherein the analysis engine is further operable to analyze route progressions associated with a selected route during navigation of the selected route and to compare the analysis to alternative route progressions associated with one or more alternative routes based on the plurality of preferences; and
wherein the presentation engine is further operable to present a recommended alternative route based on analysis engine results.
25. The system of claim 15, wherein the destination engine is further operable to receive the destination information from a user through a graphical user interface that includes a touch screen.
26. The system of claim 15, wherein the destination engine is further operable to derive, from the destination information, a destination that includes a final destination and a plurality of waypoints.
27. One or more computer readable media storing instructions that are executable by a processing device, and upon such execution cause the processing device to perform operations comprising:
collecting historical navigation data based on a plurality of navigations associated with a user;
deriving a plurality of user preferences based on the historical navigation data;
identifying destination information associated with the user, wherein the destination information is derived from at least one of historical information, date information, time information, or calendar information;
identifying one or more potential routes comprising a plurality of route progressions based on a current location and the destination information, wherein the current location is obtained using a positioning system;
analyzing the plurality of route progressions based on the plurality of user preferences, wherein the analysis comprises reordering the potential routes based on the plurality of user preferences; and
presenting one or more preferred routes to the user based on the analysis.
28. A computer implemented method, comprising:
collecting historical navigation data based on a plurality of navigations associated with a user;
deriving a plurality of user preferences based on the historical navigation data;
identifying destination information associated with the user, wherein the destination information is derived from at least one of historical information, date information, time information, or calendar information;
identifying one or more potential routes comprising a plurality of route progressions based on a current location and the destination information, wherein the current location is obtained using a positioning system;
analyzing the plurality of route progressions based on the plurality of user preferences, wherein the analysis comprises reordering the potential routes based on the plurality of user preferences; and
presenting one or more preferred routes to the user based on the analysis.
29. A method comprising:
receiving, from one or more applications, a plurality of preferences associated with a user;
receiving destination information associated with the user, wherein the destination information is derived from at least one of historical information, date information, time information, or calendar information;
identifying a plurality of potential routes comprising a plurality of route progressions, the potential routes being based on a current location and the destination information, wherein the current location is obtained using a positioning system;
analyzing the potential routes based on the plurality of preferences and based upon the plurality of route progressions, wherein the analysis comprises reordering the plurality of potential routes based on the plurality of preferences; and
communicating one or more recommended routes to a user device, the recommended routes being based upon the analysis.
30. The method of claim 29, further comprising:
receiving a plurality of scores associated with the plurality of route progressions;
aggregating a plurality of respective scores associated with each of the route progressions; and
analyzing the potential routes based upon the preferences and based upon the aggregate score associated with the route progressions.
Description
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

This application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/946,847 filed Jun. 28, 2007, and entitled “ADAPTIVE ROUTE GUIDANCE BASED ON PREFERENCES” the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference.

BACKGROUND

This disclosure relates to navigation using a mobile device.

Navigation systems have begun to include functionality for inclusion of traffic data overlaying a navigation interface. Such navigation systems, however, provide little intelligence other than the ability to navigate from an origination point to a destination point. Because users often have some intelligence about routes to a location, in many instances users ignore navigation routes provided by the navigation system in favor of the routes the user knows. Additionally, current navigation systems do not readily facilitate navigation to a destination if a user desires to travel a different route while enroute on the route recommended by the navigation system.

SUMMARY

In one aspect, systems, methods, apparatuses and computer program products are provided. In one aspect, methods are disclosed, which comprise: receiving a plurality of preferences associated with a user; identifying destination information associated with a user; identifying one or more potential routes comprising a plurality of route progressions based on a current location and the destination information; analyzing the plurality of route progressions based on the plurality of preferences associated with the user; and, presenting one or more preferred routes to the user based on the analysis.

Systems can include a preference engine, a routing engine, an analysis engine, and a presentation engine. The preference engine can receive user preferences, while the destination engine receives destination information. The routing engine can identify routes, each route including a plurality of route progressions. The identification of the plurality of routes can be based on a current location and the destination information. The analysis engine analyzes the route progressions based upon the user preferences, and the presentation engine can present preferred routes to the user based on the analysis.

Systems and methods as described can facilitate navigation of roads by directing a user to routes that are preferable to other routes based on user preferences.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a block diagram of an example mobile device.

FIG. 2 is a block diagram of an example network operating environment for the mobile device of FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 is a block diagram of an example implementation of the mobile device of FIG. 1.

FIG. 4A is a block diagram illustrating an example implementation of routing instructions.

FIG. 4B is a block diagram of a plurality of route progressions.

FIG. 5A is a block diagram illustrating an example implementation of a preferences engine.

FIG. 5B is a block diagram illustrating a progressive analysis of route progressions.

FIG. 6 is a flowchart illustrating an example method for routing.

FIG. 7 is a flowchart illustrating another example method for routing.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

FIG. 1 is a block diagram of an example mobile device 100. The mobile device 100 can be, for example, a handheld computer, a personal digital assistant, a cellular telephone, a network appliance, a camera, a smart phone, an enhanced general packet radio service (EGPRS) mobile phone, a network base station, a media player, a navigation device, an email device, a game console, or other electronic device or a combination of any two or more of these data processing devices or other data processing devices.

Mobile Device Overview

In some implementations, the mobile device 100 includes a touch-sensitive display 102. The touch-sensitive display 102 can implement liquid crystal display (LCD) technology, light emitting polymer display (LPD) technology, or some other display technology. The touch-sensitive display 102 can be sensitive to haptic and/or tactile contact with a user.

In some implementations, the touch-sensitive display 102 can comprise a multi-touch-sensitive display 102. A multi-touch-sensitive display 102 can, for example, process multiple simultaneous touch points, including processing data related to the pressure, degree and/or position of each touch point. Such processing facilitates gestures and interactions with multiple fingers, chording, and other interactions. Other touch-sensitive display technologies can also be used, e.g., a display in which contact is made using a stylus or other pointing device. Some examples of multi-touch-sensitive display technology are described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,323,846, 6,570,557, 6,677,932, and U.S. Patent Publication 2002/0015024A1, each of which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.

