|Publication number||US3137347 A|
|Publication date||16 Jun 1964|
|Filing date||9 May 1960|
|Priority date||9 May 1960|
|Publication number||US 3137347 A, US 3137347A, US-A-3137347, US3137347 A, US3137347A|
|Inventors||Parker Harry W|
|Original Assignee||Phillips Petroleum Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (6), Referenced by (223), Classifications (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
June 16, 1964 H. w. PARKER 3,137,347
IN SITU ELECTROLINKING OF OIL SHALE Filed May 9, 1960 2 Sheets-Sheet l PRODUCTS 26 OVERBURDEN OIL SHALE FIG. 2
PRODUCED GAS &OIL
OVERBURDEN OIL SHALE HIGH RESISTANCE SECTION INVENTOR. H. W. PARKER F/G. Mfg:
A 7' TORNEYS Jun 16, 1964 H. w. PARKER 3,137,347
IN SITU ELECTROLINKING OF OIL SHALE Filed may 9, 1960 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 FIG. 3
INVENTOR. H. W. PARKER BY 2 i A TTORNEVS United States Patent 3,137,347 1N SITU ELECTROLINKING OF OIL SHALE Harry W. Parker, Bartlesville, Okla., assignor to Phillips Petroleum Company, a corporation of Delaware Filed May 9, '1960, Ser. No. 27,627 5 Claims. (Cl. 166-39) This invention relates to an improved method for producing hydrocarbons from oil shale by heating the oil shale by electrical resistance.
Electrolinking refers to the passage of an electric current through a hydrocarbon-containing formation with a suflicient current density to create low resistance paths through the formation. This concept is disclosed in a patent issued to Erich Sarapuu, US. 2,795,279, Method of Underground Electrolinking and Electrocarbonization of Mineral Fuels. This patent states that a definite value of electrical resistance is required in the original formation.
Oil shale differs from other hydrocarbon-containing subterranean deposits in that it is usually dry and is not electrically conductive and therefore not amenable in its natural state or condition to electrolinking. oil-bearing strata contain connate water including dissolved salts which permit passage of electric current thru the same at sufiicient rate to heat and retort the strata. Even coal seams contain sufficient moisture to permit electrolinking.
Electro-carbonization tests were applied to samples of tar sands from Iantha and Deerfield sites of Missouri.
and were visibly unaffected by the treatment even I at 14,000 volts. Y
The maximum voltage was applied without effect across one sample of about 1% inches in length. This was the shortest sample used, and the resulting macroscopic voltage gradient amounted to about 500 volts per millimeter.
In those cases in which breakdown was accomplished the gross voltage gradient was less than this value. Tests on a sample of tar extracted from a sample from the Deerfield site indicated that the breakdown strength of the pure tar was of the order of 6000 volts per millimeter.
' of tar Were subjected to voltages up to 14,000 volts and process.
Other The samples were placed between electrodes having a parable in size to the perm plugs, and (c) three largev irregularly shaped blocks about 6 inches by 10 inches and three to six inches thick. In those cases, in which a breakdown of the sample was accomplished, the sample was further heated by applying 1000 to 2000 volts at 15 milliamperes.
The sequence of events, in those cases in which the sample was successfully electro-carbonized, was in general as follows:
(1) Voltage, 05000 volts; current rises approximately in accordance with Ohms law as the voltage increases. A frying, or spluttering, sound is produced, and considerable sparking takes place over the surface of the sample.
(2) Voltages, 5000l0,000 volts; both current and voltage fluctuate as the electrical activity over the surface of the sample increases. Current may increase without a corresponding increase in voltage. Some heating takes place. vj
(3) The current suddenly increases to very large values as the voltage falls to a .value between 2000 and 5000 volts. Violent heating occurs With the production of much smoke, and the tar melts and boils out of'the core.
(4) If the heating is prolonged, the smoke eventually disappears and the core takes on ,a coke-like appearance. The current remains high voltage. V
Some of the samples failed to respond at all to this treatment. That is, voltages up to 14,000 volts were applied withno apparent effect on the sample. The curand relatively independent of rent through the sample remained zero at this'voltage.
to temperatures up to 120 C. This application of heat did not appear to facilitate in any way the carbonization Such behavior would lead one to conclude that electro-carbonization is accomplished by high localized potential gradients induced by breaking current paths in the water phase rather than by gross potential gradients in excess of the breakdown gradient of the tars. a
On the basis of these results, therefore, one must conclude that two conditions are necessary for the successful electro-carbonization of a hydrocarbon bearing rock.
(1) A continuous hydrocarbon phase: That is, sufthe heated shale becomes electrically conductive. This was demonstrated by placing two copper electrodes between sections of Colorado oil shale. The electrodes were about one-half inch apart and the space between them was filled with a graphite powder and brine paste. When about 13 volts was appliedto these electrodes, approximately 100'watts of powerwas dissipated. In five minutes the shale adjacent the electrodes burst into flame and this was-followed by cracks in the shale. The heating was allowed to continue for 15 minutes before the power was shutoff.
When cool it was found adhered to each other. When one block was removed the heat affected zone broke away. The electrical resistance of this affected zone Was'estimated by placing Ohm meter'probes approximately /8 inch aparton its surface. The measured resistance was about 300 ohms.-
It has been found that oil shaleheated to elevated temperatures by any'heat source lowers the electrical resistivity thereof and renders the same sufliciently; conductive to permit producing the shale by electrical resistance heating. Oil; shale samples, bothj'raw andfrd 'torted, were subjected to electrical resistivity tests at various temperatures. The data obtained are set forth below.
- Tempera-- :Re'sistivity Sample ture, (Ohm- I F. cm.)
. Raw shale H .70 5.1X10 Retorted shal'e... 5, 500 'Do V 700 -i 700 uniform .tar distribution couldn'ot be electrocarbonized that the shale blocks hada It isan object of the invention to provide an improved process for producing oil shale by electrical re-' sistance heating with current passing thru the shale. A further object is to provide an improved process for the in situ production of oil shale utilizing electrical conductive media around and between electrodes utilized in heating the shale by electrical resistance of the shale. A further object is to provide a means of heating shale between electrodes within a single well by electrical resistance of the shale. It is also an object of the invention to provide a process for producing oil shale between directionally drilled wells by electrical resistance heating of the shale. Other objects of the invention will become apparent upon consideration of the accompanying disclosure.
