|Publication number||US8021430 B2|
|Application number||US 12/807,489|
|Publication date||20 Sep 2011|
|Filing date||7 Sep 2010|
|Priority date||7 Jun 1995|
|Also published as||CA2223964A1, CA2223964C, CN1167391C, CN1190880A, DE29623362U1, DE69637048D1, DE69637048T2, DE69638030D1, EP0840580A1, EP0840580A4, EP0840580B1, EP1829503A2, EP1829503A3, EP1829503B1, US5609635, US6302914, US6447544, US7503933, US7789914, US8444696, US8858638, US20030040798, US20050038512, US20110004310, US20120071982, US20130253652, WO1996040015A1|
|Publication number||12807489, 807489, US 8021430 B2, US 8021430B2, US-B2-8021430, US8021430 B2, US8021430B2|
|Inventors||Gary Karlin Michelson|
|Original Assignee||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (136), Non-Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (57), Classifications (66), Legal Events (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application is a continuation of application Ser. No. 10/926,766, filed Aug. 26, 2004, now U.S. Pat. No. 7,789,914; which is a continuation of application Ser. No. 10/237,751, filed Sep. 9, 2002 now U.S. Pat. No. 7,503,933; which is a continuation of application Ser. No. 09/412,090, filed Oct. 4, 1999, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,447,544; which is a continuation of application Ser. No. 08/813,283, filed Mar. 10, 1997, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,302,914; which is a divisional of application Ser. No. 08/482,146, filed Jun. 7, 1995, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,609,635; all of which are incorporated herein by reference.
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates generally to interbody spinal fusion implants, and in particular to spinal fusion implants configured to restore and maintain two adjacent vertebrae of the spine in correct anatomical angular relationship.
2. Description of the Prior Art
Both the cervical and lunbar areas of the human spine are, in a healthy state, lordotic such that they are curved convex forward. It is not uncommon that in degenerative conditions of the spine that lordosis is lost. This effectively shortens the spinal canal which decreases its capacity. Further, the absence of lordosis moves the spinal cord anteriorly where it may be compressed against the posterior portions of the vertebral bodies and discs. Finally, such a loss of lordosis disturbs the overall mechanics of the spine which may cause cascading degenerative changes throughout the adjacent spinal segments.
The surgical treatment of those degenerative conditions of the spine in which the spinal discs are in various states of collapse, and out of lordosis, commonly involves spinal fusion. That is the joining together of adjacent vertebrae through an area of shared bone. When the shared bone is in the area previously occupied by the intervertebral disc that is referred to as an interbody fusion. Further history in this regard is provided in application Ser. No. 08/263,952 entitled Artificial Spinal Fusion Implants (“Parent Application”) incorporated herein by reference.
The Parent Application taught the use of artificial spinal fusion implants that were capable of being placed between adjacent vertebrae, and which implants were capable of containing and providing fusion promoting substances including bone at the fusion site. These devices were further capable of restoring the height of the disc space and of supporting the spine, and were self-stabilizing as well as being stabilizing to the spinal area where implanted.
The present invention is directed to interbody spinal fusion implants having a structural configuration that provides for the maintaining and creating of the normal anatomic angular relationship of two adjacent vertebrae of the spine to maintain and create spinal lordosis. The spinal fusion implants of the present invention are sized to fit within the disc space created by the removal of disc material between two adjacent vertebrae and conform wholly or in part to the disc space created. The spinal fusion implants of the present invention have upper and lower surfaces that form a support structure for bearing against the end plates of the adjacent vertebrae. In the preferred embodiments, the upper and lower surfaces are disposed in a converging angular relationship to each other such that the implants of the present invention have an overall “wedged-shape” in an elevational side view. The angular relationship of the upper and lower surfaces places and maintains the vertebrae adjacent to those surfaces in an angular relationship to each other, creating and maintaining the desired lordosis.
The implants of the present invention may have surface irregularities to increase their surface area, and/or to further engage the adjacent vertebrae and to enhance stability. The lordotic implants of the present invention may have surface irregularities that are uniform in height along the longitudinal axis of the upper and lower vertebrae engaging surfaces, or may increase in height from one end of the implant to the other. That is, the implant body and the surface formed and the projections may be similarly wedged. The outer contour of the surface projections may be more or less rectangular while the underlying implant may be wedge-shaped; or the reverse wherein the underlying implant body is more or less rectangular while the contour of the surface projections are wedge-shaped from one end of the implant to the other.
The implants of the present invention have various faces which may be curved so as to conform to the shape of the vertebral surfaces adjacent to the area of the disc removal. Specifically the upper and/or lower surfaces may be convex, and/or the front and/or rear surfaces may be convex. The surfaces of the implants of the present invention may have openings which may or may not pass all the way through them, and a central chamber in communication to the surface through holes. The openings may be of random sizes, and/or shapes, and/or distributions. The implants themselves may be composed of materials, and/or have surface treatments, to encourage microscopic bone ingrowth into the implants.
In the performing of a posterior lumbar interbody fusion, it is not possible to replace the removed portions of the disc, if a total nuclear discectomy has been performed, with a single large implant as the delicate dural sac containing the spinal cord, and the nerve roots cover at all times at least some portion of the posterior disc space. As set forth in the Parent Application, the use of “modular implants” is appropriate in such cases. The modular implants being approximately as long as the depth of the disc material removed, but being considerably narrower, such that they can be introduced into the disc space from the posterior aspect to either side of the dural sac, and then aligned side to side within the disc space so that a number of them each having a length consistent with the depth of the disc removed in that area would in combination have a width equal to the width of the disc material removed.
The modular implants of the present invention may be generally wedge-shaped and may have upper and lower surfaces conforming to the contours of the vertebral endplates, which contours include but are not limited to being relatively flat or convex. As the disc spaces in the lumbar spine are generally lordotic, said implants in the preferred embodiment would be taller anteriorly, that is at the implant's insertion end, and less tall posteriorly, that is at the implant's trailing end. To introduce an implant that is taller at its insertion end than the space available at the posterior aspect of the disc space, even when that disc space is optimally distracted, is problematic.
