|Publication number||US3670731 A|
|Publication date||20 Jun 1972|
|Filing date||20 May 1966|
|Priority date||20 May 1966|
|Also published as||DE1642072A1, DE1642072B2|
|Publication number||US 3670731 A, US 3670731A, US-A-3670731, US3670731 A, US3670731A|
|Original Assignee||Johnson & Johnson|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (10), Referenced by (371), Classifications (39)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent Harmon 1 1 June 20, 1972 s41 ABSORBENT PRODUCT CONTAINING 3,229,769 1/1966 Bashaw et a1. ..117/136 A HYDROCOLLOIDAL COMPOSITION 3,323,944 6/1967 Senez ..117/136 3,306,966 2/1967 Matejcek 128/285  Inventor: Carlyle Harmon, Scotch Plalns, NJ. 3,340,875 9/1967 Ducuey at a] I I U [23/290 73 A h & h 3,344,789 10/1967 Arnold et ..128/287 1 3,220,960 11/1965 Wichterle et a1. ..3/1 (22] Filed: May 20, 1966 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 211 App1.No.: 551,772
1,007,643 5/1952 France ..128/285  11.8. C1 128/284, 1 17/136, 128/156, primary g c Rosenbaum 2150/381 Attorney-Alexander T. Kardos, Arnold S. Worfolk and John  Int. Cl. l-l Tregoning  Field of Search ..128/156, 284,285,287, 290,
128/296; 260/47, 77.5, 88.1; 117/136  ABSTRACT An absorbent dressin havin an absorbent la er defined b 6 R 1 Ci 3 g Y Y [5 1 e "was ted water soluble hydrocolloidal composition capable of absorb- UNITED STATES PATENTS ing of at least about fifteen times its weight of body exudate and retaining said exudate under pressure of up to about 2.5 2,750,944 6/1956 Tollstrup ..128/290 psi 2,810,716 10/1957 Markus ....260/88.1 3,121,427 2/1964 Mosier 128/290 11 Claims, 13 Drawing Figures ABSORBENT PRODUCT CONTAINING A HYDROCOLLOIDAL COMPOSITION The present invention relates generally to absorbent dressings and, more particularly, to diapers, to sanitary napkins, to catamenial tampons, and to absorbent wound dressings, e.g., surgical dressings, which are characterized by the use therein as the main absorbent medium of a particulate hydrocolloidal composition which is substantially aqueous insoluble at ambient temperatures and is capable (l) of abmrbing body exudates such as urine, menstrual discharge and wound exudates in amounts of from at least 15 times to about 70 times its weight, and (2) of holding these amounts of absorbed exudate against release during normal flex and pressure as a result of activity of the wearer, (3) while maintaining its particulate integrity, albeit swollen grossly because of its absorption and retention of body exudate.
As a result of the nature of the absorption of the body exudate by the particulate hydrocolloidal component used in the absorbent dressings of the invention, i.e., imbibing with concomitant swelling so that particulate body form is maintained. the surface of the wet dressing has a dry-to-thmtouch feel. This coupled with the unusual retention of the absorbed liquid even during normal activity of the wearer makes the absorbent dressings of the invention of substantial importance for all the intended uses, and especially for diapers, particularly those of the so-called throwaway" type, and for catamenial tampons, where the articles are relatively small with respect to the quantity of liquid body exudate, urine and menstrual fluid, respectively, they are called upon to handle.
Test results show in the case of a diaper in accordance with the invention, that it will hold" absorbed liquid in amounts of 30 and more times the weight of the particulate hydrocolloidal component, under a pressure of up to 2.5 psi It may be that during actual use of the diaper of the invention the movements of the child may be such as to apply a temporary extraordinary pressure here and there, sufficient to disgorge some absorbed urine from swollen particulates containing the same. Be that as it may, if some absorbent particulates in the diaper have absorbed their full capacity considering the pressure applied, other surrounding absorbent particulates which have not absorbed up to their capacities, are capable of absorbing additional urine, with the result that the diaper feels substantially dry to the touch at substantially all times during a normal time interval of use.
In use in an absorbent dressing in accordance with the invention, the substantially water-insoluble particulate hydrocolloid absorbent material, of a particle size suitably in the range of from about 1 micron to about 2 millimeters, is spread as uniformly as possible onto and/or into a carrier sheet commonly used in making an absorbent dressing, so that the carrier sheet and the applied particulate layer can be fashioned by conventional procedures into an absorbent dressing in accordance with the invention. Preferably, the particulate absorbent material is sandwiched between a pair of carrier sheets and then incorporated by conventional procedures into an absorbent dressing according to the invention, thus insuring that the desired discrete particulate hydrocolloid layer is maintained in the final structure. in the case of a catamenial tampon, this can be accomplished by first spreading the hydrocolloid particles as a layer over a conventional layer of absorbent fibers and then winding the latter on itself into the form of a roll so that the hydrocolloid particles are trapped between the windings.
The hydrocolloidal absorbent material used in accordance with this invention may be in solid form such as, for example, a fiber, thin film, or a cellular structure, all of which provide a large surface area; however, it is preferred that it be in particulate form such as a flake or granule, since these forms provide the largest surface area for absorption and insure that max imum surface area is available for absorbency. There should be at least about 5 percent by weight, preferably to percent by weight, of hydrocolloidal absorbent material based on the total weight of absorbent materials in the dressing. 1n the case of a diaper or wound dressing the total absorbent component may be the hereinabove described hydrocolloid absorbent material.
Depending upon the end absorbent dressing desired, the carrier sheet for the particulate hydrocolloid layer in the product may be an absorbent mass or pad of textile fibers, wood pulp fibers, cotton linters and mixtures of such fibers, one or more sheets of bonded textile fibers, either synthetic or natural fibers, or a mixture thereof. The term "carrier sheet" also includes a composite of layers of absorbent tissue, e. g., creped tissue, paper sheets and water impermeable films and fibrous sheets, perforated, if desired, to allow liquids to pass therethrough freely, if desired. As already indicated, the carrier sheets which may be used to make the absorbent dressing of the invention may be those which are commonly used in making absorbent dressings of conventional construction.
Water-insoluble particulate hydrocolloid compounds of the type herein contemplated are presently known materials, but their uses in the past have not been related to that herein contemplated, i.e., as an absorbent material in absorbent dressings, wherein the absorbent material maintains its particulate character as it imbibes and absorbs many times its weight of surrounding liquid, and in doing so swells. As previously indicated, the absorbent, water-insoluble particulate hydrocolloid contemplated herein is capable of absorbing from about [5 to 70 times its weight of water, urine and other body exudates. In doing so each individual absorbent particle swells or enlarges several hundred percent times its individual parameter without destruction of its initial particulate integrity. As the particulate, water-insoluble hydrocolloid accepts liquid it substantially immobilizes the same therein, and the resulting particulate, liquid-swollen structure is gelatinous.
The mass of swollen particulate water-insoluble hydrocolloid particles within the body of the sanitary dressing define an aciniform structure since each individual absorbent particle is a greatly enlarged particle, having become liquid-swollen or grape-like or acinus in form due to the water, urine or other liquid it has absorbed. The individual, swollen, hydrocolloid particles are tacky and hence within the absorbent dressing they are in a clustered mass of liquid-swollen particles. The particles remain in this aciniform state even in the presence of liquid in exces of their ability to absorb.
The liquid-swollen hydrocolloid particles bind their absorbed water tightly, as already indicated, but upon drying the particles are dehydrated and return more or less to their original size. At this time they can again operate more or less as before to absorb and bind liquids, and hence in the case of an emergency the diaper of the invention lends itself for reuse.
The water-insoluble hydrocolloid absorbent particles used in accordance with the present invention are presently known materials, generally being a hydrocolloid polymer material having from about 25 to 72 percent of its molecular structure composed of hydrophilic groups, and whose polymeric network has been crosslinked to introduce a limited water insolubility into the molecule. Suitable water-insoluble hydrocolloid absorbent material in accordance with the invention have a minimum average molecular weight per crosslinkage of about 13,000 and a maximum molecular weight per crosslinkage of about 276,000. In general, the extent of crosslinking is contained so that the polymeric network of the hydrocolloid is not soluble in water, urine and the like, yet remains flexible and swells as water and other liquid is absorbed within its structure. As the hydrocolloid swells it maintains the approximate shape and geometry it had before contact with liquid, but the dimensions thereof are greatly enlarged to provide for the binding of the liquid absorbed therein.
It is evident that absorbent dressing containing water-insoluble hydrocolloid absorbent particles in accordance with the invention are distinguishable from the prior an absorbent dressings which may have had incorporated in their structure natural and/or synthetic water soluble hydrocolloid materials to increase the viscosity of, i.e., to thicken, the liquid absorbed into the absorbent dressing structure.
For the present invention the crosslinked, water-insoluble particulate hydrocolloids of the invention are not the equivalent of known natural soluble hydrocolloids such as agar, karaya and the water-soluble gums (tragacanth, arabic, locust beam, and guar), or of synthetic hydrocolloids such as carboxymethyl cellulose and carboxyethyl cellulose. These soluble hydrocolloids serve only to increase viscosity of liquids and in the presence of an added liquid excess, lose their power to retain the viscosity they had previously achieved. In contrast as exemplified by diaper use, the crosslinked hydrocolloid absorbent material within the diaper of the invention swells upon absorption of liquid and retains the absorbed liquid so that it does not flow back on the child. The swollen hydrocolloid remains essentially locked in position within the diaper structure and does not penetrate the diaper facings. Liquid taken into the swollen structure is retained well under the pressures encountered in use. And with any excess of liquid the discrete, separate, liquid-swollen hydrocolloid entity maintains its maximum swollen form.
The water-insoluble hydrocolloid absorbent material which may be used in accordance with the present invention preferably is a crosslinked polyacrylamide or a crosslinked sulfonated polystyrene or a mixture of these acrylamides and polystyrenes.
The preferred hydrocolloid absorbent material is a hydrolyzed crosslinked polyacrylamide which has the following values for the variables identified in the general formula set forth immediately below: "=28, m=72, #19 and Y=Na. This preferred material is described in US. Pat. No. 3,229,769, patented .Ian. l8, 1966.
The preferred hydrolyzed polyacrylamide hydrocolloid absorbent materials of the invention suitably are compounds having the following structural fom'iula:
where Y is a hydrogen, ammonium or an alkali metal ion,
m is a number from I to I00,
n is a number from to 100 and defines the degree of hydrolysis,
m plus n is equal to I00, and
Z is a number from I to 30, where 2 times 100 is equal to the number of mer units between crosslinks.