A broad aspect of the invention comprises preheating dry oil shale, which is substantially a non-conductor of electric current at normal temperatures, to an elevated temperature so as to render the shale sufficiently electrically conductive to permit further heating by electrical resistance heating; passing current thru the hot shale so as to further heat and retort the shale, thereby driving therefrom valuable hydrocarbons; and recovering the hydrocarbons thus driven out. The oil shale is heated by an electric heater in contact with or close to the shale, by flowing hot gas thru the shale, or by a downhole gas fired heater, etc. The resistance heating system may be energized during the preheating step, in the later phase thereof, or after the temperature of the shale between the heating electrodes has been raised to 400 F. and, preferably, .to700F.
One embodiment of the invention comprises providing an electrical conductor cable extending from ground surface into an oil shale stratum within a borehole there- .in, packing said borehole around the cable with a particulate electrical conductive material in close contact with the shale and in contact with said cable as a first electrode, providing a second electrode in the shale, passing electric current between said electrodes thru said conductive material, so as to heat adjacent shale and distill hydrocarbons therefrom and render same conductive, and recovering produced hydrocarbons from a borehole in the shale communicating with the heated area. are positioned one at an upper level of the shale and the other at a lower level of the shale so that the current passes thru the conductive material packed in the well between the electrodes. The electrode at the bottom of the well is axially positioned and extends from a conductive material at the bottom of the Well to ground level, being insulated from the surrounding conductive material except at its lower end, as by a surrounding conduit from which it is insulated. V j f In a further embodiment, two wells are directionally drilled from spaced apart points at ground level so that In one embodiment of the invention, the electrodes their lower ends are in close proximity to each other.
The oil shale between the ends of thewells-is fractured and the connecting fracture is filled with a conductive material. Conductive cable is provided in each well leading to the conductive fracture and the cables within the stratum are surrounded by conductiveparticulate solid material.
be had by reference to the accompanying schematic drawing of which FIGURE 1 is an elevation thru a well in.
an oil shale stratum with equipment for producing the shale by resistance heating; FIGURE 2 is a view similar In a further embodiment a well is drilled to penetrate the shale intermediate the ends of the di-' 4 thru a test apparatus used in producing a block of oil shale. V l
Referring to FIGURE 1, an oil shale 10 is penetrated by a borehole llwhich is provided with a casing 14 extending into the upper level of the shale.
and is surrounded within the oil shale by a packed bed of solid particulate conductive material 18. Tubingsec tion 19 within the packing 18 is constructed offnonconducting material such as ceramic, plastic, or the like.
An electric cable 20, insulated from well tubing 16,Iex tends thru the tubing to a conductive plate 22 which serves as the lower electrode in the system. Cable 20 comprises a wire conductor encased in magnesia withinan armored sheath, the armored sheath being removed from the lower end section of the cable. Casing 14 is connected to a power source (not shown) by conductor 24 and serves as the upper electrode. The power source is also connected by conductor 26 with cable 20.
In order to render the arrangement more effective in establishing resistance heating in the oil shale, a layer or section of relatively high resistance material 28 is positioned intermediate electrodes 14 and 22, preferably mid-way, so that during the heating of the shale adjacent the packing this layer overheats and melts the conductive material therein to retard or cut off the flow of current therethru.
the layer or section 28. This is now possible'because' of the increase in temperature of the shale which'renderls it conductive. produced area around well 12.
In FIGURE 2, directionally drilled wells as and 32" penetrate oil shale 10 and the bottom ends approach each other in the lower section of the shale. The. intervening shale is fractured by conventional means to produce fracture 34. This fracture may be effected by pressurizing either well 30 or 32 with fracturing fluid prior to drilling production well 36; or the fracture may be made thru Well 36 in conventional manner. Well '36 is provided with casing 38 and with product take-off line 40. A line 42 leading into the casing is also pro- Wells 30 and 32 may also be cased to any suitable depth asto vided for injecting air, steam, and other gases.
the upper level of oil shale 10.
In FIGURE 3, a cylindrical plug of dry Colorado oil V shale 44,5 /2 high, 6% in diameter, and weighing 7.33 kg. .is insulated at the top and bottom with asbestos paper 46 and 48, respectively, of a thickness ofJA.
The block of shale was enclosed by means of circular steel flanges '50 held by bolts 52 and by a cylindrical sheet were inserted in hole 56 about 5 /3 of the way thru the block of shale to extend 1%" into the same, leaving a space of 2" between their inner ends. That portion of the stainless steel tubes within the block of shale was encased in an annulus 62 of --20 mesh iron filings. +10
3 weight percent CuSO -5H O and wet with water after to FIGURE 1, showing a pair of directionally drilled wells with an intervening fracture and an intermediate packing. This moist paste provided close contact with the shale and the tubes. Thermocouples 64 were positioned inside the stainless steel tubes within thedevice and connected with leads to recording apparatus not shown. A fluid take-ofi line 65 was provided to recover fluids produced "at the periphery of-the shale. The entire device was covered with 2' of glass wool. A line (not I shown) was connected with the interior of tubes 62 to recover internally produced fluids.
The block of shale in thedevice of FIGURE 3was subjected to the following tests: Y
:(I) At room temperaturev when electrodes 58 and 60: were energized (250 v.) the resistance wasso high that A well tubing 16 extends thru the well head to the bottom of the well,
This has the eifect of forcing the current to pass thru the heated'shale adjacent the well and opposite Dotted lines 29 indicate the heated and substantially no current flowed. For two hours a diameter quartz heater with a ,6 heated length was placed in hole 56. During' the second hour of heating, 250 volts A.C. was applied to the electrodes. No significant amount of current flowed between the electrodes until 1.3 hours passed. From 50 to 100 Watts was applied to the quartz heater and temperature inside the electrodes reached 1300 F. at times. At the end of two hours,.there was sufficient resistance heating within the shale to dispense with the quartz heater and it was removed. All further heating was applied by electrical conduction thru the shale.
(II) For 4.4 more hours (6.4 total), a power input of 100 watts was maintained and the interior temperature of the electrodes was maintained below 900 F. during this time. The resistance between the electrodes had decreased to 3.3 ohms at this time. Oil production to this point was only 0.5 cc., surface temperature of the shale was 400 F.; hence, it would be assumed that oil was condensing in the fractured shale.