The modular implants of the present invention provide two solutions to the problem. In the first embodiment, the modular implants may have a reduced size at their insertion end, including but not limited to a bullet nose, a convexity, and a chamfer to a smaller front surface. This then provides that the implant has an area small enough to be introduced into the posterior aspect of the disc space when the disc space is adequately distracted and the contour of that specialized leading portion of the implant is such that it then allows for a ramping up of the adjacent vertebrae relative to the implant as the implant is advanced forward into the disc space.
The implants of the present invention provide a second solution to this same problem. In the preferred embodiment of the modular implant, the implant is again wedge-shaped in the side elevational view and is taller at its insertion end than at its trailing end. However, the implant incorporates at its trailing end a means for engaging insertion instrumentation such as the box and threaded opening configuration disclosed in the Parent Application. Since in the preferred embodiment these implants are wedge-shaped in the side elevational view when upright but are generally rectangular when viewed from the top plan view, these implants are therefore designed to be introduced into the disc space on their side such that the side walls of the implants are adjacent to the end plates of the adjacent vertebrae. The implants have a side-to-side dimension that is less than the dimension through the insertion end of the implant when upright. It is possible to easily insert these implants with them on their side and then to use the insertion instrument engaged to the implant to rotate the implants ninety degrees into the fully upright position, once they have been fully inserted. Once inserted, the upper and lower surfaces are adjacent to the endplates of the adjacent vertebrae and create and maintain the desired angular relationship of the adjacent vertebrae as the upper and lower walls are angled with respect to each other.
In an alternative embodiment of the present invention, a mechanical implant which may be inserted in a collapsed position and which may then be adjusted to increase in height so as to provide for the optimal restoration of the height of the space between the adjacent vertebrae is disclosed. The mechanical implant may be wedge-shaped, and have upper and lower surfaces, the contours of which generally conform to the contacted areas of the adjacent vertebral endplates and which contours may include but are not limited to being relatively flat, or convex. Further, the mechanical implant may be wedge-shaped or generally rectangular, but capable of increasing in both height and the extent of wedging when adjusted. This may easily be achieved by having one of the two wedge mechanisms employed in the example given being larger, or steeper than the other. Alternatively, a single wedge may be utilized, and if it is desired to achieved increased height at one end of the implant while restricting the height at the other, then the end of the implant may incorporate a hinge means and the height expansion at the other end achieved by drawing a wedge member, bar, ball, or other means from the far end toward the hinged end so as to drive said upper and lower surfaces apart in a wedged fashion.
In an alternative embodiment of the present invention, an implant having a mechanically deployable bone engaging means is taught. Such an implant is generally wedge-shaped in the side elevational view and has upper and lower surfaces generally conforming to the contour of the vertebral endplates where contacted by the implant, and which upper and lower surfaces may be but are not limited to being either flat or convex. The use of such deployable bone engaging means are particularly of value in that the largest possible implant may be inserted into a disc space and the vertebral engaging means, which if fixed to the surface would have blocked the insertion of the implant, may then be deployed after the insertion such that the distance from the tip of the upper and lower boite engagement means exceeds the height of the space available for insertion. Such a feature is of particular value when the implant itself is wedge-shaped as the considerable compressive loads across the lumbar spine would tend to drive a wedge-shaped implants out of the disc space.
It is an object of the present invention to provide a spinal fusion implant that is easily inserted into the spine, having a tapered leading end;
It is another object of the present invention to provide a spinal fusion implant that tapers in height from one end to the other consistent with the taper of a normal spinal disc;
It is yet another object of the present invention to provide a spinal fusion implant that is capable of maintaining anatomic alignment and lordosis of two adjacent vertebrae during the spinal fusion process;
It is still another object of the present invention to provide a spinal fusion implant that is self stabilizing within the spine;
It is yet another object of the present invention to provide a spinal fusion implant that is capable of providing stability between adjacent vertebrae when inserted;
It is further another object of the present invention to provide a spinal fusion implant that is capable of spacing apart and supporting adjacent vertebrae in an angular relationship during the spinal fusion process;
It is still further another object of the present invention to provide a spinal fusion implant that fits between to adjacent vertebrae and preserves the end plants of those vertebrae; and
It is another object of the present invention to provide a spinal fusion implant having a shape which conforms to the endplates of the adjacent vertebrae; and
These and other objects of the present invention will become apparent from a review of the accompanying drawings and the detailed description of the drawings.
The upper and lower surfaces 112 and 114 of the implant 100 may be flat or curved to conform to the shape of the end plates of the adjacent vertebrae between which the implant 100 is inserted. The implant 100 conforms to the shape of the nucleus pulposus and a portion of the annulus fibrosus removed from the vertebrae. The upper and lower surfaces 112 and 114 comprise surface roughenings that provide a surface suitable for engaging the adjacent vertebrae to stabilize the implant 100 within the disc space once surgically implanted. The surface roughenings of the upper and lower surfaces 112 and 114 comprise a surface knurling 121 and/or grooves.
In this embodiment, the implant 100 is hollow and comprises a plurality of openings 115 of passing through the upper and lower surfaces 112 and 114 and into a central hollow chamber 116. The openings 115 provide for bone growth to occur from the vertebrae through the openings 115 to the internal chamber 116. While the openings 115 have been shown in the drawings as being circular, it is appreciated that the openings 115 may have any shape, size, configuration or distribution suitable for use in a spinal implant without departing from the scope of the present invention. For example, the openings may have a tear-drop configuration as shown in opening 115 a in
The implant 100 has an insertion end 120 and a trailing end 130 both of which may be curved or flat. The trailing end 130 of the implant may be convex to conform to the curvature of the vertebrae and has a means for engaging an implant insertion instrument comprising a depressed portion 124 with a central threaded opening 126 for receiving the engaging end of a driving instrument. The insertion end 120 of the implant 100 comprises an access opening 132 and a slidable door 134 which closes the opening 132. The slidable door 134 covers the opening 132 into the chamber 116 and permits the insertion of autogenous bone material into the chamber 116.
