|Publication number||US3672352 A|
|Publication date||27 Jun 1972|
|Filing date||9 Apr 1969|
|Priority date||9 Apr 1969|
|Publication number||US 3672352 A, US 3672352A, US-A-3672352, US3672352 A, US3672352A|
|Inventors||George D Summers|
|Original Assignee||George D Summers|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (214), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent Summers [4 1 June 27, 1972 [s41 IMPLANTABLE BIO-DATA 3,195,540 7/1965 Waller ..12s/4191 NIT RIN METH D AND, 3,212,496 /1965 Preston ..l28/2.06 R APPARATUS OTHER PUBLICATIONS  Inventor: George D. Summers, 8 Park Overlook Court, Bethesda, Md. 20034 Filed:
Van der Weide et al., Medical & Biological Engineering," vol. 6, No.4, Aug. 1968, pp. 447 & 448
 April 9, 1969 Primary Examiner-William E. Kamm ] Appl. No.: 814,760 Attorney-Michael W. York  US. Cl ..l28/2 R, l28/2.l A ABSTRACT [5 l] lnt.Cl. A61! 5/00 t f  Field ofSearch ..12s/2, 2.05 0,2.05 E, 2.05 F, 3 em 9"""" a ?'T 7 gun or device lmplanted w1th1n a body Includes .1 sensor or 128/205 N, 2.05 O, 2.05 R, 2.05 S, 2.05 T, 2.06 E, 2 06 F 2 066 2 06 R 2 I A 2 l R 42] 422 4'9 transducer responsive to that eondmon or u change 1n 1! um- 6 5 f nected to a signal means capable of producing an audible, 4 l I visual or heatsignal of variable intensity indication to control the energlzation of the slgnal means from a source of energy. The sensor and signal means and the source of energy may be  References cued implanted within thebody with the signal means sufficiently n- STATES PATENTS near the surface of the skin so that its energized state may be detected from outside the body. 2,712,975 7/1955 Golseth ..128/2.06 R 3,l40,7l0 7/1964 Glassner et al. ..l28/2.05 S 18 Claims, 11 Drawing Figures I SOUQtE 4 ENEIZGY A vmaus wsu n. 0R HEAT SIGNAL fem IMPLANTABLE BIO-DATA MONITORING METHOD AND APPARATUS BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to the art of obtaining information about internal conditions in bodies. More specifically, it relates to devices which can be implanted within bodies and provide ex-tracorporeal indications of internal conditions.
Obtaining information from inside the body without opening the skin has been a problem since the beginning of the art of healing. Historically, medical practitioners have been able to learnmuch from such factors as patient's skin color, his temperatures, respiration and heart beat. They could look into his mouth, ears and eyes. The normal or abnormal fluids or solids given up by the body could be examined. In addition, the body could be probed with the hands and fingers.
Beyond thismany clinical and laboratory instruments have aided greatly in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases and conditions. Such instruments range from the simple stethescope, thermometer, etc. to complex machines for inducing or measuring ionizing radiation, ultrasonic pulses and electrical currents. Most of these instruments and methods have been extracorporeal, and in many cases are not always capable of obtaining all the data required. In some cases, data is obtained by a surgical exploration and direct visual examination. In other cases, instruments are temporarily induced into the body to obtain samples of blood or other matter or to make related measurements.
When the need for the data is on a one time only basis or is only very rarely required, the above type of data acquisition technique may be adequate. However, when the need for obtaining data is permanent or very frequent, many of the procedures would become intolerable to the patient and/or to the doctor.
Work has been done to perfect means whereby wires and tubes can be maintained permanently through the skin. However, the use of this so-called percutaneous hardwire telemetry to sensors within the body carries too high a risk of infection for routine use. In addition, there is often the problem, particularly encountered in connection with laboratory animals, of having the wires protruding through the skin torn out.
Some work has been done in implanting various kinds of sensing devices within the body and deriving information therefrom. However, these have been relatively complicated systems for use in laboratories and very frequently are intended to be implanting only for short periods of time. Many conditions and diseases which are to be monitored andcared for adequately or to warn a patient or a physician exist where a more or less permanent implant of a telemetering or communications system is desirable. The criteria for such' systems would include that there be a suitable power source, that it be of small size and weight, that it be reliable and capable of surviving within the body. Other criteria would require such means to have a long life, provide a reliable signal and that no damage be done to the body. Further, it would be desirable that such implants be economical to assure the widest possible use and that it not interfere or that it interfere as little as possible with a patient's conduct of his normal life.
Reference is made herein to the device described in my copending application Ser. No. 74l,l'l7, filed June 27, 1968, now issued as US. Pat. 3,527,220 in which a signaling device is shown in conjunction with an implantable pump for the administration of drugs and the like and actuated by means external to the body.
Therefore, in accordance with this invention, there is provided a signal system capable of implantation within a body which is small insize, reliable in operation and capable of long survival.
It is an object of this invention to provide a method for indicating a condition inside a body.
It is another object of this invention to provide a signaling system implantable within a body which may be arranged to provide readily ascertainable indications of a condition or change in condition within a body.
It is a further object of this invention to provide a signaling system implantable within a body which may be arranged to provide indications ofa series of changes in an internal conditron.
It is still a further object of this invention to provide a signaling system implantable within a body which is capable of providing information about the condition of a body function or organ or of another device implanted within the body.
These and other objects of the invention are achieved by providing a signaling system including a sensor responsive to an internal condition and connected to a signaling means located near the surface of the body so that an indication of a change in condition produced by the signaling means will be transmitted through the skin and sensed externally and which also includes a source of energy which may be either im planted or external to the body.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The invention itself is set forth in the claims forming a part of this application. For purposes of illustration various embodiments of the invention are described and shown in the drawings in which:
FIG. I is a block diagram illustration of an implantable signaling system in accordance with the invention;
FIG. 2 is a block diagram illustration of another embodiment ofa signaling system in accordance with the invention;
FIG. 3 is a block diagram illustration of still another embodiment of a signaling system in accordance with the invention;
FIG. 4 is a block diagram illustration of one form of the embodiment of the invention illustrated in FIG. 1;
FIG. 5 is a block diagram illustration of another embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustration of another form of the embodiment of the invention illustrated in FIG. 1;
FIG. 7 is a block diagram illustration of another embodiment of the invention illustrated in FIG. 1;
FIG. 8 is a block diagram illustration of another embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 9-is a schematic illustration of the electrical circuit of an embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 10 is a schematic illustration of the electrical circuit of another embodiment of the invention; and FIG. 11 is a schematic illustration of the electrical circuit of still another embodiment of the invention.