(III) Power level was now increased to 200 watts over a period of 1.9 hours (8.3 hours total). This power level was held for 5.1 hours (13.4 hours total). Total oil production to the end of a 12.3 hour period was 44 cc. The average oil production rate from 10.3 to 12.3 hours was 17.5 cc./hr.
(IV) Resistance between the electrodes decreased to 0.194 ohm at the end of 12.3 hours. In order to demonstrate the concept of injecting air or steam to remove carbon from the spent shale and thus increase the flow of current thru the shale being retorted, about 100 cc. per minute of air (70 F. and 15 p.s.i.a.) was injected thru one of the electrodes. The air injection was continued for 1.1 hours at which time the resistance between electrodes had increased to 1.1 ohms.
Total oil production at the end of 13.4 hours was 75 cc., indicating a rate of 28.2 cc./hr. (V) The input power at the end of 13.4 hours was gradually decreased from 200 watts to 130 watts to maintain the measured interior temperature below 1000" F. The injection of air was being continued. 'Prior to air injection, the maximum temperature was 1300 F. Oil production by the end of 15.0 hours was 138 cc. which indicates a rate of 39 cc./ hr. This increased oil production rate with decreased interior temperature and power input indicates improved use of the applied powerdue to air injection.
(VI) At the end of 15.5 hours, a gas sample was taken,
gas being produced at the rate of 7.7 cc./sec. (corrected to 760mm. O.C.)..
The analysis is given in the table below. Power input was still 130 watts. (Much of'this power was being lost due to the high heat loss system in which the test was being made.) Total oil production at the end of 16.2 hours was 186 cc., indicating a rate of 37.5 cc./hr.
(VII) The run was terminated by choice of the operator at the end of 16.5 hours. At thistime the system was operating satisfactorily and oil production was stable. The total oil production was 202 cc.
The oil production of the runs had the following properties:
Oil Properties The injection of air and/ or steam, as described in step (IV) was effected while current was flowing thru the shale. It is also feasible to cut oil the flow of current while the airand/or steam is being injected toobtain improved results.
In utilizing an arrangement shown in FIGURE 1, current is caused to flow thru the fluid permeable conducting material 18, packed in the wellbore, between electrodes 14 and 22. In this manner, the shale adjacent the well is heated by conduction and radiation sufiiciently to become electrically conductive. Current then flows thru the shale and thus heats additional adjacent raw shale. By this means the current conducting zone expands about the well as indicated by lines 29. In order to encourage the flow of current thru the shale, it is desirable toinclude in the packing material 18 the high resistance section 28 which fails as a conductor when the temperature thru the high resistance section becomes excessive. This high resistance section may comprise one or more layers of non-conducting alumina, glass, or
ceramic pieces, preferably in the form of pebbles or balls,
with the particulate conducting material 18 occupying the interstices or voids between the pebbles. As the temperature increases with current flow, the highest temperature in the system develops at the high resistance section and this section can be made to fail after heating up the adjacent wall of the borehole by suitably increasing the flow of current until this occurs. Thereafter, the current, at least the shalel Conducting medium 18 has been made from iron filings over which copper sulfate solution has been flushed and, also, from steel wool wet with graphite-brine paste, and these havebeen successfully utilized in laboratory tests. In field operation, metal and/or graphite frag ments are useful as packing material. It is necessary for the well bore packing to have sufficient permeability to In order toprevent allow produced gasesto escape. damage to. the insulated electrode at the axis of the wellbore, the packing material can'be made from a metal or other conducting material with a relatively low melting point so that the packing would melt before damage to the electrode could occur. Zinc and copper are metals which would function in this manner, assuming that the axial insulated cable in the well bore has a conductor of iron, Nichrome, or other metal melting at a higher temperature than copper or zinc. After shale adjacent the well has been heated sufliciently to become retorted, horizontal fractures develop along the bedding planes and thus force a greater portion of the current to flow adjacent raw shale. The swelling shale prior to being retorted maintains firm electrical contact in the heated but not fully retorted oil shale. These two factors permit the conducting zone to move a substantial distance into the formation.
The rate of current flow controls the temperature in the well. This temperature is regulated to prevent damage to the electrodes in the well; The temperature is also controlled to prevent decomposition of carbonates and,
greater part of it, must flow thru the will vary, depending upon the conductivity of the material packed in the well bore. When the heated zone has proceeded an appreciable distance into the formation the resistivity of heated shale determines the voltage requirements. Electrical apparatus similar to that used by the Bureau of Mines for electrolinkingcoal is satisfactory. (Bureau of Mines Report of Investigations 5367, Field-Scale Experiments in Underground Gasification of Coal at Gorgas, Ala., October 1957, pages 14 to 32.)
The cost of electrical power would be a major item in the operation of this process. Electric heaters placed in wells have been previously employed to retort shale commercially in cases where economical hydroelectric power was available. is superior to simple well heaters in that the source of heat is adjacent the shale being retorted and thus the rate of heat transfer is not limited. Since this process produces fuel gas the cost of electricity would be due to plant investment and maintenance and not to fuel costs.
After the electrically conductive zone has been established in the shale, as described above, it is extended indefinitely by drilling additional wells into the conducting shale andpacking them with a conducting material.
Power is then supplied to these Wells to cause the conducting zone in the shale to advance. These wells might be directionally drilled so that a greater spacing could be employed. Adjacent wells may be fractured into the conducting zone with an electrically conductive material to provide a path for current flow.
After a large volume of shale has been retorted in this manner air and/or steam may be injected into the spent shale to make fuel gas fro mthe coke remaining on the spent shale. The removal of coke by air and/ or steam would also prevent current flow through spent shale.
This invention applies to production of oil shale in multiple well systems by resistance'heating of the shale. When only one well is used for the process,it is necessary to provide a path for current to flowup the Well by means of an insulated electrode. This electrode must be protected from excessive temperatures. The electrode may be avoided by use of a multiple well system. The wells may be linked together by either fracturing or directional drilling. A combination of directional drilling and fracturing may prove most useful as shown 7 in FIGURE 2. With this method directional drilling need not be depended upon to directly hit another well. Also, in this combined technique the conductivity of the material in the fracture need not be as large, nor as reliable as'it would be in the case offracturing alone.