In some implementations, the mobile device 100 can display one or more graphical user interfaces on the touch-sensitive display 102 for providing the user access to various system objects and for conveying information to the user. In some implementations, the graphical user interface can include one or more display objects 104, 106. In the example shown, the display objects 104, 106, are graphic representations of system objects. Some examples of system objects include device functions, applications, windows, files, alerts, events, or other identifiable system objects.

Example Mobile Device Functionality

In some implementations, the mobile device 100 can implement multiple device functionalities, such as a telephony device, as indicated by a phone object 110; an e-mail device, as indicated by the e-mail object 112; a network data communication device, as indicated by the Web object 114; a Wi-Fi base station device (not shown); and a media processing device, as indicated by the media player object 116. In some implementations, particular display objects 104, e.g., the phone object 110, the e-mail object 112, the Web object 114, and the media player object 116, can be displayed in a menu bar 118. In some implementations, device functionalities can be accessed from a top-level graphical user interface, such as the graphical user interface illustrated in FIG. 1. Touching one of the objects 110, 112, 114 or 116 can, for example, invoke corresponding functionality.

In some implementations, the mobile device 100 can implement network distribution functionality. For example, the functionality can enable the user to take the mobile device 100 and its associated network while traveling. In particular, the mobile device 100 can extend Internet access (e.g., Wi-Fi) to other wireless devices in the vicinity. For example, mobile device 100 can be configured as a base station for one or more devices. As such, mobile device 100 can grant or deny network access to other wireless devices.

In some implementations, upon invocation of device functionality, the graphical user interface of the mobile device 100 changes, or is augmented or replaced with another user interface or user interface elements, to facilitate user access to particular functions associated with the corresponding device functionality. For example, in response to a user touching the phone object 110, the graphical user interface of the touch-sensitive display 102 may present display objects related to various phone functions; likewise, touching of the email object 112 may cause the graphical user interface to present display objects related to various e-mail functions; touching the Web object 114 may cause the graphical user interface to present display objects related to various Web-surfing functions; and touching the media player object 116 may cause the graphical user interface to present display objects related to various media processing functions.

In some implementations, the top-level graphical user interface environment or state of FIG. 1 can be restored by pressing a button 120 located near the bottom of the mobile device 100. In some implementations, each corresponding device functionality may have corresponding “home” display objects displayed on the touch-sensitive display 102, and the graphical user interface environment of FIG. 1 can be restored by pressing the “home” display object.

In some implementations, the top-level graphical user interface can include additional display objects 106, such as a short messaging service (SMS) object 130, a calendar object 132, a photos object 134, a camera object 136, a calculator object 138, a stocks object 140, a weather object 142, a maps object 144, a notes object 146, a clock object 148, an address book object 150, and a settings object 152. Touching the SMS display object 130 can, for example, invoke an SMS messaging environment and supporting functionality; likewise, each selection of a display object 132, 134, 136, 138, 140, 142, 144, 146, 148, 150 and 152 can invoke a corresponding object environment and functionality.

Additional and/or different display objects can also be displayed in the graphical user interface of FIG. 1. For example, if the device 100 is functioning as a base station for other devices, one or more “connection” objects may appear in the graphical user interface to indicate the connection. In some implementations, the display objects 106 can be configured by a user, e.g., a user may specify which display objects 106 are displayed, and/or may download additional applications or other software that provides other functionalities and corresponding display objects.

In some implementations, the mobile device 100 can include one or more input/output (I/O) devices and/or sensor devices. For example, a speaker 160 and a microphone 162 can be included to facilitate voice-enabled functionalities, such as phone and voice mail functions. In some implementations, a loud speaker 164 can be included to facilitate hands-free voice functionalities, such as speaker phone functions. An audio jack 166 can also be included for use of headphones and/or a microphone.

In some implementations, a proximity sensor 168 can be included to facilitate the detection of the user positioning the mobile device 100 proximate to the user's ear and, in response, to disengage the touch-sensitive display 102 to prevent accidental function invocations. In some implementations, the touch-sensitive display 102 can be turned off to conserve additional power when the mobile device 100 is proximate to the user's ear.

Other sensors can also be used. For example, in some implementations, an ambient light sensor 170 can be utilized to facilitate adjusting the brightness of the touch-sensitive display 102. In some implementations, an accelerometer 172 can be utilized to detect movement of the mobile device 100, as indicated by the directional arrow 174. Accordingly, display objects and/or media can be presented according to a detected orientation, e.g., portrait or landscape. In some implementations, the mobile device 100 may include circuitry and sensors for supporting a location determining capability, such as that provided by the global positioning system (GPS) or other positioning systems (e.g., systems using Wi-Fi access points, television signals, cellular grids, Uniform Resource Locators (URLs)). In some implementations, a positioning system (e.g., a GPS receiver) can be integrated into the mobile device 100 or provided as a separate device that can be coupled to the mobile device 100 through an interface (e.g., port device 190) to provide access to location-based services.

The mobile device 100 can also include a camera lens and sensor 180. In some implementations, the camera lens and sensor 180 can be located on the back surface of the mobile device 100. The camera can capture still images and/or video.

The mobile device 100 can also include one or more wireless communication subsystems, such as a 802.11b/g communication device 186, and/or a Bluetooth™ communication device 188. Other communication protocols can also be supported, including other 802.x communication protocols (e.g., WiMax, Wi-Fi, 3G), code division multiple access (CDMA), global system for mobile communications (GSM), Enhanced Data GSM Environment (EDGE), etc.