An illustration of the general organization of a signaling system in accordance with the invention is shown in FIG. I. In this figure, a signaling means 2 capable'of producing an audible, visual or heat signal is implanted in the body, preferably at a pointjust below the surface ofthe skin 4. The signal means is selected to produce a signal of variable intensity. By variable intensity" is meant a condition of the signal means which ranges from the condition of being completely off, i.e., not energized to the condition where it is on or producing signals in response to the output of the sensor. Intended to be encompassed within this meaning is the situation where the signal is going from off to on repeatedly within a time of interval so that infonnation about a condition may be ascertained from the number of times it is on or the interval between on times. Thus, ifa visual signal is used, the frequency at which light appears and is detected may be a source of information about a condition.
The precise location is not critical but the factors to be considered in locating this device include the ability of the skin and other body tissue to transmit the signal. Therefore, in order to achieve optimum output from the signaling means, it is desirable to locate it as close to the surface of the skin as possible.
If the signal means selected develops a visual or light indication, then such light emitting means may take the form ofa socalled light-emitting diode which is currently on the market. Such diodes are made of gallium arsenide phosphide. These diodes require a forward bias of about l /to 2 volts. They are less than a tenth of an inch in diameter and have an overall length of about an eighth of an inch. They are rated at 50 feet- Lamberts brightness at a forward bias of 1.65 volts and a forward current rating of 50 milliamperes. It has been found that the region of peak transparency of the skin is in the 750 to l,250 millimicron range. This region is just above the visible spectrum in the infrared range so that the particular diode sug gested represents a good compromise ifits wavelength is in the 600 to 700 millimicron range; that is, near the range of peak skin transparency. When this device is used, rich red color appears on the surface of the skin which the eye may easily de- IGCL It may be desirable to use light-emitting diodes producing more light in the visible range, as, for instance, when a series of such light signals are implanted to provide information about different levels of changing or changeable conditions inside the body. Devices for this purpose that are presently available are diodes capable of emitting green and amber lights.
If an audible signal producing device is desired, a vibrating crystal or ceramic element energized in the audio range by an exiting coil may be used and, when energized, will produce a signal which may be detected by microphones external to the body.
A suitable heat signal may be provided by the use of an appropriate electric heating element, the output of which may be measured by a temperature sensitive device external to the body. When such an element is used, it should be operated at temperatures which will avoid discomfort to the host body and damage to surrounding tissue.
A signaling system in addition to the signal 2 would also include a source of energy 6 and sensing means such as a sensor or transducer 8. The source of energy 6 may be itself implanted within the body or may include elements both implanted and external to the body. The implantable sensor 8 may take any number of forms depending upon the condition it is decided to monitor. Generally speaking, the thing being monitored may be a body organ or fluid or may be some other device implanted within the body such as an artificial organ, a pump or a valve. Conse-quently, the sensor may be a device responsive to changes in pressure, temperature, volume, flow rate, conductivity, motion, position or the condition of an electrical circuit. When connected to the signaling means 2 in the series arrangement shown in FIG. I, this sensor will control the flow of electrical energy to the signaling means causing it to be energized or de-energized or energized at various levels.
By way of specific illustration the sensor 8 can take the form of a pressure sensitive device placed in the outlet of an implanted pump operating within the body. The sensor could be responsive to a decrease or an increase in the pressure of the fluid being pumped to provide a signal which may be ascertained externally so that corrective action can be taken if necessary. Alternatively, the sensor could be a switch mounted on the rotor of the pump and operated to a closed position if the pump should cease operation to provide the desired indication. In still another application, the sensor could be a pressure sensitive device measuring blood pressure and providing an indication if the pressure either falls or rises above predetermined values.
When implanted, all portions of the system which are implanted should include two forms of protection, one designated by the number 50 to protect the system itself from the harmful action of any body fluids and to protect the body by electrically insulating the system from the body and the other to insure that there is no harmful interaction with the materials from which the elements are formed with body tissue or fluids. A suitable outer coating for the elements of the system and any connecting wires may be made of a silicon rubber, such as Silastic, manufactured by the Dow Corning Company. Where this material is applied over the signaling means 2 it should be in a transparent form in the event a visual signal is used in order not to impair the effectiveness of the signaling means. A suitable inner coating may be Dacron" or Teflon" or an epoxy which have been found to be compatible with body tissues and fluids. If such materials are to be in contact with the blood or the blood stream, they should be nonthrombogenic.
Appropriate anchoring devices such as wingsor tabs of a fibrous or net like material can be molded on the elements of the system. It has been found that body tissue will grow through these anchoring devices to secure an implanted device in position.
It is contemplated that the signal produced may be used in either an analogue or digital fashion. That is, it can be used to derive representations ofa series of changes in a condition or to derive a signal which merely indicates that the condition is in one state or the other. FIG. 2 illustrates an embodiment of an analogue device wherein three signal means, 2, 2' and 2 are connected in parallel between the source 6 and the sensor 8. Thus, if the sensor 8 is a temperature sensitive resistor, such as a thermistor, the signal means 2, 2' and 2" can be connected in the circuit to be energized at various levels of output from the sensor 8 and thus provide a more proportional or analogue signal representative of the change in condition. If the signal means selected produce their signals at the same level of applied voltage, they may be arranged to respond to various changes in the condition being sensed by connecting weighted resistors intermediate the means and the sensor. The resistor having a value of R may be connected between signal means 2" and the sensor 8 while resistors having values of R/2 and R/4 may be connected between the sensor and the signal means 2 and 2 respectively. Alternatively, signal means producing signals at different voltage levels may be used.
FIG. 3 is an illustration of another embodiment of the analogue form of the invention. In this embodiment a single signal means 2 is used in cooperation with a signal evaluator 10 external to the body. Thus, if the signal is an audible signal. the signal evaluator may be constituted by a suitable audio pickup, such as a microphone, the output of which is supplied to an appropriate indicating meter having a calibrated scale. Likewise, if the signal means 2 produces a visual or heat signal, the signal evaluator 10 may constitute a light sensitive element, the output of which is supplied to an appropriate calibrated instrument.
In FIG. 4 the embodiment illustrated is one in which the source of energy is not implanted completely within the body, but rather comprises a first element, namely, an energy transmitter 12 external to the body and a second element, an ener gy receiver 14, implanted within the body and interconnected to the signal means 2,. When this arrangement is used, it would not be necessary to implant a source ofenergy such as a battery within the body and have the problem of opening up the body to implant new batteries or finding ways to recharge the battery within the body.