This technique is illustrated in FIGURE 2. The well in the center provides for the production of oil and gas The resistance heating technique which could be electrolinked as well as conducting solids .Mines R1. 3779, Horizontal Drilling for Oil in Pennsyl- Vania) Horizontal drilling would allow production of so that the current-carrying wells need not also produce gases. If desired, one'well of the three illustrated could be eliminated and the products produced through a current carrying well. The wells could be packed with solids .a selected shale stratum and thus concentrate the electrical power in the most productive zones.
Certain modifications of the invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art and the illustrative de-. tails disclosed are not to be construed as imposing unnecessary limitations on the invention. a
1. A process for producing hydrocarbons from oil shale in situ which comprises providing an electrical conductor cable, fully insulated except a lower end section thereof'and extending from ground surface into a lower level of said shale within a borehole; packing said bore hole around said cable solely within said shale with a particulate electrical conductive material in close contact .With said shale and in contact with the lower uninsulated end of said cable as a first electrode; providing a casing extending into the upper section of said conductive material as a second electrode in said shale; passing electric current between said electrodes thru said conductive material so as to heat adjacent shale and render same conductive and distill hydrocarbons therefrom; and recovering produced hydrocarbons from a borehole in said shale communicating with theheated area.
2. The process of claim 1 wherein a transversesection of high electrical resistance is positioned across said borehole intermediate saidelectrodes so that same heats more than the remaining conductive material upon continued flow of current and melts, thereby forcing current to flow thru the adjacent shale to bypass said section. a
and distilling hole.
3. The process of claim 2 wherein said section of high electrical resistance is formed of a layer of particulate inhydrocarbons more remote from said bore sulating material interspersed with said conductive material.
4. The process of claim 1 wherein said conductive ma terial comprises a graphite-brine paste.
5. The process of claim 1 wherein said conductive 0' material comprises iron Wet with copper sulfate solution.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,634,961 Ljungstrom Apr. 14, 1953 2,795,279 Sarapuu June 11, 1957' 2,799,641 Bell July 16, 2,801,090 Hoyer a July 30, 1957 2,818,118 Dixon Dec. 31,
Gardner Mar. 29, 1921 i
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US1372743 *||1 Jul 1920||29 Mar 1921||Fulton Gardner Benjamin||System for removing obstructions to the flow of fluid in the earth strata adjacent to wells|
|US2634961 *||24 Jun 1947||14 Apr 1953||Svensk Skifferolje Aktiebolage||Method of electrothermal production of shale oil|
|US2795279 *||17 Apr 1952||11 Jun 1957||Electrotherm Res Corp||Method of underground electrolinking and electrocarbonization of mineral fuels|
|US2799641 *||29 Apr 1955||16 Jul 1957||John H Bruninga Sr||Electrolytically promoting the flow of oil from a well|
|US2801090 *||2 Apr 1956||30 Jul 1957||Exxon Research Engineering Co||Sulfur mining using heating by electrolysis|
|US2818118 *||19 Dec 1955||31 Dec 1957||Phillips Petroleum Co||Production of oil by in situ combustion|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3284281 *||31 Aug 1964||8 Nov 1966||Phillips Petroleum Co||Production of oil from oil shale through fractures|
|US3303883 *||6 Jan 1964||14 Feb 1967||Mobil Oil Corp||Thermal notching technique|
|US3428125 *||25 Jul 1966||18 Feb 1969||Phillips Petroleum Co||Hydro-electropyrolysis of oil shale in situ|
|US3507330 *||30 Sep 1968||21 Apr 1970||Electrothermic Co||Method and apparatus for secondary recovery of oil|
|US3620300 *||20 Apr 1970||16 Nov 1971||Electrothermic Co||Method and apparatus for electrically heating a subsurface formation|
|US3642066 *||13 Nov 1969||15 Feb 1972||Electrothermic Co||Electrical method and apparatus for the recovery of oil|
|US3696866 *||27 Jan 1971||10 Oct 1972||Us Interior||Method for producing retorting channels in shale deposits|
|US3782465 *||9 Nov 1971||1 Jan 1974||Electro Petroleum||Electro-thermal process for promoting oil recovery|
|US3874450 *||12 Dec 1973||1 Apr 1975||Atlantic Richfield Co||Method and apparatus for electrically heating a subsurface formation|
|US4045085 *||14 Apr 1975||30 Aug 1977||Occidental Oil Shale, Inc.||Fracturing of pillars for enhancing recovery of oil from in situ oil shale retort|
|US4382469 *||10 Mar 1981||10 May 1983||Electro-Petroleum, Inc.||Method of in situ gasification|
|US4412585 *||3 May 1982||1 Nov 1983||Cities Service Company||Electrothermal process for recovering hydrocarbons|
|US4415034 *||3 May 1982||15 Nov 1983||Cities Service Company||Electrode well completion|
|US4456065 *||20 Aug 1981||26 Jun 1984||Elektra Energie A.G.||Heavy oil recovering|
|US4473114 *||29 Sep 1982||25 Sep 1984||Electro-Petroleum, Inc.||In situ method for yielding a gas from a subsurface formation of hydrocarbon material|
|US4524827 *||29 Apr 1983||25 Jun 1985||Iit Research Institute||Single well stimulation for the recovery of liquid hydrocarbons from subsurface formations|
|US4545435 *||29 Apr 1983||8 Oct 1985||Iit Research Institute||Conduction heating of hydrocarbonaceous formations|
|US4645004 *||25 Apr 1984||24 Feb 1987||Iit Research Institute||Electro-osmotic production of hydrocarbons utilizing conduction heating of hydrocarbonaceous formations|
|US4662438 *||19 Jul 1985||5 May 1987||Uentech Corporation||Method and apparatus for enhancing liquid hydrocarbon production from a single borehole in a slowly producing formation by non-uniform heating through optimized electrode arrays surrounding the borehole|
|US4705108 *||27 May 1986||10 Nov 1987||The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Department Of Energy||Method for in situ heating of hydrocarbonaceous formations|
|US4886118 *||17 Feb 1988||12 Dec 1989||Shell Oil Company||Conductively heating a subterranean oil shale to create permeability and subsequently produce oil|
|US5101899 *||27 Feb 1991||7 Apr 1992||International Royal & Oil Company||Recovery of petroleum by electro-mechanical vibration|
|US5255742 *||12 Jun 1992||26 Oct 1993||Shell Oil Company||Heat injection process|
|US5297626 *||12 Jun 1992||29 Mar 1994||Shell Oil Company||Oil recovery process|