In use, the slidable door 134 is placed in the open position for loading material into the chamber 116. The slideable door 134 has a depression 136 for facilitating the opening and closing of the door 134. The internal chamber 116 can be filled and hold any natural or artificial osteoconductive, osteoinductive, osteogenic, or other fusion enhancing material. Some examples of such materials are bone harvested from the patient, or bone growth inducing material such as, but not limited to, hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite tricalcium phosphate; or bone morphogenic protein. The implant 100 itself is made of material appropriate for human implantation such as titanium and/or may be made of, and/or filled and/or coated with a bone ingrowth inducing material such as, but not limited to, hydroxyapatite or hydroxyapatite tricalcium phosphate or any other osteoconductive, osteoinductive, osteogenic, or other fusion enhancing material.
The fusion enhancing material that is packed within the chamber 116 of the implant 100 serves to promote bone ingrowth between the implant 100 and the adjacent vertebrae. Once the bone ingrowth occurs, the implant 100 will be a permanent fixture preventing dislodgement of the implant as well as preventing any movement between the adjacent vertebrae.
The slidable door 134 is then closed prior to implantation. In the closed position, the slideable door conforms to the curvature of the insertion end 120 of the implant 100. Various methods of packing the implant 100 with the autogenous bone material may be used to obtain a completely packed implant 100.
The method of inserting the implant 100 is set forth in detail in application Ser. No. 08/263,952, incorporated herein by reference. The threaded end of a driving instrument is attached to the threaded opening 126 in the trailing end 130 of the implant 100 and the fitting of the driving instrument into the depressed portion 124 prevents movement of the implant 100 in relationship to the driving instrument. The implant 100 is then placed at the entrance to the disc space between the two adjacent vertebrae V. The driver instrument is then tapped with a hammer sufficiently hard enough to drive the implant 100 into the disc space.
The size of the implant 100 is substantially the same size as the disc material that it is replacing and thus will be larger or smaller depending on the amount of disc material removed to create the disc space in which it is to be used. In the preferred embodiment in regard to the lumbar spine the implant 100 has a width W approximately 28-48 mm wide, approximately 36 mm being preferred. The implant 100 has a height H conforming to the restoration of the anatomic height of the disc space the average height would range from 8-16 mm, with 10-12 of which being the preferred average height. The depth D along mid-longitudinal axis MLA would at its maximum range from 20 to 34 mm with 26 to 32 being the preferred maximum depth. In the cervical spine the width of the implant is in the range of approximately 14-28 mm, with the preferred width being 18-22 mm. The implant has a height in the range of approximately 5-10 mm with the preferred height being 6-8 mm. The implant has a depth in the range of approximately 11-21 mm with the preferred depth being 11-13 mm.
In addition to the channels 215, the implant 200 may have small openings 222 on the side wall 218 which may or may not pass through the entire implant 200. The same openings 222 may be in communication with the channels 215 such that bone ingrowth may occur from the openings 222 to the channels 215 to lock the implant 200 into the fusion mass. If the openings 222 do not pass through the entire implant 200, they may function as small wells for holding fusion promoting materials or described above.
In the preferred embodiment of implant 200, the channels 215 have a diameter in the range of 0.1 mm to 6 mm, with 2-3 mm being the preferred diameter. The openings 222 have a diameter in the range of 0.1 mm to 6 mm, with 1-3 mm being the preferred diameter range. It is appreciated that although the channels 215 and openings 222 are shown having a generally rounded configuration, it is within the scope of the present invention that the channels 215 and openings 222 may have any size, shape, configuration, and distribution suitable for the intended purpose.
The implant 200, has a plurality of ratchetings 250 on the upper and lower surface 212 and 214 for engaging the bone of the adjacent vertebrae. The ratchetings 250 comprise a bone engaging edge 252 and angled segment 254.
Referring specifically to
As shown in
In addition to the first and second terminal parts, the implant 300 also includes a first side extending between the first terminal part and the second terminal part, and a second side opposite the first side and extending between the first terminal part and the second, terminal part.
The implant 300 may be made wholly or in part of a solid material and/or a porous material, and/or a mesh-like material. The implant 300 may have a surface comprising of a porous material, a mesh-like material, or have a surface that is roughened. It is appreciated that the implant 300 may be solid or may be partially hollow and include at least one internal chamber in communication with said upper and lower surfaces.
As shown in
The implant 400 has a width W that is substantially less than the width of the implants 100-300 such that a series of such implants 400 are used as the interbody spinal implant, each placed closely adjacent to one another to approximate the size of the removed disc. The size of the implant 400 is approximately 26 millimeters in length and is wide enough so that four of them will substantially fill the intervertebral space, depending on which vertebrae are fused.
In the performing of a posterior lumbar interbody fusion, it is not possible to replace the removed portions of the disc, if a total nuclear discectomy has been performed, with a single large implant as the, delicate dural sac containing the spinal cord and nerve roots covers at all times at least some portion of the posterior disc space. The use of modular implants 400 that are inserted separately into the disc space is appropriate in such case. The modular implants 400 being approximately as long as the depth of the disc material removed, but being considerably narrower, such that they could be introduced into the disc space from the posterior aspect to either side of the dural sac, and then realigned side to side with the disc space so that a number of them each having a length consistent with the depth of the disc removed in that area would in combination have a width equal to the width of the disc material removed. As the disc spaces in the lumbar spine are generally lordotic, the insertion end 420 of the modular implants 400 would have to be taller and less tall posteriorly at the trailing end 430.
To introduce the modular implant 400 that is taller at its insertion end 420 than the space available at the posterior aspect of the disc space, even when that disc space is optimally distracted, is problematic. The modular implants 400 of provide two solutions to the problem. The modular implants 400 may have a reduced size at their insertion end 420, including but not limited to, a bullet nose, a convexity, and a chamfer to a smaller front surface. This then provides that the implant 400 has an area small enough to be introduced into the posterior aspect of the disc space when the disc space is adequately distracted and the contour of that specialized insertion end of the implant 400 is such that it then allows for a ramping up of the adjacent vertebrae relative to the implant 400 as the implant is advanced forward into the disc space.