The crosslinked polyacrylamide hydrocolloid material of the invention may be prepared by known techniques, e.g., by crosslinking a linear polyacrylamide (or by copolymen'zing an acrylamide) with a non-conjugated divinyl compound such as methylene bis acrylamide. In the latter case, the polymerization may be run by any of the standard methods including the use of peroxide catalysts, or by photo polymerization with riboflavin activator. The crosslinking compound may be present in an amount of from about 500 to about 5,000 parts per million of polymerizate.
Other examples of non-conjugated divinyl crosslinking compounds are l,4-divinyl benzene; N,N-diallylacrylamide; diallylamine; diallylmethacrylamide; 2,5-dimethyl-L7-octadiene; p,p'-diisopropenylbenzene', 2,8-dimethyl-1,8- nonadiene and diethylene glycol divinyl ether.
The preferred polyacrylamides are those in the above general formula that are hydrolyzed and wherein Y is sodium or potassium, n is equal to a number in the range of 10 to 70 and Z is a number in the range of 2 to 20. Most preferably, Y is sodium, n and Z are numbers within the ranges to 40 and 4 to l5, respectively.
Crosslinked polystyrene sulfonate hydrocolloid absorbent materials which may be used in accordance with the invention preferably are those which have been crosslinked with nonconjugated divinyl compounds as above set forth. These polystyrene sulfonates are known materials and have the following general structural formula:
where Z is a number from to 3,000 and defines the number of mer units between cross links, and
Y is a hydrogen, ammonium or an alkali metal ion.
These crosslinked polystyrene sulfonates are prepared by known procedures, e.g., by copolymerizing styrene with a non-conjugated divinyl compound such as divinyl benzene in the presence of a polymeriution catalyst such as benzoyl eroxide. It is customary to add a suspension stabilizer (such as gelatin or polyvinyl alcohol) so that small polymer beads in the range of from about I micron to about 2 millimeters will be formed during the polymerization. The resultant polymer is sulfonated, for example, by heating it in the presence of concentrated sulfuric acid at a temperature of about l00 C.
The mechanism whereby water or liquid is lead through the outer covering sheet or through the facing sheet of the absorbent dressing to the hydrocolloid absorbent medium incorporated into the structure of the dressing is generally termed wicking". Wicking is effected generally by fibers either in the covering or facing sheet or within the absorbent medium. These fibers act as channels to direct the liquids deposited on the surface of the absorbent dressing into the contained hydrocolloid absorbent medium. In the present invention both means may be utilized simultaneously or individually depend ing upon the desired composition of the facing or covering sheet and whether the hydrocolloid is the sole absorbent medium or whether it is combined with a fibrous absorbent mass.
The hydrocolloid absorbent medium used in accordance with this invention may be constructed of a blend of the hydrocolloid with a mass or pad of fibers or a composite of layers of absorbent tissue, e.g., creped tissue.
The invention will be described in detail in connection with illustrative embodiments, e. g., a diaper, a surgical dressing, and catamenial devices, specifically a tampon and a sanitary napkin, in the accompanying drawings, wherein:
FIG. I is a perspective view of a diaper or surgical dressing of the invention with a portion thereof cut away;
FIG. 2 is a cross section taken along 2 2 of FIG. I;
FIG. 3 is the same cross section as FIG. 2 after use and during which absorption of body exudates has taken place;
FIG. 4 is a perspective view of another embodiment of a diaper or surgical dressing of this invention, with portions thereof cut away;
FIG. Sis a cross section taken along 5 5 of FIG. 4;
FIG. 6 is the same crm section as FIG. 5 after use and dur ing which absorption has taken place;
FIG. 7 is a perspective view of a sanitary napkin embodying the invention, shown partially open to illustrate the same;
FIG. 8 is a perspective view of a catamenial tampon embodying the invention, shown partially open to illustrate the same;
FIG. 9 is a cross section taken along line 9 9 of FIG. 8,
FIGS. 10 and II are planar views of other embodiments of a tampon construction before the same are formed into tampons',
FIG. 12 is a view of a tampon constructed from the embodiment shown in FIG. 1!, portions being broken away to show details; and
FIG. 13 is a cross section of an absorbent dressing used for testing to illustrate the efficiency of this invention.
With specific reference to FIG. 1 which depicts a disposable diaper l, the facing sheet 3 is a porous non-woven fabric made of individualized fibers bonded together in a pattern of spaced binder areas. The backing sheet 4 is a moisture-resistant sheet, e.g., a thin gauge polyethylene film. The facing sheet 3 and the backing sheet 4 are adhered together along common edges 6 by a selected adhesive. A fibrous layer 9 constructed of absorbent fibers 7, e.g., cellulosic, having incorporated therein, in random manner, the aforedefined hydrocolloidal absorbent composition 8, provides the absorptive medium of this diaper. The facing sheet 3 and the backing sheet 4 are the carriers" in this diaper construction.
The facing sheet 3 may be a sheet of soft, absorbent paper, a lightweight intermittently bonded or overall impregnated nonwoven fabric, a thin perforated plastic film or any such material which will readily pass liquids therethrough and which present a smooth and soft surface for contacting the wearer's body.
It is preferred that the layer of absorbent material 9 have a backing sheet 4 constructed of a waterproof material such as a layer of waterproof paper, a thin water-repellent film, etc. The facing sheet 3 and the backing sheet 4 are secured to each other along their longitudinal edges to prevent movement of the layers with respect to each other. The sheets 3 and 4 may be secured by any method known in the art, such as by glue, embossing the edges, etc.
The hydrocolloidal absorbent composition 8, in particulate form, may be applied to the fibrous layer 9 by sprinkling or dusting the hydrocolloid absorbent into the absorbent pad.
Of course, the absorbent pad 9 may be constructed of a plurality of sheets of absorbent material, and in such a case the hydrocolloidal absorbent 8 may be adhesively secured to the surface of one or more of the sheets. In point of fact, the fibrous material composing the absorbent pad 9 may be constructed of any known absorbent material such as fluffed wood pulp, woven cloth, cotton linters, a plurality of plies of creped tissue, and the like.
Yet another means for securing the hydrocolloid in place with any diaper or absorbent dressing, is to emboss the surface of the absorbent pad 9 to provide cavities such as parallel ribbon-like channels, diamond patterns, etc., that will contain the absorbent hydrocolloid 8 to insure substantially uniform distribution.
FIG. 2 is a cross section taken along line 2 2 of FIG. I and shows the absorbent pad 9 constructed of absorbent fibers 7 and having particles of the hydrocolloid absorbent material 8 attached or secured to, or mechanically intermixed with the fibers. The facing sheet 3, which may be singular or plural, and the water-repellent backing sheet 4, engulf and entrap the absorbent pad 7. The sheets 3 and 4 are joined along their common edges 6 by an adhesive 10.
FIG. 3 shows the same cross section as is shown in FIG. 2 but after use, and thus after absorption has taken place. Note the swollen nature of the hydrocolloid absorbent which takes on an acinuous form 11 in that in the swollen state it retains its particulate integrity. The fibers 7 comprising the absorbent pad 9 aid in retaining the gelatinous mass of liquid-swollen hydrocolloid absorbent II in substantially uniform distribution throughout the length and width of the diaper. Of course, the need for the absorbent pad 9 can be obviated by techniques such as embosing whereby the substantially unifonn positioning of the hydrocolloid absorbent is virtually insured. In that case the hydrocolloid of the aforegiven definition does form essentially the total of the absorbent medium, and in fact, will be the entire absorbent medium if absorbent carriers are not utilized.
Another absorbent dressing, and more specifically a second diaper l2, encompassing this invention, is shown via FIG. 4. The facing and backing sheets, 3 and 4 respectively, are as defined in FIG. I; however, the absorbent medium is defined by a layer of hydrocolloid absorbent 5 in fine flake form in this instance. The absorbent flakes 5 are substantially uniformly dispersed along the inner face of the backing sheet 4 and kept in position by an adhesive layer 14, first applied to the inner surface of the backing sheet 4. In this instance a thin wood pulp underlay 13 is secured uniformly to the inner surface of the facing sheet 3 to provide wicking action in the diaper 12. The cross section of FIG. 5 taken along 5 5 of FIG. 4
defines the diaper more particularly. Note the bottom most layer of the hydrocolloidal absorbent composition 5 secured by adhesive 14 to the inner surface of the backing sheet 4. The pulp underlay 13 helps to keep the hydrocolloid absorbent in position to provide an absorbent core. The pulp underlay 13 is clearly seen secured to the inner surface of the facing sheet 3.
FIG. 6 depicts the same cross section as shown in FIG. 5 but after the diaper 12 has been used for its intended purpose and has had a quantity of body exudate absorbed in it. The hydrocolloidal absorbent 16 is liquid swollen and is of the characteristic gelatinous aciniform structure. The gelatinous mass 16, which is virtually a continuous layer spanning the length and the width of the diaper, is retained in a relatively flat position by depressed sites 15 (formed by embossing techniques) spaced through the diaper in a substantially uniform pattern. With the use of an adhesive 14 the backing sheet 4 and the facing sheet 3 become attached at these sites 15 to provide means by which a reasonable flatness is maintained, and the tendency of the gelatinous absorbent mass 16 to ball in the center of the pad is precluded. The pulp underlay also contributes substantially to maintain the position of the gelatinous mass such that substantial flatness of the diaper is maintained.
The diapers shown via FIGS. 1 6 could also represent surgical dressings or other absorbent patches or bandages. The size of the dressing need simply to be reduced accordingly since the dressing would continue to function to absorb and retain body exudate.
In FIG. 7, a sanitary napkin 40 incorporating the invention includes a relatively thick absorbent core 18 enclosed within a liquid pervious fibrous wrapper I2 whose ends extend beyond the ends of the absorbent core 18 to provide the usual attachment tab 13. The absorbent core 18 can be about 8 inches long, 2 '1; inches wide and one-fourth to one-half inch thick and in this instance consists of a layer of the aforedefined particulate hydrocolloidal absorbent composition 19 interposed between several layers of fibrous material I5 such as cotton webs, air-layered cellulosic fiber webs, non-woven or textile fibrous webs, wood pulp batts, tissue pulp or like materials which are highly absorbent. The entire core assembly is enclosed within the liquid pervious wrapper I2. As an alternative the hydrocolloidal absorbent 14 may be randomly interspersed throughout the absorbent core 18.
Referring to FIGS. 8 and 9, there is illustrated a catamenial tampon 21 incorporating the invention, and which includes the elongated cylindrical core 22 of densely packed absorbent fibers enclosed with a liquid pervious wrapper 23. Secured at one end of the tampon are a pair of withdrawal strings 24 by which the tampon can be withdrawn subsequent to use. The absorbent fibrous core has about 12 percent by weight, based on the total weight, of the aforedescribed hydrocolloidal absorbent composition 20 dispersed therein.