|US5316411 *||21 Dec 1992||31 May 1994||Battelle Memorial Institute||Apparatus for in situ heating and vitrification|
|US5910093 *||4 Dec 1996||8 Jun 1999||Sliger; William A.||Starter tube for use in vitrification process|
|US6199634||27 Aug 1998||13 Mar 2001||Viatchelav Ivanovich Selyakov||Method and apparatus for controlling the permeability of mineral bearing earth formations|
|US6328102||14 Aug 1998||11 Dec 2001||John C. Dean||Method and apparatus for piezoelectric transport|
|US6681859 *||22 Oct 2001||27 Jan 2004||William L. Hill||Downhole oil and gas well heating system and method|
|US6877555||24 Apr 2002||12 Apr 2005||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation while inhibiting coking|
|US6880633||24 Apr 2002||19 Apr 2005||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce a desired product|
|US6915850||24 Apr 2002||12 Jul 2005||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation having permeable and impermeable sections|
|US6918442||24 Apr 2002||19 Jul 2005||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation in a reducing environment|
|US6918443||24 Apr 2002||19 Jul 2005||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce hydrocarbons having a selected carbon number range|
|US6923257||24 Apr 2002||2 Aug 2005||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce a condensate|
|US6929067||24 Apr 2002||16 Aug 2005||Shell Oil Company||Heat sources with conductive material for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation|
|US6948562||24 Apr 2002||27 Sep 2005||Shell Oil Company||Production of a blending agent using an in situ thermal process in a relatively permeable formation|
|US6951247||24 Apr 2002||4 Oct 2005||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using horizontal heat sources|
|US6966374||24 Apr 2002||22 Nov 2005||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation using gas to increase mobility|
|US6969123||24 Oct 2002||29 Nov 2005||Shell Oil Company||Upgrading and mining of coal|
|US6981548||24 Apr 2002||3 Jan 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation|
|US6991032||24 Apr 2002||31 Jan 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a pattern of heat sources|
|US6991033||24 Apr 2002||31 Jan 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing while controlling pressure in an oil shale formation|
|US6991036||24 Apr 2002||31 Jan 2006||Shell Oil Company||Thermal processing of a relatively permeable formation|
|US6994169||24 Apr 2002||7 Feb 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation with a selected property|
|US6997518||24 Apr 2002||14 Feb 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing and solution mining of an oil shale formation|
|US7004247||24 Apr 2002||28 Feb 2006||Shell Oil Company||Conductor-in-conduit heat sources for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation|
|US7004251||24 Apr 2002||28 Feb 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing and remediation of an oil shale formation|
|US7032660||24 Apr 2002||25 Apr 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing and inhibiting migration of fluids into or out of an in situ oil shale formation|
|US7040399||24 Apr 2002||9 May 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a controlled heating rate|
|US7051807||24 Apr 2002||30 May 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with quality control|
|US7055600||24 Apr 2002||6 Jun 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with controlled production rate|
|US7069993||23 Jan 2004||4 Jul 2006||Hill William L||Down hole oil and gas well heating system and method for down hole heating of oil and gas wells|
|US7077198||24 Oct 2002||18 Jul 2006||Shell Oil Company||In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation using barriers|
|US7211038||25 Mar 2004||1 May 2007||Geosafe Corporation||Methods for melting of materials to be treated|
|US7331385||14 Apr 2004||19 Feb 2008||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Methods of treating a subterranean formation to convert organic matter into producible hydrocarbons|
|US7363979||24 Jan 2005||29 Apr 2008||William Hill||Down hole oil and gas well heating system and method for down hole heating of oil and gas wells|
|US7429239||27 Apr 2007||30 Sep 2008||Geosafe Corporation||Methods for melting of materials to be treated|
|US7543643||6 Dec 2005||9 Jun 2009||Hill William L||Down hole oil and gas well heating system and method for down hole heating of oil and gas wells|
|US7631691 *||25 Jan 2008||15 Dec 2009||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Methods of treating a subterranean formation to convert organic matter into producible hydrocarbons|
|US7644765||19 Oct 2007||12 Jan 2010||Shell Oil Company||Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure|
|US7669657||10 Oct 2007||2 Mar 2010||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Enhanced shale oil production by in situ heating using hydraulically fractured producing wells|
|US7673681||19 Oct 2007||9 Mar 2010||Shell Oil Company||Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones|
|US7673786||20 Apr 2007||9 Mar 2010||Shell Oil Company||Welding shield for coupling heaters|
|US7677310||19 Oct 2007||16 Mar 2010||Shell Oil Company||Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations|
|US7677314||19 Oct 2007||16 Mar 2010||Shell Oil Company||Method of condensing vaporized water in situ to treat tar sands formations|
|US7681647||19 Oct 2007||23 Mar 2010||Shell Oil Company||Method of producing drive fluid in situ in tar sands formations|
|US7683296||20 Apr 2007||23 Mar 2010||Shell Oil Company||Adjusting alloy compositions for selected properties in temperature limited heaters|
|US7703513||19 Oct 2007||27 Apr 2010||Shell Oil Company||Wax barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations|
|US7717171||19 Oct 2007||18 May 2010||Shell Oil Company||Moving hydrocarbons through portions of tar sands formations with a fluid|
|US7730945||19 Oct 2007||8 Jun 2010||Shell Oil Company||Using geothermal energy to heat a portion of a formation for an in situ heat treatment process|
|US7730946||19 Oct 2007||8 Jun 2010||Shell Oil Company||Treating tar sands formations with dolomite|
|US7730947||19 Oct 2007||8 Jun 2010||Shell Oil Company||Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations|
|US7735935||1 Jun 2007||15 Jun 2010||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation containing carbonate minerals|
|US7785427||20 Apr 2007||31 Aug 2010||Shell Oil Company||High strength alloys|
|US7793722||20 Apr 2007||14 Sep 2010||Shell Oil Company||Non-ferromagnetic overburden casing|
