|Publication number||US7198227 B2|
|Application number||US 10/864,465|
|Publication date||3 Apr 2007|
|Filing date||10 Jun 2004|
|Priority date||10 Jun 2004|
|Also published as||DE102005026898A1, US20060038077|
|Publication number||10864465, 864465, US 7198227 B2, US 7198227B2, US-B2-7198227, US7198227 B2, US7198227B2|
|Inventors||Craig J. Olin, Blake A. Reed, Wally Larson, Steve Senger, Corey M. Larson|
|Original Assignee||Goodrich Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (112), Non-Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (28), Classifications (13), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The present invention is directed to aircraft that carry cargo. More particularly, it is directed to a system for locating and tracking the position of unit load devices on such aircraft.
With the increasing emphasis on packages, mail, and other such items having to arrive “overnight”, more and more cargo is being shipped by aircraft 100 (See
Typically, the items being shipped are first loaded onto pallets, containers, or the like. In the airfreight industry, any one of these various categories of devices is referred to as a Unit Load Device 102 (ULD). Within each category, the ULDs come in various sizes, shapes and capacities and bear markings that identify their type, maximum gross weight and tare weight, among other characteristics.
This initial task of placing the items to be shipped into a ULD may be performed at a location away from the immediate vicinity of the aircraft. In due course, however, the ULD is weighed, brought to the aircraft and sent up a ramp 106, scissors lift, or other means and then through a doorway 108. Once inside, the ULD is moved about the cargo compartment until it reaches its final position for the flight. As depicted in
To facilitate moving around the ULD within the cargo compartment, the floor of the cargo compartment is provided with a number of structures with raised surfaces. These structures may take the form of parallel roller tracks arranged longitudinally along the length of the cargo floor, ball panel units, and the like. The bottom surface of the ULD rides on the raised surfaces provided by the rollers and balls of these structures, as it is moved within the compartment.
Once moved to its final position, further movement of the ULD is prevented for duration of the flight. This is done to ensure that the ULD will not move about when the aircraft is subjected to rough air, vibrations, acceleration, deceleration, and rough landings. To prevent movement of the ULD in flight, the floor and side walls of the cargo compartment may be provided with restraints that serve to keep the ULD stationary.
The number of ULDs, the types of ULDs to be carried, and the weight of each ULD can change from flight to flight. Great care must be taken when loading aircraft with cargo to assure that the weight and balance of the aircraft with the loaded cargo is acceptable. In part, this is because an aircraft can be damaged while sitting on the ground if the cargo weight distribution is incorrect, causing the aircraft to “tip” onto its tail. And in flight, aircraft performance and handling characteristics are affected by the gross weight and center of gravity limits. An overloaded or improperly balanced aircraft will require more power and greater fuel consumption to maintain flight, and the stability and controllability may be seriously affected. Lack of appreciation for the effects of weight and balance on the performance of aircraft, particularly in combination with such performance reducing factors as high density altitude, frost or ice on the wings, low engine power, severe or uncoordinated maneuvers, and emergency situations, can be a prime factor in aircraft accidents.
Before the ULDs are loaded, the load master, or other cognizant individual, develops a pre-planned load configuration that takes into account the weight and balance criteria, and the number, types and weights of the ULDs. This pre-planned load configuration indicates where, on the cargo floor, each of the ULDs to be loaded onto the aircraft, should be positioned. In its simplest form, then, the pre-planned load configuration is simply a two-column list, the first column identifying each ULD and the second its corresponding desired final location within the aircraft. In general, however, the pre-planned load configuration is part of a more comprehensive cargo loading manifest that may also include information about the weight of each ULD, among other items. The loading crew tasked with loading the aircraft receives a print out of the pre-planned load configuration, and loads the cargo hold accordingly.
However, a typical main deck freighter aircraft can have hundreds of permutations for cargo loading configurations. For this reason, it can be a difficult task to ensure that the ground crew has loaded the aircraft correctly for an intended load. It is therefore desirable to provide real time weight and location of all of the loaded cargo to calculate the weight and balance of the aircraft, as well as to track the cargo while loading the aircraft and later at the conclusion of the flight while the cargo is being unloaded.
The prior art includes RFID tags and RFID readers. A tag may be placed on an item and later scanned by an RFID reader, thereby tracking that item. Wireless systems, such as those provided by Wherenet (www.wherenet.com) may be used to track and locate objects in a variety of settings.
In one aspect, the present invention is directed to an aircraft cargo locating system for locating a plurality of unit load devices (ULDs) in an aircraft, each ULD having a wireless tag affixed to it. The system includes a plurality of tag readers for reading the wireless tags, and a processor coupled to the tag readers. The processor is programmed to receive tag information from the plurality of tag readers and calculate a location of each of the ULDs devices in the aircraft from the tag information.
In another aspect, the present invention is directed to a method of locating a unit load device (ULD) device on a deck of an aircraft. The method entails receiving, at a plurality of tag readers, tag information from a wireless tag affixed to the ULD, and then calculating a location of the ULD within a cargo compartment of the aircraft based on the tag information received at the plurality of tag readers.
In still another aspect, the present invention is directed to a computer readable medium having instructions stored thereon that, when executed by a processor, cause the processor to receive tag information from a wireless tag affixed to an aircraft unit load device (ULD) carrying cargo, and then calculate a location of the ULD within the aircraft based on this tag information.
In still another aspect, the present invention is directed to a method of loading an aircraft. The method entails obtaining information about weights of a plurality of unit load devices (ULD) as they enter an aircraft, and determining whether a tip condition is imminent, based at least in part on the weights and positions of said plurality of ULDs that are onboard the aircraft, the positions having been determined by wirelessly sensing the locations of the ULDs.
In still another aspect, the present invention is directed to an aircraft unit load device (ULD) bearing a wireless tag comprising a memory, said memory comprising information reflective of a gross weight of the ULD, a flight number of an aircraft, and a location within said aircraft that said ULD is to be placed.
In still another aspect, the present invention is directed to an aircraft having a cargo compartment provided with a plurality of tag readers spaced apart along opposing side walls thereof, each tag reader capable of receiving information from a wireless tag, a processor coupled to the plurality of tag readers and configured to determine locations of wireless tags based on tag information received by said tag readers, when such wireless tags are present in the compartment, and a user interface configured to display output from the processor that is derived from information received by said plurality of tag readers.
