US 3177863 A
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April 13, 1965 T. w. sPAcK SEMI-AUTOMATIC MAGAZINE GUN 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Aug. 28, 1961 INVENTOR.
THEODORE W. SPACK iiiuiiuil .lllii 1 1 ATTORNELS April 13, 1965 T. w. SPACK SEMI-AUTOMATIC MAGAZINE GUN 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Aug. 28. 1961 ATTORNEYS United States Patent U 3,177,863 SEMI-AUTOMATIC MAGAZINE GUN Theodore W. Spock, Webster Groves, Mm, assignor to This invention relates to semi-automatic magazine guns of the gas operated type and is particularly related to certain improvements in such guns hereinafter set forth.
The guns of the general class here involved have been heretofore very complicated in construction, difiicult to assemble or service, and quite expensive. Such guns have also had the problem of lack of efficient and economical use of the gas applied to propel the pellets and also recock the hammer. While the use of the main propelling gas for recocking the firing mechanism is not exactly new, the means herein disclosed to make the gas useable for that purpose is thought to be new and unique and it is a general object of this invention to provide a simple and direct acting mechanism which is adapted to recock the firing means in a gas operated gun and make it a semiautomatic gun.
It is also a general object of this invention to provide a semi-automatic gas gun with light weight and simple operating means so that the cocking action of the same will respond to the recocking cycle substantially instantaneously and with positive assurance of reaching the proper positions, whereby the cumulative effect of inertia of several parts can be reduced and rendered less significant.
A preferred embodiment of the invention is disclosed herein and is seen to include a spring loaded hammer which operates a gas valve to release a charge of gas for propelling a pellet from the breech end of the shot tube. The hammer is formed with a portion subject to the gas charge for the purpose of using the pressure to return the hammer to its cocked position. Since the action of the hammer and the gas charge is very rapid, the cocking action means associated with the usual trigger is made light weight to reduce inertia and gain responsiveness without sacrifice of sturdiness. In the embodiment disclosed, there are few parts which must interact to release the hammer and then recock the hammer upon its return movement. These means are provided with resilient elements to govern the movement thereof and produce rapid response so that semi-automatic operation is easily obtained and recocking of the hammer is achieved with each trigger action.
These and other features of the invention will become more fully understandable as the description of a preferred embodiment proceeds. Other objects of the invention will be seen to reside in the organization of parts and components set forth in the claims and reference thereto will be made in the following description and accompanying drawings, wherein:
FIG. 1 is a longitudinal elevational View, with portions broken away and other portions shown in sectional elevation of a gun constructed and composed of the parts and components embodying the improvements of this invention;
FIG. 2 is a top plan view of the gun of FIG. 1, with portions broken away;
FTG. 3 is a fragmentary side elevational view showing a portion of the gun of FIG. 2; and
FIG. 4 is a fragmentary sectional elevational view of the gun of FIG. 1, but illustrating certain parts and components thereof displaced to illustrate the operation thereof. 7
The general organization and construction of the gun 3,l77,3d3 Ce Patented Apr. 13, 1965 and its novel cocking mechanism is shown to advantage in FIGS. 1, 2 and 3. The gun 10 is constructed of a tubular body ll closed at the muzzle end by a threaded plug 12 and closed at the rear end by a stop plug 13 secured therein by a set screw 14, although the stop plug may be threadedly mounted if desired. The tubular body 11 is divided into a gas chamber 15 by means of a bulkhead or diaphragm 16 held in position by a lock ring 17. The diaphragm 16 is formed with an aperture 18 opening to an adjacent valve chamber 19. The valve chamber It? is formed between the diaphragm l6 and a partition in this case in the form of a valve block 20, the latter block being secured in position by a ferrule 21 threaded through a side of the tubular body 11 into a side of the block, thereby providing a gas outlet passage communication with an axially formed passage 22 in the block 20. The gas valve side of block 20 is sealed to the body tube 11 by an O ring 23, and the adjacent end of the axial passage 22 is formed with a seat 24. The valve block 26 and the stop plug 13: define the limits of a hammer chamber 25, and this chamber is accessible through a hammer latch slot as at the bottom and through a side slot 27 (see FIG. 3) in which there is a divergent notch 28. Both slots will be described presently.