In some implementations, a port device 190, e.g., a Universal Serial Bus (USB) port, or a docking port, or some other wired port connection, can be included. The port device 190 can, for example, be utilized to establish a wired connection to other computing devices, such as other communication devices 100, network access devices, a personal computer, a printer, or other processing devices capable of receiving and/or transmitting data. In some implementations, the port device 190 allows the mobile device 100 to synchronize with a host device using one or more protocols, such as, for example, the TCP/IP, HTTP, UDP and any other known protocol. In some implementations, a TCP/IP over USB protocol can be used.

Network Operating Environment

FIG. 2 is a block diagram of an example network operating environment 200 for the mobile device 100 of FIG. 1. The mobile device 100 of FIG. 1 can, for example, communicate over one or more wired and/or wireless networks 210 in data communication. For example, a wireless network 212, e.g., a cellular network, can communicate with a wide area network (WAN) 214, such as the Internet, by use of a gateway 216. Likewise, an access point device 218, such as an 802.11g wireless access point device, can provide communication access to the wide area network 214. In some implementations, both voice and data communications can be established over the wireless network 212 and the access point device 218. For example, the mobile device 100 a can place and receive phone calls (e.g., using VoIP protocols), send and receive e-mail messages (e.g., using POP3 protocol), and retrieve electronic documents and/or streams, such as web pages, photographs, and videos, over the wireless network 212, gateway 216, and wide area network 214 (e.g., using TCP/IP or UDP protocols). Likewise, the mobile device 100 b can place and receive phone calls, send and receive e-mail messages, and retrieve electronic documents over the access point device 218 and the wide area network 214. In some implementations, the mobile device 100 can be physically connected to the access point device 218 using one or more cables and the access point device 218 can be a personal computer. In this configuration, the mobile device 100 can be referred to as a “tethered” device.

The mobile devices 100 a and 100 b can also establish communications by other means. For example, the wireless device 100 a can communicate with other wireless devices, e.g., other wireless devices 100, cell phones, etc., over the wireless network 212. Likewise, the mobile devices 100 a and 100 b can establish peer-to-peer communications 220, e.g., a personal area network, by use of one or more communication subsystems, such as the Bluetooth™ communication device 188 shown in FIG. 1. Other communication protocols and topologies can also be implemented.

The mobile device 100 can, for example, communicate with one or more services 230, 240, 250, and 260 and/or one or more content publishers 270 over the one or more wired and/or wireless networks 210. For example, a navigation service 230 can provide navigation information, e.g., map information, location information, route information, and other information, to the mobile device 100. In the example shown, a user of the mobile device 100 b has invoked a map functionality, e.g., by pressing the maps object 144 on the top-level graphical user interface shown in FIG. 1, and has requested and received a map for the location “1 Infinite Loop, Cupertino, Calif.”

A messaging service 240 can, for example, provide e-mail and/or other messaging services. A media service 250 can, for example, provide access to media files, such as song files, movie files, video clips, and other media data. One or more other services 260 can also be utilized by the mobile device 100.

The mobile device 100 can also access other data and content over the one or more wired and/or wireless networks 210. For example, content publishers 270, such as news sites, RSS feeds, web sites, blogs, social networking sites, developer networks, etc., can be accessed by the mobile device 100. Such access can be provided by invocation of a web browsing function or application (e.g., a browser) in response to a user touching the Web object 114.

Example Mobile Device Architecture

FIG. 3 is a block diagram 300 of an example implementation of the mobile device 100 of FIG. 1. The mobile device 100 can include a memory interface 302, one or more data processors, image processors and/or central processing units 304, and a peripherals interface 306. The memory interface 302, the one or more processors 304 and/or the peripherals interface 306 can be separate components or can be integrated in one or more integrated circuits. The various components in the mobile device 100 can be coupled by one or more communication buses or signal lines.

Sensors, devices and subsystems can be coupled to the peripherals interface 306 to facilitate multiple functionalities. For example, a motion sensor 310, a light sensor 312, and a proximity sensor 314 can be coupled to the peripherals interface 306 to facilitate the orientation, lighting and proximity functions described with respect to FIG. 1. Other sensors 316 can also be connected to the peripherals interface 306, such as a positioning system (e.g., GPS receiver), a temperature sensor, a biometric sensor, or other sensing device, to facilitate related functionalities.

In some implementations, the mobile device can receive positioning information from a positioning system 318. The positioning system 318, in various implementations, can be located on the mobile device, or can be coupled to the mobile device (e.g., using a wired connection or a wireless connection). In some implementations, the positioning system 318 can include a global positioning system (GPS) receiver and a positioning engine operable to derive positioning information from received GPS satellite signals. In other implementations, the positioning system 318 can include a compass and an accelerometer, as well as a positioning engine operable to derive positioning information based on dead reckoning techniques. In still further implementations, the positioning system 318 can use wireless signals (e.g., cellular signals, IEEE 802.11 signals, etc) to determine location information associated with the mobile device, such as those provided by Skyhook Wireless, Inc. of Boston, Mass. Hybrid positioning systems using a combination of satellite and television signals, such as those provided by Rosum Corporation of Mountain View, Calif., can also be used. Other positioning systems are possible.

A camera subsystem 320 and an optical sensor 322, e.g., a charged coupled device (CCD) or a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) optical sensor, can be utilized to facilitate camera functions, such as recording photographs and video clips.

Communication functions can be facilitated through one or more wireless communication subsystems 324, which can include radio frequency receivers and transmitters and/or optical (e.g., infrared) receivers and transmitters. The specific design and implementation of the communication subsystem 324 can depend on the communication network(s) over which the mobile device 100 is intended to operate. For example, a mobile device 100 may include communication subsystems 324 designed to operate over a GSM network, a GPRS network, an EDGE network, a Wi-Fi or WiMax network, and a Bluetooth™ network. In particular, the wireless communication subsystems 324 may include hosting protocols such that the device 100 may be configured as a base station for other wireless devices.