The ULD 252 bears a wireless tag 260, such as an RFID tag. As is known to those skilled in the art, RFID tags are small, inexpensive devices that can be programmed with unique information and may either be active or passive. Preferably, RFID tag 260 is an active tag which has a self-contained battery and has a memory to which one may read/write/modify data. The battery life for such a tag is preferably between five and ten years, depending on the particular type selected, which avoids frequent maintenance of the RFID tags on the ULDs.
The cargo compartment wall 272 of the cargo aircraft 250 is provided with a plurality of tag readers 262, 264, as shown in
In the embodiments described herein, reference is made to RFID tags and RFID readers. It is understood, however, that other types of wireless technologies, protocols and the like, such as infrared, ultrasonic, bluetooth, various WiFi and other wireless standards (802.1x), etc. may also be employed, the important feature of the present invention being that the tags be wireless and that the tag readers be able to receive information from the wireless tags.
Preferably, reader 262 is a short-range reader that is associated with the doorway 258 (“doorway reader”) and senses when a ULD passes through the doorway 258. Reader 262 therefore is close to the doorway, such as being immediately adjacent to the doorway or perhaps even being situated in the door jamb itself. Beyond the immediate vicinity of the doorway 258, however, the doorway reader 262 is unable to pick up the tags.
As seen in
Away from the doorway 258, a plurality of long-range readers 264 are provided on the cargo compartment wall 272, at spaced intervals throughout the cargo compartment. Typically, the long-range readers 264 are placed only on both side walls of the cargo compartment, but may also be placed on its ceiling and/or its floor 270, if necessary.
In contrast to the short-range doorway reader 262, the long-range readers 264 are capable of locating ULDs bearing tags 260 at distances upwards of about 70 feet. In one embodiment, the short-range doorway reader 262 and the long-range doorway readers 264 have identical construction, differing only in their effective range, as determined by a settable power level. In another embodiment, the short-range doorway reader 262 and the long-range doorway readers 264 differ in construction.
Once inside the cargo compartment, the ULD 252 is moved to its final location on the cargo floor 270, in accordance with the cargo loading manifest. And from its final location, ULD 252, or more precisely its tag 260, can be detected from three or more of the long-range readers which may then provide respective delay of arrival, signal strength or other data to a computer for a triangulation algorithm of the sort known to those skilled in the art for determining the precise location of the ULD 252.
A cargo area user interface 266 is provided on the cargo compartment wall 272 near the doorway 258 for communicating with a cargo loading computer, as discussed further below. The cargo area user interface 266 preferably comprises an LCD display with perhaps a touch panel or complete keyboard attached thereto. An operator 290 may use this interface 266 to monitor the loading of cargo and enter data, as needed. While the cargo area user interface 266 is shown as a display with keyboard mounted on the wall, it is understood that it may take other forms, such as a laptop computer or a wireless handheld device, among others.
The first set of data fields 340 preferably belongs to a first portion of memory that cannot normally be overwritten. This may be achieved, for instance, by using a memory that cannot be erased, or by write-protecting the first portion through software or other means.
The second set of data fields 350, on the other hand, belongs to a second portion of memory that may be overwritten by the programming software used at the cargo terminal where the ULDs are loaded with cargo and tags are programmed. In a preferred embodiment, this second portion of memory is automatically erased by hardware and/or software on the tag itself, so that “old” information does not persist in the second set of data fields 350 after the ULD has been removed from the aircraft and its cargo unloaded. Thus, the automatic erasure preferably takes place after the lapse of a predetermined period of time estimated to be sufficient for the ULD to reach its destination and be unloaded. Thus, in one embodiment, the predetermined period of time may be a fixed number of hours, such as 24 hours.
The ULD-specific information 340 typically includes a unique tag number 302 which can be used to identify the tag itself (and thus the ULD from simply the tag number, assuming the one is associated with the other), the type of ULD 304, the empty weight 306 of the ULD and the maximum gross weight 308 of the ULD.
The non-ULD-specific information 350 which may vary from flight to flight may include: the gross (loaded) weight 312 of the ULD, the name of the airline 314 on which the ULD is to be loaded, the flight number 316, the final destination 318 of the ULD (which may help ensure that a ULD is not off-loaded at the wrong stop), the date of the flight 320, the type of aircraft 322 on which the ULD is being transported, the compartment 324 in the aircraft in which the ULD will be transported, the two-dimensional grid location 326 within the compartment where the ULD is to be placed, information about the contents or owner 328 of the contents, and additional comments 330 such as problems with the ULD, as needed.
The non-ULD specific information typically is entered at the cargo terminal or other staging area where the individual ULDs are loaded with cargo. The ULDs, loaded with cargo, are weighed and the various non-ULD specific information 350 is uploaded to the ULD through a write operation using devices known to those skilled in the art.
In the cross-section of
A pair of ULDs 252 a of a first type rest on rollers 504 on the lower deck 502 a which corresponds to lower cargo compartment 420. Each ULD has a wireless tag 260 a, and the position of these are detected using long-range readers 264 a.
Similarly, on the upper deck 502 b, a pair of ULDs 252 b of a second type rest on rollers 504 within the upper cargo compartment 480. Each of these ULDs has a wireless tag 260 b, and the position of these are detected using long-range readers 264 b. As also seen in this figure, a long-range reader 265 is placed on the ceiling of the upper compartment 480, the lower compartment in this embodiment, not being so provided.
In practice, a long-range reader on one deck may receive signals from a wireless tag affixed to a ULD on a different deck. However, this normally does not cause ambiguities in determining the position of a particular ULD for a combination of reasons. First, once a ULD is loaded onto a particular deck through a particular doorway, it is not normally moved within the aircraft to a different deck. And due to the short-range doorway readers, the system of the present invention knows through which doorway (and thus on which deck) every ULD entered the aircraft. The system also knows in which compartment each long-range reader is situated, and its position within the compartment. Thus, when processing signals received at the various long-range readers to establish the location of a particular ULD, the system only uses signals from wireless tags (and hence, the corresponding ULDs) that are on the same deck as the long-range readers at which the signals were received. The dual features of keeping track of the deck on which a ULD is located and ignoring or otherwise rejecting signals from that ULD received by long-range readers on other decks, also finds use while loading the aircraft and building a table of loaded ULDs, as discussed below.