FIG. 6 illustrates one form the embodiment of FIG. 4 may take. In this form, the energy transmitter 12 includes a signal generator I6 producing electrical signals of radio frequency which are supplied to a transmitting coil 18 and received by the receiver 14 inside the body.
FIG. 7 illustrates another form of this embodiment of the invention. In this figure, the energy transmitter constitutes a light source 20 external to the body while the energy receiver comprises a plurality of photovoltaic cells 22. When the light source 20 is energized, a voltage produced by the photovoltaic cells 22 will be available to energize the signal means 2. Using this arrangement and the form illustrated in FIGS. 5 and 6, the implanted signaling system can be interrogated as desired by bringing the external energy source in proximity to the implanted energy receiver to provide energy for the excitation of the signal means if the sensor 8 has responded to the presence or absence of the condition, as determined by its design.
If it is desired to implant a battery energy source within the body but at the same time it is desired to conserve the battery so as to reduce the frequency of its replacement or recharging, the embodiment shown in FIG. 5 has a particular utility. In this form, a battery 24 and normally opened switch 26 are implanted and connected in the series circuit with the implantable sensor 8 and signal means 2. The switch may include a magnetic element responsive to the presence of a magnetic field produced by a switch actuator 28 external to the body. Using this form of the invention when it is desired to sample the condition, the switch actuator 28 may be brought in proximity to the switch 26 actuating or closing the circuit and permitting the output of the sensor 8 to control the energization of the signal means 2.
Under certain circumstances it may be desirable to obtain a relatively high degree of precision in monitoring the condition selected. For this purpose the embodiment of FIG. 8 may be used. Included in this embodiment is a switch 29 capable of closing a circuit to the sensor 8, or to a calibrated standard 30, or shorting both of these elements and closing a circuit directly to the signal means 2. As with the embodiment of FIG. 5, the implantable switch 29 may be actuated by a means external to the body so as to selectively connect the sensor 8 to the calibrated standard in circuit with the signal means 2 and by this means provide a reference to which the output of the signal means in response to the condition of the sensor may be compared. By operating the switch 29 to short the sensor 8 and standard 30 the signal means will be connected directly to the source of energy. In this way a greater resolution of measurement may be obtained. Thus, when directly connected to the source, the signal means will be at its highest level of intensity, and when connected to the sensor, it will be at an intermediate value, and when connected to the standard, it will be at a lower value. Additionally, this arrangement affords the opportunity to test the elements in the circuit. If the signal means does not function at all, the switch may be operated to its various positions to sequentially connect the signal means to the sensor, standard or directly to the source as an aid in identifying a particular component which may have failed.
It should be understood that various combinations of the apparatus illustrated in these figures may be made. Thus, a source of energy may be internal or external. If internal, it may include a battery, fuel cell or a radioactive isotope fueled source from which electrical energy may be derived by heat or direct conversion. If external, it may comprise an inductive or radiative generator, means coupling energy into the circuit or a source of light. Any one of these may be combined with any type of sensor and with any type of signal means using audible, visual or heat producing indications or be of the binary or analogue variety. Alternatively, a mechanical source of energy such asa wound spring can be provided to actuate an audible signal device. 9
FIGS. 9, l0 and 11 illustrate schematically various embodiments of the invention. In FIG. 9, the source of energy includes a rotatable magnet 32 selected to have a strength such that when it is rotated in proximity to the coil 34 a current will flow in the coil. The sensor in this form comprises a normally open switch 36 and the signal means is a light-emitting diode 38. The switch 36 may be a pressure closable switch or may be closed in response to the rotation or lack of it of a pump rotor or the like and when closed will complete a circuit through the diode 37 to the diode 38. The diode, .when sufficient forward voltage is applied thereacross, will emit light in the visible or near infrared ranges.
In FIG. 10, the energy source is a transformer 40 wherein the primary 42 is external to the body while the secondary is implanted within the body. The circuit also may include a protective diode 46 to prevent application of reverse voltage of the light-emitting diode 38.
The circuit of FIG. 11 is a series circuit including a battery 47 and a normally opened switch 48. The switch 48 may be of the magnetically operated type and closed by bringing a magnet to the vicinity ofthe implanted circuit.
ing a source of energy for said light emitting means so that said light emitting means will be energized in response to the change in the condition in the body sensed by said sensing means; sensing the condition within the body with said sensing means; emitting light from said light emitting means through the skin of the body when said light emitting means is energized in response to a change in the condition in the body sensed by said sensing means; and detecting from outside the body the light emitted from said light emitting means.
2. The method. of claim 1 including the step of implanting switch means in the body and interconnecting said switch means between said sensing means and said light emitting means and the further step of actuating said switch means to permit energization of said light emitting means.
3. The method of claim 1 including the step of implanting said source of energy for said light emitting means in the body.
4. The method of claim 1 wherein said step of providing a source of energy comprises implanting an energy receiver in the body and the steps of bringing an energy transmitter external to the body in proximity to said energy receiver and ac tivating said energy transmitter to cause energy to be transmitted to said energy receiver.
5. The method of claim 1 including the step of implanting switch means in the body and interconnecting said switch means between said sensing means and said light emitting means and the further steps of providing external actuating means and actuating said switch means by said actuating means when it is desired to sample the condition within the body.
6. The method of claim 1 including the step ofimplanting at least one additional light emitting means in the body and interconnecting said additional light emitting means to said sensing means to provide at least one additional indication of changes in the condition within the body.
7. A bio-data transmission system having a portion thereof implantable within a body comprising means adapted to be implanted within the body for emitting light signals in response to different sensed conditions within the body, sensing means adapted to be implanted within the body and connected in circuit with said light emitting signal means to control the level and interval of excitation of said light emitting signal means, a source of energy having at least one portion thereof adapted to be implanted within the body and operatively connected to said signal means and said sensor, and protective coating means coating said sensing means, said signal means and the portion of said source of energy that is adapted to be implanted within the body to protect said signal means, said sensing means and said portion of said energy source from harmful action of the body.
8. The bio-data transmission system of claim 7 wherein said light emitting signal means comprises means for providing an indication ofa discrete change in a condition within the body.
9. The bio-data transmission system of claim 7 including a light signal receiver locatable outside the body responsive to the light emitted outside the body from said light emitting signal means.
10. The bio-data transmission system of claim 7 wherein said light emitting signal means comprises means for providing an indication of change throughout a range of a condition in the body.