The gun is provided with a cover tube 29 which is secured to the body tube 11 in any suitable manner, as by soldering or the like. The cover tube houses a barrel tube 30 which extends from the muzzle end 31 of the cover tube rearwardly to a breech end portion 32 which is defined by an annular land 33 fitted snugly within the cover tube 29 and provided with an O ring seal 34 to prevent escape of the gas charge. The cover tube 29 also houses a magazine tube 35 extending inwardly from its open rear end 36 to an inner end in abutment with the breech end of the barrel tube 35. The inner end of the magazine tube 35 carries a suitable 0 ring seal 37 and between the seal 37 and the breech end 32 there are formed a plurality of spaced ports 38 which open radially to the magazine from the annular space between the cover 29 and the magazine tube 35. There are three sets of radial ports 38 spaced apart a distance substantially equal to the axial length of the pellets P to be used in the gun. Each set of ports 38 opens into a circumferential groove in which there is deposited an O ring element 39. The breech end 32 of the barrel tube 30 is formed with diarnetral ports 46 which open to the annular space behind the land 33 and this space communicates with the ferrule 21.
It may be seen in FIG. 1 that the body 11 houses a valve 41 supported in the valve chamber 19 upon a forwardly extending guide 42 which fits loosely in the aperture 18 of the diaphragm 16. The valve 41 is also operatively supported by a hammer strike pin 43 movable in the axial passage 22. A valve closing spring 44 is mounted on the guide 42 to urge the valve to closed position over the seat 24. The strike pin 43 fits loosely in passage 22 so that an extension or tubular piston 45 on the forward end of hammer 46 may slide within passage 22 and be sleeved over the pin 43. The inner end 47 of the extension serves as the striking surface for the strike pin 43. Hammer 46 reciprocates in hammer chamber 25 and is axially bored at 43 to receive a hammer spring 49 which is guided by rod 54) secured at its base end in the stop block 13 by the set screw 14. The hammer 46 has a forward face 51 which moves over the slot 26 in the body tube 11, and a side of the hammer (FIG. 3) moves over the side slot 27 (see FIG. 3) and is exposed thereby so that a hammer cocking lever 52 may be passed through the slot 27 and secured to the hammer body for manually moving the hammer as will be referred to presently.
The gun It is provided with a hand grip or stock 53 which is secured to the body tube if by the set screw 14 and by a second set screw 54 engaged in a locating element 55 fixed to the body 11 adjaecnt the trigger guard 56. The grip 53 is suitably formed to provide a chamber 57 for the operating mechanism now to be described.
Still referring to FIG. 1, the operating mechanism comprises a trigger 53 pivoted at 59 and formed with a finger 6t? engaged by a trigger return spring 61. A safety elerner 62, of usual construction is located adjacent the finger 6% to prevent trigger actuation when desired. A hammer latch element 63 is pivoted at 64 so that the latch projection 65 extends through the slot 26 so that its sloping surface is in the path of hammer face 51. A suitable spring 66 engages latch 63 and urges the same upwardly as shown to hold the hammer 46 in cocked position. Latch 63 is held in hammer cocking position by means of a latch block 67 which has spaced legs 68 (one leg being broken away for clarity of disclosure) which are pivoted at the free ends on pin 69. The upper solid end 70 of the latch block 67 is formed with a finger 71 which cooperates with the latch as to retain it in hammer cocked position as shown. However, the latch 63 is formed with a notch 72 to receive the finger when the gun is fired. The latch block 67 is urged by a suitable spring 73 to the position shown with the finger 71 out of and at the right of the notch 72.. A pawl element 74 is pivoted at 75 on the trigger finger 6t and extends into engagement with the end '79 of latch block 67. Such engagement is effected by a pawl shoulder 76 engaging the end 7 t9 so that a projection 77 extends between the legs 63 to provide lateral support and guidance for the pawl. The pawl is resiliently supported on spring 78 and is thereby urged upwardly to maintain the shoulder 76 in engagement with the latch block 67. In addition to the foregoing parts and elements, the latch 63 is formed with a projection 7% which at certain times when the latch 53 is depressed by the hammer so forces the pawl 7 downwardly in opposition to spring 73 and frees the latch block 67 for rapid movement under the urging of spring 73.