FIG. 9 is an enlarged cross section taken along line 9 9 of FIG. 8 and shows the particulate hydrocolloid 20 impregnated in the fibrous absorbent core 22 which is encased by the liquid pervious wrapper 23.
FIGS. I0 and I! are planar views of other tampon constructions before the same are formed into tampons. In both Figures an absorbent covering sheet 30 fonns the base for the layer 31 of the aforedefined hydrocolloidal absorbent and the absorbent positioning-sheet 32. Both sheets 30 and 32 are of nonwoven construction and are liquid permeable; however, other liquid absorbent mediums could be utilized, i.e., paper or woven textiles, etc., and it is conceivable that apertured or foraminous nonabsorbent sheets, e.g., apertured polyethylene film, could be substituted for one or the other.
The tampon construction of FIG. 10 is formed by turning either of the longitudinal edges over on itself and continuing to so roll the edge to provide a cylindrical tampon. The cylindrical tampon is then compressed and the free longitudinal edge adhesively secured. The same applies to the tampon of FIG. 11, and in each instance the arrows describe the method of forming. Each tampon has withdrawal strings 33 secured by stitching 34 or other suitable means to the composite.
A tampon formed of the embodiment shown in FIG. 11 is given in F 1G. 12. The center portion of the tampon is cut away to show the distribution and positioning of materials.
The absorbent dressings of the instant invention exhibit greatly improved absorption and retention of liquids. To establish the improved absorbency and retention of liquids, sample dressings were prepared as follows: A plurality of l X l0 inch test absorbent dressings were constructed by superimposing in congruent relationship, layers of nonwoven fabric 26, fluffed wood pulp 27 and a hydrocolloidal composition 28 as is shown in cross section in FIG. 13. Each sheet of nonwoven fabric weighed 1 gram, each layer of pulp weighed 3.3 grams and each layer of hydrocolloidal absorbent composition weighted 0.5 grams. A control dressing similarly constructed contained no hydrocolloidal absorbent composition.
Each dressing or pad was saturated with 500 milliliters of deionized water. Each pad was inclined at an angle of about 45 for 3 minutes and the water that escaped from each pad or dressing was separately collected and measured.
Afier allowing 5 minutes for the escape of the water, a planar pressure of 1.25 psi was applied to each pad. The water forced from each pad or dressing by this presure was separately collected and measured. The amount of absorption was determined by calculating the difference between the amount of water added and the amount of water collected under these conditions. The results are shown in Table l where the letters n, 2 and Y are those utilized in defining the polyacrylamides of this invention and the crosslinking agent limitation r1 osslillkul. A if V The absorbent dressing of this invention also maintains a reduced, or minimal, surface w etness on the facing sheet, i.e., the sheet of textile or paper-like material positioned contiguous to the skin of the user, or in the alternative the sheet of the dressing exposed directly to the source of the liquid which the dressing is intended to absorb. This feature is dramatically established by the following test utilizing two diapers of identical construction. Each diaper measured X 10 inches and the weight of the absorbent facing and backing sheets was 200 grains per square yard. Each diaper had a layer of fluffed wood pulp in an amount of l2 grams; however, only one diaper had 1.5 grams of a crosslinked hydrolyzed polyacrylamide dispersed within the absorbent fibrous layer. The values for n, m, Z and Y of this crosslinked hydrolyzed polyacrylamide were 28, 72, 10 and Na respectively (which apply to the structural formula on page 4) and the crosslinking agent was methylene bis acrylamide. 150 ml of deionized water was added to each of the horizontally positioned diapers. Diaper A contained the hydrocolloidal composition and diaper 8 did not.
In the first test, identical thin sheets of preweighed paper toweling were placed in facewise engagement with the facing sheets of both diapers and a thin flat metal plate weighing l3 pounds was placed upon each of these laminates. After 5 minutes the plate and the paper toweling were removed from each diaper and was re-weighed to determine the water pickup. The ratio of surface water pickup of the conventional diaper B without the absorbent compound, i.e., the crosslinked hydrolyzed polyacrylamide, to the diaper A containing the absorbent was 4 to l.
in another test, the facing sheet of each diaper was carefully removed and weighed to determine its liquid content. The ratio of the wetness of the facing sheets of the conventional diaper 8 without the absorbent to that of the diaper A containing the hydrocolloidal absorbent, was 3 A to l.
Another very important feature that is characteristic of the absorbent dressing of this invention is the reduced internal spread of absorbed liquid that it exhibits. To illustrate this feature, diapers constructed in accordance with FIG. I of this invention were prepared. Several contained the absorbent hydrocolloid defined herein (specifically in this instance the methylene bis acrylamide crosslinked hydrolyzed polyacrylamide bearing the values n=28, m=72, Z==l0 and Y=Na) while several were prepared without this hydrocolloid. Fifty cubic centimeters (cc) of colored water was introduced onto the center of each of these diapers constructed in accordance with FIG. 1. The diapers contained either 0 percent, 16 percent or 3| percent by weight, based on the total weight of the diaper, of absorbent hydrocolloid. The results are expressed in terms of percent decrease of spread area based on the diaper that did not contain any of the absorbent hydrocolloid.
These results also show that at lower feed rates, the diaper of this invention has more of an opportunity to absorb the water before it flows past, thus decreasing the percent spread area.
In describing the present invention, certain embodiments have been used for purposes of illustration; however, other embodiments and modifications within the spirit and scope of the invention will readily occur to those skilled in the an after a reading of this disclosure. The invention is accordingly not to be limited to the specific embodiments illustrated but only in accordance with the appended claims.
1. An absorbent dressing comprising an absorbent layer sandwiched between a liquid permeable facing sheet and a backing sheet, said absorbent layer containing at least about 5 percent by weight, based on the total weight of the dre ing, of a hydrocolloidal polymer composition rendered substantially water insoluble by crosslinking, and having from about 25 to about 72 percent of its molecular structure composed of hydrophillic groups, said hydrocolloidal composition being further defined as providing a gelatinous agglomerate of liquid-swollen particulate members in the presence of a quantity of body exudate, as capable of absorbing at least about 15 times its weight in body exudate, as capable of retaining said absorbed exudate under a pressure of up to about 2.5 p.s.i., and as having a minimum average molecular weight per crosslinkage of about I 3,000.
2. The dressing of claim 1 wherein said hydrocolloidal composition is incorporated within a fibrous mass to define said absorbent layer.
3. The dressing of claim 2 wherein said hydrocolloidal composition is selected from the group consisting of croslinked polystyrene sulfonate and crosslinked polyacrylamide.
4. The absorbent dressing of claim 2 in the form of a catamenial device.
5. A disposable diaper comprising absorbent layers sandwiched between a liquid permeable facing sheet and a liquid permeable backing sheet, said absorbent layer containing at least about 5 percent by weight, based on the total weight of the diaper, of a hydrocolloidal polymer composition rendered substantially water insoluble by crosslinking, and having from about 25 to about 72 percent of its molecular structure composed of hydrophillic groups, said hydrocolloidal composition being further defined as providing a gelatinous agglomerate of liquid-swollen particulate members in the presence of body exudate, as capable of absorbing at least about 15 times its own weight in body exudate, as capable of retaining said absorbed exudate under a pressure of up to about 2.5 psi, and as having a minimum average molecular weight per crosslinkage of about 13,000.
6. The diaper of claim wherein said hydrocolloidal composition is incorporated within a fibrous mass to define the absorbent layer.
7. The diaper of claim 5 wherein said hydrocolloidal is selected from the group consisting of and,
where Z is a number from I00 to 3,000 and defines the number of mer units between crosslinks, and
Y is a member of the group consisting of hydrogen, ammonium, and an alkali metal ion.
8. The diaper of claim 6 wherein said hydrocolloidal composition is selected from the group consisting of crosslinked polystyrene sulfonate and crosslinked polyacrylamide.
9. As an article of manufacture, a flexible support adapted to be caused to conform to a surface of an animal body, said support confining a dry, solid, water-swellable, water-insoluble, physiologically unobjectionable polymeric sorbent so as to present said sorbent for the sorption of aqueous fluid elaborated by the animal to which said article is applied and said polymeric sorbent being a lightly crosslinked polymer and being selected from the group consisting of polystyrene-sulfonate, and alkali metal salts thereof as contain sulfonate or carboxylate groups.
10. An absorbent dressing comprising an absorbent layer sandwiched between a liquid permeable facing sheet and a backing sheet, said absorbent layer containing a hydrocolloidal polymer composition rendered substantially water-in-' soluble by crosslinking, and having from about 25 to about 72 percent of its molecular structure composed of hydrophilic groups, said hydrocolloidal compositions being further defined as providing a gelatinous agglomerate of liquid-swollen particulate members in the presence of a quantity of body exudate, as capable of absorbing at least about fifteen times its weight in body exudate, as capable of retaining said absorbed exudate when exposed to pressure suificient to deform said agglomerate and as having a degree of cross-linking within the range of the de ees of crosslinking obtained by co l erizing a mono-ole nic monomer with from about 0.0 to about 0.5 percent by weight of a divinyl compound.
11. The dressing of claim 10 wherein said hydrocolloidal composition is selected from the group consisting of polyacrylamide, alkali metal salts of hydrolyzed polyacrylamides and the free acid and alkali metal salts of polystyrene sulfonates.