11. The bio-data transmission system of claim 10 wherein said light emitting signal means comprises a plurality of signal devices connected in parallel with the output of said sensor.
12. The bio-data transmission system of claim 11 wherein said light emitting signal means comprises light emitting elements capable of emitting light of different colors.
13. The bio-data transmission system of claim 7 wherein said source of energy comprises an energy receiver adapted to be implanted within the body and an energy transmitter capable of being located exterior to the body to transmit energy to said energy receiver.
14. The bio-data transmission system of claim 13 wherein said energy receiver comprises a receiving coil and said energy transmitter comprises a radio frequency signal generator and a transmitting coil operatively connected to said radio frequency signal generator.
15. The bio-data transmission system of claim 13 wherein said energy transmitter comprises a light source and said energy receiver comprises at least one photovoltaic cell adapted to be implanted within the body.
16. The bio-data transmission system of claim 7 wherein said source of energy comprises a battery adapted to be implanted within the body.
17. The bio-data transmission system of claim 16 including a switch adapted to be implanted within the body connected in electrical circuit with said light emitting signal means, said sensing means and said battery.
18. The bio-data transmission system of claim 7 including a calibrated standard adapted to be implanted within the body and a switch adapted to be implanted within the body and to alternatively connecting either said calibrated standard or said sensing means to said light emitting meansv
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3945387 *||9 Sep 1974||23 Mar 1976||General Electric Company||Implantable cardiac pacer with characteristic controllable circuit and control device therefor|
|US4041954 *||7 May 1975||16 Aug 1977||Kabushiki Kaisha Daini Seikosha||System for detecting information in an artificial cardiac pacemaker|
|US4173229 *||15 Sep 1977||6 Nov 1979||Leon Halfon||Therapeutic adornments utilizing solar cells|
|US4198987 *||9 Jan 1978||22 Apr 1980||Cain Clarence P||Measuring system including elements implantable beneath the skin|
|US4361153 *||27 May 1980||30 Nov 1982||Cordis Corporation||Implant telemetry system|
|US4567882 *||10 Dec 1984||4 Feb 1986||Vanderbilt University||Method for locating the illuminated tip of an endotracheal tube|
|US4570638 *||14 Oct 1983||18 Feb 1986||Somanetics Corporation||Method and apparatus for spectral transmissibility examination and analysis|
|US4619653 *||4 Nov 1982||28 Oct 1986||The Johns Hopkins University||Apparatus for detecting at least one predetermined condition and providing an informational signal in response thereto in a medication infusion system|
|US4651740 *||19 Feb 1985||24 Mar 1987||Cordis Corporation||Implant and control apparatus and method employing at least one tuning fork|
|US4677982 *||29 Mar 1984||7 Jul 1987||New York University||Infrared transcutaneous communicator and method of using same|
|US4793825 *||11 Sep 1985||27 Dec 1988||The Secretary Of State For Defence In Her Britannic Majesty's Government Of The United Kingdom And Northern Ireland||Active silicon implant devices|
|US4817623||18 Feb 1986||4 Apr 1989||Somanetics Corporation||Method and apparatus for interpreting optical response data|
|US4823808 *||6 Jul 1987||25 Apr 1989||Clegg Charles T||Method for control of obesity, overweight and eating disorders|
|US4918745 *||9 Oct 1987||17 Apr 1990||Storz Instrument Company||Multi-channel cochlear implant system|
|US5140989 *||10 Feb 1986||25 Aug 1992||Somanetics Corporation||Examination instrument for optical-response diagnostic apparatus|
|US5279309 *||27 Jul 1992||18 Jan 1994||International Business Machines Corporation||Signaling device and method for monitoring positions in a surgical operation|
|US5320098 *||20 Oct 1992||14 Jun 1994||Sun Microsystems, Inc.||Optical transdermal link|
|US5349961 *||8 Jul 1993||27 Sep 1994||Somanetics Corporation||Method and apparatus for in vivo optical spectroscopic examination|
|US5402801 *||28 Apr 1994||4 Apr 1995||International Business Machines Corporation||System and method for augmentation of surgery|
|US5445166 *||6 Apr 1994||29 Aug 1995||International Business Machines Corporation||System for advising a surgeon|
|US5630431 *||11 Oct 1994||20 May 1997||International Business Machines Corporation||System and method for augmentation of surgery|
|US5695500 *||6 Apr 1994||9 Dec 1997||International Business Machines Corporation||System for manipulating movement of a surgical instrument with computer controlled brake|
|US5950629 *||28 Apr 1994||14 Sep 1999||International Business Machines Corporation||System for assisting a surgeon during surgery|
|US6070102 *||29 Apr 1998||30 May 2000||Medtronic, Inc.||Audible sound confirmation of programming an implantable medical device|
|US6082367 *||29 Apr 1998||4 Jul 2000||Medtronic, Inc.||Audible sound communication from an implantable medical device|
|US6092531 *||3 Jun 1999||25 Jul 2000||Light Sciences Limited Partnership||Movable magnet transmitter for inducing electrical current in an implanted coil|
|US6216038||25 Jan 2000||10 Apr 2001||Medtronic, Inc.||Broadcast audible sound communication of programming change in an implantable medical device|
|US6216702 *||29 May 1997||17 Apr 2001||Camtech As||Internal registration of gas/air—and other fluid flows in a human body and use of pressure sensors for such registration|
|US6231526||8 Dec 1999||15 May 2001||International Business Machines Corporation||System and method for augmentation of surgery|
|US6247474 *||31 Mar 1999||19 Jun 2001||Medtronic, Inc.||Audible sound communication from an implantable medical device|
|US6267769||9 Apr 1998||31 Jul 2001||Regents Of The Universitiy Of Minnesota||Trajectory guide method and apparatus for use in magnetic resonance and computerized tomographic scanners|
|US6281611||11 Apr 2000||28 Aug 2001||Light Sciences Corporation||Use of moving element to produce heat|
