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Publication numberUS2736949 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication date6 Mar 1956
Filing date1 Dec 1952
Priority date1 Dec 1952
Publication numberUS 2736949 A, US 2736949A, US-A-2736949, US2736949 A, US2736949A
InventorsKraemer William D
Original AssigneeKraemer William D
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method for forming pipe fittings
US 2736949 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

March 6, 1956 w KRAEMER 2,736,949

METHOD FOR FORMING PIPE FITTINGS Filed Dec. 1, 1952 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 AU/LL/IVM 0, KQHEMEE IN V EN TOR.

March 6, 1956 w n KRAEMER 2,736,949

METHOD FOR FORMING PIPE FITTINGS Filed Dec. 1, 1952 I5 Sheets-Sheet 2 a mi a a m w p gi a March 6, 1956 w. D. KRAEMER METHOD FOR FORMING PIPE FITTINGS 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Dec. 1, 1952 ii I d (LL/HM 0. mas/vs? INVENTOR 97'7'0EN r United States Patent METHGD FOR FORMING PIPE FITTINGS William D. Kraemer, Maywood, Calif.

Application December 1, 1952, Serial No. 323,368

6 Claims. (Cl. 29-157) This invention relates to' pipes and pipe fittings and is particularly concerned with branch connectors such as Ts, Ys and the like, having side outlets to accommodate a plumbing system "including a central arterial line or stand pipe and one or more tributary lines.

While certain aspects of the primary inventive concept may be generally applicable to various types of pipes formed of a wide variety of materials and useful in numerous arts, the invention as herein set forth in one of its preferredembodiments is directed to sanitary plumbing constructions in which the fittings are characterized by the absence of any internally protruding surface facing against the direction of drainage flow, thus providing a sweeping juncture between passageways so as to preclude steps, recesses, pockets, or traps by which fluids and solid materials entrained thereby may be detained to form obstructions.

Heretofore, sanitary or drainage fittings have been formed by casting ferrous metals or by the extrusion of non-ferrous metals such as aluminum, copper and brass.

In both instances such fittings are heavy, cumbersome and commensurately expensive. In the casting of ferrous branch connectors of this type, great expense is encountered in the provision of melting and casting equipment as well as in the provision of countless individual moulds for each size of each shape required and in addition the casting operation is time consuming, laborious and proportionately expensive. Furthermore such cast ferrous fittings are readily susceptible to corrosion and seldom have a useful life equal that of the building in which they are installed.

In the forming of such fixtures by extrusion, non-ferrous metals may be employed, however, although non-ferrous materials such as brass, copper or aluminum are more durable and corrosion resistant than ferrous metals the cost of material is considerably greater than that encountered with ferrous fittings since the size and Weight of such fittings is but little less due to the requirements of substantial thickness to insure adequate strength and to exclude perforations and blow holes. It may also be noted that extrusion methods of forming pipe fittings are expensive and wasteful of the materials employed. An important factor of such waste and expense being the imperfections of extrusion methods and apparatus resulting in a high rate of rejected pieces.

Some conception of the problems involved in sanitary plumbing engineering may be achieved by a consideration of the number and variety of fittings which may be required in a building of only modest height and limited conveniences. Since the waste disposal system conventionally extends to each floor and may accommodate a plurality of facilities on each floor the number of fixtures runs into the hundreds. Where either cast or extruded fittings are used the sheer weight thereof becomes important and since such Weight is encountered throughout the whole system and is supported on standard pipe not designed for supporting such loads, therefore in'theupper floors of such buildings clamps, hangers and supports ice must be provided and the construction must be strengthened to accommodate the stresses imposed by such loads.

In the more desirable types of modern constructions, copper, brass or aluminum pipes are preferable in order to provide a serviceable life for the sanitary plumbing system commensurate with the life expectancy of the building. In such cases the heavy and expensive extruded fittings must be employed to provide a uniform durability for such system. In such cases it may be noted that the copper, brass or aluminum stand pipes of the system are even less rigid and of less load carrying ability than the ferrous pipes using castfittings. Not only do such weights add complexities to the building design but they increase the manual labor required in their assembly and add considerable expense by way of freight and transportation charges.

The present invention avoids the weight and cumbersomeness of both cast and extruded fittings and provides the corrosion resistance of non-ferrous materials by the use of thin walled pipe sections of brass, copper, aluminum or plastics not heretofore susceptible of manufacture into acceptable sanitary or draina e fittings.