The organization of the mechanism and the construction of the several parts is such that the moving parts are light weight for very rapid response to the action of the high pressure gas charge during firing and equally rapid recovery under urging of the several springs. The parts 63 and 74, are of substantially uniform thickness and have the side elevation configuration as shown. The part d7 is bifurcated to form the legs 68 which staddle the pivot 6h. The gas charge is obtained from a standard type bottle 39 charged with CO gas at about 800 p.s.i. The CS bottle St) is inserted in chamber 15 with its nozzle 61 away from the diaphragm 16 so that when the threaded plug 12 is screwed into place a piercing pin 32 is aligned with the nozzle.
Loading operation The foregoing gun It) is loaded with a supply of pellets P by first withdrawing the follower plunger 83 from the magazine tube 35 at end 36. This is accomplished by pulling the handle 84 rearwardly along a slot 85 in the side of the cover 29 and magazine tube 35 until the follower 83 is free to be turned to rest on the end of stop block 13. The handle 84 is connected to a spring loaded tension rod 36 (PEG. 2) which slides in a tube 87 along side the cover tube 29, and the tube 87 houses an elongated spring 33 which is fixed at the end 89 of the tube 37. The opposite end of the rod carries a plug 9% which is engaged by the spring 83 so that the spring tends to urge the plug 9% toward the muzzle end 31 and thereby force the pellets P into the breech end 32 of the barrel tube 3t) as shown in PEG. 1.
A suitable number of pellets P are dropped into the magazine 35 and the follower 83 is again placed in the end 36 of the magazine. The spring 88 will force the follower to push the pellets P into the position shown in FIG. 1 and in so doing the 0 rings 39 will form seals at the leading pellets except that one in the breech 32.
Gas charging The gun is charged with the CO gas by first moving the hammer 46 by cocking lever 52 to cocked position where the latch 65 is held in front of the hammer face 51 by latch block finger 71 engaging the surface 71a adjacent notch 72. At this point the pawl 74 will have its shoulder 76 engage the head 7E9 of the latch block 67 and the trigger 58 will be in cocxed position. The hammer is then rotated to safety position by aligning the cocking lever 52 with the notch recess 28 (FIG. 3) and pushing the lever 52 into such recess. This prevents the hammer from moving forward. The trigger safety device 62 may also be used if desired. With the hammer 46 thus on safety, the plug 12 may be removed and a C0 bottle 8% placed in the chamber 15. The plug 12 is replaced and threaded down tight so that the pin 82 punctures the bottle nozzle 81. After this the plug is backed on about one-half turn to withdraw the pin 82. The hammer 46, or trigger 58, as the case may be, may be taken off safety and the gun is ready to be fired.
Firing Operation Referring now to FIG. 4 and to FIG. 1 for comparison, it is seen that the gun Ill is fired by pulling trigger 58 which moves pawl 74 rearwardly to push the latch block 67 against spring 73 until the finger 7ll aligns with latch notch 72. This frees the latch 63 which is forced downwardly as the hammer face 51 rides over the sloping face of latch projection 65. The hammer spring 49 drives the hammer 46 forwardly and slides the tubular extension 45 thereon over the strike pin 43 until the face 47 hits the end of pin 43 and urges the pin rightwardly to open valve ll against spring 44. The spring guide 42 also moves rightwardly as it is permitted to slide in the diaphragm aperture 18. The gas charge in chamber 19 flows through passage 22 and out ferrule 21 to the breech ports 4%. At the same time the gas charge acts on the end of the hammer extension 45 as if it were a piston and drives the hammer back to its cocked position. The pellet P is expelled as the gas charge on reaching the breech 32 is sealed in by 0 rings 34 and 37 so that no escape along the cover tube 29 occurs. However, as the leading pellet P is discharged along the barrel 313 the gas flows into the series of radial ports 38 and compresses the 0 ring seals 39 about the three next following pellets P to retain such pellets against being forced backwardly in the magazine 35. Thus the greater proportion of the energy from the gas charge is made available for propelling the leading pellet P, and a suflicient portion of the energy is utilized to recock hammer 46.
