US 581205 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
' 6 Sheets-8heet l. P.-G. HEWITT. GENTRIFUGAL MACHINE.
No. 581,205. Patented Apr. 20, 1897.
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P. C. HEWITT.
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No. 581,205. Patented Apr. 20, 1897.
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- No. 581,205. Patented Apr. 20, 1897.
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P. O.- HEWITT. IGENTRIFUGAL MACHINE.
Patented Apr. 20, 1897.
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P. G. HEWITT.
- No. 581,205. Patented Apr. 20, 1597.
PETER COOPER HEWVITT, OF NEW' YORK, Y.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent N o. 581 ,205, dated April 20, 1897. Application filed January 16, 1895. Serial No. 535,128. (No model.)
To aZZ whom, it may concern.-
Be it known that 1, PETER COOPER HEWITT, of New York city, in the county and State of New York, have invented a new and Improved Centrifugal Machine, of which the following is a full, clear, and exact description.
My invention relates to the class of machines used for separating liquids of different densities or separating liquids from viseid or solid substances by centrifugal force; and the object of my invention is to construct a machine in which the greatest effects of centrifugal force are realized at a minimum expenditure of power and by my construction to relatively increase the strength of the metal with reference to the centrifugal force, so that the machine may be applied to the practically complete separation of substances which have hitherto been separated with only partial success.
My invention consists in a bowl or containing vessel of small diameter and comparatively great length having a distrilmting device for delivering the liquid to be acted on to the liquid in the bowl after it has attained, approximately, the speed of the bowl.
It, also consists in weirs of peculiar mechanical construction for discharging the light and heavy liquids automatically, in hoods provided with concave surfaces for receiving the liquids, and in devices to facilitate cleaning the centrifugal of'a third material.
It also consists in bearings for the upper and lower ends of the bowl, adapted for a high velocity, and in a lubricating device for the lower bearing and an adjusting device for the upper bearing.
It also further consists in improved details of construction, all as hereinafter more fully described.
Reference is to be had to the accompanying drawings, forming a part of this specification, in which similar letters of reference indicate corresponding parts in all the views.
Figure 1 is a side elevation, partly in section, of my improved centrifugal machine, the section being taken on line 1 1 in Fig. 2. Fig. 2 is a horizontal section taken on line 2 2 in Fig. 1. Fig. 3 is a vertical transverse section'of the lower end of the bowl and its bearing, the section being taken on line 1 1 in Fig. 2. Fig. at is a vertical transverse section of the upper end of the bowl and its hearing, Fig. 5 is a detail side elevation of the "journal-box of the lower bearing. Fig. 6 isa plan View of the spider which sustains the feed-pipe, showing the feed-pipe in section, the section being taken on line 6 6 in Fig. 4. Fig. 7 is a horizontal section taken on line 7 7 in Fig. 4. Fig. 8 is a plan View of the lower weir. Fig. 9 is a plan View of the perforated plate below the weir. Fig. 10 is a plan View of the receiving-plate. Fig. 11 is a vertical transverse section of a modified form of lower bearing; and Fig. 12 is an enlarged vertical section of the upper end of a bowl, showinga modification of the top journal and bearing.
The frame A is formed of the base a, the columns Z1, secured to the base, and the spider a, secured to the top of the columns I). In the base a is formed a socket d for receiving the step 13 of the lower journal e of the bowl 0, and in the spider c is contained the journalbox D of the upper journal f.
The bowl C is formed of aoylinder of steel or other material capable of resisting the centrifugal force due to the velocity of the bowl, and in the bottom of the bowl is inserted a heavy steel head E,Which may be formed integrally with the driving-pulleyF. The bottom of the pulley F is bored to receive the shaft G, on which is formed the journal 6.