Applicant recognizes that attempts have been made to form branch connectors for thin walled non-ferrous tubing, particularly in the musical instrument field. Such attempts have included methods providing for the perforation of the walls of thin sections and the extruding of flanges at the peripheries of such perforations by forcing outwardly from the interior of the tubing flange forming die of larger diameter than the perforation. Extension pipes have then been fitted over such flanges to complete the arrangement. While such methods may have been somewhat successful in the formation of right angular 'Ts, they have not been successful in producing flanged apertures of other angularity due to their inability to fold back or return bend the flanged material. Furthermore, it is obvious that economical production of such fittings cannot be achieved since in each individual instance the die must be first inserted and then moved longitudinally within the tubing for initial registration with the aperture before it is pulled outwardly to form the peripheral flange. Quite obviously such methods do not lend themselves to the mass production of sanitary drainage plumbing fittings.

In the present invention, a peripheral flange is formed at any required angle to the axis of the body tubing by a continuous and progressive rolling and drawing operation by which the thin non-ferrous material may be formed and swaged without rupture or work hardening in such manner as to form a sweeping connecting flange to the interior of which a completion tubing may be readily applied and sealingly secured by silver solder, brazing or the like.

From the foregoing it will be seen that with respect to the article of the present invention it is among the prime objects to provide a thin walled light Weight branch connection which readily lends itself to manufacture from non-ferrous materials.

A further object is to provide as an article of manufacture a thin walled light weight non-ferrous sanitary plumbing fitting.

More specifically it is an object to provide as a new article of manufacture sweep Y and T connections formed by the union of separate thin walled non-ferrous tubular pieces.

Another specific object is to provide as a new article of manufacture a light weight non-ferrous sanitary sweep fitting formed by the union of a straight thin walled tubing with a curved thin walled elbow.

In the production of the foregoing articles a novel and improved method has been invented which includes among its objects to provide for a simple, effective, efiicient and economical means for the manufacture of thin walled light weight non-ferrous plumbing connections.

Another object of the method of the present invention is to provide a new and improved means for producing an aperture in a thin walled tubing from the periphery of which a flange may be readily formed.

It is also an object of the method of the present invention to provide for the turning of a flange from the pe riphery of an aperture of a thin walled tubing.

A further object of the method of the present invention is to provide for the forming, by continuously successive rolling and drawing operations, a flange reversely directed with respect to the one axial direction of the tubing from which the flange is produced.

It is also among the specific objects of the method of the present invention to provide for the forming of a flange in a thin walled non-ferrous elbow which flange constitutes an extension of one leg of the elbow.

In carrying out the method as set forth in the foregoing objects, apparatus has been invented, one of the objects of which is to provide novel and improved means for perforating a thin walled non-metallic tubing.

A further object of the apparatus for perforating a thin walled tubing is to provide means for efficiently and effectively producing a trepan cut in a tubing the circular axis of which is angularly related to the axis of the tubing at an angle other than a right angle.

In carrying out the method apparatus has also been invented for producing a flange surrounding the periphery of an aperture and it is among the objects of such apparatus to provide means for forming a uniform flange disposed in a circular plane normal to the axis of the perforation.

A further object of the apparatus is to provide means for applying gradual and successive drawing, rolling and/or swaging operations to the end that a uniform flange may be formed without deleterious work hardening of the material or cracking or fracturing thereof.

Numerous other objects and features of the article, method and apparatus will be apparent from a consideration of the following specification taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which:

Figure 1 is a perspective view of a thin walled nonferrous tubing from which one of the articles of the present invention may be formed and indicating by dotted lines the perforation to be cut therein;

Figure 2 is a vertical sectional view of the tubing shown in Figure 1 undergoing the first step of the method of the present invention by the operation thereon of the cutting apparatus of the present invention;

Figure 3 is a vertical section illustrating the formation of the flange from the periphery of the aperture formed by the operation illustrated in Figure 2 and illustrating the use of the flanging apparatus of the present invention;

Figure 4 is a vertical sectional view illustrating the application of the branch extension tubing within the flanged aperture of the tubing;

Figure 5 is a perspective view of a sanitary Y fitting formed by the steps and with the apparatus of Figures 2 to 4 inclusive;

Figure 6 is a perspective view of a thin walled nonferrous bend or elbow from which another form of the article of the present invention may be formed and illustrating by dotted lines the perforation to be made therein;

Figure 7 is a vertical sectional view showing the operation of perforating the bend of Figure 6 and illustrating the use of another form of the cutting apparatus of the present invention;

Figure 8 is a vertical sectional view illustrating the method of flanging the aperture formed by the method step illustrated in Figure 7 and illustrating another form of the flanging apparatus of the present invention;

Figure 9 is a vertical sectional view showing the appiication of a straight thin walled extension tubing to the flange. formed by the operation illustrated in Figure 8;

Figure 10 is a perspective view of the finished article formed by the operation steps of Figures 7, 8 and 9;

Figure 11 is a detailed illustrating the construction and operation of the cutting tool illustrated in Figure 2 and its associated die.