What, m. A, Li's), L n
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2750944 *||27 Sep 1954||19 Jun 1956||Tollstrup Duane H||Absorbent bandage|
|US2810716 *||28 Jun 1954||22 Oct 1957||White Lab Inc||Batchwise copolymerization technique|
|US3121427 *||13 Jun 1960||18 Feb 1964||Jack M Mosier||Catamenial appliance and composition|
|US3220960 *||21 Dec 1960||30 Nov 1965||Wichterle Otto||Cross-linked hydrophilic polymers and articles made therefrom|
|US3229769 *||28 Jan 1963||18 Jan 1966||Dow Chemical Co||Method for controlling the spread of fire|
|US3306966 *||8 Apr 1963||28 Feb 1967||Matejcek Franz||Process for preparing compact expandable urethane foams|
|US3323944 *||27 Feb 1964||6 Jun 1967||Kuhlmann Ets||Process and composition for improving the mechanical properties of flameproofed cellulosic textile materials|
|US3340875 *||12 Feb 1964||12 Sep 1967||Scott Paper Co||Deodorized sanitary napkin|
|US3344789 *||29 Dec 1964||3 Oct 1967||Azur Associates||Diaper with film enclosed absorbent|
|FR1007643A *||Title not available|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3783872 *||23 Jun 1969||8 Jan 1974||Union Carbide Corp||Disposable absorbent pads containing insoluble hydrogels|
|US3810468 *||8 Jun 1972||14 May 1974||Dow Chemical Co||Sorbent|
|US3824996 *||17 Nov 1971||23 Jul 1974||R Carlisle||Highly absorbent pressure dressing for wounds|
|US3844287 *||5 Jun 1972||29 Oct 1974||Fmc Corp||Absorbent mass of alloy fibers of regenerated cellulose and polyacrylic acid salt of alkali-metals or ammonium|
|US3865110 *||14 Aug 1973||11 Feb 1975||Robert F Traverse||Diaper and integral eversion container|
|US3881490 *||20 Dec 1973||6 May 1975||Kimberly Clark Co||Thin, flexible absorbent pads|
|US3888256 *||13 Feb 1973||10 Jun 1975||Hans Studinger||Layered absorbant pad material|
|US3901236 *||29 Jul 1974||26 Aug 1975||Union Carbide Corp||Disposable absorbent articles containing hydrogel composites having improved fluid absorption efficiencies and processes for preparation|
|US3903889 *||16 Feb 1973||9 Sep 1975||First National Bank Of Nevada||Disposable liquid absorbent products|
|US3935363 *||16 Sep 1974||27 Jan 1976||The Dow Chemical Company||Absorbent product containing flocculated clay mineral aggregates|
|US3957908 *||31 Jan 1975||18 May 1976||Nederlandse Organisatie Voor Toegepast Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek Ten Behoeve||Degradable plastics comprising a mixture of a styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer, polyvinyl acetate and an ester of a hemiformal|
|US4041121 *||24 Oct 1975||9 Aug 1977||Avtex Fibers Inc.||Method for making high fluid-holding fiber mass|
|US4055180 *||23 Apr 1976||25 Oct 1977||Colgate-Palmolive Company||Absorbent article with retained hydrocolloid material|
|US4076663 *||29 Mar 1976||28 Feb 1978||Sanyo Chemical Industries, Ltd.||Water absorbing starch resins|
|US4076673 *||27 Sep 1976||28 Feb 1978||The Dow Chemical Company||Absorbent articles and methods for their preparation|
|US4088132 *||7 May 1975||9 May 1978||W. R. Grace & Co.||Hydrophilic polyurethane foams for use in catamenial devices|
|US4103062 *||14 Jun 1976||25 Jul 1978||Johnson & Johnson||Absorbent panel having densified portion with hydrocolloid material fixed therein|
|US4117184 *||23 Jun 1977||26 Sep 1978||The Dow Chemical Company||Absorbent films and laminates|
|US4132695 *||29 Apr 1977||2 Jan 1979||The Dow Chemical Company||Absorbent articles and methods for their preparation|
|US4212302 *||22 Dec 1977||15 Jul 1980||Colgate-Palmolive Company||Absorbent article with spaced hydrocolloid material|
|US4219024 *||21 Sep 1978||26 Aug 1980||Colgate-Palmolive Company||Absorbent article|
|US4226232 *||9 Apr 1979||7 Oct 1980||Spenco Medical Corporation||Wound dressing|
|US4232674 *||5 Dec 1978||11 Nov 1980||Lever Brothers Company||Liquid absorption devices|
|US4235237 *||8 May 1978||25 Nov 1980||Johnson & Johnson||Absorbent open network structure|
|US4257418 *||22 Jan 1979||24 Mar 1981||Mo Och Domsjo Aktiebolag||Device for absorbing urine with incontinent persons|
|US4269188 *||23 Jul 1979||26 May 1981||Kao Soap Co., Ltd.||Disposable diaper|
|US4293609 *||30 Jun 1980||6 Oct 1981||The Dow Chemical Company||Flexible absorbent laminates|
|US4296234 *||23 Apr 1980||20 Oct 1981||Lever Brothers Company||Absorbent materials|
|US4310593 *||22 Dec 1980||12 Jan 1982||The Dow Chemical Company||Absorbent articles cured with amine-epihalohydrin adducts|
|US4317449 *||28 Jan 1980||2 Mar 1982||Warner-Lambert Company||Disposable adult incontinent brief|
|US4318408 *||29 Oct 1979||9 Mar 1982||Permacel||Absorbent products|
|US4342858 *||27 Mar 1981||3 Aug 1982||Nl Industries, Inc.||Polymeric polyelectrolytes|
|US4364992 *||12 Jun 1981||21 Dec 1982||Kao Soap Co., Ltd.||Two layer absorbent article with super water-absorbing polymer|
|US4366294 *||29 Jun 1981||28 Dec 1982||Gaf Corporation||Water swellable compositions|
|US4376440 *||5 Aug 1980||15 Mar 1983||Kimberly-Clark Corporation||Sanitary napkin with adhesive attachment means|
|US4410571 *||22 Jun 1981||18 Oct 1983||Johnson & Johnson||Absorbent products, process and compositions for immobilization of particulate absorbents|
|US4500315 *||8 Nov 1982||19 Feb 1985||Personal Products Company||Superthin absorbent product|
|US4511477 *||17 Oct 1983||16 Apr 1985||The Dow Chemical Company||Process of using water-absorbent agents for low pH applications|
|US4537590 *||20 Jun 1983||27 Aug 1985||Personal Products Company||Superthin absorbent product|
|US4537767 *||24 Sep 1982||27 Aug 1985||Pharmacia Aktiebolag||Method for cleansing fluid discharging skin surfaces, wounds and mucous membranes and means for carrying out the method|
|US4540454 *||10 Sep 1984||10 Sep 1985||Personal Products Company||Method of forming a superthin absorbent product|
|US4548847 *||9 Jan 1984||22 Oct 1985||Kimberly-Clark Corporation||Delayed-swelling absorbent systems|
|US4578068 *||20 Dec 1983||25 Mar 1986||The Procter & Gamble Company||Absorbent laminate structure|
|US4600458 *||2 Jul 1985||15 Jul 1986||The Procter & Gamble Co.||Method of making an absorbent laminate structure|
|US4605401 *||25 May 1984||12 Aug 1986||Chemische Fabrik Stockhausen Gmbh||Material for the absorption of water, aqueous solutions and aqueous body fluids|
|US4610678 *||6 Sep 1983||9 Sep 1986||Weisman Paul T||High-density absorbent structures|
|US4650479 *||4 Sep 1984||17 Mar 1987||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Sorbent sheet product|
|US4670011 *||22 Apr 1985||2 Jun 1987||Personal Products Company||Disposable diaper with folded absorbent batt|
|US4685915 *||6 Apr 1984||11 Aug 1987||The Procter & Gamble Company||Disposable diaper having density and basis weight profiled absorbent core|
|US4699823 *||21 Aug 1985||13 Oct 1987||Kimberly-Clark Corporation||Non-layered absorbent insert having Z-directional superabsorbent concentration gradient|
|US4725465 *||1 Aug 1986||16 Feb 1988||Oliver Products Company||Water-soluble packet for containing chemical spills|
|US4731071 *||6 Nov 1984||15 Mar 1988||Beghin-Say S.A.||Liquid-absorbent disposable article|
|US4755178 *||11 Jun 1986||5 Jul 1988||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Sorbent sheet material|
|US4755562 *||10 Jun 1986||5 Jul 1988||American Colloid Company||Surface treated absorbent polymers|
|US4792326 *||30 Mar 1987||20 Dec 1988||Kimberly-Clark Corporation||Rapidly disintegrating paper tubes|
|US4797172 *||12 Feb 1988||10 Jan 1989||The Boeing Company||Filament preheat apparatus|
|US4813945 *||4 Aug 1988||21 Mar 1989||Arco Chemical Technology, Inc.||Ultrahigh water-absorbing fiber forming composition|
|US4824901 *||25 Apr 1988||25 Apr 1989||American Colloid Company||Surface treated absorbent polymers|
|US4826009 *||28 Jul 1988||2 May 1989||The Kendall Company||Container assembly|
|US4834735 *||18 Jul 1986||30 May 1989||The Proctor & Gamble Company||High density absorbent members having lower density and lower basis weight acquisition zones|
|US4840692 *||18 Nov 1987||20 Jun 1989||Coloplast A/S||Method for producing an absorption body, notably for use in cases of urinary incontinence in women|
|US4855179 *||29 Jul 1987||8 Aug 1989||Arco Chemical Technology, Inc.||Production of nonwoven fibrous articles|
|US4872933 *||5 Aug 1988||10 Oct 1989||Kimberly-Clark Corporation||Method of forming rapidly disintegrating paper tubes|
|US4888231 *||30 Jun 1987||19 Dec 1989||The Procter & Gamble Company||Absorbent core having a dusting layer|
|US4892533 *||4 Aug 1988||9 Jan 1990||Arco Chemical Technology, Inc.||Ultrahigh water-absorbing fiber-forming composition|
|US4897297 *||17 May 1988||30 Jan 1990||E. I. Dupont De Nemours & Co.||Elastic wet compress|
|US4921904 *||19 Dec 1988||1 May 1990||Nalco Chemical Company||Superabsorbent polymers|
|US4927346 *||2 May 1989||22 May 1990||Nordson Corporation||Apparatus for depositing particulate material into a pad of fibrous material in a forming chamber|
|US4927582 *||17 Mar 1988||22 May 1990||Kimberly-Clark Corporation||Method and apparatus for creating a graduated distribution of granule materials in a fiber mat|
|US4957795 *||24 Jan 1990||18 Sep 1990||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Absorbent elastomeric wound dressing|
|US4959059 *||17 Jan 1989||25 Sep 1990||Senecare Enterprises, Inc.||Low friction multilayer pad|
|US4959060 *||12 Dec 1989||25 Sep 1990||Nippon Shokubai Kagaku Kogyo Co., Ltd.||Body fluid-adsorbing article|
|US4960477 *||24 Jan 1989||2 Oct 1990||Mcneil-Ppc, Inc.||Disposable diaper with folded absorbent batt|
|US4985518 *||4 Aug 1989||15 Jan 1991||American Colloid Company||Process for preparing water-absorbing resins|
|US4994037 *||9 Jul 1990||19 Feb 1991||Kimberly-Clark Corporation||Absorbent structure designed for absorbing body fluids|
|US5009650 *||6 Aug 1987||23 Apr 1991||Kimberly-Clark Corporation||Absorbent structure designed for absorbing body fluids|