' The step B is provided with a chamber g to receive the j ournal-box H and has a circular recess below the shaft G for receiving the disks h t h, on which. rests the lower end of the shaft G. In the bottom of the step B is formed a circular oil-cavity j, formed by a screw-plug 7c. The journal-box H is formed of hardened steel and is held in place in the chamber g of the step B by an annular elastic cushion Z, fitting the concave edge of the journal-box and the concave wall of the chamber g. This construction allows the shaft G to rotate on the center of rotation of the bowl without straining or jarring other parts. To
the top of the step 13 is fitted a cap I, having a flange m,wl1ich projects down into the cavity in the step and is concaved on its inner surface to adapt it to bear upon the cushion Z. The cap I is furnished with a slightly-elevated portion at the top, in which is formed a central opening 0, leaving a fillet p, which is all rounded upon its inner and under surfaces. The disks h i h", placed in the cavity below the shaft G, are provided on their upper and lower faces with transverse grooves 1'. The disks 71 and 7b, are of hardened steel, and the disk 1' is made of bronze. In the step 13 is formed a passage 8, comnninicatin between the cavityj and the center of the recess containing the disks. In the step and in the steel journal-box II are formed several passages 1, which establish communication between the oil-cavityj and the space in the step above the journal-box II. In the step I is formed a passage 1/, which communicates with an oil-receiver located at about the same level as the top of the journatbox II.
On the shaft G is formed a collar r, which is smaller in diameter than the opening of the cap I and is beveled on its edge, the larger side of the collar being placed downward opposite the lower surface of the fillet 1), so that oil carried up on the shaft G will be thrown by centrifugal force into the space below the fillet p, whence it will descend by gravity through the passages? and be carried upwardly by the centrifugal action due to the rotation of the disks it ill. or of the shaft G,which carries the oil over and over through the journal.
The steel head E, on which is formed the pulleyF, is provided with an annular depression 10, leaving a collar 0', which projects downwardly over a flange Z), formed 011 the inclined bottom 0 of the receiver J, the said flange Z) fitting the annular depression 21: loosely without touching the head E. The collar (1 serves to receive and throw off the drip.
In the upper portion of the head E is formed a cavity E with concave walls and a step d, on which rests the receiving-plate K, which is secured in place by means of screws. The said plate K is imperforate at the center, but is provided with a series of holes 6', which adjoin the concave wall of the lower portion of the cavity E. On the top of the head E is placed a disk Ii, having alarge central aperture f and a circular row of small apertures g, which adjoin the concave wall of the upper portion of the cavity E. On the top of the disk L is placed a ring M, which supports the annular weir X, over which the liquid enters the top of the bowl. The weir N, the ring M, and the perforated disk L are secured to the top of the head E by screws passing through them into the head. In the center of the head, extending from the bottom of the chamber E, there is a passage 1', which communicates with radial passages j, extending from the center to the periphery of the head, the said radial passages j being below the level of the top of the receiver J. The re ceiver J rests upon brackets secured to the columns I) and is provided with a dischargepipe 7a. The passage 1" serves as a discharge when the bowl is not rotating with sufficientvelocity to keep the liquid to the side of the bowl.
In the upper end of the bowl 0 is secured a steel head 0, which is bored axially in different diameters to receive the upper journal f and to form the weirs t n, the stop an, and
the intervening spaces 0 p q. The inner portion of the head 0 is made smaller in diameter than the bowl C, leaving an annular space 2', and radial passages s are formed in the head 0, between the said annular space 2" and the space )1 below the weir a. The passages s are inclined downwardly from the space 1') to the annular space 7'. The head 0 is provided with two llanges 1/ It for the discharge of liquids of different densities emerging from the different passages of the head 0. The radial passages u t" extend obliquely upward and open at the upper surface of the flange t. Passages w extend from the space (1 to the top of the head 0.
To the columns Z) is secured a receiver P, having an inclined bottom and annular chan nels a? a. Concave hoods Q R are attached to the receiver I, the hood Q exteiuling upwardly and inwardly to a point about opposite the center of the space between the flanges it, the hood R extending upwardly and inwardly to a point above the flange a. ])ischarge-pipes U are connected with the channels cfia at the lowest point, and in the channels a a are inserted hcatingpipes c c for receiving steam or hot water for keeping the material discharged from the bowl in a heated condition. In addition to the principal use of the casting containing the channels a a. it serves as a guard in case of undue gyration or breakage.
The central boss (1" of the spider c is bored to receive the sleeve S, to which is fitted a nut T, which rests upon the boss of the spider and is provided with a flange c at the bottom. A rabbeted ring/" which embraces the nut T and its flange c, is held in place by clips secured to the spider c and to the ring 1. By means of this construction the nut T is made revoluble upon the screw, while it is prevented from changing its position by the collar 1". The nut T is provided with radial handles 71?, by means of which it is turned. The lower end of the threaded sleeve S is bored eonically to receive the conical upper journal f of the bowl 0. The sleeve 5 is grooved longitudinally to receivea spline carried by the boss of the spider c, which prevents the sleeve from turning while allowing it to move freely in a longitudinal direction.