The heart of the cargo locating system 800 is a master control unit, or MCU 810. The MCU 810 can be any type of general purpose computer that is capable of storing and executing software programs and so includes a processor, both volatile and non-volatile memory and the like. Preferably, the MCU 810 is ruggedized and meets the various standards and requirements for aircraft-based computer systems. MCU 810 preferably is located on the main cargo deck, but this is not an absolute requirement.
The MCU's non-volatile memory stores, inter alia, information about the aircraft pertinent to weight and balance calculations. Included among these are the aircraft's Operating Weight Empty (“OWE”), preferably known to a high degree of certainty, and its center of gravity (CG) while empty, such as prior to loading cargo. As is known to those skilled in the art, the CG of an aircraft is a point in three dimensional space, almost invariably within the fuselage for most aircraft designs. Each aircraft also has a three-dimensional “CG operating volume” within which the center of gravity must lie for safe operation of the aircraft during loading, take-off, in-flight, landing, unloading and other activities. The MCU also has knowledge of this CG operating volume against which it may compare CG calculations made during loading and unloading operations.
The MCU 810 is connected to a number of different aircraft subsystems via the main aircraft bus 802. Pertinent to the present invention, the MCU 810 communicates with the cockpit user interface 804, the fuel system interface 806 and a communications interface 808, via the main aircraft bus 802.
The cockpit user interface 804 preferably presents whatever information the flight crew desires that is available from the MCU 810, or at any of the cargo area user interfaces 266. The cockpit user interface 804, like the cargo area user interface 266, may provide advanced capabilities such as graphical/text-based reporting of weight and balance information for a given flight, reports on the ULDs onboard as well as specific information for each ULD on that flight, among other things. The cockpit user interface 804 may be the primary operator interface for an aircraft cargo loading system and may, in some aircraft, fully obviate the need for a cargo area user interface 266.
The fuel system interface provides the MCU 810 with information about the aircraft's current fuel status, such as the current quantity and/or current weight of fuel onboard and the distribution of that fuel in the tanks, information useful for weight and balance calculations.
Finally, the communications interface 808 can be used to wirelessly receive and send information about the cargo and calculated weight and balance information. Thus, prior to loading, the MCU 810 may receive the cargo loading manifest, which contains information about each ULD to be loaded including its tag number, its weight, where its to be located in the aircraft, and so forth. During loading, the MCU 810 may send information to the cargo terminal about the current weight and balance condition of the aircraft.
Furthermore, upon landing, the communications interface 808 may wirelessly send information about the ULDs to the destination cargo terminal prior to unloading the aircraft. In this latter regard, the communications interface 808 may send information to a web server (not shown) which can provide information about ULD contents over the web to authorized parties. This information may be used to not only facilitate the unloading process, but also to notify the owners of the cargo, or others, that their cargo will soon arrive. Other information, such as which ULDs belong to each such owner, may also be provided to facilitate pick-up at the cargo terminal.
MCU 810 is connected to the various readers 262, 264 via a separate MCU device subnet shown generally as 820. Subnet 820, which has branches 822, 824, 826 and 828 in the various compartments, preferably is an Ethernet-type network or a Controller Area Network (CAN).
MCU 810 is also connected to the cargo area user interface 266 via the subnet 820, and this interface 266 may, as discussed above, be replicated in each compartment. In an alternate embodiment, MCU 810 may communicate with the cargo area user interface 266 via a dedicated communication link 830, which may be wireless.
Cargo area user interface 266 may be the primary interface for system 800, meaning that it will display output on behalf of MCU 810 and relay operator commands to MCU 810. When such a cargo area user interface 266 is present on each deck, each such interface may act as a primary interface for its corresponding deck. During normal operation, cargo area user interface 266 will show the loading status of the cargo compartment systems, and will provide real-time feedback regarding the cargo loading manifest or aircraft load and trim sheets (i.e., the preplanned load configuration) versus the as-loaded configuration, as detected by the readers 262, 264. The various information may be viewed in text and (in the case of location) graphical form. Cargo area user interface 266 can also be used as a local maintenance terminal for an aircraft weight and balance calculation system if an Onboard Maintenance System (“OMS”) terminal is not readily available.
The number of long-range readers 264 connected to each branch of the subnet depends on such factors as the type and range of the readers, the length of the corresponding compartment and the desired ULD positional accuracy. Typically, no less than three long-range readers are placed in any one compartment while as many as eight may be placed in a 200 foot long compartment, with four on each side wall, approximately 50 feet apart, the readers on one side preferably being staggered relative to the readers on the other.
While the aircraft is being loaded, the short-range doorway readers 262 obtain all the information in each tag 260 and relay this to the MCU 810 via the cable or bus 820. This information is then stored in the MCU's memory for the upcoming flight 810 in the form of a searchable database. This database may be queried or otherwise accessed via the aircraft bus 802 or the subnet 820 and so is available at the cockpit user interface 804, the cargo area user interfaces, and perhaps other assets connected to the aircraft bus, or even wirelessly via the communications interface 808.
Both during loading, and even after the ULDs are all loaded, the tags 260 on the ULDs cooperate with the long-range readers in each compartment to provide the MCU 810 with information sufficient to determine, within a reasonable level of precision, the position of each ULD within each cargo compartment. This is made possible by the fact that the MCU 810 knows the position of each of the long-range readers and so can use triangulation methods known to those skilled in art, based on the time delay of arrival of various signals from the tags 260 at the various long-range readers 264. This location information within each cargo compartment is thus added to the database.
In one embodiment, the tags 260 are active and each tag emits a signal at a predetermined time interval. The signal includes the tag number, and perhaps other information, as well. The time interval may be fixed at the time of tag manufacture and thereafter invariable, or it may be settable by a user within some predetermined range, such as from a few sub-seconds to several hours.
In another embodiment, each wireless tag is passive, and only responds upon interrogation by a reader, in a manner known to those skilled in the art.
Furthermore, during the loading process, the MCU 810 can compare the tag/reader-determined actual location of each ULD with information in the cargo loading manifest, such as the data associated with the pre-planned load configuration that was planned for the flight. Any discrepancies between the two can be displayed on a cargo area user interface 266, cockpit user interface 804 or other device, thereby notifying personnel that there seems to be a departure from the original plan, and allowing any needed changes before loading continues.