Alternatively, or in combination with the above, since in the preferred embodiment the implants 400 are wedge-shaped in the side elevational view when upright but are generally rectangular when viewed from the top plan view, these implants may be introduced into the disc space on their side such that the side walls of the implants are adjacent to the end plates of the adjacent vertebrae. The implants 400 have a side-to-side dimension that is less than the dimension through the insertion end of the implant 400 when upright. It is possible to easily insert the implant 400 first on their side and then to use the insertion instrument engaged to the implant 400 to rotate the implant ninety degrees into the fully upright position, once it has been fully inserted. Once inserted, the upper and lower surfaces 412 and 414 are adjacent to the endplates of the adjacent vertebrae and create and maintain the desired angular relationship of the adjacent vertebrae as the upper and lower surfaces 412 and 414 of the implant 400 are angled with respect to each other.
The implant 400 has large openings 415 in the form of rectangular slots for holding fusion promoting materials to promote bone growth from the vertebrae through the upper and lower surfaces 412 and 414 and into the interior of the implant 400. As the implant 400 is modular and more than one is implanted at a time, the large openings 415 are also present in the side walls 418 of the implant 400 to provide for bone growth from one implant to another implant such that after successful fusion, the modular implants 400 are interconnected to form a single unit.
In the preferred embodiment, the posts 540 have a maximum diameter in the range of approximately 0.1-2 mm and a height of approximately 0.1-2 mm and are spaced apart a distance of 0.1-2 mm such that the interstices 542 have a width in the range of approximately 0.1 to 2 mm. The post sizes, shapes, and distributions may be varied within the same implant.
It is appreciated that the implant 500 shares the same structure and features of the implant 400 described above.
The wedges 686 and 688 have a central threaded opening 690 and 692 in alignment with each other for receiving threaded screw 694. As the screw 694 is threaded into the opening 690, the wedges 686 and 688 abut the interior sloped surfaces 689 a and 689 b of the upper and lower members 682 and 684. As the screw 694 is turned, the wedges 686 and 688 are drawn together, and the sloped portions of the wedges force the upper member 682 away from the lower member 684. As the interior sloped surfaces 689 a and 689 b have a greater slope near the trailing end 630, than near the insertion end 620, the upper and lower members 682 and 684 are forced apart more at the insertion end 620 than at the trailing end 630. As a result, the upper and lower members 682 and 684 are disposed at a converging angular relationship to each other and support the adjacent vertebrae V1 and V2 in the same angular relationship.
The implant 700 has opposing wedge shaped members 712 and 714 having a central threaded opening 716 for receiving a threaded screw 718 having a head 720 and a slot 722. The wedges 712 and 714 are facing each other so that upon turning of the screw 718, will the two wedges 712 and 714 are drawn together to cause the spikes 708 to pivot about their end 710 and project to the exterior of the implant 700 through the aligned slots 706. The implant 700 may comprise a series of holes 724 on its surfaces for promoting bone ingrowth and fusion.
In use, after the removal of the disc material, the implant 700 with the spikes 708 in their withdrawn position, is inserted into the disc space. Then the screw 718 is turned until the spikes 708 are forced to enter the vertebrae and the implant 700 is thus held firmly in place.
While the invention has been described with regards to the preferred embodiment and a number of alternative embodiments, it is recognized that other embodiments of the present invention may be devised which would not depart from the scope of the present invention.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2372622||18 Nov 1943||27 Mar 1945||Courtaulds Ltd||Manufacture and production of artificial threads, filaments, and the like|
|US2677369||26 Mar 1952||4 May 1954||Fred L Knowles||Apparatus for treatment of the spinal column|
|US3298372||17 Dec 1963||17 Jan 1967||Maurice Feinberg||Surgical hydrocephalus shunt sleeve for placement in a vertebra|
|US3605123||29 Apr 1969||20 Sep 1971||Melpar Inc||Bone implant|
|US3848601||14 Jun 1972||19 Nov 1974||G Ma||Method for interbody fusion of the spine|
|US3867728||5 Apr 1973||25 Feb 1975||Cutter Lab||Prosthesis for spinal repair|
|US3875595||15 Apr 1974||8 Apr 1975||Froning Edward C||Intervertebral disc prosthesis and instruments for locating same|
|US3905047||27 Jun 1973||16 Sep 1975||Posta Jr John J||Implantable ceramic bone prosthesis|
|US3948262||10 Mar 1975||6 Apr 1976||Alza Corporation||Novel drug delivery device|
|US3952334||29 Nov 1974||27 Apr 1976||General Atomic Company||Biocompatible carbon prosthetic devices|
|US3987499||9 Aug 1974||26 Oct 1976||Sybron Corporation||Surgical implant and method for its production|
|US4070514||5 Jun 1973||24 Jan 1978||The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Department Of Energy||Method of fabricating graphite for use as a skeletal prosthesis and product thereof|