Figure 12 is a detailed sectional view illustrating the construction and operation of the cutting tool illustrated in Figure 7 of the accompanying drawings;

Figure 13 is a detailed sectional view illustrating the construction and operation of the flanging tool illustrated in Figure 3 and its associated die; and;

Figure 14 is a vertical sectional view illustrating the construction and operation of the flanging tool illustrated in Figure 8 and its associated die.

As hereinbefore indicated the article of the present invention may be generally defined as formed by the union of two thin walled non-ferrous tubular sections, one of which has been perforated and the edges adjacent the perforation flanged outwardly to receive the companion tubing.

In one preferred form of the article the apertured tubings it? are straight and the flange is formed in a circular plane the axis of which is angularly disposed with respect to the axis of the tubing from which it is formed at an angle of approximately degrees. In another form of the article of the present invention the flange is formed at the turn of a bend or elbow. The flange is preferably concentric with the axis of one end of the bend to provide for the fitting therein of a straight tubing in axial alignment with said one end. In both forms of the article the attached imperforate tubing is preferably located within the flange so as to promote unobstructed downward flow of the fluids and the materials entrained therein. In both forms of the article union of the tubing pieces is preferably formed by silver soldering, welding or brazing although it will be understood that the invention is by no means limited to this form of sealing engagement.

The method of the present invention as herein set forth may be characterized as including a first step of cutting, preferably by a trepanning procedure, an aperture in a tubing and thereafter forming by an outward rolling, drawing or swaging operation a flange forming a circular ring the axis of which conforms to the desired axis of the extension tubing which is applied thereto and thereafter applying the extension tubing to such flange and perfecting sealing securement therebetween.

One important characteristic of the present invention by which it is distinguished from practices heretofore carried on is the formation of the flange by a gradual continuous outward rolling preferably through the agency of the planetary motion of a rolling tool the axis of planetation of which is coaxial with the circular flange to be formed while the axis of the roller is preferably at an angle to the axis of planetation. Another important element of the flange forming method is the gradual withdrawal of the tool axially from within the tubing during its planetary movement so as to perform the gradual and continuous rolling, drawing or swaging operation without subjecting the material to undue work hardening, tearing, fracturing or cracking. As distinguished from any previously known method of forming a flange on a tubing by deforming material of the tubing body the present method first fully deforms that portion of material which is to constitute the base of the flange. This is accomplished by rotary tool movement whereby the forming operation progresses circularly outward in a helical path. Only one small area is contacted by the tool at any instant and the brunt of the deforming stress is borne by the fully supported base material. Thus it will be seen that by the present invention the flange after forming will retain substantially the same texture, grain structure and qualities of the material of the body tubing as distinguished from flanges formed by direct pressure deformation or even nonprogressive rolling. By this method it is possible to produceta flangethe thickness of which is substantially equal to that .of the bodyof the tubing as distinct from flanges formed by drawing operations which stretch the material and methods which first apply the deforming forces to the free unsupported edgematerial.

The cutting apparatus of the present invention preferably comprises'a cylindrical cutter mounted within a tube supporting die by which it is trained for engagement with the tubing at a desired predetermined angle together with means by which the cutter is rotated and fed toward the tubing to be cut preferably as an incident to its rotation. The cutter as thus formed performs a trepanning operation on the tubing without subjecting the tubing to deforming pressures.

Theflanging tool of the present invention comprises acarrier and a supporting tube holding die therefor which carrier has mounted therein an axially extending shank the inner end of which is formed with an angularly disposed arbor upon which is rotatablymountcd the forming roller. The arrangement is such that as the shank is rotated the roller will be bodily moved in an orbital path while the roller is free to turn with the arbor as its axis.

,-Means are provided for gradually withdrawing the roller outwardly from the tubing during its orbital movement and such means may conveniently take the form of a I threaded relation between die and shank so that such outward movement is accomplished by and with the orbital movement of the roller.

Referringnow to Figures 1 to 5 of the drawings the fitting shown as completed in Figure 5 is formed from a straight-cylindricalbody piece shown in Figure l. The body.l0 is formed of a relatively thin walled piece of nonferrous tubing such as copper, brass, tin, aluminum or like .metals or may if desired be formed of a plastic material. -In the successful reduction to practice of this invention copper has been employed. As an illustration therefore it may be considered that the body Ill, as well as the extension hereinafter discussed, is formed of commercial electrolytic copper tubing of not less than 99 percent purity. Such tubing is commercially available in a wide range of diameters, one and one-quarter to four inch nominal diameter being here selected as preferable forv ness is quite satisfactory. It will of course be understood that the material selected must be ductile and susceptible of cold working without deleterious work hardening and the copper tubingabove referred to is satisfactory in this respect.