|US6331744 *||11 Apr 2000||18 Dec 2001||Light Sciences Corporation||Contactless energy transfer apparatus|
|US6450172||25 Jan 2000||17 Sep 2002||Medtronic, Inc.||Broadcast audible sound communication from an implantable medical device|
|US6547782||11 Aug 2000||15 Apr 2003||International Business Machines, Corp.||System and method for augmentation of surgery|
|US6561987 *||10 Apr 2001||13 May 2003||Opher Pail||Apparatus and methods for indicating respiratory phases to improve speech/breathing synchronization|
|US6622049 *||6 Feb 2002||16 Sep 2003||Remon Medical Technologies Ltd.||Miniature implantable illuminator for photodynamic therapy|
|US6628989||16 Oct 2000||30 Sep 2003||Remon Medical Technologies, Ltd.||Acoustic switch and apparatus and methods for using acoustic switches within a body|
|US6636769||18 Dec 2000||21 Oct 2003||Biosense, Inc.||Telemetric medical system and method|
|US6638231||18 Dec 2000||28 Oct 2003||Biosense, Inc.||Implantable telemetric medical sensor and method|
|US6652464||18 Dec 2000||25 Nov 2003||Biosense, Inc.||Intracardiac pressure monitoring method|
|US6657351||20 Jul 2001||2 Dec 2003||Light Sciences Corporation||Contactless energy transfer apparatus|
|US6658300||18 Dec 2000||2 Dec 2003||Biosense, Inc.||Telemetric reader/charger device for medical sensor|
|US6752812||21 Nov 2000||22 Jun 2004||Regent Of The University Of Minnesota||Remote actuation of trajectory guide|
|US6764446||21 Jun 2001||20 Jul 2004||Remon Medical Technologies Ltd||Implantable pressure sensors and methods for making and using them|
|US6783499||8 Jun 2001||31 Aug 2004||Biosense, Inc.||Anchoring mechanism for implantable telemetric medical sensor|
|US6961619 *||8 Jul 2002||1 Nov 2005||Casey Don E||Subcutaneously implantable power supply|
|US7024248||19 Nov 2001||4 Apr 2006||Remon Medical Technologies Ltd||Systems and methods for communicating with implantable devices|
|US7060075||18 Jul 2002||13 Jun 2006||Biosense, Inc.||Distal targeting of locking screws in intramedullary nails|
|US7191011 *||7 Apr 2003||13 Mar 2007||Advanced Neuromodulation Systems, Inc.||Access port indicator for implantable medical device|
|US7195594||13 May 2003||27 Mar 2007||Pacesetter, Inc.||Method for minimally invasive calibration of implanted pressure transducers|
|US7198603||14 Apr 2003||3 Apr 2007||Remon Medical Technologies, Inc.||Apparatus and methods using acoustic telemetry for intrabody communications|
|US7229415||4 Mar 2004||12 Jun 2007||Biosense, Inc.||Method for anchoring a medical device between tissue|
|US7235084||20 Jun 2002||26 Jun 2007||Image-Guided Neurologics, Inc.||Deep organ access device and method|
|US7366561||4 Apr 2001||29 Apr 2008||Medtronic, Inc.||Robotic trajectory guide|
|US7435229 *||24 Feb 2005||14 Oct 2008||Wolf Erich W||System for transcutaneous monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) using near infrared (NIR) telemetry|
|US7483743||29 Oct 2003||27 Jan 2009||Cedars-Sinai Medical Center||System for detecting, diagnosing, and treating cardiovascular disease|
|US7485105 *||25 Feb 2005||3 Feb 2009||Wolf Erich W||Transcutaneous telemetry of cerebrospinal fluid shunt programmable-valve pressure using near-infrared (NIR) light|
|US7497863||4 Dec 2004||3 Mar 2009||Medtronic, Inc.||Instrument guiding stage apparatus and method for using same|
|US7509169||27 Apr 2005||24 Mar 2009||Pacesetter, Inc.||Implantable pressure transducer system optimized for anchoring and positioning|
|US7559935||20 Feb 2003||14 Jul 2009||Medtronic, Inc.||Target depth locators for trajectory guide for introducing an instrument|
|US7590449||29 Nov 2005||15 Sep 2009||Cedars-Sinai Medical Center||Patient signaling method for treating cardiovascular disease|
|US7616991||30 Dec 2004||10 Nov 2009||Pacesetter, Inc.||Method for digital cardiac rhythm management|
|US7617001||6 Mar 2006||10 Nov 2009||Remon Medical Technologies, Ltd||Systems and method for communicating with implantable devices|
|US7621879||20 Aug 2007||24 Nov 2009||Pacesetter, Inc.||System for calibrating implanted sensors|
|US7621905||12 Aug 2003||24 Nov 2009||Remon Medical Technologies Ltd.||Devices for intrabody delivery of molecules and systems and methods utilizing same|
|US7636596||20 Dec 2002||22 Dec 2009||Medtronic, Inc.||Organ access device and method|
|US7637915||20 Jul 2004||29 Dec 2009||Medtronic, Inc.||Trajectory guide with instrument immobilizer|
|US7641619||19 Sep 2007||5 Jan 2010||Remon Medical Technologies, Ltd.||Barometric pressure correction based on remote sources of information|
|US7650185||25 Apr 2006||19 Jan 2010||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||System and method for walking an implantable medical device from a sleep state|
|US7658879||4 May 2006||9 Feb 2010||Medtronic, Inc.||Trajectory guide with angled or patterned guide lumens or height adjustment|
|US7682313||6 Sep 2006||23 Mar 2010||Vital Sensors Holding Company, Inc.||Implantable pressure monitor|
|US7686768||15 Jun 2006||30 Mar 2010||Vital Sensors Holding Company, Inc.||Implantable pressure monitor|
|US7699854||4 May 2006||20 Apr 2010||Medtronic, Inc.||Trajectory guide with angled or patterned guide lumens or height adjustment|
|US7704260||6 Dec 2004||27 Apr 2010||Medtronic, Inc.||Low profile instrument immobilizer|
|US7717854||9 May 2007||18 May 2010||Cedars-Sinai Medical Center||System for detecting, diagnosing, and treating cardiovascular disease|
|US7742815||9 Sep 2005||22 Jun 2010||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Using implanted sensors for feedback control of implanted medical devices|
|US7744606||4 Dec 2004||29 Jun 2010||Medtronic, Inc.||Multi-lumen instrument guide|
|US7756587||22 Oct 2007||13 Jul 2010||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Systems and methods for communicating with implantable devices|
|US7803163||28 Oct 2005||28 Sep 2010||Medtronic, Inc.||Multiple instrument retaining assembly and methods therefor|
|US7813808||23 Nov 2005||12 Oct 2010||Remon Medical Technologies Ltd||Implanted sensor system with optimized operational and sensing parameters|