|US7798220||18 Apr 2008||21 Sep 2010||Shell Oil Company||In situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment|
|US7831134||21 Apr 2006||9 Nov 2010||Shell Oil Company||Grouped exposed metal heaters|
|US7832484||18 Apr 2008||16 Nov 2010||Shell Oil Company||Molten salt as a heat transfer fluid for heating a subsurface formation|
|US7841401||19 Oct 2007||30 Nov 2010||Shell Oil Company||Gas injection to inhibit migration during an in situ heat treatment process|
|US7841408||18 Apr 2008||30 Nov 2010||Shell Oil Company||In situ heat treatment from multiple layers of a tar sands formation|
|US7841425||18 Apr 2008||30 Nov 2010||Shell Oil Company||Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures|
|US7845411||19 Oct 2007||7 Dec 2010||Shell Oil Company||In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system|
|US7849922||18 Apr 2008||14 Dec 2010||Shell Oil Company||In situ recovery from residually heated sections in a hydrocarbon containing formation|
|US7860377||21 Apr 2006||28 Dec 2010||Shell Oil Company||Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters|
|US7866385||20 Apr 2007||11 Jan 2011||Shell Oil Company||Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid|
|US7866386||13 Oct 2008||11 Jan 2011||Shell Oil Company||In situ oxidation of subsurface formations|
|US7866388||13 Oct 2008||11 Jan 2011||Shell Oil Company||High temperature methods for forming oxidizer fuel|
|US7912358||20 Apr 2007||22 Mar 2011||Shell Oil Company||Alternate energy source usage for in situ heat treatment processes|
|US7931086||18 Apr 2008||26 Apr 2011||Shell Oil Company||Heating systems for heating subsurface formations|
|US7942197||21 Apr 2006||17 May 2011||Shell Oil Company||Methods and systems for producing fluid from an in situ conversion process|
|US7942203||4 Jan 2010||17 May 2011||Shell Oil Company||Thermal processes for subsurface formations|
|US7950453||18 Apr 2008||31 May 2011||Shell Oil Company||Downhole burner systems and methods for heating subsurface formations|
|US7986869||21 Apr 2006||26 Jul 2011||Shell Oil Company||Varying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters|
|US8011451||13 Oct 2008||6 Sep 2011||Shell Oil Company||Ranging methods for developing wellbores in subsurface formations|
|US8027571||21 Apr 2006||27 Sep 2011||Shell Oil Company||In situ conversion process systems utilizing wellbores in at least two regions of a formation|
|US8042610||18 Apr 2008||25 Oct 2011||Shell Oil Company||Parallel heater system for subsurface formations|
|US8070840||21 Apr 2006||6 Dec 2011||Shell Oil Company||Treatment of gas from an in situ conversion process|
|US8082995||14 Nov 2008||27 Dec 2011||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Optimization of untreated oil shale geometry to control subsidence|
|US8083813||20 Apr 2007||27 Dec 2011||Shell Oil Company||Methods of producing transportation fuel|
|US8087460||7 Mar 2008||3 Jan 2012||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Granular electrical connections for in situ formation heating|
|US8104537||15 Dec 2009||31 Jan 2012||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Method of developing subsurface freeze zone|
|US8113272||13 Oct 2008||14 Feb 2012||Shell Oil Company||Three-phase heaters with common overburden sections for heating subsurface formations|
|US8122955||18 Apr 2008||28 Feb 2012||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Downhole burners for in situ conversion of organic-rich rock formations|
|US8146661||13 Oct 2008||3 Apr 2012||Shell Oil Company||Cryogenic treatment of gas|
|US8146664||21 May 2008||3 Apr 2012||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Utilization of low BTU gas generated during in situ heating of organic-rich rock|
|US8146669||13 Oct 2008||3 Apr 2012||Shell Oil Company||Multi-step heater deployment in a subsurface formation|
|US8151877||18 Apr 2008||10 Apr 2012||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Downhole burner wells for in situ conversion of organic-rich rock formations|
|US8151880||9 Dec 2010||10 Apr 2012||Shell Oil Company||Methods of making transportation fuel|
|US8151884||10 Oct 2007||10 Apr 2012||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Combined development of oil shale by in situ heating with a deeper hydrocarbon resource|
|US8151907||10 Apr 2009||10 Apr 2012||Shell Oil Company||Dual motor systems and non-rotating sensors for use in developing wellbores in subsurface formations|
|US8162059||13 Oct 2008||24 Apr 2012||Shell Oil Company||Induction heaters used to heat subsurface formations|
|US8162405||10 Apr 2009||24 Apr 2012||Shell Oil Company||Using tunnels for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations|
|US8172335||10 Apr 2009||8 May 2012||Shell Oil Company||Electrical current flow between tunnels for use in heating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations|
|US8177305||10 Apr 2009||15 May 2012||Shell Oil Company||Heater connections in mines and tunnels for use in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations|
|US8191630||28 Apr 2010||5 Jun 2012||Shell Oil Company||Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations|
|US8192682||26 Apr 2010||5 Jun 2012||Shell Oil Company||High strength alloys|
|US8196658||13 Oct 2008||12 Jun 2012||Shell Oil Company||Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations|
|US8220539||9 Oct 2009||17 Jul 2012||Shell Oil Company||Controlling hydrogen pressure in self-regulating nuclear reactors used to treat a subsurface formation|
|US8224163||24 Oct 2003||17 Jul 2012||Shell Oil Company||Variable frequency temperature limited heaters|
|US8224164||24 Oct 2003||17 Jul 2012||Shell Oil Company||Insulated conductor temperature limited heaters|
|US8224165||21 Apr 2006||17 Jul 2012||Shell Oil Company||Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor|
|US8225866||21 Jul 2010||24 Jul 2012||Shell Oil Company||In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation|
|US8230927||16 May 2011||31 Jul 2012||Shell Oil Company||Methods and systems for producing fluid from an in situ conversion process|
|US8230929||17 Mar 2009||31 Jul 2012||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Methods of producing hydrocarbons for substantially constant composition gas generation|
|US8233782||29 Sep 2010||31 Jul 2012||Shell Oil Company||Grouped exposed metal heaters|
|US8238730||24 Oct 2003||7 Aug 2012||Shell Oil Company||High voltage temperature limited heaters|
|US8240774||13 Oct 2008||14 Aug 2012||Shell Oil Company||Solution mining and in situ treatment of nahcolite beds|