The first step in the method of the present invention is to form an opening 12 in the wall of the body tubing 16 at approximately the place indicated by the dotted lines 11 of Figure 1. While the invention is in no way limited to the method here shown, as presently preferable, and while other methods are now under consideration, applicant here elects to perforate the tubing it by performing a circular cut by a trepanning cutter shown in Figure 2 and illustrated in detail in Figure 11. While the axial trajectory of .the cut performed is circular it will of course be understood that the aperture Walls will curve downwardly in conformity with the curved walls of the tubing. It will also be understood that while the cutter may be directed against the tubing at an angle normal to the axis thereof to form an opening at right angles to the tube axis it is a feature of the invention to direct the cutter against the tubing at an angle other than 90 degrees and hence the angularity here illustrated is approximately 45 degrees so that the axis of the circular incision is at such angularity with respect to the tube axis and the edges 6 of the aperture 12 thus formed incline downwardly toward the lower end 13 of the body 10.

Referring now to Figure 11 as well as Figure 2 it will be seen that the cutter structure-includesa two .part tube holding die including a clamp piece 14 having "an internal curvature 15 conforming to the configuration of the tubing 19. The clamp piece 14 is adapted to be releasabiy secured to a cutter head 16 by releasable securing means such as the nuts and bolts indicated at '17. The head 16 has an internal curved surface 18 adapted to fit the contour of the tubing 10 and cooperating with the surface 15 of the clamp piece 14- to firmly grip the tubing therebetween as the securing means '17 are tightened.

The cutter head 16 is of substantial thickness compared to the clamp piece 14 to accommodate guide bore 19 the angularity of which with respect to the cooperating curved surfaces 15 and 18 is the desired angularity of the axis of the circular aperture to be formed with respect to the axis of the tubing. In the present instance since the angle of 45 degrees has been selected for the purpose of illustration the axis of the bore 19 is at 45 degrees from the axis of the tubular opening formed by the surfaces 15 and 18 and hence the axis of a body 10 clamped therebetween. It will be understood however that this angularity may be any selected and may include a full degrees should it be desired .to form a simple T connection.

Within the bore 19 there is fitted a cylindrical bearing sleeve 2%! having an external retaining flange '21 adapted to seat upon bearing surface 22 formed on the cutter head 16 at an angle normal to the axis of the bore '19 so as to maintain the axisof theibore 23 of the bearing 29 coaxial of the bore 19 of the cutter head 16. The bearing 20 may be either free to rotate within the bore 19 or secured against rotation as desired it is nevertheless preferably formed of suitable bearing metal so as to withstand wear either by rotating against the walls of bore 19 or by receiving the rotations therein of the cutter about to be described.

The cutter indicated at 24 has a cylindrical outer surface fitted within the bore 23 of the bearing 19 to be guided thereby but free to travel axially thereof. The inner or cutting end 25 of the cutter is tubular its end being provided with serrated teeth 26 forming a circular saw like blade or .trepan. The opposite end of the cutter is formed with a shank 27 to which any suitable rotating and feeding means may be applied whereby rotation of the teeth while being fed axially towards the axis of tube but at an angle thereto will perform the circular cut .12 as hereinbefore described.

The diameterof the cutter end 25 and hence that of the aperture to be incised thereby may be determined partly by the diameter of the branch tube to be united with the body tubing and partly by the character of the flange to be formed. Thus if a narrow flange is to be formed for the reception of the branch tubing the diameter of the cutter will be but slightly smaller than the external diameter of the branch tube where such branch tube is to be fitted within the flange as here indicated as preferable. If however a more generous width of flange is desired the comparative diameter of cutter to finished aperture is substantially less thus providing a greater area of aperture edge to be worked by the forming tool as hereinafter described.

In the practice of the invention the wider type of flange is recommended since it will provide for an outward turning of the side portions of the aperture edge to an extent exceeding the curvature of the body. Where a narrow flange is formed as a result of a close relationship between aperture diameter and branch diameter the flange will follow the curvature of the body 10 and the interfitting branch must then be curved to conform with the saddle like configuration of the flange. On the other hand if ample flange material is provided as by the use of a cutting tool substantially smaller in diameter to that of the diameter to be formed within the flange the flange will extend outwardly in its full circumference beyond the body. Such flange may then be cut or ground off at its upper and lower edges to present a transversely uniform edge within which a branch end cut in a straight diagonal (as shown) may be readily secured.

In the operation of the cutter here shown it will be seen that as the cutter is rotated the teeth 26 successively engage the tubing to preform a progressive circular sawing action first engaging the tubing at the up portion of the area to be perforated and progressing moving downward therefrom to complete a circular trepauning operation. By this arrangement it will be noted the excessive pressures required where the entire circle is engaged by a cutting tool is avoided. Since such pressures are avoided the danger of deforming the tubing is avoided. Furthermore since the cutting action is progressive the danger of tearing or splitting the tubing is circumvented and the generation of heat is maintained at a minimum.