|US7815651||25 Jun 2007||19 Oct 2010||Medtronic, Inc.||Device for immobilizing a primary instrument and method therefor|
|US7828809||26 Jun 2007||9 Nov 2010||Medtronic, Inc.||Device for immobilizing a primary instrument and method therefor|
|US7833231||25 Jun 2007||16 Nov 2010||Medtronic, Inc.||Device for immobilizing a primary instrument and method therefor|
|US7857820||26 Jun 2007||28 Dec 2010||Medtronic, Inc.||Sheath assembly for an access device and method therefor|
|US7862513||13 May 2003||4 Jan 2011||Pacesetter, Inc.||Apparatus for minimally invasive calibration of implanted pressure transducers|
|US7867242||7 Jan 2009||11 Jan 2011||Medtronic, Inc.||Instrument for guiding stage apparatus and method for using same|
|US7890186||5 Dec 2006||15 Feb 2011||Pacesetter, Inc.||Retrieval devices for anchored cardiovascular sensors|
|US7896889||20 Feb 2003||1 Mar 2011||Medtronic, Inc.||Trajectory guide with angled or patterned lumens or height adjustment|
|US7899544||31 Jan 2007||1 Mar 2011||Advanced Neuromodulation Systems, Inc.||Access port indicator for implantable medical device|
|US7908334||20 Jul 2007||15 Mar 2011||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||System and method for addressing implantable devices|
|US7930031||11 Oct 2007||19 Apr 2011||Remon Medical Technologies, Ltd.||Acoustically powered implantable stimulating device|
|US7931597||15 Mar 2010||26 Apr 2011||Vital Sensors Holding Company, Inc.||Anchored implantable pressure monitor|
|US7931598||23 Mar 2010||26 Apr 2011||Vital Sensors Holding Company, Inc.||Implantable pressure monitor|
|US7948148||13 Oct 2009||24 May 2011||Remon Medical Technologies Ltd.||Piezoelectric transducer|
|US7949394||12 May 2010||24 May 2011||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Using implanted sensors for feedback control of implanted medical devices|
|US7955268||20 Jul 2007||7 Jun 2011||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Multiple sensor deployment|
|US7981120||23 Apr 2007||19 Jul 2011||University Of South Florida||Trajectory guide with angled or patterned guide lumens or height adjustment|
|US8041431||7 Jan 2009||18 Oct 2011||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||System and method for in situ trimming of oscillators in a pair of implantable medical devices|
|US8057422 *||20 Jan 2009||15 Nov 2011||Wolf Ii Erich W||Transcutaneous telemetry of cerebrospinal fluid shunt programmable-valve pressure using near-infrared (NIR) light|
|US8068907||20 Aug 2007||29 Nov 2011||Cedars-Sinai Medical Center||Method for estimating cardiac pressure using parameters derived from impedance signals detected by an implantable medical device|
|US8078278||10 Mar 2006||13 Dec 2011||Remon Medical Technologies Ltd.||Body attachable unit in wireless communication with implantable devices|
|US8083753||16 Oct 2007||27 Dec 2011||Medtronic, Inc.||Robotic trajectory guide|
|US8116850||9 Nov 2009||14 Feb 2012||Medtronic, Inc.||Organ access device and method|
|US8126566||2 Jul 2009||28 Feb 2012||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Performance assessment and adaptation of an acoustic communication link|
|US8160702||23 Sep 2009||17 Apr 2012||Pacesetter, Inc.||Method for digital cardiac rhythm management|
|US8192445||17 Nov 2009||5 Jun 2012||Medtronic, Inc.||Trajectory guide with instrument immobilizer|
|US8271093||17 Sep 2004||18 Sep 2012||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Systems and methods for deriving relative physiologic measurements using a backend computing system|
|US8298150||13 Sep 2006||30 Oct 2012||Cedars-Sinai Medical Center||Hemodynamic waveform-based diagnosis and treatment|
|US8301262||22 Jan 2009||30 Oct 2012||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Direct inductive/acoustic converter for implantable medical device|
|US8303511||21 Apr 2005||6 Nov 2012||Pacesetter, Inc.||Implantable pressure transducer system optimized for reduced thrombosis effect|
|US8340776||25 Mar 2008||25 Dec 2012||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Biased acoustic switch for implantable medical device|
|US8360976 *||29 Jan 2013||Entrack, Inc.||Optical capsule and spectroscopic method for treating or diagnosing the intestinal tract|
|US8369960||6 Feb 2009||5 Feb 2013||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Systems and methods for controlling wireless signal transfers between ultrasound-enabled medical devices|
|US8376953||25 Apr 2011||19 Feb 2013||Vital Sensors Holding Company, Inc.||Implantable pressure monitor|
|US8382677||25 Apr 2011||26 Feb 2013||Vital Sensors Holding Company, Inc.||Anchored implantable pressure monitor|
|US8401662||13 Jan 2012||19 Mar 2013||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Performance assessment and adaptation of an acoustic communication link|
|US8480594||3 Oct 2006||9 Jul 2013||Cedars-Sinai Medical Center||System for detecting, diagnosing, and treating cardiovascular disease|
|US8517961||1 Nov 2010||27 Aug 2013||Entrack, Inc.||System for marking a location for treatment within the gastrointestinal tract|
|US8540631||28 Feb 2007||24 Sep 2013||Remon Medical Technologies, Ltd.||Apparatus and methods using acoustic telemetry for intrabody communications|
|US8577460||11 Mar 2011||5 Nov 2013||Remon Medical Technologies, Ltd||Acoustically powered implantable stimulating device|
|US8591423||10 Sep 2009||26 Nov 2013||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Systems and methods for determining cardiac output using pulmonary artery pressure measurements|
|US8593107||26 Oct 2009||26 Nov 2013||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Methods and systems for recharging an implanted device by delivering a section of a charging device adjacent the implanted device within a body|
|US8594802||28 Feb 2013||26 Nov 2013||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Performance assessment and adaptation of an acoustic communication link|
|US8632470||24 Sep 2009||21 Jan 2014||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Assessment of pulmonary vascular resistance via pulmonary artery pressure|