As stated above, during the loading process, the MCU obtains information about the weight of each ULD 252 based on information from its tag 260. This can happen in one of two ways. First, in those instances where the tag's memory stores the ULD's gross weight information in a data field 312, the gross weight information may be relayed to the MCU 810 via the doorway reader. Second, in those instances where the tag 260 does not store gross weight information, but the cargo loading manifest includes information that associates the gross weight of each ULD with its tag number, the MCU 810 can use the tag number, relayed by the doorway reader, to look up the weight of that ULD. A third way for the MCU to learn the gross weight of a ULD using the doorway ball 282 mat with load cells 284 is discussed below.
Regardless of how the MCU learns the weight of the ULD, this gross weight information, coupled with each ULD's calculated position information, information from the fuel system interface 806 and knowledge about the aircraft's OWE and OWE center of gravity, allows the MCU 810 to calculate a total aircraft weight and also the aircraft's current center of gravity. Moreover, these calculations can be made in real time, as the aircraft is loaded with cargo. If either parameter is not within allowable limits, an alarm (visual, aural, etc.) may be triggered to draw attention to the condition. In addition, a signal may be sent to disable or otherwise suspend the cargo loading system to ensure that a tip condition (i.e., the aircraft tipping on its tail) does not arise. In such case, further loading is prevented until appropriate, remedial action such as removal or re-positioning of at least some of the ULDs is taken.
Furthermore, in a preferred embodiment, the total weight of the aircraft is verified at predetermined intervals and entered as calibration data via the cargo area user interface 266, cockpit user interface 804 or other input means.
In addition, as the ULDs are being loaded, the cargo area user interface 266 and/or the cockpit user interface 804 may be used to graphically show information about such things as the position of the ULDs and the aircraft's center of gravity, in real time.
As seen in
As seen in
MCU 810 also communicates with the cockpit via aircraft bus 802 as necessary to display weight and balance information to the flight crew on the cockpit user interface 804. MCU 810 may also utilize a wireless network protocol such as 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n, 802.16, etc. (collectively, 802.1x), to communicate either with the cargo terminal, a wireless handheld device, or a laptop computer carried by the Load Master (i.e., the person responsible for loading the aircraft) to determine all necessary loading information and to confirm the final loaded position of all ULDs.
As mentioned above, the short-range doorway readers 262 are used to detect each ULD as it enters the compartment associated with a particular doorway, and it is at this point that the weight and detailed cargo information is obtained by the doorway reader and sent on to the MCU 810. It is not until after a doorway reader 262 tells the MCU 810 that a particular ULD is onboard, that the MCU acknowledges information from any of the long-range readers 264 about that ULD. In this manner, MCU 810 ignores or otherwise rejects any information gathered by long-range readers on a given deck about ULDs that are either outside the aircraft or on other decks of that same aircraft. And when coupled with the cargo loading manifest information about the pre-planned load configuration sent to the MCU 810 prior to the commencement of any loading, this feature can immediately prevent an incorrect ULD from being loaded, thereby eliminating the need to unload an entire compartment to remove a single ULD and correct the situation later.
To confirm the weight information that may have been pre-programmed on each ULD tag 260, or to provide weight and balance information when an aircraft is operating in an area with either no wireless tags on the ULDs, or no support for writing to the wireless tags as the individual ULDs are loaded with cargo, load cells 284 (
In one embodiment, the “omni area” (i.e., areas that allows cargo to be moved in a variety of directions) immediately inside the doorway 258 can be equipped with a ball mat 282 equipped with load cells 284 to weigh the ULDs, as they are brought through the doorway area, as seen in
To provide balance information in system 1000, the MCU 810 will track the position of each ULD 252 by the unique tag number as in the system 800, but the weight information will be maintained by the MCU 810 internally, since the information would not be available on the tag 260. However, the weight and balance information, CG information, etc., can still be computed as described earlier.
In a preferred embodiment, prior to loading the ULDs, a memory associated with the MCU 810 is loaded with cargo loading manifest information. This cargo loading manifest information includes, among other things, the tag number and gross weight of each ULD, the gross weight having been previously determined when the ULD was loaded with cargo items at the cargo terminal or other location. Furthermore, as discussed above, as a ULD enters through doorway 258, the doorway reader 262 detects at least the tag number and this is passed on to the MCU 810, as well. And as that ULD is brought onboard, the load cells 284 provide a newly determined weight of the ULD and this, too is passed on to the MCU 810. Thus, the MCU 810 can use the detected tag number to reference the ULD's previously determined weight in the cargo loading manifest information, and compare the previously determined weight with the newly determined weight provided by the load cells 284. If the two match, there is no problem. If, however, the two do not match, then the MCU 810 outputs a signal to signify that there is a discrepancy.
Thus, systems 800 and 1000 both allow a check for concurrence with the weight measurements and wireless tag programming performed at the cargo terminal. This redundancy, together with the immediate feedback provided to the Load Master at the user interfaces 266, 804 gives the system an important enhancement to safety to determine if anyone has removed any cargo from a ULD (e.g., theft), or added any cargo to the ULD (e.g., unauthorized or illicit cargo).
It is further understood that other software processes, such as the process that triggers an alarm if a tip condition is imminent, or the process that controls the cargo loading system, may also be executing simultaneously on the MCU 810. It is further understood that the various software processes may share data with one another through dynamic data exchange (DDE), object linking and embedding (OLE) or other protocols known to those skilled in the art.
At decision point 902, it is determined whether the cargo loading manifest information (i.e., the “pre-planned load configuration”) has been uploaded into the MCU 810 and stored in memory. This information can be received by the MCU via a wired or wireless network, or by any other method.
If the information has not been uploaded, then in step 904 it is uploaded to the MCU from stored data.
At step 906, a scan is performed of each aircraft compartment using all of the tag readers. The scan looks for new ULDs, i.e., ULDs that have either not previously been “registered” by a doorway reader or have reached their final location within the aircraft.
At decision point 908 it is determined whether a new ULD has been acquired by a doorway reader 262.
If the answer at step 908 is ‘no’, then at decision point 910, it is determined whether a new ULD has been acquired by a non-doorway reader 264.
If the answer at decision point 910 is ‘no’, no new ULDs have been acquired and so flow returns to box 906 to continue scanning.
If the answer at decision point 910 is ‘yes’, then at step 912 it is determined whether the newly acquired ULD has been scanned by the doorway reader 262 corresponding to the compartment where the non-doorway reader is located.