After the circular aperture 12 is formed as by the tool of Figures 2 and 11 and the method here above outlined the peripheral edges of the aperture are rolled outward to form a circular flange the side walls of which are parallel and concentric with the axis of the hole and thus at an angle to the axis of the tubing. In the illustration here presented the angularity is of 45 degrees.

The formation of the flange indicated at 3% in Figure is illustrated in Figure 3 the forming tool being shown in detail in Figure 13. The tool comprises a tool head 31 having a tube conforming inner curved surface 32 which cooperates with a companion inner curved surface 33 of a backing clamp 34 to encircle and firmly secure the tool to the tubing 10. As in the case of the cutter the clamp is detachably secured to the head by releasable securing means such as indicated at 35. The head 31 is formed with a bore 36 conforming in angularity to that selected for the cutter and a stationary internally threaded bearing sleeve 37 is mounted within the bore 36. Intermediate its ends the sleeve 37 is provided with an external shoulder 38 adapted to be seated on and secured to a bearing surface 3?. The bearing surface 39 is normal to the axis of the bore 36 and hence disposed at an angle to the axis of the sleeve at a complement to the angle with respect thereto at which the axis of the bore extends.

Beyond the shoulder 38 outwardly thereof the bearing sleeve 37 is formed with an extended body portion 4%) and internally the entire central bore 41 of the sleeve is threaded this threaded bore being coaxial with the bore 36 of the tool head. Threadedly engaging the bore 41 is the shank 42 of a rotatable tool post 43 the outer end 44 of which is shown as hexagonal to receive a rotating member of suitable character by which the post 43 may be turned and as an incident thereto feed inwardly or outwardly by virtue of the threaded engagement between bore 41 and shank 42. The tool post 43 extends inwardly from its threaded shank 42 and is formed at its end with recess 45. Threadedly engaged with the shank and extending outwardly from the recess there is provided a die or roller pintle Q6. The pintle 46 is disposed at an angle to the axis of the shank. A preferable angle being as here shown about one-half the angle of the shank with respect to the axis of the tubing. Rotatably mounted on the pintle 4a is tie forming roller or die 47 the inner cylindrical end 48 of which is partially received within the recess 45 while the opposite end is formed with a peripheral forming edge 50 preferably constituting a rounded flange for smoothly engaging the peripheral edge of the aperture 12 to draw and work the material thereof outwardly without undue friction. The roller 47 is secured against axial displacement from the pintle 46 by the headed end 51 thereof together with a bearing element 52 which engages the head and seats within the outer end of the roller.

From a consideration of the above description of the forming tool it will be seen that due to the angularity of the pintle or arbor 46 for the roller 47 and the extension from the roller body of its flange like edge or head 50 one edge of the roller will at all times extend beyond an imaginary inner projection of the cylindrical surface of the tool shank 43. It will also be noted that the cut formed by the tool of Figures 2 and 11 is substantially equal in size to such cylindrical projection at the surface of the shank. Thus it will be seen that the shank 43 with the die or roller 47 assembled thereon may not be inserted by straight coaxial movement thereof within the bore 36 to dispose the die within the tube 10. Such initial locathan of the roller or die 47 to take up the position shown in Figures 3 and 13 may be achieved however by removal of the sleeve 37 from the head 31 until an angular movement of the shank with respect to the aperture permits passage of die therethrough after which the sleeve may be threaded down the tool post for contact with and securement to the surface 39 or the sleeve may be threaded outwardly upon the tool post sufliciently to permit its inner end to disengage the bore 41 permitting the required tilting movement of the tool post.

Such consideration will also disclose that after insertion of the die or roller through the aperture rotation of the tool post will bodily move the die or roller in a circular path or orbit normal to the axis of the post and that in such movement the roller will itself always be maintained at an angle to such orbit as determined by the inclination of its pintle to the axis of the tool post. Thus it will be seen that the die presents as its leading edge in rotation and outward travel successive areas of its periphery as it turns on its pintle and furthermore that the area of contact with the inner surface of the aperture edge is limited at first and progresses only as such area is rolled, swaged or turned outwardly by contact with the roller or die. As clearly seen by a consideration of Figures 3 and 13 such flange forming working of the aperture edge will be completed at one side thereof before the opposite aperture edge is contacted by the roller.

it is of course clear that after insertion of the roller or die through the aperture its rotation with respect to the threaded relation of tool post to bearing is such that as the post is rotated and outward travel is imparted thereto and hence to the die. Thus the orbital path of bodily travel of the die continuously moves from that angularly tangent to one edge of the tube aperture to a completion position angularly tangent to the outer edge of the finished flange opposite the edge to which it was originally tangent.

