US 2564809 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug'. 21, 1951 Q LEVENE 2,564,809
APPARATUS FOR CONVEYING FLUID UNDER PRESSURE To AN INTERIORLY LOCATED CAVITY.
lFiled Dec. 11, 1947 Patented Aug. 21, 1951 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE APPARATUS FOR CONVEYING FLUID UNDER' PRESSURE T AN INTERIORLY LOCATED CAVITY lGreorgev Levene, Chestnut'Hill, Mass.
Application December 11, 194'7,`Serial No. l791,056
vention` is the coating of interiorly located cavi` ties of the human body with opaque media for the purpose of X-ray visualization and study, for example the colon or intestine. Heretofore the opaque medium has been applied to such cavities by administering an enema of barium sulphate suspension in Water, iodized oil emulsion or thorium dioxide in colloidal suspension, thereby completely filling the body cavity. Much more accurate X-ray Visualization results if insteadof completely filling the body cavity with the opaque medium a thin coating is applied thereto. According to this invention such a coating may be appliedby conveying a uid (which term includes gas) under pressure in such a manner that the opaque medium is continuously coated upon the desired portion or portions of the cavity without building up pressures in the cavity which are either harmful or painful. The primary object of this invention is to provide an apparatus for continuously conveying fluid under pressure to an interiorly located cavity in such a manner that excessive pressure is not built up in the cavity.
A further object is to provide Such an apparatus `which may be used for applying or supplying to interiorly located cavities opaque media, p
therapeutic agents or other substances in gas, liquid or solid form for any desired period of time without building up excessive pressure therein.
A further object is to provide such an apparatus which is useful for either coating or cleansing the interior of closed or partially closed cavities such as the interior of a container having a preformed restricted outlet or inlet.
A further object is to provide such an apparatus which may be readily inserted in a circuitous passage leading to the interiorly located cavity under treatment and also one which will withstand muscular contraction of the walls of `the passage through-Which it is inserted without obstruction of the return ow passage which is provided for the relief of pressures in the cavity.
A further object is to provide such an apparatus which is economical in construction and operation. Y
Other objects will be apparent from a consideration of the following description and the accompanying drawings wherein two embodiments are illustrated.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a side elevation of an apparatus embodying this invention with parts broken away and shown-in vertical section;
Fig. 2 is anA enlarged sideelevation of the inner end or tip of the apparatus removed;
(CMMS- 240) y2 Fig. 3- is a plan'ofthe inner end or tip removed Fig. 4 is an enlarged'vertical longitudinal sectionshowing the tip and the inner end of thev apparatus;
Fig. 5 is an enlarged end elevation ofthe inner' end or tip removed looking from left to right at.
Fig. 6 is an enlarged end elevation of the inner end or tip removed looking from right to left at- Fig.' 2;
Fig. '7 is an enlarged section on the line 'I--1 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 8 is a reduced side elevation of the appa-A ratus of Figs. 1 to 7 inclusive showing one conduit connected to va source of gas under pressure .and the other conduit connected to a sourceof a substance which is desired to be conveyed to; the interior of a cavity; and
VFig. 9 is an enlarged side elevation of a different embodiment of transversely rigid and lon'- gitudinally flexible tube suitable for housing the conduit or conduits, parts being broken away and shown in longitudinal section and parts being broken away and shown in a Vsection taken. beneath the surface of the tube.
In its essential elements the apparatuscomprises a transversely rigid and longitudinally flexible tube I8 having located therein either a. single conduit II or two conduits II and I2.
As shown iny Figs. l to 8, inclusive, the trans-- versely rigid, longitudinally exible tube ID is .provided by the combination of the helical or coil spring I3 and the resilient and longitudinally exible rubber tube Ill. The spring may be'made of steel wire or other suitable material so that it is longitudinally flexible and transversely rigid.
The inside diameter of the tube I4 preferably isk slightlyvless than the outside diameter ofthe coil spring so that the tube is retained in place about the coil spring by the transverse resiliency of the-tube. The outer end of the tube I4 snugly surrounds the cylindrical flange I5 and is retained thereon by its transverse resiliency. The inner end of the tube Ill snugly surrounds the end portion of the metallic tubular member AIl as shown in Figs. l and 8.
Extending longitudinally within the tube if; is a conduit II which may be made of rubber, syn- .thetic rubber, an extruded synthetic resin or other suitable material. The outer end of this conduit is seated upon and surrounds the tubular extension I8 which is provided on the tip l5. The other end of the conduit I I is secured axially within the connecting member 2%) Whichis detachably secured to one end of the metal tube I1. Theexposed end of this connecting mem- `ber vZI) -is adapted detachably to receive a syringe 2 I, theplunger'ZE'of which may be manually ac- ,tuated to force vliqu'id'or granular solid material from the interior of the syringe `2'I through'the connecting member, the conduit II, passage 42 and orifice 43.
The metal tube I1 is provided with an opening or slot 25 which continuously provides communication between the interior of the tube I'I and the atmosphere.
A second conduit I2 may be formed of fabric reinforced synthetic resin, rubber, synthetic rubber or other suitable airtightmaterial and it extends through the opening 25, thence longitudinally through the metallic tube I'I and the tube I0. Its outer end snugly surrounds the metallic tube 3l! which is detachably secured in the passage 3l of the tip I5. The inner end of the conduit I2 is secured to a connecting member 33 provided with a slot 34. This slot 34 detachably receives the connecting element 35 of the reduction valve 36 which is connected by the conduit 31 with a tank of compressed gas (not shown). Thus the tube or conduit I2 affords communication between this source of gas under pressure and the orifice 40 of the tip passage 3I. The tube I2 may :be made of any material capable of withstanding the pressure of the gas being conducted therethrough.