|US8725260||5 Feb 2009||13 May 2014||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc||Methods of monitoring hemodynamic status for rhythm discrimination within the heart|
|US8798761||21 Apr 2009||5 Aug 2014||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Systems and methods of monitoring the acoustic coupling of medical devices|
|US8845656||7 Oct 2010||30 Sep 2014||Medtronic, Inc.||Device for immobilizing a primary instrument and method therefor|
|US8852099||1 Aug 2012||7 Oct 2014||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Systems and methods for deriving relative physiologic measurements|
|US8911452||7 Oct 2010||16 Dec 2014||Medtronic, Inc.||Device for immobilizing a primary instrument and method therefor|
|US8914090 *||27 Sep 2007||16 Dec 2014||The University Of Connecticut||Implantable biosensor and methods of use thereof|
|US8915867||26 Aug 2013||23 Dec 2014||Entrack, Inc.||System for marking a location for treatment within the gastrointestinal tract|
|US8934972||15 Mar 2013||13 Jan 2015||Remon Medical Technologies, Ltd.||Acoustically powered implantable stimulating device|
|US9024582||24 Nov 2013||5 May 2015||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Methods and systems for recharging an implanted device by delivering a section of a charging device adjacent the implanted device within a body|
|US9055917||19 Aug 2005||16 Jun 2015||Cedars-Sinai Medical Center||Method for detecting, diagnosing, and treating cardiovascular disease|
|US9060696||27 Apr 2005||23 Jun 2015||Pacesetter, Inc.||Implantable pressure transducer system optimized to correct environmental factors|
|US9167990||23 Dec 2013||27 Oct 2015||Entrack, Inc.||Optical capsule and spectroscopic method for treating and diagnosing the intestinal tract|
|US20010053879 *||4 Apr 2001||20 Dec 2001||Mills Gerald W.||Robotic trajectory guide|
|US20020077673 *||19 Nov 2001||20 Jun 2002||Remon Medical Technologies, Ltd.||Systems and methods for communicating with implantable devices|
|US20020156372 *||20 Jun 2002||24 Oct 2002||Image-Guided Neurologics, Inc.||Deep organ access device and method|
|US20030004546 *||8 Jul 2002||2 Jan 2003||Casey Don E.||Subcutaneously implantable power supply|
|US20040011365 *||6 Dec 2002||22 Jan 2004||Assaf Govari||Medical sensor having power coil, sensing coil and control chip|
|US20040019285 *||13 May 2003||29 Jan 2004||Neal Eigler||Apparatus for minimally invasive calibration of implanted pressure transducers|
|US20040034355 *||18 Jul 2002||19 Feb 2004||Assaf Govari||Distal targeting of locking screws in intramedullary nails|
|US20040106874 *||13 May 2003||3 Jun 2004||Neal Eigler||Method for minimally invasive calibration of implanted pressure transducers|
|US20040147969 *||29 Oct 2003||29 Jul 2004||Brian Mann||System for detecting, diagnosing, and treating cardiovascular disease|
|US20040162469 *||22 Dec 2003||19 Aug 2004||Imran Mir A.||Optical capsule and spectroscopic method for treating or diagnosing the intestinal tract|
|US20040167542 *||20 Feb 2003||26 Aug 2004||Solar Matthew S.||Target depth locators for trajectory guide for introducing an instrument|
|US20040167543 *||20 Feb 2003||26 Aug 2004||Mazzocchi Rudy A.||Trajectory guide with angled or patterned lumens or height adjustment|
|US20040199220 *||7 Apr 2003||7 Oct 2004||Advanced Neuromodulation Systems, Inc.||Access port indicator for implantable medical device|
|US20040204744 *||14 Apr 2003||14 Oct 2004||Remon Medicaltechnologies Ltd.||Apparatus and methods using acoustic telemetry for intrabody communications|
|US20050080427 *||8 Oct 2004||14 Apr 2005||Assaf Govari||Distal targeting of locking screws in intramedullary nails|
|US20050136385 *||30 Dec 2004||23 Jun 2005||Brian Mann||Flexible lead for digital cardiac rhythm management|
|US20050187488 *||24 Feb 2005||25 Aug 2005||Wolf Erich W.||System for transcutaneous monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) using near infrared (NIR) telemetry|
|US20050187509 *||25 Feb 2005||25 Aug 2005||Wolf Erich W.||Transcutaneous telemetry of cerebrospinal fluid shunt programmable-valve pressure using near-infrared (NIR) light|
|US20050288596 *||21 Apr 2005||29 Dec 2005||Eigler Neal L||Implantable pressure transducer system optimized for reduced thrombosis effect|
|US20050288604 *||27 Apr 2005||29 Dec 2005||Eigler Neal L||Implantable pressure transducer system optimized to correct environmental factors|
|US20050288722 *||27 Apr 2005||29 Dec 2005||Eigler Neal L||Implantable pressure transducer system optimized for anchoring and positioning|
|US20060009810 *||19 Aug 2005||12 Jan 2006||Brian Mann||Method for detecting, diagnosing, and treating cardiovascular disease|
|US20060079793 *||29 Nov 2005||13 Apr 2006||Brian Mann||Patient signaling method for treating cardiovascular disease|
|US20060142819 *||6 Mar 2006||29 Jun 2006||Avi Penner||Acoustic switch and apparatus and methods for using acoustic switches|
|US20060149324 *||30 Dec 2004||6 Jul 2006||Brian Mann||Cardiac rhythm management with interchangeable components|
|US20060149330 *||30 Dec 2004||6 Jul 2006||Brian Mann||Digitally controlled cardiac rhythm management|
|US20060149331 *||30 Dec 2004||6 Jul 2006||Brian Mann||Method for digital cardiac rhythm management|
|US20060161171 *||4 Mar 2004||20 Jul 2006||Biosense, Inc.||Method for anchoring a medical device between tissue|
|US20060195119 *||4 May 2006||31 Aug 2006||Image-Guided Neurologics, Inc.||Trajectory guide with angled or patterned guide lumens or height adjustment|
|US20070032831 *||3 Oct 2006||8 Feb 2007||Eigler Neal L||System for detecting, diagnosing, and treating cardiovascular disease|
|US20070078391 *||28 Sep 2006||5 Apr 2007||Angiodynamics Inc.||Implantable medical device|
|US20070096863 *||31 Oct 2005||3 May 2007||Benito Valencia Avila||System for protecting circuitry in high-temperature environments|
|US20070106328 *||5 Dec 2006||10 May 2007||Wardle John L||Retrieval devices for anchored cardiovascular sensors|
|US20070118038 *||15 Jun 2006||24 May 2007||Vital Sensors Inc.||Implantable device for telemetric measurement of blood pressure/temperature within the heart|