An important feature of the construction and operation of this tool and consequently of the method carried out thereby is that such outward travel of the die or roller is progressive with and as an incident to its rotation and thus each successive area of aperture edge is successively turned further outward than the preceding area and therewith it will be noted the frictional contact will rotate the die or roller so that a fresh surface thereof contacts each successive area. While certain aspects of the present inventive concept could be fulfilled by a nonrotating die and/ or by outward travel independent of rotation this preferred construction provides for the successive and progressive working of the material by successive areas of the roller to the end that heat and burnishing of the material is avoided and that cold working with minimum work hardening may be achieved. In practice it has been found that these combined characteristics of the tool permit a drawing operation to form flange 30 with a minimum of stress of material and Without fracture, tearing or cracking of such materials as may otherwise occur.

it is important to note that the flange St) is not only formed by outward flaring of the peripheral edge of the eyrsasee aperture but that as indicated at 55 the material is turned back upon itself at an acute angle. I-Ieretofore it has not been possible to so form flanges from the edge material of apertures formed intermediate the ends of tubing. However the present method has been highly successful in this respect and hence the angularity of the aperture and flange may be any desired angle less than .90 degrees to the axis of the tubing and thus sanitary and/ or sweep fittings may be formed by the present method and appashown and hence the flanges formed thereabout' are depicted as commensurate in diameter with the diameter of the tubing the invention contemplates, and has been successfully practiced by, the formation of branch connections of various sizes below that of the main tubing. Thus a three inch tubing may have a two inch branch connection and a one and one half inch body may be provided with a one inch branch. Similarly while the present illustration discloses only one branch connection for each body tubing two or more are contemplated and are practical and such branch connections may differ in diameter from each other as well as from that of the main tubing and they may enter the tubing in the same transverse plane or be spaced from each other as desired.

The invention therefore contemplates the manufacture of fittings as a custom made project to accommodate all kinds and conditions of requirements. While the invention lends itself to economical mass production of standard sizes and angularities it lends itself equally well to economical manufacture of special sizes and shapes as well as to unusual combinations of sizes and angularities and to any number and character of branch connections. It is therefore again emphasized that the invention is in no way limited to the illustrative disclosure herein presented.

Upon completion of the formation of the flange 3% by the steps above outlined, or by other suitable means not necessarily forming a part of the present invention, an extension pipe, completion tube or branch indicated by the numeral 60 is applied thereto to form the finished fitting. The diameter of the branch is of course commensurate with that of the flange and in order to preclude trapping recesses or fissures at the joint the branch 60 is preferably fitted Within the flange 30. Thus the internal diameter of the flange is preferably fashioned to conform with the external diameter of the branch. The branch having been fitted snugly within the flange as indicated in Figure 4 'is sealingly engaged therewith by brazing, welding, solder or like means. In the present practice of the invention where copper tubing is employed While like materials and substantial uniformity in gauge :is generally preferable it may in some instances be expedient to apply a branch of dissimilar material and/or of heavier or lighter character. The invention is understood to contemplate such variations.

In that form of the invention here presented the branch 60 is a straight portion of tubing. Therefore when its inner end 61 is applied to the flange 30 which itself is directedat 45 degrees from the axis of the tubing 10 a Y connection is formed the plane of the outer 'end 62 of 'the branch 60 lying normal to the axis of the tubing 10. The invention however embraces the assembly of a wide variety of branch-members both as to diameter and as to configuration. Thus a T fitting may be formed by a be curved to fit companion tubing.

one-eighth bend branch member instead of the straight piece here illustrated in order to form a sweep T fitting. Other bends both regular and irregular may also be incorporated with the flange. It may also be noted that while the outer end 62 of the present branch is straight to lie parallel to the end of the body tubing such ends may be formed to lie in angularly related planes as desired or may It isthus within the scope of the invention to join the outer end '62 with a flange such as shown at 30 of another body tube should the intricacies of the required installation so require. In this connection it may be noted that the-outer edge *of the flange 30'does not lie in a flat plane but is curved inwardly from end to end in conformity with the departure of the side walls of the tubing from the point at which the aperture incision is first made. In conformity therewith the inner end 61 of the branch is of opposite but conforming curvature to provide uniform overlapping of the flange about the end of the branch. It may be noted in passing that it is possible to provide a flange the height of which varies in conformity with the curvature of the tubing walls and in such cases the inner connecting end of the branch need not be curved as here illustrated.