|US5017324 *||19 Jan 1990||21 May 1991||Nordson Corporation||Method for depositing particulate material into a pad of fibrous material in a forming chamber|
|US5019064 *||29 May 1990||28 May 1991||Kasriel Eilender||Low friction multilayer pad with foam backing|
|US5021050 *||11 Dec 1989||4 Jun 1991||Weyerhaeuser Company||Absorbent panel structure|
|US5028224 *||9 Jan 1990||2 Jul 1991||Kimberly-Clark Corporation||Apparatus for intermittently depositing particulate material in a substrate|
|US5047023 *||11 Feb 1991||10 Sep 1991||The Procter & Gamble Company||Absorbent members having low density and basis weight acquisition zones|
|US5061259 *||20 Nov 1990||29 Oct 1991||The Procter & Gamble Company||Absorbent structures with gelling agent and absorbent articles containing such structures|
|US5102585 *||26 Mar 1991||7 Apr 1992||Kimberly-Clark Corporation||Method for intermittently depositing particulate material in a substrate|
|US5102597 *||24 May 1991||7 Apr 1992||The Procter & Gamble Company||Porous, absorbent, polymeric macrostructures and methods of making the same|
|US5118390 *||3 Sep 1991||2 Jun 1992||Kimberly-Clark Corporation||Densified tactile imaging paper|
|US5122407 *||20 Jun 1990||16 Jun 1992||Kimberly-Clark Corporation||Odor-removing cover for absorbent pads and method of making same|
|US5124188 *||2 Apr 1990||23 Jun 1992||The Procter & Gamble Company||Porous, absorbent, polymeric macrostructures and methods of making the same|
|US5135787 *||14 Aug 1990||4 Aug 1992||E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company||Iced food shipping container with aqueous liquid absorbing pad|
|US5143680 *||17 May 1990||1 Sep 1992||Nordson Corporation||Method and apparatus for depositing moisture-absorbent and thermoplastic material in a substrate|
|US5147343 *||10 Apr 1989||15 Sep 1992||Kimberly-Clark Corporation||Absorbent products containing hydrogels with ability to swell against pressure|
|US5149334 *||2 Apr 1990||22 Sep 1992||The Procter & Gamble Company||Absorbent articles containing interparticle crosslinked aggregates|
|US5149335 *||23 Feb 1990||22 Sep 1992||Kimberly-Clark Corporation||Absorbent structure|
|US5156902 *||17 Dec 1991||20 Oct 1992||Kimberly-Clark Corporation||Method and apparatus for intermittently depositing particulate material in a substrate and article made therewith|
|US5176668 *||19 Sep 1989||5 Jan 1993||Kimberly-Clark Corporation||Absorbent structure designed for absorbing body fluids|
|US5180622 *||2 Apr 1990||19 Jan 1993||The Procter & Gamble Company||Absorbent members containing interparticle crosslinked aggregates|
|US5185010 *||31 Jan 1992||9 Feb 1993||Tambrands Inc.||Spirally wound tampon with overwrap|
|US5230701 *||25 Feb 1992||27 Jul 1993||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Elastomeric adhesive and cohesive materials|
|US5248309 *||20 Mar 1992||28 Sep 1993||Kimberly-Clark Corporation||Thin sanitary napkin having a central absorbent zone and a method of forming the napkin|
|US5248524 *||27 Jan 1992||28 Sep 1993||Paragon Trade Brands||Method and apparatus for zoned application of particles in fibrous material with dual dispensing nozzles|
|US5279854 *||27 Jan 1992||18 Jan 1994||Paragon Trade Brands, Inc.||Method and apparatus for zoned application of particles in fibrous material|
|US5281208 *||24 Aug 1992||25 Jan 1994||The Procter & Gamble Company||Fluid handling structure for use in absorbent articles|
|US5300192 *||17 Aug 1992||5 Apr 1994||Weyerhaeuser Company||Wet laid fiber sheet manufacturing with reactivatable binders for binding particles to fibers|
|US5308896 *||17 Aug 1992||3 May 1994||Weyerhaeuser Company||Particle binders for high bulk fibers|
|US5330822 *||20 Aug 1993||19 Jul 1994||The Procter & Gamble Company||Particulate, absorbent, polymeric compositions containing interparticle crosslinked aggregates|
|US5350418 *||18 May 1993||27 Sep 1994||Smith & Nephew Rolyan, Inc.||Gel shell splint|
|US5352480 *||17 Aug 1992||4 Oct 1994||Weyerhaeuser Company||Method for binding particles to fibers using reactivatable binders|
|US5356405 *||6 Apr 1993||18 Oct 1994||The Procter & Gamble Company||Absorbent particles, especially catamenials, having improved fluid directionality, comfort and fit|
|US5382245 *||23 Jul 1992||17 Jan 1995||The Procter & Gamble Company||Absorbent articles, especially catamenials, having improved fluid directionality|
|US5384879 *||22 Oct 1992||24 Jan 1995||Camelot Technologies, Inc.||Cable jacketing|
|US5397626 *||30 Nov 1993||14 Mar 1995||The Procter & Gamble Company||Particulate, absorbent, polymeric compositions containing interparticle crosslinked aggregates|
|US5419956 *||22 Jun 1993||30 May 1995||The Procter & Gamble Company||Absorbent structures containing specific particle size distributions of superabsorbent hydrogel-forming materials mixed with inorganic powders|
|US5422169 *||8 Nov 1993||6 Jun 1995||The Procter & Gamble Company||Absorbent structures containing specific particle size distributions of superabsorbent hydrogel-forming materials in relatively high concentrations|
|US5423788 *||29 Jan 1993||13 Jun 1995||Kimberly-Clark Corporation||Disposable feminine guard|
|US5447977 *||15 Nov 1993||5 Sep 1995||Weyerhaeuser Company||Particle binders for high bulk fibers|
|US5451442 *||19 Apr 1993||19 Sep 1995||Paragon Trade Brands, Inc.||Absorbent panel structure for a disposable garment|
|US5462537 *||31 Jul 1991||31 Oct 1995||Kimberly-Clark Corporation||Absorbent article with inversely related gradients|
|US5489261 *||12 Sep 1994||6 Feb 1996||Trustees Of Boston University||Hydrogels capable of supporting cell growth|
|US5489469 *||28 May 1993||6 Feb 1996||Kao Corporation||Absorbent composite|
|US5492962 *||18 Apr 1994||20 Feb 1996||The Procter & Gamble Company||Method for producing compositions containing interparticle crosslinked aggregates|
|US5505718 *||20 Sep 1993||9 Apr 1996||The Procter & Gamble Company||Absorbent structures containing specific particle size distributions of superabsorbent hydrogel-forming materials|
|US5505720 *||26 Aug 1994||9 Apr 1996||Mcneil-Ppc, Inc.||Melt blown menstrual pad for application to the body|
|US5532350 *||15 Feb 1994||2 Jul 1996||Rhone-Poulenc Inc.||Crosslinked polysaccharides useful as absorbent materials|
|US5536264 *||22 Oct 1993||16 Jul 1996||The Procter & Gamble Company||Absorbent composites comprising a porous macrostructure of absorbent gelling particles and a substrate|
|US5538783 *||17 Aug 1992||23 Jul 1996||Hansen; Michael R.||Non-polymeric organic binders for binding particles to fibers|
|US5543215 *||17 Aug 1992||6 Aug 1996||Weyerhaeuser Company||Polymeric binders for binding particles to fibers|
|US5547541 *||16 Feb 1994||20 Aug 1996||Weyerhaeuser Company||Method for densifying fibers using a densifying agent|
|US5547745 *||17 Aug 1993||20 Aug 1996||Weyerhaeuser Company||Particle binders|
|US5547747 *||21 Dec 1995||20 Aug 1996||The Procter & Gamble Company||Process of making absorbent structures and absorbent strutures produced thereby|
|US5571618 *||17 Jun 1994||5 Nov 1996||Weyerhaeuser Company||Reactivatable binders for binding particles to fibers|
|US5589256 *||17 Aug 1992||31 Dec 1996||Weyerhaeuser Company||Particle binders that enhance fiber densification|
|US5599335 *||29 Mar 1994||4 Feb 1997||The Procter & Gamble Company||Absorbent members for body fluids having good wet integrity and relatively high concentrations of hydrogel-forming absorbent polymer|
|US5601542 *||25 Mar 1996||11 Feb 1997||Kimberly-Clark Corporation||Absorbent composite|
|US5607759 *||17 Aug 1993||4 Mar 1997||Weyerhaeuser Company||Particle binding to fibers|
|US5609727 *||7 Feb 1994||11 Mar 1997||Weyerhaeuser Company||Fibrous product for binding particles|
|US5611885 *||7 Jun 1995||18 Mar 1997||Weyerhaeuser Company||Particle binders|
|US5614570 *||4 Apr 1995||25 Mar 1997||Weyerhaeuser Company||Absorbent articles containing binder carrying high bulk fibers|
|US5641561 *||17 Aug 1993||24 Jun 1997||Weyerhaeuser Company||Particle binding to fibers|
|US5649409 *||15 Nov 1994||22 Jul 1997||Thermarite Pty. Ltd.||Apparatus for manufacturing flexible containers|
|US5672418 *||17 Aug 1993||30 Sep 1997||Weyerhaeuser Company||Particle binders|
|US5685834 *||29 Jul 1994||11 Nov 1997||Barth; Alan H.||Surgical dressing material|
|US5693411 *||17 Aug 1993||2 Dec 1997||Weyerhaeuser Company||Binders for binding water soluble particles to fibers|
|US5704905 *||10 Oct 1995||6 Jan 1998||Jensen; Ole R.||Wound dressing having film-backed hydrocolloid-containing adhesive layer with linear depressions|
|US5713881 *||30 Oct 1995||3 Feb 1998||Rezai; Ebrahim||Non-continuous absorbent composites comprising a porous macrostructure of absorbent gelling particles and a substrate|
|US5720737 *||28 Dec 1995||24 Feb 1998||Kao Corporation||Absorbent sheet, process for producing the same, and absorbent article|
|US5720832 *||6 Jun 1995||24 Feb 1998||Kimberly-Clark Ltd.||Method of making a meltblown nonwoven web containing absorbent particles|
|US5766159 *||6 Jul 1995||16 Jun 1998||International Paper Company||Personal hygiene articles for absorbing fluids|
|US5789326 *||19 Nov 1996||4 Aug 1998||Weyerhaeuser Company||Particle binders|
|US5801116 *||20 Jun 1997||1 Sep 1998||Rhodia Inc.||Process for producing polysaccharides and their use as absorbent materials|
|US5807364 *||4 Apr 1995||15 Sep 1998||Weyerhaeuser Company||Binder treated fibrous webs and products|
|US5810753 *||27 Mar 1995||22 Sep 1998||Eberbach; Mark A.||Glove|
|US5820955 *||23 Jan 1997||13 Oct 1998||Brander; William M.||Absorbent container|
|US5821179 *||28 Dec 1995||13 Oct 1998||Kao Corporation||Absorbent sheet process for producing the same and absorbent article using the same|
|US5830201 *||23 May 1997||3 Nov 1998||Frederick W. George||Flushable diaper and method|