An audio subsystem 326 can be coupled to a speaker 328 and a microphone 330 to facilitate voice-enabled functions, such as voice recognition, voice replication, digital recording, and telephony functions.

The I/O subsystem 340 can include a touch screen controller 342 and/or other input controller(s) 344. The touch-screen controller 342 can be coupled to a touch screen 346. The touch screen 346 and touch screen controller 342 can, for example, detect contact and movement or break thereof using any of a plurality of touch sensitivity technologies, including but not limited to capacitive, resistive, infrared, and surface acoustic wave technologies, as well as other proximity sensor arrays or other elements for determining one or more points of contact with the touch screen 346.

The other input controller(s) 344 can be coupled to other input/control devices 348, such as one or more buttons, rocker switches, thumb-wheel, infrared port, USB port, and/or a pointer device such as a stylus. The one or more buttons (not shown) can include an up/down button for volume control of the speaker 328 and/or the microphone 330.

In one implementation, a pressing of the button for a first duration may disengage a lock of the touch screen 346; and a pressing of the button for a second duration that is longer than the first duration may turn power to the mobile device 100 on or off. The user may be able to customize a functionality of one or more of the buttons. The touch screen 346 can, for example, also be used to implement virtual or soft buttons and/or a keyboard.

In some embodiments, the mobile device 100 can present recorded audio and/or video files, such as MP3, AAC, and MPEG files. In some implementations, the mobile device 100 can include the functionality of an MP3 player, such as an iPod™. The mobile device 100 may, therefore, include a 36-pin connector that is compatible with the iPod. Other input/output and control devices can also be used.

The memory interface 302 can be coupled to memory 350. The memory 350 can include high-speed random access memory and/or non-volatile memory, such as one or more magnetic disk storage devices, one or more optical storage devices, and/or flash memory (e.g., NAND, NOR). The memory 350 can store an operating system 352, such as Darwin, RTXC, LINUX, UNIX, OS X, WINDOWS, or an embedded operating system such as VxWorks. The operating system 352 may include instructions for handling basic system services and for performing hardware dependent tasks. In some implementations, the operating system 352 can be a kernel (e.g., UNIX kernel).

The memory 350 may also store communication instructions 354 to facilitate communicating with one or more additional devices, one or more computers and/or one or more servers. The memory 350 may include graphical user interface instructions 356 to facilitate graphic user interface processing; sensor processing instructions 358 to facilitate sensor-related processing and functions; phone instructions 360 to facilitate phone-related processes and functions; electronic messaging instructions 362 to facilitate electronic-messaging related processes and functions; web browsing instructions 364 to facilitate web browsing-related processes and functions; media processing instructions 366 to facilitate media processing-related processes and functions; GPS/Navigation instructions 368 to facilitate GPS and navigation-related processes and instructions; camera instructions 370 to facilitate camera-related processes and functions; and/or other software instructions 372 to facilitate other processes and functions.

In some implementations, the mobile device can also include routing instructions 374. The routing instructions can be used to provide navigation guidance to a user of the mobile device. In such implementations, the routing instructions can provide intelligent routing based on traffic, user preferences, and/or history. In further implementations, the mobile device can also include a preferences engine 376. In various implementations, the preferences engine 376 can be operable to receive preferences from a user or to derive preferences based upon a user's conduct. In some examples the preferences can predict a user's preference for certain routes over others based upon analysis of the route progressions included in the route using the preferences. In other implementations, a user can identify disfavor preferences through the preference engine 376. Disfavor preferences can instruct the mobile device to avoid certain paths, locations, or other characteristic associated with a route.

Each of the above identified instructions and applications can correspond to a set of instructions for performing one or more functions described above. These instructions need not be implemented as separate software programs, procedures or modules. The memory 350 can include additional instructions or fewer instructions. Furthermore, various functions of the mobile device 100 may be implemented in hardware and/or in software, including in one or more signal processing and/or application specific integrated circuits.

FIG. 4 is a block diagram illustrating an example implementation of routing instructions. The system 400 can, for example receive multiple preferences from a user of a mobile device and arbitrate between competing preferences to provide the user with a route based on the preferences provided by the user.

In some implementations, the routing instructions can include a destination engine 410, a routing engine 420, an analysis engine 430 and a presentation engine 440. In an implementation, the destination engine 410 can receive destination information from a user interface 450. In various implementations, the user interface can include a graphical user interface such as could be provided by the GUI instructions and touch screen of FIG. 3.

In other implementations, the destination engine 410 can derive destination information based on historical data retrieved, for example, from a historical data store 460. The destination engine 410 can parse the historical data to derive navigation habits. For example, a user might drive to work every day. Thus, the destination engine 410 can determine that there is a probability that a destination associated with the user is a workplace. In other implementations, the destination engine 410 can use any other algorithm to derive a destination, including, for example, a Markov chain based algorithm. In various examples, the derived destination can include multiple destinations. In such examples, the destinations can include one or more waypoints along with a final destination. The waypoints, for example, can include a preferred parking lot on the way to a stadium for a sporting event or concert.

In some implementations, the destination engine 410 utilizes date information, time information, calendar information, history information, preference information, etc. to derive destination information. Date information can include, for example, the day of the week, holiday information, etc. For example, a user might have a history of navigating to/from work on Monday through Friday, navigating to/from a grocery store on Sundays, navigating to a parent's house on Mother's Day or Father's Day, etc.

In some implementations, the destination engine 410 can also use the time information such as, e.g., the time of day to derive a destination. For example, on Monday morning, it is likely that a user is navigating to work, on Wednesday night it is likely that the user is navigating to a softball field for a regularly scheduled game, etc.

In some implementations, the destination engine 410 can use calendar information such as appointments, tasks, etc. to derive destination information. For example, a user might have a calendar entry indicating a court date on Aug. 23, 2007 at 9:00 AM, and thus it is likely that on Aug. 23, 2007 at 8:30 am, the user is navigating to a courthouse.