If the answer at step 912 is ‘no’, then the information acquired at step 910 is rejected because the ULD is still outside the aircraft or in a different compartment. The flow then returns to box 906 to continue scanning.
If the answer at step 912 is ‘yes’, then at decision point 916, it is determined whether the detected ULD belongs to the aircraft and the particular compartment.
If the answer at step 916 is ‘no’, then at step 918 the information is sent to the user interface 266 indicating that the container should be removed. At this point, either MCU 810 by itself, or the operator at user interface 266 may suspend the loading system until corrective action is taken. Flow then returns to step 906 to continue scanning.
If the answer back at step 908 is ‘yes’ (that the new ULD was indeed acquired by a doorway reader), then control flows to step 909 where the information on the tag 260 is obtained and stored in the database at the MCU 810. Flow then moves to decision point 916.
If the answer at step 916 is ‘yes’, then at step 920 an algorithm (e.g., a triangulation algorithm) is executed to determine the location of the ULD on the aircraft. At step 922, this location is displayed to the operator at user interface 266.
At step 924, other aircraft-specific calculations are made, such as determining the weight and balance of the aircraft, based on the weight and location of the new ULD.
At decision point 926, it is determined whether the new ULD has reached its intended location on the aircraft. If not, then at step 928, information regarding the intended location of the new ULD is displayed on user interface 266, and flow returns to box 906 to continue scanning.
If the answer at decision point 926 is that the new ULD has indeed reached its final destination, then at step 930, information indicating that the ULD is in the intended and correct location is displayed to the user, and flow goes to step 932.
At step 932, a check is made to see whether all the ULDs have been brought onboard and placed in their final positions in accordance with the cargo loading manifest (thereby indicating that the loading procedure has been completed). If not, flow returns to box 906 to continue scanning.
If, on the other hand, at step 932, it is determined that all the ULDs are in their final positions, then at step 934 a message is sent to the user interface 266, thereby notifying the operator that all ULDs have been loaded correctly. Upon completion of the loading, a similar message or other signal indicating successful completion may be sent via the communications interface, either under operator control, or automatically, to the cargo terminal.
As disclosed, embodiments of the present invention use wireless tags and readers to implement a real time cargo locating system on an aircraft. The system may be used to track and confirm cargo information after loading onto an aircraft, including but not limited to, current cargo location, intended cargo location, contents, weight, intended transport aircraft, and cargo transit source/destination information. Because the weight and location of the cargo that is loaded on board the aircraft is known with a relatively high degree of accuracy, the system can also be used as part of an aircraft Weight and Balance system. The system is also able to confirm that all loaded cargo has been loaded in the correct location on the aircraft. In addition, embodiments of the invention will be able to query any information about cargo that has been loaded through a display system, and embodiments are capable of interfacing with airport/cargo terminal real time locating systems via a wireless network or other network methods.
The various components of the system and invention described above can either be installed at the time the aircraft is built, or may be added to an existing aircraft. In the latter case, the aircraft in question can be retrofitted with the appropriate readers 262, 264 and their associated antennas, user interface(s) 266, cabling for communication, the MCU 810, along with any needed software for the MCU and/or the user interfaces 266. The ball mat 282 and load cells 284 and DCU 1002 may also be installed later on.
It is understood, however, that the hardware capabilities provided by the MCU 810 may already exist in one or more onboard computers which only need to be loaded with the software needed implement the present invention, and connected to the readers. The user interfaces 266 and the readers 262, 264 themselves may be off-the shelf equipment, as is the cabling.
In view of the foregoing, it is envisioned that the present invention may be marketed just as software on a computer readable medium, such as a CD or DVD, with appropriate instructions, it being left to the system integrator to obtain various commercial off the shelf (COTS) equipment and perform the installation. Alternatively, the invention may be provided as a complete kit with not only the software, but also the necessary hardware, including an MCU 810, one or more user interfaces 266, tag readers (the number of each type depending on the aircraft to be retrofitted), cabling, and even the ball mats 282, load cells 284, and DCU 1002. It should be evident that various combinations of these may also be provided, depending on a customer's needs.
From all the foregoing, it can be seen that a system in accordance with the present invention may be configured to perform a number of tasks or functions. Included among these are the ability to locate, track and confirm cargo loaded onto an aircraft. The system is also able to calculate a weight and center of gravity for the aircraft, thereby providing an alternative to relying on load cells placed on the wheel assemblies and/or landing gear to help gauge the weight of the aircraft and also to predict whether a tip condition in imminent.