|US8256512||9 Oct 2009||4 Sep 2012||Shell Oil Company||Movable heaters for treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations|
|US8261832||9 Oct 2009||11 Sep 2012||Shell Oil Company||Heating subsurface formations with fluids|
|US8267170||9 Oct 2009||18 Sep 2012||Shell Oil Company||Offset barrier wells in subsurface formations|
|US8267185||9 Oct 2009||18 Sep 2012||Shell Oil Company||Circulated heated transfer fluid systems used to treat a subsurface formation|
|US8272455||13 Oct 2008||25 Sep 2012||Shell Oil Company||Methods for forming wellbores in heated formations|
|US8276661||13 Oct 2008||2 Oct 2012||Shell Oil Company||Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier|
|US8281861||9 Oct 2009||9 Oct 2012||Shell Oil Company||Circulated heated transfer fluid heating of subsurface hydrocarbon formations|
|US8327681||18 Apr 2008||11 Dec 2012||Shell Oil Company||Wellbore manufacturing processes for in situ heat treatment processes|
|US8327932||9 Apr 2010||11 Dec 2012||Shell Oil Company||Recovering energy from a subsurface formation|
|US8353347||9 Oct 2009||15 Jan 2013||Shell Oil Company||Deployment of insulated conductors for treating subsurface formations|
|US8355623||22 Apr 2005||15 Jan 2013||Shell Oil Company||Temperature limited heaters with high power factors|
|US8381815||18 Apr 2008||26 Feb 2013||Shell Oil Company||Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation|
|US8434555||9 Apr 2010||7 May 2013||Shell Oil Company||Irregular pattern treatment of a subsurface formation|
|US8448707||28 May 2013||Shell Oil Company||Non-conducting heater casings|
|US8459359||18 Apr 2008||11 Jun 2013||Shell Oil Company||Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones|
|US8485252||11 Jul 2012||16 Jul 2013||Shell Oil Company||In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation|
|US8536497||13 Oct 2008||17 Sep 2013||Shell Oil Company||Methods for forming long subsurface heaters|
|US8540020||21 Apr 2010||24 Sep 2013||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Converting organic matter from a subterranean formation into producible hydrocarbons by controlling production operations based on availability of one or more production resources|
|US8555971||31 May 2012||15 Oct 2013||Shell Oil Company||Treating tar sands formations with dolomite|
|US8562078||25 Nov 2009||22 Oct 2013||Shell Oil Company||Hydrocarbon production from mines and tunnels used in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations|
|US8579031||17 May 2011||12 Nov 2013||Shell Oil Company||Thermal processes for subsurface formations|
|US8596355||10 Dec 2010||3 Dec 2013||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Optimized well spacing for in situ shale oil development|
|US8606091||20 Oct 2006||10 Dec 2013||Shell Oil Company||Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates|
|US8608249||26 Apr 2010||17 Dec 2013||Shell Oil Company||In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation|
|US8616279||7 Jan 2010||31 Dec 2013||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Water treatment following shale oil production by in situ heating|
|US8616280||17 Jun 2011||31 Dec 2013||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Wellbore mechanical integrity for in situ pyrolysis|
|US8622127||17 Jun 2011||7 Jan 2014||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Olefin reduction for in situ pyrolysis oil generation|
|US8622133 *||7 Mar 2008||7 Jan 2014||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Resistive heater for in situ formation heating|
|US8627887||8 Dec 2008||14 Jan 2014||Shell Oil Company||In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation|
|US8631866||8 Apr 2011||21 Jan 2014||Shell Oil Company||Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations|
|US8636323||25 Nov 2009||28 Jan 2014||Shell Oil Company||Mines and tunnels for use in treating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations|
|US8641150||11 Dec 2009||4 Feb 2014||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||In situ co-development of oil shale with mineral recovery|
|US8662175||18 Apr 2008||4 Mar 2014||Shell Oil Company||Varying properties of in situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation based on assessed viscosities|
|US8701768||8 Apr 2011||22 Apr 2014||Shell Oil Company||Methods for treating hydrocarbon formations|
|US8701769||8 Apr 2011||22 Apr 2014||Shell Oil Company||Methods for treating hydrocarbon formations based on geology|
|US8739874||8 Apr 2011||3 Jun 2014||Shell Oil Company||Methods for heating with slots in hydrocarbon formations|
|US8752904||10 Apr 2009||17 Jun 2014||Shell Oil Company||Heated fluid flow in mines and tunnels used in heating subsurface hydrocarbon containing formations|
|US8770284||19 Apr 2013||8 Jul 2014||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Systems and methods of detecting an intersection between a wellbore and a subterranean structure that includes a marker material|
|US8789586||12 Jul 2013||29 Jul 2014||Shell Oil Company||In situ recovery from a hydrocarbon containing formation|
|US8791396||18 Apr 2008||29 Jul 2014||Shell Oil Company||Floating insulated conductors for heating subsurface formations|
|US8820406||8 Apr 2011||2 Sep 2014||Shell Oil Company||Electrodes for electrical current flow heating of subsurface formations with conductive material in wellbore|
|US8833453||8 Apr 2011||16 Sep 2014||Shell Oil Company||Electrodes for electrical current flow heating of subsurface formations with tapered copper thickness|
|US8851170||9 Apr 2010||7 Oct 2014||Shell Oil Company||Heater assisted fluid treatment of a subsurface formation|
|US8857506||24 May 2013||14 Oct 2014||Shell Oil Company||Alternate energy source usage methods for in situ heat treatment processes|
|US8863839||15 Nov 2010||21 Oct 2014||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Enhanced convection for in situ pyrolysis of organic-rich rock formations|
|US8875789||8 Aug 2011||4 Nov 2014||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Process for producing hydrocarbon fluids combining in situ heating, a power plant and a gas plant|
|US8881806||9 Oct 2009||11 Nov 2014||Shell Oil Company||Systems and methods for treating a subsurface formation with electrical conductors|
|US9016370||6 Apr 2012||28 Apr 2015||Shell Oil Company||Partial solution mining of hydrocarbon containing layers prior to in situ heat treatment|
|US9022109||21 Jan 2014||5 May 2015||Shell Oil Company||Leak detection in circulated fluid systems for heating subsurface formations|
|US9022118||9 Oct 2009||5 May 2015||Shell Oil Company||Double insulated heaters for treating subsurface formations|