|US5840403 *||14 Jun 1996||24 Nov 1998||The Procter & Gamble Company||Multi-elevational tissue paper containing selectively disposed chemical papermaking additive|
|US5859074 *||30 Oct 1995||12 Jan 1999||The Procter & Gamble Co.||Treating interparticle bonded aggregates with latex to increase flexibility of porous, absorbent macrostructures|
|US5868724 *||30 Oct 1995||9 Feb 1999||The Procter & Gamble Company||Non-continuous absorbent cores comprising a porous macrostructure of absorbent gelling particles|
|US5885912 *||8 Oct 1997||23 Mar 1999||Bumbarger; Thomas H.||Protective multi-layered liquid retaining composite|
|US5916678 *||16 Oct 1996||29 Jun 1999||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Water-degradable multicomponent fibers and nonwovens|
|US5919411 *||19 Jun 1997||6 Jul 1999||The Procter & Gamble Company||Process of making a non-continuous absorbent composite|
|US5925299 *||24 Jun 1997||20 Jul 1999||The Procter & Gamble Company||Methods for making non-continuous absorbent cores comprising a porous macrostructure of absorbent gelling particles|
|US5941862 *||25 Jul 1997||24 Aug 1999||The Procter & Gamble||Absorbent structure having zones surrounded by a continuous region of hydrogel forming absorbent polymer|
|US5972487 *||31 Aug 1987||26 Oct 1999||The Procter & Gamble Company||Absorbent structures|
|US5976694 *||3 Oct 1997||2 Nov 1999||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Water-sensitive compositions for improved processability|
|US5977014 *||21 Aug 1995||2 Nov 1999||The Procter & Gamble Company||Absorbent composite structure formed of a substrate and cross-linkable hydrogel polymer particles|
|US5998032 *||5 Jul 1996||7 Dec 1999||Weyerhaeuser Company||Method and compositions for enhancing blood absorbence by superabsorbent materials|
|US5998695 *||29 Jun 1998||7 Dec 1999||The Procter & Gamble Company||Absorbent article including ionic complexing agent for feces|
|US6018093 *||29 Jun 1998||25 Jan 2000||The Procter & Gamble Company||Absorbent article including a calcium-based feces modification agent|
|US6022610 *||19 Jul 1996||8 Feb 2000||The Procter & Gamble Company||Deposition of osmotic absorbent onto a capillary substrate without deleterious interfiber penetration and absorbent structures produced thereby|
|US6063982 *||5 Sep 1997||16 May 2000||International Paper Company (From Thomas L. Wiesemann And John J. Shoemaker Jr.)||Personal hygiene articles for absorbing fluids|
|US6071549 *||6 Aug 1998||6 Jun 2000||Weyerhaeuser Company||Binder treated fibrous webs and products|
|US6086950 *||17 Jul 1998||11 Jul 2000||Kao Corporation||Absorbent sheet, process for producing the same, and absorbent article using the same|
|US6117525 *||8 Oct 1998||12 Sep 2000||The Procter & Gamble Company||Multi-elevational tissue paper containing selectively disposed chemical papermaking additive|
|US6121170 *||17 Jun 1999||19 Sep 2000||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Water-sensitive compositions for improved processability|
|US6224961||1 Aug 1997||1 May 2001||The Procter & Gamble Company||Absorbent macrostructure made from mixtures of different hydrogel-forming absorbent polymers for improved fluid handling capability|
|US6225406||11 Jun 1999||1 May 2001||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Reactive extrusion method of making inverse phase blends of poly(ethylene oxide) and polyolefin|
|US6232520||1 Mar 1999||15 May 2001||The Procter & Gamble Company||Absorbent polymer compositions having high sorption capacities under an applied pressure|
|US6270893||7 Mar 1994||7 Aug 2001||Weyerhaeuser Company||Coated fiber product with adhered super absorbent particles|
|US6317889||21 Sep 2000||20 Nov 2001||Morning Pride Manufacturing, L.L.C.||Protective pad for protective garment|
|US6340411||7 Oct 1998||22 Jan 2002||Weyerhaeuser Company||Fibrous product containing densifying agent|
|US6371977||30 Sep 1999||16 Apr 2002||Aquatex Industries, Inc.||Protective multi-layered liquid retaining composite|
|US6372953||1 Mar 1999||16 Apr 2002||The Procter & Gamble Company||Absorbent members comprising a high surface area material for absorbing body liquids|
|US6376011||7 Apr 2000||23 Apr 2002||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Process for preparing superabsorbent-containing composites|
|US6376034||12 Jun 1998||23 Apr 2002||William M. Brander||Absorbent material for use in disposable articles and articles prepared therefrom|
|US6383960||3 Mar 2000||7 May 2002||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Layered absorbent structure|
|US6387084||13 Feb 1996||14 May 2002||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Sanitary napkin with garment attachment panels|
|US6387495||7 Apr 2000||14 May 2002||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Superabsorbent-containing composites|
|US6391453 *||4 Mar 1998||21 May 2002||Weyernaeuser Company||Binder treated particles|
|US6395395||6 Dec 1999||28 May 2002||Weyerhaeuser Company||Method and compositions for enhancing blood absorbence by superabsorbent materials|
|US6416697||3 Dec 1999||9 Jul 2002||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Method for obtaining a dual strata distribution of superabsorbent in a fibrous matrix|
|US6425979||3 May 2001||30 Jul 2002||Weyerhaeuser Company||Method for making superabsorbent containing diapers|
|US6426445||30 Mar 2000||30 Jul 2002||The Procter & Gamble Company||Absorbent members comprising an agglomerate of hydrogel-forming absorbent polymer and particulate hydrophilic foam|
|US6433058||7 Dec 1999||13 Aug 2002||Dow Global Technologies Inc.||Superabsorbent polymers having a slow rate of absorption|
|US6437214||6 Jan 2000||20 Aug 2002||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Layered absorbent structure with a zoned basis weight and a heterogeneous layer region|
|US6441266||9 Apr 1998||27 Aug 2002||The Procter & Gamble Company||Absorbent members for body fluids using hydrogel-forming absorbent polymer|
|US6444214||4 May 2000||3 Sep 2002||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Ion-sensitive, water-dispersible polymers, a method of making same and items using same|
|US6444761||28 Dec 1999||3 Sep 2002||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Water-soluble adhesive compositions|
|US6461553||31 Jan 1997||8 Oct 2002||Weyerhaeuser||Method of binding binder treated particles to fibers|
|US6478147||27 Nov 2000||12 Nov 2002||William M. Brander||Container with absorbent material|
|US6495080||28 Jun 2000||17 Dec 2002||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Methods for making water-sensitive compositions for improved processability and fibers including same|
|US6521087||4 May 2001||18 Feb 2003||Weyerhaeuser Company||Method for forming a diaper|
|US6521339||18 May 2000||18 Feb 2003||Weyerhaeuser Company||Diol treated particles combined with fibers|
|US6548592||4 May 2000||15 Apr 2003||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Ion-sensitive, water-dispersible polymers, a method of making same and items using same|
|US6579570||4 May 2000||17 Jun 2003||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Ion-sensitive, water-dispersible polymers, a method of making same and items using same|
|US6579958||7 Dec 1999||17 Jun 2003||The Dow Chemical Company||Superabsorbent polymers having a slow rate of absorption|
|US6586512||28 Sep 2000||1 Jul 2003||The Dow Chemical Company||Binding superabsorbent polymers to substrates|
|US6586529||1 Feb 2001||1 Jul 2003||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Water-dispersible polymers, a method of making same and items using same|
|US6596103||1 Nov 2000||22 Jul 2003||Weyerhaeuser Company||Method of binding binder treated particles to fibers|
|US6599848||4 May 2000||29 Jul 2003||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Ion-sensitive, water-dispersible polymers, a method of making same and items using same|
|US6627249||18 Mar 2002||30 Sep 2003||Weyerhaeuser Company||Method of enhancing blood absorbence by superabsorbent material|
|US6630558||7 Feb 2002||7 Oct 2003||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Ion-sensitive hard water dispersible polymers and applications therefor|
|US6639119||5 Jul 2001||28 Oct 2003||The Procter & Gamble Company||Absorbent article including a reducing agent for feces|
|US6646179||20 Dec 1996||11 Nov 2003||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Absorbent composite|
|US6653406||4 May 2000||25 Nov 2003||Kimberly Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Ion-sensitive, water-dispersible polymers, a method of making same and items using same|
|US6658670||12 Sep 2000||9 Dec 2003||Morning Pride Manufacturing, L.L.C.||Composite structure for protective garment|
|US6683143||4 May 2000||27 Jan 2004||Kimberly Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Ion-sensitive, water-dispersible polymers, a method of making same and items using same|
|US6710225||3 Mar 2000||23 Mar 2004||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Layered absorbent structure with a zoned basis weight|
|US6713414||4 May 2000||30 Mar 2004||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Ion-sensitive, water-dispersible polymers, a method of making same and items using same|
|US6716929||3 Jul 2002||6 Apr 2004||The Dow Chemical Company||Superabsorbent polymers having a slow rate of absorption|
|US6730387||24 Apr 1997||4 May 2004||The Procter & Gamble Company||Absorbent materials having improved structural stability in dry and wet states and making methods therefor|
|US6797360 *||22 Aug 2001||28 Sep 2004||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Nonwoven composite with high pre-and post-wetting permeability|
|US6814974||28 Jan 2002||9 Nov 2004||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Ion-sensitive, water-dispersible polymers, a method of making same and items using same|