|US4168326||18 Oct 1976||18 Sep 1979||Ernst Leitz Wetzlar, Gmbh||Prosthesis parts provided with a coating of a bio-active material, process of making same, and method of using them for bone replacement|
|US4309777||13 Nov 1980||12 Jan 1982||Patil Arun A||Artificial intervertebral disc|
|US4349921||16 Jun 1980||21 Sep 1982||Kuntz J David||Intervertebral disc prosthesis|
|US4401112||2 Oct 1981||30 Aug 1983||Rezaian Seyed M||Spinal fixator|
|US4405319||18 Sep 1981||20 Sep 1983||Renal Systems, Inc.||Porous titanium coating for blood access device|
|US4439152||4 Mar 1982||27 Mar 1984||Small Irwin A||Method of jawbone abutment implant for dental prostheses and implant device|
|US4501269||21 Feb 1984||26 Feb 1985||Washington State University Research Foundation, Inc.||Process for fusing bone joints|
|US4507115||28 Feb 1984||26 Mar 1985||Olympus Optical Co., Ltd.||Medical capsule device|
|US4535485||12 Mar 1982||20 Aug 1985||Medical Biological Sciences, Inc.||Polymeric acrylic prothesis|
|US4542539||31 Jan 1984||24 Sep 1985||Artech Corp.||Surgical implant having a graded porous coating|
|US4545374||3 Sep 1982||8 Oct 1985||Jacobson Robert E||Method and instruments for performing a percutaneous lumbar diskectomy|
|US4547390||30 Sep 1982||15 Oct 1985||Medical Biological Sciences, Inc.||Process of making implantable prosthesis material of modified polymeric acrylic (PMMA) beads coated with PHEMA and barium sulfate|
|US4553273||23 Nov 1983||19 Nov 1985||Henry Ford Hospital||Vertebral body prosthesis and spine stabilizing method|
|US4554914||4 Oct 1983||26 Nov 1985||Kapp John P||Prosthetic vertebral body|
|US4566466||16 Apr 1984||28 Jan 1986||Ripple Dale B||Surgical instrument|
|US4599086||7 Jun 1985||8 Jul 1986||Doty James R||Spine stabilization device and method|
|US4604995||30 Mar 1984||12 Aug 1986||Stephens David C||Spinal stabilizer|
|US4608052||25 Apr 1984||26 Aug 1986||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Implant with attachment surface|
|US4634720||19 Feb 1985||6 Jan 1987||The Dow Chemical Company||Process for the preparation of hard tissue prosthetics|
|US4636217||23 Apr 1985||13 Jan 1987||Regents Of The University Of Minnesota||Anterior spinal implant|
|US4636526||19 Feb 1985||13 Jan 1987||The Dow Chemical Company||Composites of unsintered calcium phosphates and synthetic biodegradable polymers useful as hard tissue prosthetics|
|US4645503||27 Aug 1985||24 Feb 1987||Orthomatrix Inc.||Moldable bone-implant material|
|US4655777||19 Dec 1983||7 Apr 1987||Southern Research Institute||Method of producing biodegradable prosthesis and products therefrom|
|US4661536||2 Oct 1986||28 Apr 1987||The Dow Chemical Company||Process for the preparation of hard tissue prosthetics|
|US4693721||22 Apr 1986||15 Sep 1987||Paul Ducheyne||Porous flexible metal fiber material for surgical implantation|
|US4698375||2 Oct 1986||6 Oct 1987||The Dow Chemical Company||Composites of unsintered calcium phosphates and synthetic biodegradable polymers useful as hard tissue prosthetics|
|US4714469||26 Feb 1987||22 Dec 1987||Pfizer Hospital Products Group, Inc.||Spinal implant|
|US4721103||18 Aug 1986||26 Jan 1988||Yosef Freedland||Orthopedic device|
|US4743256||22 Jan 1987||10 May 1988||Brantigan John W||Surgical prosthetic implant facilitating vertebral interbody fusion and method|
|US4759766||9 Sep 1987||26 Jul 1988||Humboldt-Universitaet Zu Berlin||Intervertebral disc endoprosthesis|
|US4759769||22 Jun 1987||26 Jul 1988||Health & Research Services Inc.||Artificial spinal disc|
|US4763644||25 Mar 1986||16 Aug 1988||Webb Peter J||Spinal fixation|
|US4820305||30 Oct 1987||11 Apr 1989||Harms Juergen||Place holder, in particular for a vertebra body|
|US4834757||28 Mar 1988||30 May 1989||Brantigan John W||Prosthetic implant|
|US4863476||28 Aug 1987||5 Sep 1989||Shepperd John A N||Spinal implant|
|US4863477||12 May 1987||5 Sep 1989||Monson Gary L||Synthetic intervertebral disc prosthesis|
|US4865603||4 Feb 1988||12 Sep 1989||Joint Medical Products Corporation||Metallic prosthetic devices having micro-textured outer surfaces|
|US4877020||24 May 1988||31 Oct 1989||Vich Jose M O||Apparatus for bone graft|
|US4878915||4 Jan 1989||7 Nov 1989||Brantigan John W||Surgical prosthetic implant facilitating vertebral interbody fusion|
|US4904261||4 Aug 1988||27 Feb 1990||A. W. Showell (Surgicraft) Limited||Spinal implants|
|US4911718||10 Jun 1988||27 Mar 1990||University Of Medicine & Dentistry Of N.J.||Functional and biocompatible intervertebral disc spacer|
|US4936848||22 Sep 1989||26 Jun 1990||Bagby George W||Implant for vertebrae|
|US4955908||8 Jun 1988||11 Sep 1990||Sulzer Brothers Limited||Metallic intervertebral prosthesis|
|US4961740||17 Oct 1988||9 Oct 1990||Surgical Dynamics, Inc.||V-thread fusion cage and method of fusing a bone joint|
|US5015247||13 Jun 1988||14 May 1991||Michelson Gary K||Threaded spinal implant|
|US5026373||6 Nov 1989||25 Jun 1991||Surgical Dynamics, Inc.||Surgical method and apparatus for fusing adjacent bone structures|
|US5055104||6 Nov 1989||8 Oct 1991||Surgical Dynamics, Inc.||Surgically implanting threaded fusion cages between adjacent low-back vertebrae by an anterior approach|
|US5062845||10 May 1989||5 Nov 1991||Spine-Tech, Inc.||Method of making an intervertebral reamer|