|US20070118039 *||6 Sep 2006||24 May 2007||Vital Sensors Inc.||Implantable device for telemetric measurement of blood pressure/temperature within the heart|
|US20070123823 *||31 Jan 2007||31 May 2007||Kurt Cantlon||Access port indicator for implantable medical device|
|US20070142728 *||28 Feb 2007||21 Jun 2007||Avi Penner||Apparatus and methods using acoustic telemetry for intrabody communications|
|US20070162090 *||10 Mar 2006||12 Jul 2007||Abraham Penner||Body attachable unit in wireless communication with implantable devices|
|US20070170887 *||15 Dec 2006||26 Jul 2007||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Battery/capacitor charger integrated in implantable device|
|US20070232936 *||9 May 2007||4 Oct 2007||Brian Mann||System for detecting, diagnosing, and treating cardiovascular disease|
|US20070250126 *||25 Apr 2006||25 Oct 2007||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||System and method for waking an implantable medical device from a sleep state|
|US20080034836 *||20 Aug 2007||14 Feb 2008||Pacesetter, Inc.||System for calibrating implanted sensors|
|US20080108915 *||11 Oct 2007||8 May 2008||Remon Medical Technologies Ltd.||Acoustically powered implantable stimulating device|
|US20080154101 *||27 Sep 2007||26 Jun 2008||Faquir Jain||Implantable Biosensor and Methods of Use Thereof|
|US20080171941 *||11 Jan 2008||17 Jul 2008||Huelskamp Paul J||Low power methods for pressure waveform signal sampling using implantable medical devices|
|US20080243210 *||25 Mar 2008||2 Oct 2008||Eyal Doron||Biased acoustic switch for implantable medical device|
|US20090118743 *||7 Jan 2009||7 May 2009||Medtronic, Inc.||Instrument For Guiding Stage Apparatus And Method For Using Same|
|US20090177251 *||7 Jan 2009||9 Jul 2009||Paul Huelskamp||System And Method For In Situ Trimming Of Oscillators In A Pair Of Implantable Medical Devices|
|US20090312650 *||17 Dec 2009||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Implantable pressure sensor with automatic measurement and storage capabilities|
|US20090326609 *||21 Apr 2009||31 Dec 2009||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Systems and methods of monitoring the acoustic coupling of medical devices|
|US20100016918 *||23 Sep 2009||21 Jan 2010||Pacesetter, Inc.||Method for digital cardiac rhythm management|
|US20100023091 *||14 May 2009||28 Jan 2010||Stahmann Jeffrey E||Acoustic communication of implantable device status|
|US20100042177 *||18 Feb 2010||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Performance assessment and adaptation of an acoustic communication link|
|US20100106028 *||26 Oct 2009||29 Apr 2010||Avi Penner||Methods and systems for recharging implantable devices|
|US20100174201 *||15 Mar 2010||8 Jul 2010||Vital Sensors Holding Company, Inc.||Anchored implantable pressure monitor|
|USRE42378 *||20 Jul 2006||17 May 2011||Remon Medical Technologies, Ltd.||Implantable pressure sensors and methods for making and using them|
|CN101179222B||10 Nov 2006||30 Nov 2011||中国科学院理化技术研究所||基于体外驱动的人体植入式发电装置|
|DE102007030270B3 *||28 Jun 2007||16 Oct 2008||Clasbrummel, Bernhard, Dr. med.||Implantierbarer Schallgenerator und System und Verfahren zur Erfassung und Auswertung von Vorgängen und Zuständen|
|EP0052247A2 *||20 Oct 1981||26 May 1982||Torben Ejsing Dr. Jorgensen||Arrangement for the electrical stimulation of bones in the region of fracture|
|EP0178769A2 *||3 Sep 1985||23 Apr 1986||Secretary of State for Defence in Her Britannic Majesty's Gov. of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland||Semiconductor implant devices|
|EP0209804A2 *||10 Jul 1986||28 Jan 1987||Paolo Rossi||Unit with a subcutaneous pick-up for continuously monitoring physiological cardiorespiratory variables|
|EP0259906A2 *||6 Aug 1987||16 Mar 1988||Antwerp Bionic Systems N.V.||A system of stimulating at least one nerve and/or muscle fibre|
|EP2272562A1 *||15 Oct 2001||12 Jan 2011||Remon Medical Technologies Ltd.||Acoustic switch and apparatus for using acoustic switches within a body|
|WO1987000416A1 *||4 Jul 1986||29 Jan 1987||Mueller Wickop Juergen||Apparatus for determining the filling level of the human bladder|
|WO1999039769A1 *||5 Feb 1999||12 Aug 1999||Light Sciences Lp||Movable magnet transmitter for inducing electrical current in an implanted coil|
|WO1999055417A1 *||20 Apr 1999||4 Nov 1999||Medtronic Inc||Interrogation of an implantable medical device using audible sound communication|
|WO1999055418A1 *||21 Apr 1999||4 Nov 1999||Medtronic Inc||Audible sound confirmation of programming an implantable medical device|
|WO1999055419A1 *||28 Apr 1999||4 Nov 1999||Medtronic Inc||Audible sound communication from an implantable medical device|
|WO2001078216A1 *||10 Apr 2001||18 Oct 2001||Light Sciences Corp||Contactless energy transfer apparatus|
|WO2001078458A1 *||10 Apr 2001||18 Oct 2001||Light Sciences Corp||Use of moving element to produce heat|
|WO2002032502A1 *||15 Oct 2001||25 Apr 2002||Remon Medical Technologies Ltd||Acoustic switch and apparatus and methods for using acoustic switches within a body|
|WO2002069801A1 *||2 Mar 2002||12 Sep 2002||Opher Pail||Apparatus and methods for indicating respiratory phases to improve speech/breathing synchronization|
|WO2003033067A2 *||13 Oct 2002||24 Apr 2003||Eyal Doron||Miniature implantable illuminator for photodynamic therapy|
|WO2003052793A2 *||25 Nov 2002||26 Jun 2003||Light Sciences Corp||Contactless energy transfer apparatus|
|WO2005082019A2 *||25 Feb 2005||9 Sep 2005||Erich W Wolf||Transcutaneous telemetry of cerebrospinal fluid shunt programmable-valve pressure using near-infrared (nir) light|
|WO2005082025A2 *||24 Feb 2005||9 Sep 2005||Erich W Wolf||System for transcutaneous monitoring of intracranial pressure (icp) using near infrared (nir) telemetry|
|WO2010004408A1 *||8 Jul 2009||14 Jan 2010||Bnb Concept (Holding) Sa||System for transferring information by light modulation through skin|
|U.S. Classification||600/476, 607/33, 600/586|
|Cooperative Classification||A61B5/0002, A61B5/0031|
|European Classification||A61B5/00B9, A61B5/00B|