As shown in Figure 5 a fitting formed by the present method and apparatus provides a sweep or sanitary element of light weight, corrosion resistance, and smooth and regular of outline. Such fittings are considerably less expensive than those made of like material by casting or extrusion processes and commensurately of lighter weight than those made from ferrous material which are subject to rapid corrosion. Since the manufacture of the present fitting is equally adapted to mass production or individual manufacture special fittings of other than standard sizes and shapes may be economically produced to conform with all manner of unusual demands. Furthermore since the material is readily workable the standard fitting of 'the present invention may be readily altered to conform with particular requirements. Thus the invention providesas a new article of manufacture a thin walled non-ferrous fitting and particularly a sweep or sanitary fitting formed by the union of individual thin walled non-ferrous elements. One element of novelty in the article of the present invention is the union of such elements by a flange formed by and from the peripheral edges of the uniting aperture of one of such elements.

In view of the foregoing detailed discussion of the fitting, apparatus and method of the present invention as shown in Figures 1 to 5 inclusive and 11 and 13 it :is believed that the fitting apparatus and method disclosed in Figures 6 to 10 inclusive, 12 and 14 willbe readily understood. Referring to such figures it will be seen that the base or primary tubing 70 which is to be used inthe I formation of the fitting of Figure 10 is a 90 degree sweep a silver solder is used as indicated at 61 in'Figure 4.

or bend. It will of course be understood that while the tubing 70 is here shown as a 90 degree or quarter bend the invention fully contemplates the use of bends of other degree specifically one-eighth bends in which the total radius is but 45 degrees. It may also be noted that while as here described the aperture and surrounding flange are formed at the center of the bend the contemplated structure is not so limited. Thus if desired the aperture and flange may be formed at any desired area of a bend of any degree either greater or less than the 90 degree sweep here illustrated.

The communicating aperture for the branch fitting here shown is to be formed in the sweep 70 of Figure 6 at the dotted lines 71 in axial alignment with one leg thereof. A trepanning cutter shown in Figures 7 and 12 similar to that depicted in Figures 3 and 11 is preferably used. In this case however the cutter head 72 embraces the outer curved surface of the bend while a clamp piece 73 detachably secured by nuts and bolts 74 embraces the inner curved surface to secure the cutter head in position.

The head is provided with a bore 75 within which a guiding bearing 76 is fitted. The bearing in turn receives the annular toothed cutter 77 and registers the same in axial alignment with the lower leg 78 of the sweep 70 so as to insure a trepanning cut in axial alignment with the leg 78. The operation of this cutter is by rotary movement while being fed inwardly as in the manner hereinbefore set forth with respect to the aperturing of the tubing 10.

After formation of the aperture, indicated at 79, by the apparatus of Figures 7 and 12 and in the manner indicated, a flange 80 is formed perpendicular with the lower leg 78. The flange forming apparatus, shown in Figures 8 and 14 is similar to that of Figures 3 and 13 and functions in like manner. The head 81 thereof is however formed in the manner of the head '72 of the cutter of Figures 7 and 14 to embrace the outer curvature of the sweep while the clamp piece 82 conforms to and embraces the inner curvature thereof. Nuts and bolts $3 are provided to secure the sweep firmly within the head. As with the forming tool of Figures 3 and 13 the forming tool of Figures 8 and 14 has a threaded shank 84 engaging a threaded bearing 85 and a die roller 86 rotatably mounted upon a pintle 87 which is located at an angle to the axis of the shank.

The operation of the forming tool of Figures 8 and 14 is substantially identical with the operation herein described in detail with respect to the forming tool of Figures 3 and 13. Thus as the shank rotates. and moves outwardly the orbital path of the roller or die progressively engages the peripheral edges of the aperture 79 to turn the flange by a gradual and progressive forming operation as aforesaid.

Upon completion of the flange 843 a straight extension piece 90 is mounted therein as shown in Figure 9 and silver solder is employed to bond and seal the union. The fitting of Figure 10 thus formed by the combination of a 90 degree bend 78 with a straight extension piece 90 provides a sweep or sanitary T fitting the outlet end of the extension piece being at right angles to the axis of horizontal leg of the bend. As pointed out above however the bend 90 may be other than 90 degrees as for instance 45 degrees and the relation of the branch need not be at the center of curvature as shown but may at any desired point on the side or inner curvature as desired. It may also be noted that if desired the branch may also be a curved or sweep tubing as may the branch 60 at Figures 4 and S. In connection with this apparatus method and fitting it will be understood, as with the Y fitting of Figure that numerous varations in size, number and angularity of the applied extensions may be resorted to as desired.

From the foregoing it will be seen that the present invention provides a new article of manufacture having innumerable variations in shape, size and design, novel apparatus for preforming certain of the method steps involved in the manufacture thereof and a novel method of forming the present as well as similar fittings. While the inventions in each of these aspects are primarily intended for the art of sanitary fittings it will be understood that they are not so limited. It will also be distinctly understood that the article hereof is not limited by the method or apparatus here presented as suited to its manufacture nor is the method limited to the use of the apparatus or vice versa. Thus each of the appended claims are to be considered as independent and to be construed as embracing such changes, modifications and equivalents as may occur to those skilled in these arts.