In some implementations, the destination engine 410 can use history information to recognize patterns, and can use preference information to determine which of a plurality of destinations the user intends (e.g., a user might indicate a preference for destination information derived from calendar information over destination information derived from date information). In some implementations, the destination engine 410 can automatically recognize patterns without user input. In other implementations, the destination engine 410 can automatically recognize navigation patterns and allow users to confirm or reject a destination through a user interface.

In some implementations, the routing engine 420 can derive one or more routes based on current location information and destination information. The one or more routes can be derived using existing routing technology, e.g. map overlays. Current location information of the mobile device can be obtained, for example, using a positioning system 318. In various implementations, the positioning system 318 can be provided by a separate device coupled to the mobile device (e.g., mobile device 100 of FIG. 1). In other implementations, the positioning system 318 can be provided internal to the mobile device.

In one implementation, the positioning system 318 can be a global positioning system (GPS) device. In other implementations, the positioning system 318 can be provided by an accelerometer and a compass using dead reckoning techniques. In such implementations, the user can occasionally reset the positioning system by marking the device's presence at a known location (e.g., landmark, intersection, etc.). In still further implementations, the positioning system 318 can be provided by using wireless signal strength and one or more locations of known wireless signal sources to provide current location. Wireless signal sources can include access points and/or cellular towers. Other positioning systems can also be used.

The routing engine 420 can communicate one or more derived routes to an analysis engine 430. The analysis engine 430 can analyze the one or more routes received from the routing engine 420. In some implementations, the one or more routes can be analyzed based on user preferences received from a preference data store 470. Based on the complexity of a route, the route can include many route progressions. Route progressions, in some implementations, can include a discrete length of road which, when put together, make up a route.

In some implementations, the routes progressions included in a route can be analyzed based upon user preferences retrieved from a preference data store 470. User preference data, for example, might indicate a user preference for types of roads, distance, traffic, traffic control devices (e.g., traffic lights, stop signs, rotaries, etc.), navigation time, preferred routes, neighborhoods, highways, restaurants, etc. In some embodiments, the analysis engine can use such preferences to select among the one or more routes provided by the routing engine.

In some implementations the analysis engine 430 can take into account calendar information in determining which route to recommend. For example, a user's preferences might indicate the user would prefer a particular route, but the navigation time associated with the route would not get the user to his/her appointment in time. Thus, in such implementations, the analysis engine can recommend a route which would get the user to an appointment on time while maximizing preferences. In further implementations, reminders can be sent to the user for an appointment time based upon the expected navigation time (e.g., based upon traffic information, distance information, speed limit information, etc.) associated with a preferred route.

In those implementations which analyze route progressions based on user preferences, route information can be retrieved and used to provide input by which to weight and compare routes based on the preferences. In some implementations, route information can include traffic information. In those implementations that include traffic information, the traffic information can be retrieved, for example, from a traffic information service. In other implementations, the traffic information can be retrieved from peer devices through a server.

In some implementations, the traffic information can be retrieved based upon the route progressions associated with the one or more routes. For example, FIG. 4B is a block diagram of a plurality of route progressions. In the example of FIG. 4B, a first route includes progressions A, B and X, a second route includes progressions A, C, Q and Z, and a third route includes progressions A, C and E. However, route progressions M, T, R and W are not included in any of the routes. In one implementation, the analysis engine 430 can send a request for traffic information associated with only route progressions A, B, C, E, Q, X and Z to the traffic information system 470, while omitting route progressions M, T, R and W because those route progressions are not included in any of the identified routes.

In other implementations, the traffic information sent to a mobile device (e.g., mobile devices 100 of FIG. 1) can include a universe of traffic information including all available traffic information related to local roads. In such implementations the traffic signal can include many component parts (e.g., one for each available road), and the traffic information for the various roads can be encoded into the signal (e.g., using time division, code division, frequency division, etc.). Thus, the analysis engine 430 can parse (e.g., decode, demultiplex, etc.) the signal to obtain traffic information for a desired route progression. Thus, the mobile device might receive traffic information associated with route progressions A through Z (e.g., A, B, C, E, M, R, T, W, Q, X and Z). Based on the previous example, the analysis engine 430 can parse the traffic information to retrieve traffic related to route progressions A, B, C, E, Q, X and Z.

In some implementations, the route information can include historical data. For example, historical data can include information about the average time associated with navigating a route progression. The average time associated with each of the route progressions which are included in a route can combined to provide an estimated total time to navigate the route. The route may then be compared to similarly analyzed routes based on estimated total time to navigate the other routes, which can be used to recommend a route to a user.

In some implementations, the average time to navigate a route progression can be dependent upon the time of day the route progression is being navigated. For example, a section of highway in a large city may be slow at 8:00 am due to rush hour, while the same section of highway might be clear at 10:00 pm. Thus, the historical data can include a time of day for which the average is to be computed. For example, the analysis engine 430 can average the five navigations taken at the closest times of day to a current time. In further implementations, recentness of a navigation can be factored in to the estimation of navigation time. For example, the five most recent navigations of a road may be used to calculate an estimated navigation time associated with the route progression. In other implementations, any of these factors can be combined. For example, the time of day can be balanced with the recency of a navigation to produce the five most recent navigations which are closest in time of day to a current time of day.

In some implementations, historical information (e.g., from the device itself, from peer devices or from other traffic information sources) can be used to predict route information in the future on a route progression at the time the user will be traveling that route progression. Thus, the route information associated with the route progression used for purposes of calculating a preferred route can be based upon a prediction of the route information. For example, if a route includes a route progression that will be traveled in an hour, the device can derive traffic information based upon the time during which the user will be navigating that particular route progression (e.g., an hour). The traffic information can then be used to determine whether to recommend the route progression to the user based upon the traffic information associated with the route progression at the time the user will be navigating the route progression.