|US5071437||21 Nov 1990||10 Dec 1991||Acromed Corporation||Artificial disc|
|US5122130||25 Oct 1990||16 Jun 1992||Waldemar Link Gmbh & Co.||Forceps for inserting intervertebral device|
|US5123926||22 Feb 1991||23 Jun 1992||Madhavan Pisharodi||Artificial spinal prosthesis|
|US5171278||22 Feb 1991||15 Dec 1992||Madhavan Pisharodi||Middle expandable intervertebral disk implants|
|US5190548||10 Apr 1991||2 Mar 1993||Linvatec Corporation||Surgical reamer|
|US5192327||22 Mar 1991||9 Mar 1993||Brantigan John W||Surgical prosthetic implant for vertebrae|
|US5246458||7 Oct 1992||21 Sep 1993||Graham Donald V||Artificial disk|
|US5250061||9 Jul 1990||5 Oct 1993||Michelson Gary K||Ring currette|
|US5258031||14 Dec 1992||2 Nov 1993||Danek Medical||Intervertebral disk arthroplasty|
|US5258043||26 Dec 1991||2 Nov 1993||Regen Corporation||Method for making a prosthetic intervertebral disc|
|US5304191||12 Feb 1993||19 Apr 1994||Midas Rex Pneumatic Tools, Inc.||Surgical instrument with rotatable indexing footed attachment|
|US5306308||23 Oct 1990||26 Apr 1994||Ulrich Gross||Intervertebral implant|
|US5306309||4 May 1992||26 Apr 1994||Calcitek, Inc.||Spinal disk implant and implantation kit|
|US5360430||29 Jul 1993||1 Nov 1994||Lin Chih I||Intervertebral locking device|
|US5370697||19 Feb 1993||6 Dec 1994||Sulzer Medizinaltechnik Ag||Artificial intervertebral disk member|
|US5397364||12 Oct 1993||14 Mar 1995||Danek Medical, Inc.||Anterior interbody fusion device|
|US5425772||20 Sep 1993||20 Jun 1995||Brantigan; John W.||Prosthetic implant for intervertebral spinal fusion|
|US5443514||1 Oct 1993||22 Aug 1995||Acromed Corporation||Method for using spinal implants|
|US5445639||13 Aug 1991||29 Aug 1995||Spine-Tech, Inc.||Intervertebral reamer construction|
|US5458638||6 Nov 1992||17 Oct 1995||Spine-Tech, Inc.||Non-threaded spinal implant|
|US5458643||1 Feb 1994||17 Oct 1995||Kyocera Corporation||Artificial intervertebral disc|
|US5484437||10 Jun 1993||16 Jan 1996||Michelson; Gary K.||Apparatus and method of inserting spinal implants|
|US5489307||1 Sep 1994||6 Feb 1996||Spine-Tech, Inc.||Spinal stabilization surgical method|
|US5489308||1 Sep 1994||6 Feb 1996||Spine-Tech, Inc.||Spinal implant|
|US5499984||7 Apr 1994||19 Mar 1996||Snap-On Incorporated||Universal modular reamer system|
|US5522899||7 Jun 1995||4 Jun 1996||Sofamor Danek Properties, Inc.||Artificial spinal fusion implants|
|US5534028||20 Apr 1993||9 Jul 1996||Howmedica, Inc.||Hydrogel intervertebral disc nucleus with diminished lateral bulging|
|US5554191||23 Jan 1995||10 Sep 1996||Biomat||Intersomatic vertebral cage|
|US5571109||26 Aug 1994||5 Nov 1996||Man Ceramics Gmbh||System for the immobilization of vertebrae|
|US5571190||11 Aug 1994||5 Nov 1996||Heinrich Ulrich||Implant for the replacement of vertebrae and/or stabilization and fixing of the spinal column|
|US5607424||10 Apr 1995||4 Mar 1997||Tropiano; Patrick||Domed cage|
|US5609635||7 Jun 1995||11 Mar 1997||Michelson; Gary K.||Lordotic interbody spinal fusion implants|
|US5609636||11 Jan 1996||11 Mar 1997||Spine-Tech, Inc.||Spinal implant|
|US5609637||17 Apr 1996||11 Mar 1997||Biedermann; Lutz||Space keeper, in particular for an intervertebral disk|
|US5658335||9 Mar 1995||19 Aug 1997||Cohort Medical Products Group, Inc.||Spinal fixator|
|US5658337||17 Apr 1996||19 Aug 1997||Spine-Tech, Inc.||Intervertebral fusion implant|
|US5665122||31 Jan 1995||9 Sep 1997||Kambin; Parviz||Expandable intervertebral cage and surgical method|
|US5669909||30 Mar 1995||23 Sep 1997||Danek Medical, Inc.||Interbody fusion device and method for restoration of normal spinal anatomy|
|US5683463||27 Jul 1994||4 Nov 1997||Advanced Technical Fabrication||Intersomatic vertebral column implant|
|US5766252||24 Jan 1995||16 Jun 1998||Osteonics Corp.||Interbody spinal prosthetic implant and method|
|US5769897||28 Feb 1994||23 Jun 1998||Haerle; Anton||Synthetic bone|
|US5776199||2 May 1997||7 Jul 1998||Sofamor Danek Properties||Artificial spinal fusion implants|
|US5782919||27 Mar 1995||21 Jul 1998||Sdgi Holdings, Inc.||Interbody fusion device and method for restoration of normal spinal anatomy|
|US5800547||24 Oct 1996||1 Sep 1998||Schafer Micomed Gmbh||Ventral intervertebral implant|
|US5824094||17 Oct 1997||20 Oct 1998||Acromed Corporation||Spinal disc|
|US5861041||7 Apr 1997||19 Jan 1999||Arthit Sitiso||Intervertebral disk prosthesis and method of making the same|
|US5888223||9 Jun 1998||30 Mar 1999||Bray, Jr.; Robert S.||Anterior stabilization device|
|US5888224||5 Sep 1997||30 Mar 1999||Synthesis (U.S.A.)||Implant for intervertebral space|
|US5893890||25 Jul 1997||13 Apr 1999||Perumala Corporation||Rotating, locking intervertebral disk stabilizer and applicator|
|US5980522||21 Nov 1997||9 Nov 1999||Koros; Tibor||Expandable spinal implants|
|US5984967||19 Feb 1996||16 Nov 1999||Sdgi Holdings, Inc.||Osteogenic fusion devices|
|US6059829||8 Mar 1995||9 May 2000||Synthese||Intervertebral implant|
|US6149686||16 Oct 1996||21 Nov 2000||Sulzer Spine-Tech Inc.||Threaded spinal implant with bone ingrowth openings|
|US6159214||31 Jul 1996||12 Dec 2000||Michelson; Gary K.||Milling instrumentation and method for preparing a space between adjacent vertebral bodies|
|US6302914||10 Mar 1997||16 Oct 2001||Gary Karlin Michelson||Lordotic interbody spinal fusion implants|
|US6447544||4 Oct 1999||10 Sep 2002||Gary Karlin Michelson||Lordotic interbody spinal fusion implants|