|US9033033 *||22 Dec 2011||19 May 2015||Chevron U.S.A. Inc.||Electrokinetic enhanced hydrocarbon recovery from oil shale|
|US9033042||8 Apr 2011||19 May 2015||Shell Oil Company||Forming bitumen barriers in subsurface hydrocarbon formations|
|US9051829||9 Oct 2009||9 Jun 2015||Shell Oil Company||Perforated electrical conductors for treating subsurface formations|
|US9080441||26 Oct 2012||14 Jul 2015||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Multiple electrical connections to optimize heating for in situ pyrolysis|
|US9127523||8 Apr 2011||8 Sep 2015||Shell Oil Company||Barrier methods for use in subsurface hydrocarbon formations|
|US9127538||8 Apr 2011||8 Sep 2015||Shell Oil Company||Methodologies for treatment of hydrocarbon formations using staged pyrolyzation|
|US9129728||9 Oct 2009||8 Sep 2015||Shell Oil Company||Systems and methods of forming subsurface wellbores|
|US9181780||18 Apr 2008||10 Nov 2015||Shell Oil Company||Controlling and assessing pressure conditions during treatment of tar sands formations|
|US20030098149 *||24 Apr 2002||29 May 2003||Wellington Scott Lee||In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation using gas to increase mobility|
|US20030102126 *||24 Apr 2002||5 Jun 2003||Sumnu-Dindoruk Meliha Deniz||In situ thermal recovery from a relatively permeable formation with controlled production rate|
|US20030131993 *||24 Apr 2002||17 Jul 2003||Etuan Zhang||In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation with a selected property|
|US20030131995 *||24 Apr 2002||17 Jul 2003||De Rouffignac Eric Pierre||In situ thermal processing of a relatively impermeable formation to increase permeability of the formation|
|US20030131996 *||24 Apr 2002||17 Jul 2003||Vinegar Harold J.||In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation having permeable and impermeable sections|
|US20030136558 *||24 Apr 2002||24 Jul 2003||Wellington Scott Lee||In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to produce a desired product|
|US20030136559 *||24 Apr 2002||24 Jul 2003||Wellington Scott Lee||In situ thermal processing while controlling pressure in an oil shale formation|
|US20030141067 *||24 Apr 2002||31 Jul 2003||Rouffignac Eric Pierre De||In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation to increase permeability of the formation|
|US20030142964 *||24 Apr 2002||31 Jul 2003||Wellington Scott Lee||In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation using a controlled heating rate|
|US20030146002 *||24 Apr 2002||7 Aug 2003||Vinegar Harold J.||Removable heat sources for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation|
|US20030164239 *||24 Apr 2002||4 Sep 2003||Wellington Scott Lee||In situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation in a reducing environment|
|US20030173085 *||24 Oct 2002||18 Sep 2003||Vinegar Harold J.||Upgrading and mining of coal|
|US20040211554 *||24 Apr 2002||28 Oct 2004||Vinegar Harold J.||Heat sources with conductive material for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation|
|US20040211557 *||24 Apr 2002||28 Oct 2004||Cole Anthony Thomas||Conductor-in-conduit heat sources for in situ thermal processing of an oil shale formation|
|US20040216881 *||23 Jan 2004||4 Nov 2004||Hill William L.||Down hole oil and gas well heating system and method for down hole heating of oil and gas wells|
|US20040242951 *||25 Mar 2004||2 Dec 2004||Thompson Leo E.||Apparatus and method for melting of materials to be treated|
|US20050205834 *||5 Apr 2005||22 Sep 2005||Matula Gary W||Composition and method for dissipating heat underground|
|US20080047711 *||6 Dec 2005||28 Feb 2008||Hill William L||Down hole oil and gas well heating system and method for down hole heating of oil and gas wells|
|US20080102413 *||27 Jan 2006||1 May 2008||Thompson Leo E||Thermally Insulating Liner for In-Container Vitrification|
|US20080128271 *||27 Jan 2006||5 Jun 2008||Geosafe Corporation||Apparatus for Rapid Startup During In-Container Vitrification|
|US20080167175 *||27 Jan 2006||10 Jul 2008||Lowery Patrick S||Refractory Melt Barrier For In-Container Vitrification|
|US20080173443 *||25 Jan 2008||24 Jul 2008||Symington William A||Methods of treating a subterranean formation to convert organic matter into producible hydrocarbons|
|US20080230219 *||7 Mar 2008||25 Sep 2008||Kaminsky Robert D||Resistive heater for in situ formation heating|
|US20080251755 *||27 Jun 2008||16 Oct 2008||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||Downhole servicing compositions having high thermal conductivities and methods of using the same|
|US20080271885 *||7 Mar 2008||6 Nov 2008||Kaminsky Robert D||Granular electrical connections for in situ formation heating|
|US20090283257 *||19 Nov 2009||Bj Services Company||Radio and microwave treatment of oil wells|
|US20100078169 *||1 Apr 2010||Symington William A||Methods of Treating Suberranean Formation To Convert Organic Matter Into Producible Hydrocarbons|
|US20100101793 *||28 Aug 2009||29 Apr 2010||Symington William A||Electrically Conductive Methods For Heating A Subsurface Formation To Convert Organic Matter Into Hydrocarbon Fluids|
|US20100282460 *||11 Nov 2010||Stone Matthew T||Converting Organic Matter From A Subterranean Formation Into Producible Hydrocarbons By Controlling Production Operations Based On Availability Of One Or More Production Resources|
|US20100319909 *||25 Feb 2010||23 Dec 2010||Symington William A||Enhanced Shale Oil Production By In Situ Heating Using Hydraulically Fractured Producing Wells|
|US20120152570 *||16 Jun 2011||21 Jun 2012||Chevron U.S.A. Inc.||System and Method For Enhancing Oil Recovery From A Subterranean Reservoir|
|US20120273190 *||22 Dec 2011||1 Nov 2012||Chevron U.S.A. Inc.||Electrokinetic enhanced hydrocarbon recovery from oil shale|
|US20150233224 *||28 Apr 2015||20 Aug 2015||Chevron U.S.A. Inc.||System and method for enhancing oil recovery from a subterranean reservoir|
|USRE35696 *||28 Sep 1995||23 Dec 1997||Shell Oil Company||Heat injection process|
|CN101892826A *||30 Apr 2010||24 Nov 2010||钟立国||Gas and electric heating assisted gravity oil drainage technology|
|WO2008115356A1 *||7 Mar 2008||25 Sep 2008||Exxonmobil Upstream Res Co||Resistive heater for in situ formation heating|
|WO2010051093A1 *||28 Aug 2009||6 May 2010||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Electrically conductive methods for heating a subsurface formation to convert organic matter into hydrocarbon fluids|
|U.S. Classification||166/248, 166/60|
|International Classification||E21B43/24, E21B43/16|