In further implementations, traffic information or historical information can be used to derive a time associated with the user's navigation of a route progression. For example, if a user is navigating a heavy traffic area, the traffic information can be used to determine when the user will be navigating the next route progression, and that determination can be used to determine a time period during which to predict route information associated with the next route progression.

In other implementations, the device can retrieve advisories associated with route progressions the user will be navigating in the future based upon the time during which the user will be navigating the route progression. For example, a department of transportation website can include time dependent advisories (e.g., heavy fog expected between specified hours in a certain area or lane closures between certain hours). In other examples, local sporting events that might effect traffic in a proximate area can be identified and used in identifying information which can affect the desirability of navigating an affected route progression.

In further implementations, the route information can include map information received from map system 490. In these implementations, the map information can include distances associated with route progressions, traffic control devices associated with route progressions or portions of route progressions, speed limits associated with route progressions, etc. Preferences can be provided which use map information as comparison points between potential routes. For example, if the user indicates a preference for neighborhood driving versus highway driving, the map information can be used to reorder the potential routes based upon such a user preference. The map information can therefore be used to weight and compare routes based on the preferences. In other implementations, a graphical representation of disfavor can be applied to presented routes. For example, a color spectrum might be applied to the route presentation, whereby green is used to depict most favorable routes, while red can be used to depict most disfavored routes.

The analysis engine 430 can provide one or more recommended routes to a presentation engine 440. The presentation engine 440 can communicate with a map system 490 to retrieve map information. In some implementations, the map system 490 can be provided, for example, by a navigation service (e.g., navigation service 230 of FIG. 2). In other implementations, the map system 490 can be provided by a map store residing on the mobile device (e.g., mobile device 100 of FIG. 1). The presentation engine 440 uses map information provided by the map system 490 to overlay the recommended route information based on user preferences. In examples where multiple routes are provided to the user, the presentation engine can receive a route preference from the user and display the preferred route.

In some implementations, the routing instructions 374 can continue to analyze a current route to monitor for changing conditions. For example, an accident between the start of navigation of a route and the end of navigation of the route can change the analysis associated with the recommendation of the current route. In such situations, the routing instructions 374 using the routing engine 420 and analysis engine 430 can calculate estimated navigation times associated with alternative routes. In some implementations, the routing instructions 374 can automatically communicate a new route to the user through the presentation engine 440. Such automatic rerouting can be provided to the user with notification of the change or without notification of the change to the user. In other implementations, the routing instructions 374 can present the estimated navigation times associated with alternative routes to the user through the presentation engine 440. The user can then choose an alternative route based upon the estimated navigation times. The user's choice, in various implementations, can be indicated by selecting a route using an I/O device (e.g., touch screen 346 of FIG. 3), or by navigating one of the alternative routes, among others.

FIG. 5A is a block diagram illustrating an example implementation of a preferences engine 376. The preferences engine 376 can receive preferences from a user through a user interface 450. The preferences engine 376 can be configured to receive preferences on a variety of different topics. In various implementations, the preferences engine 376 can be configured to receive preferences on topics including: traffic preferences 500, road preferences 510, scenery preferences 520, traffic control device preference 530, services preferences 540, city preferences 550, speed preferences 560, or other preferences 570.

Traffic preferences 500 can include a user's preferences with respect to their desire to avoid traffic. In some implementations, desire to avoid traffic can be rated on a non-binary scale. In some implementations, the user preference can include a strength associated with the traffic preferences 500. The strength, for example, could be a metric of how strongly a user holds a preference (e.g., on a scale from 1 to 10, how strongly they feel).

Road preferences 510 can include a user's preferences as to certain roads. In some implementations, the user can enter preferred roads using the user interface 450. In other implementations, the preferences engine 376 can derive preferred roads based on user history. For example, if a road appears in the user history many times, the user can be inferred to prefer that road. In some implementations, the user can indicate a preference for familiar roads, thereby making it more likely that an analysis engine (e.g., analysis engine 430) will recommend routes having a higher number route progressions found in a history data store (e.g., history store 460). In further implementations, the user can include a strength associated with the road preferences 510. In some implementations, the user can use the road preferences to specify a preference to use a different route than the routes that were previously used. For example, a user might want to take a different route than the route he/she usually takes to a given destination and can set the road preferences to take such a desire into account.

Scenery preferences 520 can include a user's preference with regard to road surroundings. For example, some users may prefer rural roads or roads through neighborhoods with relatively few businesses located near the road or scenic roads, while other users may prefer commercial roads, industrial roads, etc. Thus, the scenery preferences 520 can be used to route users on route progressions based on the surroundings associated with the route progressions. In some implementations, the scenery preferences 520 can indicate a strength associated with the scenery preferences 520.

Traffic control device preference 530 can include a user's preference as to traffic control devices. For example, a user may prefer intersections having a four way stop sign to those having a traffic light, a traffic circle (e.g., rotary, roundabout, etc.), etc. In some implementations, the map information can include information about traffic control devices used at intersections. In other implementations, the history data can be analyzed to determine what type of traffic control device is being used. In some implementations, the traffic control device preference 530 can indicate a strength associated with the traffic control device preference 530.

Service preference 540 can include a user's preference for specific restaurants or service stations (e.g., gas stations). For example, some users may prefer a specific restaurant or service station brand to others when the user requests a system defined destination (e.g., “nearest restaurant”). In some implementations, the service preference 540 can include a strength associated with the service preference 540.

City preferences 550 can include a user's preference for cities to include on a trip. For example, some users may prefer to drive through one city compared to another city. In some implementations, the city preferences 550 can include a strength associated with the city preferences 550.

Speed preferences 560 can include a user's preference for speed. For example, some users might indicate a desire for the fastest time. In some implementations, the speed preferences 560 can include a strength associated with the speed preferences 560. Thus, an analysis engine can weight the trip time based on the user preferences.