For convenience of renewal the journalfis screwed into the head 0 and otherwise fastened by screws passing through a flange which rests upon the top of the head. The journal fis made tubular to receive the tube U, which feeds the machine. The tube U is supported by a spider 2' which rests on the top of the sleeve Sand is provided with a setscrew for clamping the tube.
In starting the machine with warm liquid in the bowl 0 the bowl and parts connected therewith expand, rendering it necessary to raise the sleeve S to prevent the journal 1 from binding,and,furthermore, in starting the machine it is found desirable to allow the machine to adjust itself on its own center of gyration as it approaches its maximum speed. For these reasons the sleeve S is drawn upwardly by turning the nut T, and the bowl 0 after it becomes quiescent is allowed to continue to revolve while its upper journal is At first the journal may tend to roll on the inner surface of the sleeve or strike it tangentially, but in any case the sleeve forms a true bearing for the journal, as it is exactly concentric with the axis of rotation. In stopping the machine, as its velocity diminishes the sleeve S is slowly brought down toward the bearing and is finally brought into contact with the journal f. The bowl 0 beingin motion the liquid to be separated is allowed to fiow in through the feed-tube U, and striking upon the center of the plate K it is made to revolve by frictional contact with the plate. The centrifugal action carries the liquid to the outer edge of the plate and against the concave wall of the upper portion of the cavity E, where the pressure due to the centrifugal force causes it to rise and flow outward and upward through the perforations g and then through the annular space underneath the annular weir L and into the body of the bowl 0. When the bowl is filled even with the edge of the weir Z, the lighter material contained by the bowl flows over from the inner surface of the hollow liquid-cylinder into the space 0 and is discharged through the passages o by centrifugal force and thrown from the flange t against the concave surface j of the hood Q, which causes it to take a downward direction. The heavier portion of the liquid contained by the bowl 0 fiows out through the annular passage 0" through the passages 8 into the space p and overflows into the space (1, after which it rises through the vertical passages w and is thrown off the flange uby centrifugal force and, striking the concave surface k of the hood R, is directed downwardly. The liquid during its travel from one end of the bowl to the other is separated into its constituent parts, which arrange themselves in the order of their densities, the heavier part lying against the inner surface of the bowl. The heavier material is thus delivered to the channel a and the lighter material is delivered to the channel a and being kept warm by the heat of the steam-pipes c c the liquids flow down the inclined bottom of the receiver P, the lighter liquid being discharged through the pipe 19 while the heavier liquid is discharged through the pipes 12 Before stopping the machine it may be washed by water introduced through the feedpipe U, which carries out everything contained in the upper portion of the machinery,
and as the speed of the bowl is reduced the water continues its rotary motion, washing the bowl until it drops through the perforations 9 of the plate K into the lower part of the cavity E, from which it flows through the passage t" to the radial passages j, which deliver it to the receiver J, whence it flows through the pipe completely washing and emptying the bowl.
Should the lower bearing of the shaft G fail, the flange b will be received in the annular depression to in the head E, and the bowl 0 will thus be prevented from leaving its place in the machine.
By making the bowl of small diameter its ability to withstand pressure is greatly increased, and centrifugal action is also increased with reference to the increased velocity, and by lengthening the bowl the capacity of the machine is increased proportionately.
In the modification shown in Fig. 11 the shaft G is connected with the bowl C by means of a socket G attached to the upper end of the shaft G, a boss 0 formed on the lower head of the bowl 0 and fitting loosely the socket G and an elastic ring Z interposed between the boss 0 and socket G and held in place by the flanged collar I, the socket, the boss,and the flange being concaved to form a space for the ring Z The step is of the same construction as that shown in Fig. 3, with the exception of the omission of the yielding journal-box H. The top journal, as shown in Fig. 12,has a cylindrical bearing which runs in a journal-box 1-1 like that described in connection with Fig. 3, with the exception of the omission of the steel and bronze disks and the lubricating device, thus providing a yielding bearing for the upper end of the bowl.
By the term weir, asused herein, I mean an obstruction over the edge of which liquid flows. The weir Nis for the liquid entering the separating-bowl, the weir Z is for the discharge of the lighter product of the separation, and the weir n is for the discharge of the heavier product of the separation.