|US6815502||4 May 2000||9 Nov 2004||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Ion-sensitive, water-dispersable polymers, a method of making same and items using same|
|US6828014||22 Mar 2001||7 Dec 2004||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Water-dispersible, cationic polymers, a method of making same and items using same|
|US6835678||5 Dec 2001||28 Dec 2004||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Ion sensitive, water-dispersible fabrics, a method of making same and items using same|
|US6844066||19 May 2003||18 Jan 2005||Rayonier Products And Financial Services Company||Superabsorbent cellulosic fiber and method of making same|
|US6855790||29 Mar 2002||15 Feb 2005||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Ion-sensitive hard water dispersible polymers and applications therefor|
|US6890622||20 Dec 2001||10 May 2005||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Composite fluid distribution and fluid retention layer having selective material deposition zones for personal care products|
|US6897168||22 Mar 2001||24 May 2005||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Water-dispersible, cationic polymers, a method of making same and items using same|
|US6902552||4 Apr 2003||7 Jun 2005||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Curved sanitary napkin with garment attachment panels|
|US6908966||22 Mar 2001||21 Jun 2005||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Water-dispersible, cationic polymers, a method of making same and items using same|
|US7018490||7 May 2003||28 Mar 2006||Weyerhaeuser Company||Method of binding binder treated particles to fibers|
|US7063689||3 Dec 2001||20 Jun 2006||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Sanitary napkin with garment attachment panels|
|US7070854||22 Mar 2001||4 Jul 2006||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Water-dispersible, cationic polymers, a method of making same and items using same|
|US7101612||7 Jul 2001||5 Sep 2006||Kimberly Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Pre-moistened wipe product|
|US7144474||15 Aug 2000||5 Dec 2006||Weyerhaeuser Co.||Method of binding particles to binder treated fibers|
|US7166094||28 May 2002||23 Jan 2007||Tyco Healthcare Retail Services Ag||Multiple layer absorbent article|
|US7182085||6 Apr 2000||27 Feb 2007||Coloplast A/S||Pressure relieving dressing|
|US7276459||4 May 2000||2 Oct 2007||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Ion-sensitive, water-dispersible polymers, a method of making same and items using same|
|US7311968||26 Jun 2006||25 Dec 2007||The Procter & Gamble Company||Absorbent structures comprising coated super-absorbent polymer particles|
|US7385101 *||20 Dec 2002||10 Jun 2008||Noble Fiber Technologies, Llc||Antibiotic textile materials suitable for wound dressings and wound dressings incorporating the same|
|US7744576||29 Jun 2010||The Procter & Gamble Company||Thin and dry diaper|
|US7750203||11 Feb 2004||6 Jul 2010||The Procter & Gamble Company||Comfortable diaper|
|US7815967||19 Oct 2010||Alain Yang||Continuous process for duct liner production with air laid process and on-line coating|
|US7851667||13 Mar 2007||14 Dec 2010||The Procter & Gamble Company||Comfortable diaper|
|US7919667||15 Jun 1999||5 Apr 2011||Rayonier Trs Holdings Inc.||Absorbent products and methods of preparation thereof|
|US7968083||28 Jun 2011||The Hong Kong Polytechnic University||Methods of manufacturing deodorants, and deodorants resulting thereof|
|US7985742||24 Apr 2003||26 Jul 2011||Archer Daniels Midland Company||Synergistic compositions of polysaccharides as natural and biodegradable absorbent materials or super absorbents|
|US8017827||13 Sep 2011||The Procter & Gamble Company||Disposable absorbent article with enhanced absorption properties|
|US8187240||29 May 2012||The Procter & Gamble Company||Thin and dry diaper|
|US8247641||16 May 2001||21 Aug 2012||Rayonier Trs Holdings Inc.||Absorbent products and methods of preparation thereof|
|US8319005||13 Mar 2007||27 Nov 2012||The Procter & Gamble Company||Comfortable diaper|
|US8361504||9 Apr 2009||29 Jan 2013||Biolife, Llc||Materials and methods for wound treatment|
|US8372441||12 Feb 2013||Biolife, Llc||Materials and methods for preparation of alkaline earth ferrates from alkaline earth oxides, peroxides, and nitrates|
|US8496637||18 Jun 2008||30 Jul 2013||The Procter & Gamble Company||Tri-folded disposable absorbent article, packaged absorbent article, and array of packaged absorbent articles with substantially continuously distributed absorbent particulate polymer material|
|US8497408 *||14 Sep 2007||30 Jul 2013||Virginia Commonwealth University||Treatment for high pressure bleeding|
|US8497410||18 Feb 2011||30 Jul 2013||Rayonier Trs Holdings Inc.||Method for making absorbent products|
|US8552252||4 Aug 2011||8 Oct 2013||Harald Hermann Hundorf||Disposable absorbent article with enhanced absorption properties|
|US8674170||10 Oct 2007||18 Mar 2014||The Procter & Gamble Company||Thin and dry diaper|
|US8741427||13 Jul 2006||3 Jun 2014||Dow Global Technologies Llc||Microcavity-containing resilient, thermoplastic foam; composite of such foam and particles; methods of preparing and articles prepared from same|
|US8766031||13 Mar 2007||1 Jul 2014||The Procter & Gamble Company||Comfortable diaper|
|US8791318||18 May 2010||29 Jul 2014||The Procter & Gamble Company||Comfortable diaper|
|US8827974 *||30 Dec 2005||9 Sep 2014||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Absorbent tampon for feminine hygiene|
|US8912383||17 Sep 2012||16 Dec 2014||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Dual mode absorbent tampon|
|US8979815||10 Dec 2012||17 Mar 2015||The Procter & Gamble Company||Absorbent articles with channels|
|US9044359||1 Apr 2009||2 Jun 2015||The Procter & Gamble Company||Disposable absorbent article with absorbent particulate polymer material distributed for improved isolation of body exudates|
|US9060904||18 Jun 2008||23 Jun 2015||The Procter & Gamble Company||Disposable absorbent article with sealed absorbent core with substantially continuously distributed absorbent particulate polymer material|
|US9066838||8 Jun 2012||30 Jun 2015||The Procter & Gamble Company||Disposable diaper having reduced absorbent core to backsheet gluing|
|US9072634||18 Jun 2008||7 Jul 2015||The Procter & Gamble Company||Disposable absorbent article with substantially continuously distributed absorbent particulate polymer material and method|
|US9173784||15 Sep 2014||3 Nov 2015||The Procter & Gamble Company||Disposable diaper having reduced absorbent core to backsheet gluing|
|US9216116||10 Dec 2012||22 Dec 2015||The Procter & Gamble Company||Absorbent articles with channels|
|US9216118||10 Dec 2012||22 Dec 2015||The Procter & Gamble Company||Absorbent articles with channels and/or pockets|
|US9241845||14 Jul 2014||26 Jan 2016||The Procter & Gamble Company||Disposable absorbent article with sealed absorbent core with substantially continuously distributed absorbent particulate polymer material|
|US9326896||29 Apr 2009||3 May 2016||The Procter & Gamble Company||Process for making an absorbent core with strain resistant core cover|
|US9333120||6 Jan 2015||10 May 2016||The Procter & Gamble Company||Disposable absorbent article having breathable side flaps|
|US9340363||12 Nov 2013||17 May 2016||The Procter & Gamble Company||Apparatus and method for transferring particulate material|
|US20020147483 *||13 Mar 2002||10 Oct 2002||Bumbarger Scott A.||Protective multi-layered liquid retaining composite|
|US20030039817 *||22 Aug 2001||27 Feb 2003||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Nonwoven composite with high pre-and post-wetting permeability|
|US20030070776 *||28 May 2002||17 Apr 2003||Rayonier Inc.||Wet-laid absorbent pulp sheet suitable for immediate conversion into an absorbent product|
|US20030149414 *||18 Oct 2002||7 Aug 2003||Mehawej Fouad D.||Nonwoven web including a superabsorbent region and articles including the same|
|US20030176827 *||20 Dec 2002||18 Sep 2003||Nobel Fiber Technologies||Antibiotic textile materials suitable for wound dressings and wound dressings incorporating the same|
|US20030201051 *||7 May 2003||30 Oct 2003||Weyerhaeuser Company||Particle binding to fibers field of the invention|
|US20030208831 *||29 Apr 2003||13 Nov 2003||Lazar Robert P.||Cooling garment made of water-resistant fabric|
|US20030225383 *||28 May 2002||4 Dec 2003||Glaug Frank S.||Multiple layer absorbent article|
|US20030225385 *||28 May 2002||4 Dec 2003||Glaug Frank S.||Absorbent article with multiple core|
|US20030232965 *||24 Apr 2003||18 Dec 2003||David Bergeron||Synergistic compositions of polysaccharides as natural and biodegradable absorbent materials or super absorbents|
|US20040013715 *||12 Sep 2001||22 Jan 2004||Gary Wnek||Treatment for high pressure bleeding|
|US20040033750 *||6 Jun 2003||19 Feb 2004||Everett Rob D||Layered absorbent structure with a heterogeneous layer region|
|US20040058605 *||19 Sep 2002||25 Mar 2004||Hansen Michael R.||Polysaccharide treated cellulose fibers|
|US20040120990 *||11 Aug 2003||24 Jun 2004||Cushman John C.||Absorbent proteins and methods for using same|
|US20040128747 *||3 Dec 2003||8 Jul 2004||Scott Bumbarger||Personal hydration and cooling system|
|US20040162536 *||11 Feb 2004||19 Aug 2004||Becker Uwe Jurgen||Comfortable diaper|
|US20040167486 *||11 Feb 2004||26 Aug 2004||Ludwig Busam||Thin and dry diaper|
|US20040180598 *||23 Mar 2004||16 Sep 2004||Alain Yang||Liquid sorbent material|
|US20040217507 *||21 May 2004||4 Nov 2004||Alain Yang||Continuous process for duct liner production with air laid process and on-line coating|
|US20040234760 *||19 May 2003||25 Nov 2004||Rayonier Products And Financial Services Company||Superabsorbent cellulosic fiber and method of making same|
|US20050000669 *||14 Mar 2003||6 Jan 2005||Hugh West||Saccharide treated cellulose pulp sheets|
