US 2518994 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug. 15, 1950 w.J.M1L| ER 2,518,994
FORCEPS Filed Aug. 2l, 1946 Patented Aug. 15, 1950 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE FOROEPS William J. Miller, Glendale, Calif.
Application August 21, 1946, Serial No. 691,899
My invention relates generally to tools, and particularly to forceps and other devices having pivoted operating elements such as plier jaws, shear blades, and the like, and manually operable means located at a point remote from the operating elements for actuatment adapted to guide the operating end of the tool into a cavity, and a second jaw element pivoted with respect to the first element and adapted to be moved toward said element to firmly grip an object therebetween. y
Another object is to provide a device of the character referred to in which the movable jaw element is actuated by simple cam means, thereby avoiding the use of pivoted operating levers, screws, and other parts, which are liableto become worn and inoperative.
Another object is to provide a device of the type indicated having a. handle portion adapted to be gripped in the hand of the operator, a finger lever pivoted on the handle,l a tube secured to and. projecting from the handle, a plunger slidable in the tube yand openatively connected to the finger lever to be actuated thereby, a stationary jaw relement and a pivotedjaw elefment arranged at the outer end of the tube, and interengaging cam means on thepivoted jaw element and plunger, sliding movement imparted to the plunger 4by said yfinger lever causing said pivoted jaw member to move toward the stationary jaw element to grip an object firmly therebetween, and spring meansfor returning the several parts to inoperative position when said finger lever is released.
Another object is to provide a device of the type specified which is comparatively simple in construction, economical to manufacture and highly efficient in performing its intended function.
Another object is to provide operating means Yfor actuating the relatively pivoted elements of vlarious tools, the present improved means being particularly adapted to actuate the rpivoted blades of shears and the like.
Further objects of the invention are set forth in the following specification which describestwo embodiments thereof. tzr-.way of example. as, i1-
4 Claims. (Cl. 12S-321) surgical i 2 lustrated by the accompanying drawing. In the drawing: f
Fig. 1 is a side elevational view of a forceps tool constructed in accordance with my invention, certain outer parts being shown in section to disclose the internal elements; g
Fig. 2 is an enlarged side view of the forward end of the device, showing the jaw elements moved together to grip an object therebetween;
Fig, 3 is a part-sectional plan view of the forward end of the device;
Fig. 4 is a longitudinal sectional view, taken on line 4-4 of Fig. 1; and,
Fig. 5 is a part-sectional side elevation of a pair of scissorsiembodyin'g my improved operating means. l
Referring first to Figs. 1 to 4 of the drawing, the improved forceps comprise a handle member I0 having a hand gripy I I, and a bearing portion I2 extending laterally from the hand grip II. The -bearing portion I2 has a, longitudinal bore I3 and a slot I 4 communicating with the bore. Held in the bore I3, -by means of a transverse pin I5, is a tube I6, and adapted to slide axially in the tube is a plunger rod I'I having a head I8 at its inner end and an inclined cam face 20 at its outer end. The pin I5 extends through an elongated slot 2I in the plunger I1. The pin I5 thus serves to prevent rotation of the plunger I1 in the tube I6 and also functions to retain the inner end of the tube` `within the bearing portion I2. A coil spring 22 surrounding the plunger with its opposite ends seated against the inner end of the tube I'and the head I8, respectively, serves to normally slide the plunger rearwardly. A trigger-like finger lever 25 is pivoted on a pin 26 extending transversely across the slot I4, and has an upwardly projecting lug 21 adapted to engage against the head of the plunger I'I and a downwardly projecting finger-piece adapted to be engaged by the index finger ofthe operator. The inwardly sliding movement of the plunger rod I1, under the infiuence of the spring 22, is limited by the engagement ofthe lug 2'I of the flnger lever 25 with the inner end of an adjustable stop screw 29 screwed through the handle member I0, a, check-nut 30 on the screw serving to retain the screw in its position of adjustment. f f
Mounted at the outer orforward endof the tube I6 is an upper, stationary jaw element 33 having arelatively pointed nose portion 34 which may be serrated on its under surface. The element 33 has a rearward cylindrical portion 35 which is securedwithinthe end of the tube I5 in any suitable manner such as by forcing it therein. The upper jaw element 33 is slotted longitudinally, as shown at 3E, to receive a lowei jaw element 31, a pin 38 extending transversely across the slot 36 and through holes in the two elements to pivot the lower jaw element 31 to the upper jaw element 33. The element 31 has a forwardly projecting widened nose portion 39, which is preferably serrated, and a rearwardly projecting. finger 4U provided withf. an inclined lower edge 4I and a relatively short cam surface 42 at its extremity. A leaf spring 43 carried by the forward end of the plunger rod i1 engages the edge 4I to normally pivot the rearward finger 40 upwardly to separate the nose portions of. the Jaws.