Having thus described my invention, I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent 1. A centrifugalmachine, comprisinga separating-bowl having a driving-pulley and journals, a journal-box at the lower end of the bowl, and an axially-m ovable journal-box at the upper end of the bowl and mechanism for moving the upper journal-box to bring it out of contact with its journal 'so that the bowl will run free at the upper end while being supported at its lower end, substantially as specified.
2. A centrifugal machine, com prisingaseparating-bowl having a driving-pulley and journals, a laterally-yielding journal-box at the lower end of the bowl, and an axially-movable screw-threaded j ournal-box at the upper end of the bowl a rotatable nut held against longitudinal movement and engaging said j ournal-box, whereby the latter may be moved out of contact with its journal so that the bowl will run free at the upper end while remaining supported at its lower end, substantially as specified.
3. In a centrifugal machine, a separatingbowl provided with a head at its lower end having formed therein a discharge-opening arranged in line with the axis of rotation and communicating with the interior of the bowl, and radial openings connected with the axial opening and communicating with the space surrounding the bowl, for the passage of liquid, and a plate having an imperforate center supported above the axial opening of the bowl, substantially as specified.
it. In a centrifugal machine, the combination with the shaft of the separating-bowl, of a step having a laterally-yielding journal-box, said step also having an oil-chamber below the lower end of the shaft and an oil-spaee at the .top of the journal-bearing, and having passages leading from the oil-chamber at the bottom of the journal-box to the oil-space above the j ournal-bcaring, also a passage leading from the oil-chamber to the bearing at the end of the shaft, and an annular journal-box cap having an internal diameter larger than that of the shaft and provided with a fillet for catching the oil thrown by centrifugal force by the flange 011 the shaft and returning it to the box-cap, substantially as specified.
5. In a centrifugal machine, the combination with a bowl, having a yielding journalbox at the bottom and a conical journal at the top, of a vertically-adjustable conieallybored upper journal-box adapted to engage said conical top, substantially as specified.
6. In a centrifugal machine, the combination with the separating-bowl, of hoods forming receptacles into which is delivered the liquid escaping from the said bowl, the hoods terminating in discharge-channels, and heating-pipes placed in the discharge-channels at the bottom of the hoods, for keeping the entire space within the hoods warm, substantially as specified.
7. The combination of the separating-bowl havingaweir in its upper portion and a continuously-open discharge-opening in its lower head, said opening being arranged in line with the axis of rotation, the central opening being of smaller diameter than the weir of the bowl, and a receiver for receiving the liquid discharged from the lower head, substantially as specified.
8. The combination,with a separating-bowl, provided at the bottom with a discharge-aperture arranged in line with the axis of rotation, the bowl being also furnished with a plate having an imperforate center and perforated edges, of an annular plate supported above said centrally-i111perforate plate, and provided with one or more passages at its edges, substantially as specified.
9. The combination,with a separating-bowl having at the bottom a diseharge-aperture in line with the axis of rotation, said bowl being furnished with a plate having an imperforate center and perforated edges, of an annular plate supported over the plate having an imperforate center, and provided with one or more passages at its edges, substantially as specified.
10. In a centrifugal liqu id-separator, a bowl having an outlet at its upper end and an approximately central outlet at its bottom, a starting-plate located in the bowl above the said central outlet so as to cover the same, and a feed-pipe arranged to discharge on the starting-plate, the latter being apertured at or near its periphery to allow the liquid to escape therethrough to the said central outlet when the rotation of the bowl is arrested, substantially as described.
11. A centrifugal machine, comprising a cylinder having a length greater than its diameter, a head at the bottom of the cylinder furnished with a central discharge, said head having a pulley and journal rigidly connected therewith, a laterally-yieldin g j ournal-box for receiving the journal of the lower head, and a step for supporting the bowl, a perforated plate having an imperforate center placed over the central discharge of the lower head, an annular plate placed over the plate with an imperforate center and furnished with one or more passages at its edge, a head secured to the top of the cylinder and wcirs of larger diameter than the bottom discharge, a tubular top bearing projecting from the upper head, a movable journal-box for receiving the tubular top bearing, and a feed-pipe for delivering the liquid to the bowl through the tubular journal, substantially as specified.
12. In a centrifugal machine, the combination with a bowl provided with a conical top journal, and a pulley or other motion-receiving device secured to the bowl directly, of a vertically-adjustable, conically-bored journal-box adapted to engage said top journal, substantially as specified.
PETER COOPER HEWIT".
Gno. M. HOPKINS, O. SEDGwIoK.