|US20050010183 *||24 Jun 2003||13 Jan 2005||Weyerhaeuser Company||Absorbent structure for absorbing blood|
|US20050031841 *||5 Aug 2003||10 Feb 2005||Weyerhaeuser Company||Attachment of superabsorbent materials to fibers using oil|
|US20050085150 *||10 Nov 2004||21 Apr 2005||Hamed Othman A.||Superabsorbent cellulosic fiber and method of making same|
|US20050112979 *||24 Nov 2003||26 May 2005||Sawyer Lawrence H.||Integrally formed absorbent materials, products incorporating same, and methods of making same|
|US20050133180 *||19 Dec 2003||23 Jun 2005||Hugh West||Densification agent and oil treated cellulose fibers|
|US20050178518 *||13 Feb 2004||18 Aug 2005||Hugh West||Sodium sulfate treated pulp|
|US20050224200 *||7 Apr 2004||13 Oct 2005||Robert Bouchard||Super absorbent tissue products|
|US20050232880 *||15 Apr 2004||20 Oct 2005||Jinlian Hu||Methods of manufacturing deodorants, and deodorants resulting thereof|
|US20060057351 *||10 Sep 2004||16 Mar 2006||Alain Yang||Method for curing a binder on insulation fibers|
|US20070107862 *||5 Jan 2007||17 May 2007||Weyerhaeuser Co.||Sodium sulfate treated pulp|
|US20070156108 *||13 Mar 2007||5 Jul 2007||Becker Uwe J||Comfortable diaper|
|US20070167928 *||13 Mar 2007||19 Jul 2007||Becker Uwe J||Comfortable diaper|
|US20070179464 *||13 Mar 2007||2 Aug 2007||Becker Uwe J||Comfortable diaper|
|US20070260211 *||30 Dec 2005||8 Nov 2007||Schmidt-Forst Alexander M||Absorbent tampon for feminine hygiene|
|US20080009898 *||14 Sep 2007||10 Jan 2008||Gary Wnek||Treatment for high pressure bleeding|
|US20080119586 *||13 Nov 2007||22 May 2008||Shannon Kathleen Byerly||Absorbent Composites and Absorbent Articles Containing Same|
|US20080125735 *||10 Oct 2007||29 May 2008||Ludwig Busam||Thin and dry diaper|
|US20080200891 *||13 Jul 2006||21 Aug 2008||Dow Global Technologies, Inc||Microcavity-Containing Resilient, Thermoplastic Foam; Composite of Such Foam and Particles; Methods of Preparing and Articles Prepared From Same|
|US20080312617 *||18 Jun 2008||18 Dec 2008||Harald Hermann Hundorf||Disposable Absorbent Article With Substantially Continuously Distributed Absorbent Particulate Polymer Material And Method|
|US20080312618 *||18 Jun 2008||18 Dec 2008||Harald Hermann Hundorf||Disposable Absorbent Article With Sealed Absorbent Core With Substantially Continuously Distributed Absorbent Particulate Polymer Material|
|US20080312619 *||18 Jun 2008||18 Dec 2008||Gregory Ashton||Better Fitting Disposable Absorbent Article With Substantially Continuously Distributed Absorbent Particulate Polymer Material|
|US20080312620 *||18 Jun 2008||18 Dec 2008||Gregory Ashton||Better Fitting Disposable Absorbent Article With Absorbent Particulate Polymer Material|
|US20080312621 *||18 Jun 2008||18 Dec 2008||Harald Hermann Hundorf||Disposable Absorbent Article With Improved Acquisition System With Substantially Continuously Distributed Absorbent Particulate Polymer Material|
|US20080312622 *||18 Jun 2008||18 Dec 2008||Harald Hermann Hundorf||Disposable Absorbent Article With Improved Acquisition System|
|US20080312623 *||18 Jun 2008||18 Dec 2008||Harald Hermann Hundorf||Disposable Absorbent Article With Enhanced Absorption Properties|
|US20080312624 *||18 Jun 2008||18 Dec 2008||Harald Hermann Hundorf||Tri-Folded Disposable Absorbent Article, Packaged Absorbent Article, And Array of Packaged Absorbent Articles With Substantially Continuously Distributed Absorbent Particulate Polymer Material|
|US20080312625 *||18 Jun 2008||18 Dec 2008||Harald Hermann Hundorf||Disposable Absorbent Article With Enhanced Absorption Properties With Substantially Continuously Distributed Absorbent Particulate Polymer Material|
|US20080312628 *||18 Jun 2008||18 Dec 2008||Harald Hermann Hundorf||Disposable Absorbent Article With Sealed Absorbent Core With Absorbent Particulate Polymer Material|
|US20090252799 *||9 Apr 2009||8 Oct 2009||Biolife, Llc||Materials and methods for wound treatment|
|US20090270825 *||1 Apr 2009||29 Oct 2009||Maja Wciorka||Disposable Absorbent Article With Absorbent Particulate Polymer Material Distributed For Improved Isolation Of Body Exudates|
|US20100016822 *||23 May 2006||21 Jan 2010||Senevens International Party Ltd.||Disposable personal product|
|US20100137773 *||11 Dec 2009||3 Jun 2010||Buckeye Technologies, Inc.||Absorbent products with improved vertical wicking and rewet capability|
|US20100151049 *||30 Nov 2009||17 Jun 2010||Biolife, Llc||Materials and methods for preparation of alkaline earth ferrates from alkaline earth oxides, peroxides, and nitrates|
|US20100228210 *||9 Sep 2010||Ludwig Busam||Thin And Dry Diaper|
|US20100318047 *||16 Jun 2009||16 Dec 2010||Ducker Paul M||Absorbent, nonwoven material exhibiting z-direction density gradient|
|US20110152814 *||19 Sep 2007||23 Jun 2011||Senevens International Ltd.||Non-woven biodegradable hygiene product|
|US20110162989 *||6 Jan 2010||7 Jul 2011||Ducker Paul M||Ultra thin laminate with particulates in dense packages|
|US20110166540 *||7 Jul 2011||Ching-Yun Morris Yang||Ultra-thin absorbent article|
|US20110209839 *||18 Feb 2011||1 Sep 2011||Phyllis Leithem||Method for making absorbent products|
|US20120010584 *||12 Jan 2012||Mcairlaid's Vliesstoffe Gmbh & Co. Kg||Absorption Body for Use on Wounds|
|US20130310779 *||26 Jul 2013||21 Nov 2013||Virginia Commonwealth University||Treatment for high pressure bleeding|
|US20130345655 *||21 Jun 2012||26 Dec 2013||Toyota Motor Corporation||Enzyme-polymer matrix beads for de-odor applications|
|USD745688||17 Mar 2014||15 Dec 2015||Johnson & Johnson Consumer Inc.||Adhesive bandage with decorated pad|
|USD745689||7 May 2014||15 Dec 2015||Johnson & Johnson Consumer Inc.||Adhesive bandage with decorated pad|
|USRE30029 *||27 Aug 1975||12 Jun 1979||Avtex Fibers Inc.||Absorbent mass of alloy fibers of regenerated cellulose and polyacrylic acid salt of alkali-metals or ammonium|
|USRE31822 *||24 Mar 1980||5 Feb 1985||The Dow Chemical Company||Absorbent films and laminates|
|USRE32957 *||2 May 1985||20 Jun 1989||Johnson & Johnson||Absorbent article|
|CN1741780B||12 Feb 2004||26 May 2010||宝洁公司||Storage layer, absorbing core including same and method for providing the storage layer and the absorbing core|
|DE2609144A1 *||5 Mar 1976||16 Sep 1976||Nat Starch Chem Corp||Trockenes, festes, mit wasser quellbares und wasserunloesliches absorptionsmittel|
|DE3141098A1 *||16 Oct 1981||28 Apr 1983||Stockhausen Chem Fab Gmbh||Absorptionsmaterial fuer wasser, waessrige loesungen und waessrige koerperfluessigkeiten|
|DE112010002549T5||6 May 2010||23 Aug 2012||Eam Corp.||Absorbierendes nicht gewebtes Material mit Dichtegradient in Z-Richtung|
|EP0022227A1 *||27 Jun 1980||14 Jan 1981||The Dow Chemical Company||Flexible absorbent laminates and process for making them|
|EP0024631A1 *||12 Aug 1980||11 Mar 1981||The Dow Chemical Company||Electric cable with improved water-block|
|EP0138427A2 *||21 Sep 1984||24 Apr 1985||Personal Products Company||Compressed absorbent aggregate|
|EP0168196A1 *||25 Jun 1985||15 Jan 1986||THE PROCTER & GAMBLE COMPANY||Method for uniformly distributing discrete particles on a moving porous web|
|EP1447066A1 *||12 Feb 2003||18 Aug 2004||THE PROCTER & GAMBLE COMPANY||Comfortable diaper|
|EP1447067A1 *||12 Feb 2003||18 Aug 2004||THE PROCTER & GAMBLE COMPANY||Thin and dry diaper|
|EP1913912A1 *||12 Feb 2003||23 Apr 2008||The Procter and Gamble Company||Absorbent core for an absorbent article|
|EP1982678A1 *||12 Feb 2003||22 Oct 2008||The Procter and Gamble Company||Comfortable diaper|
|EP2253294A1 *||21 May 2010||24 Nov 2010||Euromed Inc.||Absorptive foam gel lock wound dressing|
|EP2301497A1||27 Sep 2010||30 Mar 2011||Corman S.p.A.||Slight-incontinence sanitary napkin structure|
|EP2324805A1 *||12 Feb 2003||25 May 2011||The Procter & Gamble Company||Absorbent core for an absorbent article|
|EP2468807A1||21 Sep 2007||27 Jun 2012||Dow Global Technologies LLC||Fibrillated polyolefin foam|
|WO1986001378A1 *||21 Aug 1985||13 Mar 1986||Coloplast A/S||An absorption body, notably for use in cases of urinary incontinence in women|
|WO1991008717A1 *||11 Dec 1990||27 Jun 1991||Weyerhaeuser Company||Absorbent panel structure|
|WO1996007380A1 *||21 Aug 1995||14 Mar 1996||The Procter & Gamble Company||Absorbent structure having regions with different degrees of crosslinking and method|
|WO2000056545A1 *||21 Mar 2000||28 Sep 2000||Aquatex Industries, Inc.||A protective multi-layered liquid retaining composite|
|WO2004071363A1 *||12 Feb 2004||26 Aug 2004||The Procter & Gamble Company||Comfortable diaper|
|WO2004071539A2 *||12 Feb 2004||26 Aug 2004||The Procter & Gamble Company||Thin and dry diaper|
|WO2004071539A3 *||12 Feb 2004||29 Dec 2004||Procter & Gamble||Thin and dry diaper|
|WO2005098134A1 *||5 Apr 2005||20 Oct 2005||Scott Paper Limited||Super absorbent tissue products|
|WO2009019226A2 *||1 Aug 2008||12 Feb 2009||Birgit Riesinger||Wound care article having directly adjacent lamination|
|WO2009019226A3 *||1 Aug 2008||9 Apr 2009||Birgit Riesinger||Wound care article having directly adjacent lamination|
|WO2011139849A2||28 Apr 2011||10 Nov 2011||Palmer Stephen L||Thermal signaling or making device|
|WO2012001707A1||29 Jun 2011||5 Jan 2012||Indian Council Of Agricultural Research||Novel superabsorbents and the method(s) of obtaining the same|
|U.S. Classification||604/368, 525/329.4, 604/372, 525/333.5, 604/364, 428/327, 602/42, 525/383|
|International Classification||A61F13/20, A61L15/22, D21H21/14, A61F13/49, A61F13/472, A61F13/00, A61F13/15, A61F13/53, A61F13/22, A61L15/60|
|Cooperative Classification||A61F2013/53445, A61L15/60, A61F2013/53051, A61F13/202, A61F2013/00251, A61F13/206, A61F2013/00744, A61F2013/00748, A61L15/225, A61F13/534, A61F2013/00859, A61F2013/530481, A61F13/00008, A61F2013/530496, A61F13/539|
|European Classification||A61F13/534, A61F13/539, A61L15/60, A61L15/22M, A61F13/20C3, A61F13/00A2|