This application is a continuation in part of my now abandoned application, Serial No. 191,196, filed October 20, 1950, and entitled Apparatus and Method for Forming Flange on Pipe.

l claim:

1. The method of forming fittings having branch connections which includes the stops of forming an opening in the side wall of a body tubing, forming a flange at the edge of said opening by rotary movement of a tool member initially advanced into said opening and positioned so that it overlaps the edge of said opening, moving said tool in an orbital path having a fixed radius and simultaneously therewith withdrawing said tool at a fixed coordinated rate with respect to its orbital movement and completing the formation of the flange by the single operation of the tool member as defined and securing an extension tubing to said flange.

2. The method of forming a sanitary plumbing fitting which includes the steps of forming an opening in the side wall of a thin walled electrolytic copper straight body tubing, forming an outwardly projecting flange at the edges of the opening with the walls thereof disposed at an angle of less than degrees to the axis of said body tubing by rotary movement of a tool member initially advanced into said opening and positioned so that it overlaps the edge of said opening, moving said tool in an orbital path having a fixed radius and simultaneously therewith withdrawing said tool at a fixed coordinated rate with respect to its orbital movement and completing the formation of the flange by the single operation of the tool member as defined, and securing to said flange a communicating thin walled extension branch tubing of similar material by solder.

3. The method of forming a sanitary Y fitting characterized by the absence of any internally protruding surfaces facing against the direction of drainage flow, comprising the steps of forming an opening in the side wall of a straight thin walled tubing of electrolytic copper, working the edge material of said opening outward- 1y by rotary movement of a tool member initially advanced into said opening and positioned so that it overlaps the edge of said opening, moving said tool in an orbital path having a fixed radius and simultaneously therewith withdrawing said tool at a fixed coordinated rate with respect to its orbital movement and completing the formation of the flange by the single operation of the tool member as defined to form a circular flange the axis of which is less than 90 degrees with respect to the axis of said tubing, applying within said flange the inner end of a branch tubing of thin walled electrolytic copper and securing said branch tubing within said flange thereof by silver solder.

4. The method of forming a branch fitting by the union of a straight tubular member and a curved tubular member which includes the steps of forming an opening in one of said members intermediate its ends, forming an outwardly projecting flange at the edge of said opening by rotary movement of a tool member initially advanced into said opening and positioned so that it overlaps the edge of said opening, moving said tool in an orbital path having a fixed radius and simultaneously therewith withdrawing said tool at a fixed coordinated rate with respect to its orbital movement and completing the formation of the flange by the single operation of the tool member as defined and joining the other member to said flange.

5. The method of forming a sanitary sweep T fitting characterized by the absence of any internally protruding surfaces facing against the direction of drainage flow which includes the steps of forming an opening in the convex wall of a thin walled electrolytic copper 90 degree bend equidistant from the ends thereof and forming an outwardly projecting flange at the edge of said opening by rotary movement of a tool member initially advanced into said opening and positioned so that it overlaps the edge of said opening, moving said tool in an orbital path having a fixed radius and simultaneously therewith withdrawing said tool at a fixed coordinated rate with respect to its orbital movement and completing the formation of the flange by the single operation of the tool member as defined, applying the end of a straight tubing of like character and material within the confines of said flange and silver soldering said straight tubing and within said flange.

6. A method of flanging the peripheral edges of an opening formed in thin walled ductile material by the rotary movement of a tool member initially advanced into said opening and positioned so that it overlaps the edge of said opening which includes the steps of moving said tool in an orbital path having a fixed radius and simultaneously therewith withdrawing said tool at a fixed coordinated rate with respect to its orbital movement and completing the formation of the flange by the single operation of the tool member as defined.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 485,715 Smith Nov. 8, 1892 545,477 Freeman Sept. 3, 1895 547,400 Palmiter Oct. 1, 1895 587,337 Smith Aug. 3, 1897 14 Avery May 3, Sneddon Feb. 11, Walker May 2, Walwoth, Jr. Oct. 29, Metcalf July 11, Smith June 23, Lucas Apr. 27, Robinson Aug. 8, Wendel Dec. 12, Hodapp July 28, Keller May 16, Cullen June 20, Buskirk Sept. 11,

FOREIGN PATENTS Germany June 24, Great Britain Apr. 23, Germany June 11,

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Classifications
U.S. Classification29/890.148, 285/132.1, 285/399
International ClassificationB23B41/00, B21C37/29, F16L41/00, B21C37/15
Cooperative ClassificationB21C37/298, F16L41/004, B23B41/00
European ClassificationB23B41/00, B21C37/29F, F16L41/00F