Recocking operation The hammer recocking is achieved by the action of the latch 63 being depressed against its spring 66 to force the pawl '74 to disengage its shoulder 76 from the latch block head 70. This action of the pawl 74 is caused by the latch projection 79 engaging on'the pawl and forcing the same down against the pawl spring 78. As the returning hammer face 51 clears the sloping face of the latch projection 65, the latch rises under actionof spring 66 and lifts the notch 72 off the latch block finger 71. The latch block 67 is thereby free to move rightwardly under urging of its spring '73 so that the finger 71 again engages latch surface Illa and holds the latch 63 in raised position in front of the hammer face 51. During this action of the parts the trigger 58 can be held pulled back with no undesired effect since the pawl 74 is now in a position with'its shoulder 76 disengaged from the head 74) of the latch block 67. Release of the trigger 5% permits the trigger spring 61 to recoek the trigger which pulls the pawl 74 rightwardly until pawl spring 7 8 resets the shoulder 76 on the latch block head 70. The foregoing oper- 3,1 vases ation occurs automatically each time the trigger is pulled and released.
The foregoing description of operation has been given with reference to FIGS. 1 and 4 as these views of the drawing serve to illustrate the different phases of the operation of the mechanism. In view of the above description of operation it should be clearly understood in what manner the preferred mechanism is caused to operate and thereby provide a semi-automatic gun in which each trigger operation serves to discharge a pellet P and simultaneously effect recocking of the hammer 46.
It will be apparent from the above details of description of the invention that the same fulfills the objects thereof as previously set forth, and while the preferred embodiment is susceptible to change and alteration, it is not desired to limit the scope of the invention to precisely those disclosed details, except as the same may be necessary by the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
l. A gas-powered semi-automatic gun comprising a barrel having a breech end, a source of gas under pressure, passage forming means leading from said gas source to said breech end, a valve operably controlling the flow of gas through said passage forming means, a valve operating hammer movable between a cocked position and a valve open position, piston means on said hammer movable in said passage forming means with an end face exposed to gas pressure upon opening of said valve by said hammer, the gas pressure causing hammer movement to said cocked position, and a trigger and trigger operated mechanism in the gun adjacent the path of hammer movement, said mechanism including a latch normally holding said hammer in cocked position, a latch block cooperating with said latch to retain the latch in hammer cocked position, an element connected to said trigger and movable with the trigger to engage and displace said latch block from cooperation with said latch and release said hammer, and means movable with said latch upon hammer release to engage said element and retain said element out of engagement with said latch block upon trigger movement releasing said hammer, said mechanism responding to said hammer movement under gas pressure toward cocked position to position said latch to hold said hammer in cocked position and said latch block to cooperate with said latch.
2. A gas-powered semi-automatic gun comprising a barrel having a breech end, a source of gas under pressure, passage forming means leading from said gas source to said breech end, a valve operably controlling the flow of gas through said passage forming means, a valve operating hammer movable between a cocked position and a valve open position, piston means on said hammer movable in said passage forming means with an end face exposed to gas pressure upon opening of saidvalve by said hammer, the gas pressure causing hammer movement to said cocked position, and a trigger and trigger operated mechanism in the gun adjacent the path of hammer movement, said mechanism including a latch normally holding said hammer in cocked position, a latch block cooperating with said latch to retain the latch in hammer cocked position, and an element connected to said trigger and movable with the trigger to engage and displace said latch block from cooperation with said latch and release said hammer, a resilient member for each of said latch, latch block and element, said resilient members being effective to locate said latch, latch block and element in hammer cocked attitude and render the gun automatically recocking, and means on said latch positioned to engage said element upon hammer release and retain said element out of engagement with said latch block upon trigger movement releasing said hammer, said mechanism responding to said hammer movement under gas pressure toward cocked position to position said latch to hold said hammer in cocked position and said latch block to cooperate with said latch.