|US6558423||5 May 2000||6 May 2003||Gary K. Michelson||Interbody spinal fusion implants with multi-lock for locking opposed screws|
|US6613091||11 Feb 2000||2 Sep 2003||Sdgi Holdings, Inc.||Spinal fusion implants and tools for insertion and revision|
|US7056342||7 Mar 2003||6 Jun 2006||Sdgi Holdings, Inc.||Self-broaching, rotatable, push-in interbody spinal fusion implant and method for deployment thereof|
|US7503933||9 Sep 2002||17 Mar 2009||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Lordotic interbody spinal fusion implants|
|US7789914||26 Aug 2004||7 Sep 2010||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Implant having arcuate upper and lower bearing surfaces along a longitudinal axis|
|USD245259||29 Jan 1976||2 Aug 1977||Zimmer U.S.A. Inc.||Tibial prosthesis|
|CA1328957C||17 Aug 1989||3 May 1994||University Of Medicine And Dentistry Of New Jersey||Functional and biocompatible intervertebral disc spacer containing elastomeric material of varying hardness|
|CA2151481C||20 Sep 1994||23 Nov 2004||Louis Francois Charles Beckers||Implant for the intervertebral space|
|DE2910627A1||17 Mar 1979||25 Sep 1980||Schuett & Grundei Sanitaet||Implant which can be used as replacement for spongy bones - is built up from tolerated fibres which are implanted in bone cut=out|
|DE3608163A1||12 Mar 1986||24 Sep 1987||Walter A Dr Med Laabs||Device for dynamically/rigidly locking the distal and proximal parts of fractured bones|
|DE3620549C2||19 Jun 1986||16 Mar 1989||S + G Implants Gmbh, 2400 Luebeck, De||Title not available|
|EP0179695B1||25 Sep 1985||29 Mar 1989||Pierre Kehr||Vertebral prosthesis, in particular for cervical vertebrae|
|EP0260044B1||28 Aug 1987||22 May 1991||John Anthony Norman Shepperd||Spinal implant|
|EP0425542B1||28 Jun 1989||1 Mar 1995||Karlin Technology, Inc.||Artificial spinal fusion implants|
|EP0493698A1||4 Dec 1991||8 Jul 1992||Anton Prof. Dr. Härle||Bone replacement|
|EP0599419A2||22 Nov 1993||1 Jun 1994||ESKA Implants GmbH||Disk-shaped implant for reinforcing adjacent vertebrae|
|EP0627204A2||13 May 1994||7 Dec 1994||ESKA Implants GmbH||Implant for reinforcing adjacent vertebrae|
|EP0646366B1||4 Oct 1994||17 Dec 1997||Acromed Corporation||Spinal implant|
|FR2703580B1||Title not available|
|SU1107854A1||Title not available|
|1||Brandt, L., et al.; A Dowell Inserter for Anterior Cervical Interbody Fusion; J. Neurosurg. 61:793-794 (Oct. 1984).|
|2||European Search Report dated Jan. 12, 2000 for European Patent Application No. 96918001 in the name of Gary Karlin Michelson.|
|3||Tech. Mitt. Krupp, Nickel-Titanium Spacers for Partial Stiffening of the Spinal Column-Problems Involved, Manufacture, Pretesting, and Clinical Use; vol. 42 (1984), No. 1, pp. 24-38; including translation pp. 5-27.|
|4||Tech. Mitt. Krupp, Nickel-Titanium Spacers for Partial Stiffening of the Spinal Column—Problems Involved, Manufacture, Pretesting, and Clinical Use; vol. 42 (1984), No. 1, pp. 24-38; including translation pp. 5-27.|
|5||The Official Communication from the Canadian Intellectual Property Office dated Jan. 31, 2002 from corresponding Canadian Patent Application No. 2,223,964.|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US8257439||26 Jan 2009||4 Sep 2012||Ldr Medical||Intervertebral disc prosthesis|
|US8267999||15 Apr 2009||18 Sep 2012||Ldr Medical||Intervertebral disc prosthesis|
|US8343219||6 Jun 2008||1 Jan 2013||Ldr Medical||Intersomatic cage, intervertebral prosthesis, anchoring device and implantation instruments|
|US8361156||6 Apr 2012||29 Jan 2013||Nuvasive, Inc.||Systems and methods for spinal fusion|
|US8439832||4 Jan 2011||14 May 2013||Nuvasive, Inc.||Surgical access system and related methods|
|US8444696||19 Sep 2011||21 May 2013||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Anatomic spinal implant having anatomic bearing surfaces|
|US8465546||16 Feb 2007||18 Jun 2013||Ldr Medical||Intervertebral disc prosthesis insertion assemblies|
|US8500634||17 Jan 2013||6 Aug 2013||Nuvasive, Inc.||Surgical access system and related methods|
|US8512235||1 Jun 2012||20 Aug 2013||Nuvasive, Inc.||Surgical access system and related methods|
|US8523768||8 May 2012||3 Sep 2013||Nuvasive, Inc.||Surgical access system and related methods|
|US8548579||7 Aug 2012||1 Oct 2013||Nuvasive, Inc.||System and methods for performing surgical procedures and assessments|
|US8550994||5 Nov 2012||8 Oct 2013||Nuvasive, Inc.||Surgical access system and related methods|
|US8556808||15 Jan 2013||15 Oct 2013||Nuvasive, Inc.||Surgical access system and related methods|
|US8562521||1 Feb 2013||22 Oct 2013||Nuvasive, Inc.||Surgical access system and related methods|
|US8574301 *||24 Jan 2013||5 Nov 2013||Nuvasive, Inc.||Systems and methods for spinal fusion|
|US8591432||3 Jan 2011||26 Nov 2013||Nuvasive, Inc.||Surgical access system and related methods|
|US8602982||4 Apr 2013||10 Dec 2013||Nuvasive, Inc.||Surgical access system and related methods|
|US8608804 *||23 Jan 2013||17 Dec 2013||Nuvasive, Inc.||Systems and methods for spinal fusion|
|US8628469||30 Jul 2013||14 Jan 2014||Nuvasive, Inc.||Surgical access system and related methods|
|US8663100||4 Sep 2013||4 Mar 2014||Nuvasive, Inc.||Surgical access system and related methods|
|US8672840||8 May 2012||18 Mar 2014||Nuvasive, Inc.||Surgical access system and related methods|