Several embodiments of the present invention are specifically illustrated and/or described herein. However, it will be appreciated that modifications and variations of the present invention are covered by the above teachings and within the purview of the appended claims without departing from the spirit and intended scope of the invention.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3639897 *||11 Jun 1969||1 Feb 1972||Babaco Research Inc||Vehicle holdup and theft alarm|
|US3656100 *||8 May 1970||11 Apr 1972||Itad Alarm Systems Inc||Anti-hijacking vehicular alarm system|
|US3665449 *||11 Jul 1969||23 May 1972||Minnesota Mining & Mfg||Method and apparatus for detecting at a distance the status and identity of objects|
|US3688256 *||28 Apr 1971||29 Aug 1972||Threshold Eng Inc||Vehicle intrusion alarm system|
|US3697941 *||1 Jul 1971||10 Oct 1972||Devenco Inc||Vehicle location system and method|
|US3735335 *||20 Dec 1971||22 May 1973||Rca Corp||Electronic fence vehicle locater transmitter and system using same|
|US3757290 *||12 Mar 1971||4 Sep 1973||Sperry Rand Corp||Automatic vehicle monitoring system|
|US3772669 *||14 Jul 1972||13 Nov 1973||Westinghouse Electric Corp||Magnetic pulse generator|
|US3848243 *||9 Feb 1973||12 Nov 1974||H Schirmer||Inductive reactance proximity alarm system for bulky movable objects|
|US3961323 *||18 Dec 1972||1 Jun 1976||American Multi-Lert Corporation||Cargo monitor apparatus and method|
|US4095872 *||13 Jan 1977||20 Jun 1978||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army||Security sealing system using fiber optics|
|US4209787 *||31 Aug 1978||24 Jun 1980||Gould Inc.||Method for monitoring the location of monitored objects|
|US4262284 *||26 Jun 1978||14 Apr 1981||Stieff Lorin R||Self-monitoring seal|
|US4529982 *||3 Jun 1982||16 Jul 1985||Flintab Ab||Vehicle locating system|
|US4536754 *||13 May 1983||20 Aug 1985||Sentrol, Inc.||Magnetically retained connecting cable incorporating magnetically operated switch|
|US4627248 *||23 Sep 1985||9 Dec 1986||Sentry Lock Co., Inc.||Trailer door lock system|
|US4683461 *||17 Sep 1985||28 Jul 1987||Allied Corporation||Inductive magnetic field generator|
|US4688244 *||10 Nov 1986||18 Aug 1987||Marwan Hannon||Integrated cargo security system|
|US4750197 *||2 Jul 1987||7 Jun 1988||Denekamp Mark L||Integrated cargo security system|
|US4768816 *||14 Apr 1983||6 Sep 1988||Miner Enterprises Inc.||Means for sealing or locking a cam action door fastener|
|US4811578 *||18 Jan 1985||14 Mar 1989||John F. Masoncup||Padlock with tamper-actuated audible and/or inaudible alarm|
|US4811977 *||18 Apr 1988||14 Mar 1989||E. J. Brooks Company||Labeled security seal|
|US4816803 *||26 Feb 1988||28 Mar 1989||Brown Kennith W||Tamper alarm for semi trailer|
|US4833295 *||17 May 1988||23 May 1989||Ford Motor Company||Welding of parts separated by a gap using a laser welding beam|
|US4853692 *||7 Dec 1987||1 Aug 1989||Wolk Barry M||Infant security system|
|US4877276 *||27 May 1987||31 Oct 1989||The Eastern Company||Door control mechanism|
|US4920334 *||24 Apr 1989||24 Apr 1990||Devolpi Dean R||Security system for bicycles, ski racks and coat racks|
|US4946210 *||20 Jun 1988||7 Aug 1990||Stoffel Seals Corporation||Tamper resistant shackle seal|
|US4990890 *||28 Feb 1989||5 Feb 1991||Newby Lionel L||Vehicle security system|
|US4996909 *||27 Mar 1989||5 Mar 1991||Vache John P||Housing for remote environmental monitor system|
|US5005883 *||24 May 1990||9 Apr 1991||E. J. Brooks Company||Tamper indicator for a locking seal|
|US5025243 *||5 Oct 1989||18 Jun 1991||Nippon Carbon Co., Ltd.||Infrared detective element|
|US5050794 *||12 Dec 1989||24 Sep 1991||Rock-Tenn Company||Tamper-resistant leakproof container|
|US5056837 *||24 Jul 1990||15 Oct 1991||Stoffel Seals Corporation||Tamper resistant shackle seal with assembled locking components|
|US5097253 *||9 Oct 1990||17 Mar 1992||Battelle Memorial Institute||Electronic security device|
|US5120097 *||18 Oct 1990||9 Jun 1992||The Rel Corporation||Security seal|
|US5125700 *||30 Jul 1990||30 Jun 1992||Fattori Lazzaro A||Security seal|
|US5127687 *||17 Oct 1990||7 Jul 1992||E. J. Brooks Co.||Tamper indicator for a locking seal|
|US5171048 *||8 Mar 1991||15 Dec 1992||The Eastern Company||Vehicle door lock assembly|
|US5189396 *||6 Jun 1991||23 Feb 1993||Anatoli Stobbe||Electronic seal|
|US5247564 *||24 Oct 1990||21 Sep 1993||Gte Mobile Communications Service Corp.||Adaptive vehicle alarm detection and reporting system|
|US5284036 *||2 Dec 1992||8 Feb 1994||Rosenbaum Nathan B||Tamper-resistant security lock for cargo container doors|
|US5347274 *||16 Sep 1992||13 Sep 1994||At/Comm Incorporated||Hazardous waste transport management system|
|US5422627 *||14 Feb 1994||6 Jun 1995||N.V. Kema||Sealing system for an object and seal therefor|
|US5443190 *||14 Sep 1993||22 Aug 1995||Jac Products, Inc.||Truck bed support rails|
|US5490079 *||19 Aug 1994||6 Feb 1996||Texas Instruments Incorporated||System for automated toll collection assisted by GPS technology|
|US5538283 *||7 Jun 1995||23 Jul 1996||Joalto Design, Inc.||Automobile armrest apparatus for presenting restaint system|
|US5572191 *||17 Mar 1994||5 Nov 1996||Esselte Meto International Gmbh||Article security element|
|US5594738 *||23 Jun 1995||14 Jan 1997||Motorola, Inc.||Time slot allocation method|
|US5627517 *||1 Nov 1995||6 May 1997||Xerox Corporation||Decentralized tracking and routing system wherein packages are associated with active tags|
|US5631642 *||14 Mar 1994||20 May 1997||Austec Electronic Systems Limited||Mobile object tracking systems|
|US5656996 *||13 Mar 1996||12 Aug 1997||Global Associates, Ltd.||Electronic security bonding device|
|US5686902 *||23 Apr 1996||11 Nov 1997||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Communication system for communicating with tags|
|US5774876 *||26 Jun 1996||30 Jun 1998||Par Government Systems Corporation||Managing assets with active electronic tags|
|US5793290 *||29 Feb 1996||11 Aug 1998||Rf Technologies, Inc.||Area security system|