In some implementations, the device can include multiple groups of preferences. For example, a device might be used by multiple users, and each user can have his/her own preferences associated with the types of roads or places the user prefers to navigate. In other examples, a single user can have multiple sets of preferences based upon the vehicle he/she is using to navigate the route (e.g., bicycle, convertible, sports car, motorcycle, minivan, etc.). Thus, in such examples, the device can recommend a different route based upon the vehicle the user is using to navigate the route. In some implementations, the device can automatically detect which set of preferences to select based upon the vehicle being used. For example, the device can detect which vehicle is being used based upon a starting location or based upon the vehicle used previously or based upon receiving such information from the vehicle itself.

Other preferences 570 can include a user's desire to avoid malls, toll roads, states, etc. In some implementations, the user can include a strength associated with the other preferences 570.

In those implementations including a strength associated with a user preference, the analysis engine can use the strength to weight the route progressions and use the weighted route progressions to compare routes. For example, the user's desire to avoid traffic can be rated on a scale from 1 to 10, with a rating of “1” corresponding to the user being neutral to traffic, and a rating of “10” corresponding to a strong desire on the part of the user to avoid traffic. In examples where the user indicates a strong desire to avoid traffic, the analysis engine can weight the route progressions with traffic more negatively than those with light traffic, thereby making it more likely that an analysis engine (e.g., analysis engine 430) will recommend routes having lighter traffic. However, in the implementations that include a strength associated with the user preferences, the strengths of other preferences could outweigh other preferences depending on a strength associated with the other preferences.

In some implementations, a group of users can rate a route progression in several categories. The route progression can be assigned a score based on the user ratings. In other implementations, route progressions can be assigned scores based on the individual route progression's popularity among users that have indicated a strong preference for a certain kind of route progression. For example, if a user or group of users indicate a strong preference for scenic roads, and each uses a certain road a lot in comparison to other roads, in one implementation, the system can assign a high scenery score to the road. In still further implementations, the route progressions can be rated automatically based on measurable statistics. For example, traffic information can identify which route progression is the worst for traffic based upon the average speed associated with the road, or based upon a delta between average speed and speed limit. Similarly, the best route progression for traffic can be identified based on the average speed associated with the road, or based upon a delta between average speed and the speed limit. The worst route progression can be assigned the lowest possible score, and the best route progression can be assigned the highest possible score, while other route progressions are assigned scores which are scaled based upon the high and low scales. Such automatic scoring can be performed where there is an objective measure by which to compare route progressions.

In one implementation, identified route progressions can be scored according to user preference categories and evaluated against the user weights. For example, a user may decide to drive from a starting point to a destination, and may assign the highest strengths to scenery preferences 520 and city preferences 550, and may decide that other preferences are not to be considered (e.g., strength 0). Accordingly, route progressions can be assigned a scenery score and a city score, and a route progression can be selected based on the user's strength and the respective scores.

Table 1 below in conjunction with FIG. 5B illustrates an example selection of a route progressions for a portion of the route based on such scores and weights. As shown in FIG. 5B, a step by step progressive algorithm can be used to identify a route based on preferences. For example, the first route progression can be chosen by comparing route progressions A1, A2 and A3. The scores can be weighted by multiplying the scores with the preference strengths, respectively, and summing the weightings to provide a cumulative weighted score for each of route progressions A1, A2 and A3. Based on Table 1, the user has indicated a strength of 10 for scenery preference and a strength of 8 for city preferences. Based on the weighted score derived from the scenery score and associated preference strength as well as the city score and associated preference strength, route progression A2 would be selected. Additional route progressions beginning at the destination of A2 could then be identified and evaluated.

TABLE 1
Route Scenery Scenery City City Weighted
Progression Score Strength Score Strength Score
A1 8.3 10 7 8 139
A2 7 10 9 8 142
A3 6 10 9.7 8 137.6

Upon selecting route progression A2, the implementation sets the new origin as the endpoint of route progression A2. The implementation can then analyze routes B1, B2 and B3 based upon the scores and preferences associated with each. The implementation continues this process until reaching the final destination point.

The above implementation performs a tree analysis in which each segment is analyzed in a progression from a first point to any of a plurality of second points, from a second point to any of a plurality of third points, etc. This implementation chooses the route progression which maximizes the preference for a first segment, and then maximizes the preference for a second segment, etc., while not necessarily maximizing the preference for the entire route. In other implementations, the analysis engine could perform an iterative analysis of every available route, thereby providing the route which cumulatively maximizes the preference for the entire route. Other implementations are possible.

FIG. 6 is a flowchart illustrating an example method for route guidance. At stage 600 user preferences are received/identified. Preferences can be received, for example, by a preferences engine (e.g., preferences engine 376 of FIG. 5) in conjunction with a user interface (e.g., user interface 450 of FIG. 5). The preferences can include, for example, traffic preferences, road preferences, scenery preferences, traffic control device preference, services preferences, city preferences, speed preferences, or other preferences. In other implementations, preferences can be inferred by conduct (e.g., tracking routes taken, monitoring driving habits etc.).

At stage 610 the destination is identified. The destination can be identified, for example, by a destination engine (e.g., destination engine 410 of FIG. 4). In some implementations, the destination engine can identify a destination based on user input received using a user interface (e.g., user interface 450 of FIG. 4). In such implementations, the user can provide destination information to a mobile device (e.g., mobile device 100 of FIG. 1). In other implementations, the destination engine can identify a destination based on historical data retrieved from a history data store (e.g., history data store 460 of FIG. 4). For example, the destination engine can mine the historical data to automatically derive navigation patterns based on such variables as day, time of day, holiday, and user calendar, among many others. In still further examples, the destination engine can identify a destination based on a combination of user input and historical information. For example, the destination engine can use the user interface to prompt the user to select a destination from among a group of destinations derived based on the historical data.