3. In a gas-powered semi-automatic gun a body having a hammer chamber, a valve block closing one side of said chamber, said valve block having a passage therein communicating with a source of gas under pressure and opening to said chamber, a hammer in said chamber, a valve controlling the flow of gas through said passage, a valve operating strike element on said valve extending into said passage, means on said hammer extending into said passage and forming a piston subject to the gas pressure, said means on said hammer being a tubular extension sleeved on said valve strike element and reciprocating in said passage, said tubular extension means being adapted to engage said strike element to open said valve and admit gas to the passage, resilient means in said chamber adapted to drive said hammer from a retracted position toward said valve block and cause said tubular extension means to open said valve and admit gas under pressure to reversely move said hammer to said retracted position, a hammer latch pivoted on the gun in position to project into said hammer chamber and latch said hammer in its retracted position, a latch block movable in one direction to retain said latch in hammer latched position and movable in an opposite direction to release the hammer latch, a trigger, and means responsive to trigger actuation to move said latch block in said opposite direction to release said latch.
4. In a gas-powered gun: a tubular body open at its opposite ends; a block in said body between the ends dividing the body into two spaces, said block having a through passage therein opening to the body spaces and an angularly directed passage opening outwardly of said body; a barrel tube carried by said body and having a connection with said angular passage; one of said body spaces containing gas under pressure; a hammer in the other one of said body spaces; means closing the open ends of said body; resilient means in said hammer containing space in position to displace said hammer toward said block; trigger mechanism operatively mounted on said body adjacent said hammer containing space, said mechanism including a trigger, a hammer latch projecting into the last mentioned body space, and latch controlling means selectively operable to hold said latch projecting into said body space to retain said hammer in a cocked position independently of said trigger and to release said latch in response to trigger action; and means operatively mounted in said block to control the gas pressure release to said angular passage and to block gas flow to said hammer containing space, said control means including a flow control valve adjacent the gas space side of said block having an actuating stem extending into said through passage, resilient means urging said valve to close the passage, an extension on said hammer projecting into said through passage and being moved by said resilient hammer displacing means to strike said valve actuating stem and open said valve, said hammer extension blocking gas flow in said through passage and, in turn, being forced by the gas under pressure outwardly to return said hammer against its resilient displacing means, said latch catching said hammer on its return displacement, and latch block means urged to a position to retain said latch in its hammer catching position.
5. A gas powered semi-automatic gun comprising a barrel having a breech end, a source of gas under pres- I sure, passage forming means leading from said gas source to said barrel breech end, a hammer chamber, said passage forming means having a branch passage opening to said hammer chamber, a valve operably controlling the flow of gas through said passage forming means, strike pin means on said valve extending into said branch passage, a valve closing spring engaged with said valve opposite said strike pin means, a valve opening hammer in said hammer chamber movable between a cocked position and a valve open position, said hammer including valve operating piston means projecting from said hammer and slidable in said branch passage over said strike pin means with an end face exposed to gas pressure in said passage forming means upon opening of said valve by said piston means, said piston means and strike pin means blocking gas flow into said hammer chamber so that gas pressure acts on said end face to force said hammer to return to cocked position, a trigger, and trigger operated mechanism in said gun adjacent the path of hammer movement, said mechanism having a first setting normally holding said hammer in its cocked position, and a second position upon trigger operation releasing said hammer for movement to its valve open position, said mechanism responding to said hammer movement toward its cocked position to automatically catch said hammer at its cocked position.
6. In a gas powered semi-automatic gun, a body formed to provide a valve chamber and a hammer chamber, a valve block member separating said chambers and having a passage therein opening between said chambers, a hammer in said hammer chamber, a valve in said valve chamber closing the adjacent end of said passage, a valve actuating member on said valve extending into said passage toward said hammer chamber, a tubular hammer extension telescoping over said valve actuating member and projecting into said passage and constituting a piston for said hammer, said piston extension having a surface therein for striking said actuating member to open said valve, a source of gas under pressure communicating with said valve chamber, spring means driving said hammer in valve opening direction and causing said surface in said piston extension to strike said valve actuating member opening said valve to release gas under pressure into said passage and cause operation of said hammer extension as a piston to return said hammer against said spring means, said tubular hammer extension and valve actuating member being interfitted to close the valve block passage to flow of gas to said hammer chamber, and a trigger and trigger operated mechanism for the gun arranged adjacent said hammer chamber to automatically retain said hammer in its return position.