In Fig. 9, I have illustrated another embodiment of a transversely rigid and longitudinally flexible tube suitable for housing the conduit for conveying the fluid under pressure or the conduits for conveying two uids or a fluid and a solid under pressure. In this embodiment a series of rings 50 of rigid material such as steel is substituted for the helical spring I3 and the rubber 5I surrounds these individual rings. This construction is an equivalent of the helical spring I3 and the tube I4 and other equivalents will be apparent to persons skilled in the art such as a helical spring coated with latex, synthetic rubber or the like.
'I'he return now passage which is provided by the spaces 6I and 60 (located at opposite sides of the vertical strap 62 in the tip, and between the peripheries of the conduits I I and I2 and the inner wall of the tube I0) and by the orifice 25 preferably has a cross-sectional area at all points which is substantially greater than the aggregate of the cross-sectional areas of the conduits II and I2 whereby a relatively large return flow passage is provided from the cavity being treated to the atmosphere.
Operation ber 20 is then connected to a syringe 2I containing an opaque medium such as a barium sulphate suspension in water, iodized oil emulsion or thorium dioxide in colloidal suspension. The connecting member 33 is then secured to the reduction valve 36 which is connected to a tank of compressed gas such as compressed oxygen or compressed air. The reduction valve is adjusted to deliver a pressure of approximately two pounds per square inch and, with the gas flowing through the conduit I2 and the orice 40, the tip I5 and tube I0 are then passed through the rectum into the bowel to the most remote part of the colon which is desired to be visualized, the progress of the tip being watched from time to time on a uoroscopic screen.
When the tip is in the desired position, the opaque medium is forced through the conduit II and out of the orifice 43 by manual actuation of the syringe plunger 22. The stream of gas emit- 4 ted from the orifice 40 creates a ne mist or spray of the opaque medium and uniformly coats the adjacent portion of the wall of the colon therewith. The tube Il) is gradually withdrawn until a coating of the desired thickness has been applied for the desired length of the colon. The source of gas under pressure is then shut off by actuation of the reduction valve and actuation of the plunger 22 is discontinued. The patient is then ready for X-ray visualization and study.
I have found in use that the transversely rigid and longitudinally flexible tube I0 is capable of withstanding pressures created by muscular contraction of the rectum or other body passages and may be readily inserted in sinuous body passages without undue pain to the patient. Thus in use of the apparatus a continuously open and relatively large return flow passage is provided from the cavity which is being treated to the atmosphere thereby permitting continuous operation of the apparatus without the creation of painful or dangerous pressures within the cavity.
The plunger of the syringe may be actuated by compressed gas, a motor or otherwise. The syringe may be utilized to supply an opaque medium to the orice 43 in powder as well as liquid form, bismuth subnitrate being an example. For supplying a gas or an aerosol, only one conduit is necessary within the tube. For example, the conduit II may be omitted and the conduit I2 connected to the source of gas or aerosol under pressure or conversely the conduit I2 may be omitted and the conduit II connected to the source of gas under pressure.
As explained above the apparatus is useful in applying a liquid, a solid or a gas to any interiorly located cavity for any purpose including coating the interior of a container, cleaning the interior of a container, coating the interior of a body cavity, cleaning the interior of a body cavity or conducting therapeutic or other agents to the desired portion or portions of a body cavity. Other body cavities which may be treated are the stomach, bronchae, esophagus, lungs and the vagina.
From the foregoing it will be apparent that an apparatus embodying this invention is economical in construction and operation, that it may be used to apply or supply opaque media, therapeutic agents or other substances in gas, liquid or solid form to an interiorly located cavity for any desired period of time without building up excessive pressures in the cavity, that it will withstand muscular contractions of the walls of the passage through which it is inserted and that it may readily be inserted through circuitous passages to the cavity to be treated.
While I have shown and described two desirable embodiments of the invention it is to be understood that such disclosure is for the purpose of illustration only and that various changes in shape, proportion and arrangement of parts and the substitution of equivalent elements may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as set forth in the appended claims.
l. Apparatus for conveying fluid under pressure to an interiorly located body cavity comprising a transversely rigid and longitudinally exible tube, a first conduit within the outer wall of said tube having its inner end adapted to be connected to a source of gas under pressure and a second conduit within the outer Wall of said tube having its inner end adapted to be connected to a source of a substance which is desired to be conveyed to the cavity, the 'outer ends of said conduits being located adjacent to each other whereby when the inner end of said first conduit is connected to a source of gas under pressure, gas is conveyed through the rst conduit and emitted from its outer end adjacent to the outer end of the second conduit, the aggregate of the cross-sectional areas of said conduits being substantially less than the crosssectional area of the interior of the tube whereby a relatively large return flow passage is maintained by the inner wall of the tube.
2. The combination of claim 1 wherein the tube comprises a plurality of transversely rigid ring-like members arranged coaxially thereof and secured thereto.
3. The combination of claim 1 wherein each of said conduits comprises a longitudinally flexible tube.
4. The combination of claim 1 wherein the tube comprises a helical spring which is transversely rigid and longitudinally flexible.
5. The combination of claim 4 wherein the helical spring is snugly surrounded by a resilient and longitudinally flexible tube.
6. Apparatus vfor conveying fluid under pressure to an interiorly located cavity comprising a transversely `rigid and longitudinally flexible helical spring, a resilient and longitudinally GERGE LEVENE.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 551,070 Woodford Dec. 10, 1895 693,358 Westlake Feb. 11, 1902 1,211,928 Fisher Jan. 9, 1917 1,644,225 Bart Oct. 14, 1927 2,210,744 Winder Aug. 6, 1940 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 188,982 Switzerland Jan. 31, 1937