At stage 620, routes associated with the destination are identified. The routes can be identified, for example, using a routing engine (e.g., routing engine 420). In some implementations, the routing engine can receive position information from a positioning system (e.g., positioning system 318 of FIG. 4). The positioning information can be used as a starting point for the routing engine. In some implementations, the routing engine can use a navigation service (e.g., navigation service 230 of FIG. 2) to derive one or more routes. In other implementations, the routing engine can use GPS/navigation instructions 368 to derive one or more routes.

At stage 630, the route is analyzed based on user preferences. The route can be analyzed, for example, using an analysis engine (e.g., analysis engine 430 of FIG. 4). The analysis can receive user preferences and use the preferences to weight the route progressions included in the identified routes. The weighted route progressions can be used to rearrange the identified routes based on the user preferences. In some implementations, the analysis can retrieve route information from several different sources (e.g., history data store 460, traffic information system 480, map system 490, of FIG. 4) to use in conjunction with the preference information.

At stage 640, a route is presented. The route can be presented, for example, by a presentation engine (e.g., presentation engine 440) to a user of a mobile device. The presented route can be overlaid onto a map provided by a navigation system (e.g., map system 490 of FIG. 4, or navigation services 230 of FIG. 2). In other implementations, the route can be overlaid on a map provided by a local map data store. In some implementations, the map includes a number of road representations. In further implementations, the road representations, for example, can be overlaid by route information associated with respective route progressions. The presentation of the route can enable a user of the mobile device to navigate from a current position to a destination.

FIG. 7 is a flowchart illustrating another example method for route guidance. At stage 700 user preferences are received/identified. Preferences can be received, for example, by a preferences engine (e.g., preferences engine 376 of FIG. 5) in conjunction with a user interface (e.g., user interface 450 of FIG. 5). The preferences can include, for example, traffic preferences, road preferences, scenery preferences, traffic control device preference, services preferences, city preferences, speed preferences, or other preferences.

At stage 710 the destination is received/identified. The destination can be received, for example, by a destination engine (e.g., destination engine 410 of FIG. 4). In various implementations, the destination engine can operate based on user input received using a user interface (e.g., user interface 450 of FIG. 4), or can automatically derive a destination based on historical data, and combinations thereof.

At stage 720, routes associated with the destination are identified. The routes can be identified, for example, using a routing engine (e.g., routing engine 420). In some implementations, the routing engine can receive position information from a positioning system (e.g., positioning system 318 of FIG. 4). The positioning information can be used as a starting point for the routing engine, and the routing engine can use a navigation service (e.g., navigation service 230 of FIG. 2) to derive one or more routes. In other implementations, the routing engine can use GPS/navigation instructions 368 to derive one or more routes.

At stage 730, the route is analyzed based on user preferences. The route can be analyzed, for example, using an analysis engine (e.g., analysis engine 430 of FIG. 4) in conjunction with preference information retrieved from a preference store (e.g., preferences store 470 of FIG. 4). In some implementations, the analysis can receive several different routes and prioritize the routes based on the received user preferences. In some implementations, the analysis engine can reorder the presentation of a plurality of identified routes based on analysis of the route progressions with respect to the user preferences.

At stage 740, a route is presented. The route can be presented, for example, by a presentation engine (e.g., presentation engine 440) to a user of a mobile device. The route can be presented in any of the ways discussed with reference to FIG. 6.

At stage 750, a determination can be made whether a destination has been reached. The determination can be made, for example, by an analysis engine (e.g., analysis engine 430 of FIG. 4) in conjunction with a positioning system (e.g., positioning system 318 of FIG. 4). Where the destination has been reached, the process ends at stage 760.

If the destination has not been reached, the method can return to stage 720, where alternative routes including a plurality of route progressions are retrieved. The route progressions associated with the alternative routes can then be analyzed, and one or more alternative routes are presented to a user based on the analysis (e.g., an accident, traffic build-up, traffic clearing up, etc.). Thus, a mobile device (e.g., mobile device 100 of FIG. 1) can reroute the user based on changing road conditions. In some implementations, an alternative route is automatically presented to the user without notification, and replaces the current route. In other implementations, a user can be notified that another route might be preferable, and the estimated navigation times associated with both routes can be compared and the user can decide whether to continue on a current route, or to take an alternative route.

The systems and methods disclosed herein may use data signals conveyed using networks (e.g., local area network, wide area network, internet, etc.), fiber optic medium, carrier waves, wireless networks (e.g., wireless local area networks, wireless metropolitan area networks, cellular networks, etc.), etc. for communication with one or more data processing devices (e.g., mobile devices). The data signals can carry any or all of the data disclosed herein that is provided to or from a device.

The methods and systems described herein may be implemented on many different types of processing devices by program code comprising program instructions that are executable by one or more processors. The software program instructions may include source code, object code, machine code, or any other stored data that is operable to cause a processing system to perform methods described herein.

The systems and methods may be provided on many different types of computer-readable media including computer storage mechanisms (e.g., CD-ROM, diskette, RAM, flash memory, computer's hard drive, etc.) that contain instructions for use in execution by a processor to perform the methods' operations and implement the systems described herein.

The computer components, software modules, functions and data structures described herein may be connected directly or indirectly to each other in order to allow the flow of data needed for their operations. It is also noted that software instructions or a module can be implemented for example as a subroutine unit of code, or as a software function unit of code, or as an object (as in an object-oriented paradigm), or as an applet, or in a computer script language, or as another type of computer code or firmware. The software components and/or functionality may be located on a single device or distributed across multiple devices depending upon the situation at hand.

This written description sets forth the best mode of the invention and provides examples to describe the invention and to enable a person of ordinary skill in the art to make and use the invention. This written description does not limit the invention to the precise terms set forth. Thus, while the invention has been described in detail with reference to the examples set forth above, those of ordinary skill in the art may effect alterations, modifications and variations to the examples without departing from the scope of the invention.

These and other implementations are within the scope of the following claims.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification701/424
International ClassificationG01C21/26
Cooperative ClassificationG01C21/3484
European ClassificationG01C21/34C4
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