7. In a gas powered gun, a frame having spaced hammer and gas chambers, a barrel tube adjacent said chambers having a breech end to receive projectiles, a member in said frame having a first passage open to said breech end of said barrel tube, said member having a second passage open at one end to said gas chamber to receive gas under pressure and open at the opposite end to said hammer chamber, said first passage being open to said second passage between the said ends of said second passage, valve means controlling said one end of the second passage, a valve actuating hammer in said hammer chamber and including an extension thereon slidably fitted in said second passage between said opposite end of said second passage and the opening of said first passage to said second passage, said extension having an end face exposed to the gas under pressure when said valve means admits ga under pressure into said first passage, means between said valve means and hammer to operate said valve upon hammer movement in a direction to slide said extension toward said first passage, the gas under pressure forcing said extension to reverse direction and drive said hammer back, a trigger to initiate hammer movement to operate said valve means, and means be tween said trigger and hammer to efiect initiation of said hammer movement and arrest thereof upon completion of reversal of direction, said last means including a hammer latch, a latch block normally holding said latch in hammer arrest position, an element moved by said trigger to displace said latch block from its normal position, and means on said latch effective in hammer unlatche'd position to disable said element and trigger While said latch block is out of its normal position.
8. In a gas-powered semi-automatic gun, a tubular housing having its opposite ends closed by removalble plug means, means in said housing forming a partition between said plug, means dividing the same into chambers and providing a through passage between said chambers, said wall means also having a lateral passage opening outwardly of said tubular housing from said through passage, a barrel tube mounted on said tubular housing having a breech end adjacent the said lateral passage to communicate therewith, a source of gas under pressure in a first one of said chambers, a spring powered hammer in the second one of said chambers, valve means carried by said Wall means with its head in said first chamber on the gas source side of said through passage and a valve strike pin extending in said through passage toward the second chamber, a tubular extension on and moved by said hammer and slidably fitted into said through passage and telescoped over said strike pin so that the end of said extension is exposed in said through passage to gas pressure, said extension and strike pin substantially preventing the loss of gas pressure into said second chamber and said extension actuating said valve to open the same, said hammer in said second chamber being movable between a cocked position and a firing position in which said valve is opened, a slot in the wall of said second chamber traversed by said hammer, and gun firing mechanism mounted adjacent said slot and including a latch movable in said slot to hold said hammer in its cocked position, said latch being automatically responsive to hammer movement to relatch said hammer in its cocked position after firing, and said tubular extension on said hammer responding to gas under pressure and driving said hammer rearwardly from its firing position to its cocked position.
9. In a gas-powered semi-automatic gun: a barrel tube having a shot receiving breech end; a source of gas under pressure; passageway means connecting the gas source with said breech end; a valve controlling the flow of gas in said passageway; a hammer movable between a cocked position and a shot firing position; a piston extension on said hammer slidably fitted in said passageway and cooperating with said valve to open said valve upon hammer movement to said shot firing position, the opening of said valve allowing gas under pressure to force said piston extension to move to return said hammer to cocked position; and a firing trigger and trigger operated mechanism adjacent said hammer, said mechanism including a latch movable out of and into a hammer cocking position and having a recess and solid surface adjacent thereto and a projection adjacent said solid surface, a latch block movably mounted adjacent said latch and having a finger thereon normally engaged upon said solid surface to hold said latch in hammer cocked position, an element movable with said trigger and adapted to engage said latch block and move the latter to a position with its finger received in said latch recess whereby said hammer is freed to move to shot firing position and said latch projection strikes said element to dischgage said latch block, and separate spring means for said latch, latch block and element, said spring means normally urging said latch into hammer cocking position, said latch block into position with its finger on the solid surface of said latch and said element normally in position of engagement with said latch block so as to be responsive to trigger operation to initiate firing of the gun, said latch projection acting to hold said element out of latch block engagement so that said latch is free to respond to its spring means to catch said hammer upon return to cocked position and said latch block is free to respond to its separate spring to move its said finger into engagement on said solid surface of said latch and establish recocking of saidhammer.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS LOUIS R. PRINCE, P imary Examiner.
RICHARD C. PINKHAM, Examiner.