|US5804802 *||14 Feb 1996||8 Sep 1998||United Parcel Service Of America, Inc.||Two-way data communication manager|
|US5804810 *||26 Jun 1996||8 Sep 1998||Par Government Systems Corporation||Communicating with electronic tags|
|US5892441 *||26 Jun 1996||6 Apr 1999||Par Government Systems Corporation||Sensing with active electronic tags|
|US5959568 *||26 Jun 1996||28 Sep 1999||Par Goverment Systems Corporation||Measuring distance|
|US5977913 *||5 Feb 1998||2 Nov 1999||Dominion Wireless||Method and apparatus for tracking and locating personnel|
|US6002344||21 Nov 1997||14 Dec 1999||Bandy; William R.||System and method for electronic inventory|
|US6034603 *||24 Jan 1997||7 Mar 2000||Axcess, Inc.||Radio tag system and method with improved tag interference avoidance|
|US6067476 *||30 Oct 1997||23 May 2000||Gilbarco Inc.||Apparatus and method to detect tampering with fuel dispenser totalizer|
|US6069563 *||4 Mar 1997||30 May 2000||Kadner; Steven P.||Seal system|
|US6094164 *||13 Apr 1998||25 Jul 2000||Trimble Navigation Limited||Integrated radio direction finding and GPS receiver tracking system|
|US6097301 *||4 Apr 1996||1 Aug 2000||Micron Communications, Inc.||RF identification system with restricted range|
|US6140956 *||25 Jun 1997||31 Oct 2000||Cellutrac, Inc.||Vehicle tracking and security system incorporating simultaneous voice and data communication|
|US6243005 *||3 Aug 1999||5 Jun 2001||Hi-F-Tek Ltd.||Self-locking seal|
|US6265975 *||25 Feb 2000||24 Jul 2001||Harry I. Zimmerman||Proximity system for baggage|
|US6275769||1 Nov 1999||14 Aug 2001||Rodney Stephen Willis||Weight and balance calculator for aircraft|
|US6281793 *||30 Aug 1999||28 Aug 2001||Hi-G-Tek Ltd.||Electronic monitoring apparatus|
|US6281797 *||4 Apr 2000||28 Aug 2001||Marconi Data Systems Inc.||Method and apparatus for detecting a container proximate to a transportation vessel hold|
|US6294953 *||26 Feb 1999||25 Sep 2001||Axcess, Inc.||High sensitivity demodulator for a radio tag and method|
|US6298306 *||28 Jul 1999||2 Oct 2001||Motorola, Inc.||Vehicle locating system utilizing global positioning|
|US6339745 *||12 Oct 1999||15 Jan 2002||Integrated Systems Research Corporation||System and method for fleet tracking|
|US6342836 *||31 May 2001||29 Jan 2002||Harry I. Zimmerman||Proximity and sensing system for baggage|
|US6367737 *||6 Dec 1999||9 Apr 2002||James R. Lohse||Amphibious aircraft|
|US6490895 *||16 Jun 2000||10 Dec 2002||The Eastern Company||Versatile paddle handle operating mechanism for latches and locks|
|US6520472||22 Jan 1999||18 Feb 2003||Rite-Hite Holding Corporation||Container restraint for a parked swap body|
|US6539050 *||25 Jun 1998||25 Mar 2003||Hughes Electronics Corporation||Method for transmitting wideband signals via a communication system adapted for narrow-band signal transmission|
|US6695555||20 Dec 2000||24 Feb 2004||Airbus Deutschland Gmbh||Pneumatically actuated freight loading system for an aircraft|
|US6724308 *||9 Aug 2001||20 Apr 2004||Escort Memory Systems||RFID tracking method and system|
|US6765484 *||24 Apr 2001||20 Jul 2004||Savi Technology, Inc.||Method and apparatus for supplying commands to a tag|
|US6807458 *||21 Nov 2002||19 Oct 2004||Steve Quackenbush||Baggage transportation security system|
|US6825766||21 Dec 2001||30 Nov 2004||Genei Industries, Inc.||Industrial data capture system including a choke point portal and tracking software for radio frequency identification of cargo|
|US6842121||1 Aug 2000||11 Jan 2005||Micron Technology, Inc.||RF identification system for determining whether object has reached destination|
|US6867702||19 Mar 2003||15 Mar 2005||Telair International Gmbh||Freight-loading system for an aircraft|
|US6879806 *||1 Jun 2001||12 Apr 2005||Zensys A/S||System and a method for building routing tables and for routing signals in an automation system|
|US6883710||7 Apr 2003||26 Apr 2005||Amerasia International Technology, Inc.||Article tracking system and method|
|US6940392 *||24 Apr 2001||6 Sep 2005||Savi Technology, Inc.||Method and apparatus for varying signals transmitted by a tag|
|US6973385 *||7 Oct 2003||6 Dec 2005||Ulrich Henry B||Security intelligence tracking anti-terrorist system|
|US6995654 *||15 Dec 2000||7 Feb 2006||X-Cyte, Inc.||Apparatus and method for locating a tagged item|
|US7003374 *||20 Jul 2004||21 Feb 2006||Goodrich Corporation||Aircraft cargo loading logistics system using machine readable identifiers|
|US20010052850 *||31 May 2001||20 Dec 2001||Zimmerman Harry I.||Proximity and sensing system for baggage|
|US20020089434||5 Dec 2001||11 Jul 2002||Ohanes Ghazarian||Electronic vehicle product and personnel monitoring|
|US20020119031 *||21 Dec 2001||29 Aug 2002||Karlen James P.||Stowage and retrieval system|
|US20020134835||26 Mar 2001||26 Sep 2002||Kennedy James M.||Remote indicia reading system|
|US20020153996 *||24 Apr 2001||24 Oct 2002||Savi Technology, Inc.||Method and apparatus for varying signals transmitted by a tag|
|US20030117268||21 Dec 2001||26 Jun 2003||Hewitt Matthew C.||Industrial data capture system including a choke point portal and tracking software for radio frequency identification of cargo|
|US20030189094||9 Apr 2002||9 Oct 2003||Trabitz Eugene L.||Baggage tracking system|
|US20040069850||31 Jan 2002||15 Apr 2004||De Wilde Eric D.||Truck cargo management rfid tags and interrogators|
|US20040078122 *||9 Jun 2003||22 Apr 2004||Pippenger Phillip Mckinney||Anti-hijacking security system and apparatus for aircraft|
|US20040098272||14 Nov 2002||20 May 2004||James Kapsis||Computer based system for tracking articles|
|US20040169587 *||10 Dec 2003||2 Sep 2004||Washington Richard G.||Systems and methods for location of objects|
|US20040222888||7 May 2003||11 Nov 2004||Young Phillip E.||Characterizing a cargo container|
|US20050140150 *||18 Aug 2004||30 Jun 2005||Matthew Hall||Load floor latch|
|US20050232747 *||13 May 2005||20 Oct 2005||Brackmann Rogers F||Smart pallet-box cargo container|