|US8673005||7 Mar 2008||18 Mar 2014||Nuvasive, Inc.||System and methods for spinal fusion|
|US8679006||1 Feb 2013||25 Mar 2014||Nuvasive, Inc.||Surgical access system and related methods|
|US8685105||29 Oct 2013||1 Apr 2014||Nuvasive, Inc.||Systems and methods for spinal fusion|
|US8696559||1 Feb 2013||15 Apr 2014||Nuvasive, Inc.||Surgical access system and related methods|
|US8708899||1 Feb 2013||29 Apr 2014||Nuvasive, Inc.||Surgical access system and related methods|
|US8738123||11 Feb 2013||27 May 2014||Nuvasive, Inc.||System and methods for performing surgical procedures and assessments|
|US8747307||4 Sep 2013||10 Jun 2014||Nuvasive, Inc.||Surgical access system and related methods|
|US8753270||31 Jul 2013||17 Jun 2014||Nuvasive, Inc.||Surgical access system and related methods|
|US8753271||13 Jan 2014||17 Jun 2014||Nuvasive, Inc.||Surgical access system and related methods|
|US8764649||11 Oct 2013||1 Jul 2014||Nuvasive, Inc.||Surgical access system and related methods|
|US8768450||8 Feb 2013||1 Jul 2014||Nuvasive, Inc.||System and methods for performing surgical procedures and assessments|
|US8771284||15 Sep 2012||8 Jul 2014||Ldr Medical||Intervertebral disc prosthesis and instrumentation for insertion of the prosthesis between the vertebrae|
|US8790406||2 Apr 2012||29 Jul 2014||William D. Smith||Systems and methods for performing spine surgery|
|US8814940 *||3 Feb 2014||26 Aug 2014||Nuvasive, Inc.||Systems and methods for spinal fusion|
|US8821396||9 Jun 2014||2 Sep 2014||Nuvasive, Inc.||Surgical access system and related methods|
|US8858635||4 Feb 2005||14 Oct 2014||Ldr Medical||Intervertebral disc prosthesis|
|US8858638 *||20 May 2013||14 Oct 2014||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Spinal implant|
|US8915846||18 Apr 2013||23 Dec 2014||Nuvasive, Inc.||Surgical access system and related methods|
|US8942801||9 Jun 2014||27 Jan 2015||Nuvasive, Inc.||Surgical access system and related methods|
|US8945004||1 Aug 2014||3 Feb 2015||Nuvasive, Inc.||Surgical access system and related methods|
|US8956283||3 Mar 2014||17 Feb 2015||Nuvasive, Inc.||Surgical access system and related methods|
|US8974532||22 Aug 2011||10 Mar 2015||Ldr Medical||Intervertebral disc prosthesis|
|US8977352||15 May 2014||10 Mar 2015||Nuvasive, Inc.||Systems and methods for performing surgical procedures and assessments|
|US8979932||29 Nov 2010||17 Mar 2015||Ldr Medical||Intervertebral disc prosthesis|
|US9037250||14 Feb 2013||19 May 2015||Nuvasive, Inc.||System and methods for determining nerve proximity, direction and pathology during surgery|
|US9039774||22 Feb 2013||26 May 2015||Ldr Medical||Anchoring device and system for an intervertebral implant, intervertebral implant and implantation instrument|
|US9044337||29 Jun 2012||2 Jun 2015||Ldr Medical||Anchoring device and system for an intervertebral implant, intervertebral implant and implantation instrument|
|US9078765||3 Apr 2012||14 Jul 2015||Ldr Medical||Vertebral cage device with modular fixation|
|US9101491||29 Dec 2008||11 Aug 2015||Nuvasive, Inc.||Spinal surgical implant and related methods|
|US9168152||27 Dec 2011||27 Oct 2015||Nuvasive, Inc.||Implants and methods for spinal fusion|
|US9180021 *||25 Jun 2014||10 Nov 2015||Nuvasive, Inc.||Systems and methods for spinal fusion|
|US9186261||28 Feb 2014||17 Nov 2015||Nuvasive, Inc.||System and methods for spinal fusion|
|US20130253652 *||20 May 2013||26 Sep 2013||Warsaw Orthopedic, Inc.||Spinal implant|
|US20140309742 *||25 Jun 2014||16 Oct 2014||Nuvasive, Inc.||Systems and methods for spinal fusion|
|USD733303||11 Dec 2012||30 Jun 2015||Nuvasive, Inc.||Intervertebral implant|
|USD735336||12 Mar 2013||28 Jul 2015||Nuvasive, Inc.||Intervertebral implant|
|International Classification||A61F2/28, A61F2/02, A61F2/00, A61F2/44, A61F2/30, A61F2/46, A61B17/88|
|Cooperative Classification||A61F2230/0017, A61F2002/30774, A61F2002/30604, A61F2210/0004, Y10S606/907, A61F2/44, A61F2220/0025, A61F2002/30785, A61F2250/0009, A61F2002/30062, A61F2/30744, A61F2002/30143, A61F2002/30599, A61F2002/30787, A61F2002/30836, A61F2002/30398, A61F2002/30261, A61F2310/00796, A61F2002/30434, A61F2002/30841, A61F2230/0082, Y10S606/908, A61F2002/3037, A61F2250/0063, A61F2002/30579, A61F2002/30904, A61F2/30767, A61F2002/30158, A61F2220/0033, A61F2002/30405, A61F2002/2835, A61F2002/30747, A61F2002/30797, A61F2/4611, A61F2230/0026, A61F2230/0019, Y10S606/90, A61F2002/4475, A61F2002/30843, A61F2002/30556, A61F2002/4629, A61F2002/30153, A61F2220/0041, A61F2002/449, A61F2002/3051, A61F2002/30271, A61F2002/30789, A61F2002/30777, A61F2/4455, A61F2/447, A61F2002/3092, A61F2002/4485, A61F2/442|
|European Classification||A61F2/44F, A61F2/44D, A61F2/30B9, A61F2/46B7, A61F2/44F6|
|15 Oct 2010||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: SDGI HOLDINGS, INC., DELAWARE
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:MICHELSON, GARY KARLIN;REEL/FRAME:025147/0151
Effective date: 20050517
|19 Oct 2010||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: WARSAW ORTHOPEDIC, INC., INDIANA
Free format text: MERGER;ASSIGNOR:SDGI HOLDINGS, INC.;REEL/FRAME:025162/0379
Effective date: 20060428
|29 Jan 2013||RR||Request for reexamination filed|
Effective date: 20120914
|3 Sep 2013||FPB1||Expired due to reexamination which canceled all claims|
|20 Mar 2015||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4