|US20050246057 *||20 Jul 2004||3 Nov 2005||Goodrich Corporation||Aircraft cargo loading logistics system using machine readable identifiers|
|US20050246132 *||28 Apr 2004||3 Nov 2005||Goodrich Corporation||Aircraft cargo loading logistics system|
|US20050248136 *||24 Feb 2005||10 Nov 2005||Breed David S||Method for airbag inflation control|
|US20060026017 *||28 Oct 2004||2 Feb 2006||Walker Richard C||National / international management and security system for responsible global resourcing through technical management to brige cultural and economic desparity|
|EP0190707A2||3 Feb 1986||13 Aug 1986||Elastogran Polyurethane Gmbh||Method and device for high-pressure mixing multiple component plastics, especially polyurethane|
|1||"Accident Prevention Program, Weight and Balance," A.P.O., Weight and Balance, http://www.cyberair.com;tower/faa/app/p8740-5.html (date printed: Dec. 11, 2003).|
|2||"Boeing and Airbus complete Joint Industry Forums," Source: The STAT Trade Times, Nov. 20, 2001, http://www.tiaca.org/articles/2001/11/20/A5B14A6413424556B5D41B9752F4A5.asp , (date printed: Jun. 9, 2005).|
|3||"Overhaul & Maintenance," RFID: Knowledge Enabled Logistics, by Lee Ann Tegtmeier, Jun. 7, 2004; www.aviationnow.com/avnow/news/channel<SUB>-</SUB>om<SUB>-</SUB>story.jsp?is=news/om605RFID.xml (date printed: Jul. 12, 2004).|
|4||www.wherenet.com/products<SUB>-</SUB>main.html: WhereLAN, Location Sensor Locating Access Point; WhereTags; WheretagIII; WherePort; Visibility Server Software, 2003 WhereNet Corp., http://www.wherenet.com/products<SUB>-</SUB>main.html (date printed: Apr. 13, 2004).|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US7501944 *||8 Jan 2003||10 Mar 2009||Envirotainer Ab||Activation of tracking device|
|US7954766 *||19 Jun 2006||7 Jun 2011||Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation||System and method for improved rotary-wing aircraft performance with interior/external loads|
|US8050551||30 Sep 2008||1 Nov 2011||Rosemount Aerospace, Inc.||Covert camera with a fixed lens|
|US8249444||23 Sep 2011||21 Aug 2012||Rosemount Aerospace Inc.||Covert camera with a fixed lens|
|US8515656||18 Aug 2009||20 Aug 2013||Goodrich Corporation||Integrated aircraft cargo loading and monitoring system|
|US8527240||26 Mar 2008||3 Sep 2013||United Technologies Corporation||Wireless sensor assembly for an aircraft component|
|US8768608 *||9 Jan 2008||1 Jul 2014||Airbus Deutschland Gmbh||Method, device and computer program product for monitoring loading and unloading procedures in the cargo holds of an aircraft|
|US8925867||4 Feb 2010||6 Jan 2015||Airbus Operations Gmbh||Modular adaptive electrical freight loading system|
|US9785806||7 Jan 2016||10 Oct 2017||Imsar Llc||Low-frequency receiving for radio frequency identification|
|US20060152357 *||8 Jan 2003||13 Jul 2006||Dominic Hyde||Activation of tracking device|
|US20070001809 *||14 Apr 2006||4 Jan 2007||Intermec Ip Corp.||Method and system for reading objects having radio frequency identification (RFID) tags inside enclosures|
|US20070096874 *||27 Oct 2005||3 May 2007||James Mravca||Distributed RFID interrogation system and method of operating the same|
|US20080167760 *||9 Jan 2008||10 Jul 2008||Sven Scherenberger||Method, device and computer program product for monitoring loading and unloading procedures in the cargo holds of an aircraft|
|US20090132697 *||4 Apr 2008||21 May 2009||Paul Raymond Scheid||Integration of passenger and flight operation communications|
|US20090243854 *||26 Mar 2008||1 Oct 2009||Paul Raymond Scheid||Wireless aircraft maintenance log|
|US20090248366 *||26 Mar 2008||1 Oct 2009||Paul Raymond Scheid||Wireless sensor assembly for an aircraft component|
|US20100080548 *||30 Sep 2008||1 Apr 2010||Peterson Ericka A||Covert camera with a fixed lens|
|US20100100225 *||18 Aug 2009||22 Apr 2010||Goodrich Corporation||Integrated aircraft cargo loading and monitoring system|
|US20100102934 *||15 Oct 2009||29 Apr 2010||Thales||Onboard System for Identifying and Monitoring the Content of an Aircraft|
|US20100213313 *||2 Nov 2007||26 Aug 2010||Goodrich Corporation||Integrated aircraft cargo loading and cargo video monitoring system|
|US20100222993 *||19 Jun 2006||2 Sep 2010||Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation||System and method for improved rotary-wing aircraft performance with interior/external loads|
|US20110084162 *||9 Oct 2009||14 Apr 2011||Honeywell International Inc.||Autonomous Payload Parsing Management System and Structure for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle|
|US20110140866 *||22 Feb 2011||16 Jun 2011||Paul Raymond Scheid||Wireless aircraft maintenance log|
|CN102538917A *||28 Dec 2011||4 Jul 2012||太原航空仪表有限公司||Method and device for weighing air plane cargo space and calculating gravity center of air plane cargo space|
|CN102538917B||28 Dec 2011||13 Aug 2014||太原航空仪表有限公司||Method and device for weighing air plane cargo space and calculating gravity center of air plane cargo space|
|CN102564543A *||28 Dec 2011||11 Jul 2012||太原航空仪表有限公司||Weighing module for goods in cargo hold of airplane|
|DE102009037982A1||19 Aug 2009||20 May 2010||Goodrich Corp.||Integriertes Frachtlade- und Überwachungssystem für Flugzeuge|
|EP3130538A1||14 Aug 2015||15 Feb 2017||Airbus Operations GmbH||System and method for determining weight of freight units and baggage|
|U.S. Classification||244/118.1, 244/137.1|
|International Classification||B64C9/00, B64C1/20, G06K7/10, G06K19/067, G06Q10/00, G06F17/40, B64D9/00|
|Cooperative Classification||B64D9/00, G06Q10/08|
|European Classification||G06Q10/08, B64D9/00|
|10 Jun 2004||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: GOODRICH CORPORATION, NORTH CAROLINA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:OLIN, CRAIG J.;REED, BLAKE A.;LARSON, WALLY;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:015462/0166;SIGNING DATES FROM 20040526 TO 20040601
|22 Jul 2008||CC||Certificate of correction|
|4 Oct 2010||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|3 Sep 2014||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8