The forceps device operates. in the following manner:
Assuming that the parts of the device are' in the inoperative position shown by full lines in Fig. 1', whenv it is desired to grasp an objectbe-l tween the jaws 33 and 31 the hand grip: is' held in thepalm of thehandY and;l the device moved toward. the position where the object is located- When an object' is to be removed froml a wound, for example, the` tube i6 is inserted inV the wound',. and during this opera-tion the jaws 33 and' 3'? maybe closed together and later opened to embrace the` object; To grasp the object between the` jaws', the finger` lever 25 is depressed by the indexiinger in theI manner indicated by dash lines in Fig: 1". Pivotal" movement of the finger lever 25 in this direction causes its upper end' or lug 21 to force` the plunger rod l1 outwardly; whereupon itscaml face 29' engages the cam surface. 42 of the lower jaw memberv 31l to pivot the latter inY clockwisedirection, against the action of the` spring 43, toL grip the object' 44 (Fig. 2) firmly between thetwov jaws; With the object M thus held between the jawstheA device i's removed from the' wound or` cavity to extract the object. When pressureY against' the finger lever 25 is relieved', the coil spring22'returns` the plunger rod I1V andinger lever 25 to first position, and the leaf spring 43' opens the jaws 334 and4 31' to release the. object.
It will' be apparent from the4 above' that my improved forceps tool. operates to positively grip objects between its jaw elements, andthe jaw elements are conveniently operated' from an end of'the tool relatively remote from the jaws: As a particular featurev of improvement,l one of the jaws is stationary while the otherY jaw member is movable toward and' away from the stationary jaw member, thereby simplifying the con-struc" tion and reducing the number of moving parts to a minimum. As another feature, the movable ,iaw is actuated by sliding'cam means so that the construction is further simplified and a positive actuation assured. While the device shown in Figs. 1 to 4' is designed' primarily'f'or surgical use: it will be readily understood that the features of construction may be advantageously applied to pincers, lpliers, and similar t'ools havings,` variety of. uses.
The improved actuating means described above may be utilized for operating scissors or shears ofthe type disclosed in Fig; 5'of the drawing. In this modified construction, a stationary shear blade 50 is securedv to the forward' endv of the tube 5i and av movable shear blade 52l is pivoted tov the stationary` blade by mer-.ns cf a: pin 53. The movable blade 52 has arearward finger 54 having an inclined edge 55 and a cam surface 56. A plunger' rod 51" is' slicl'al'ole inthe tube 5l, and has an inclined cam 58 engageable with the cam surface 56 of the blade 52 to pivot the latter toward the stationary blade 50 to effect a shearing action. The plunger rod 51 may be slid by means similar to that shown in Figs. l to 4, and the rod carries a spring 59 engageable with the inclined edge of the blade 52 to return the latter to inoperative position.
WhileI haa/.e herein shown. and described my improved tool; as embodied in two preferred forms of construction, by way of example, it is to. be understood that other changes may be made therein without departing from the spirit or` scope of the invention. Therefore, without limitingv myself in this respect, I claim:
1'. In a tool of the class described, a rigid tube having,r a hand. grip extending transversely from one end and a stationary jaw-like member extending'longitudinally from the other end, a second jaw-like member pivoted at the latter end ef` the tube and adapted to pivot t'owa-rd and away from the stationary jaw: member, a trigger pivotall'y mounted at theY first endV of the tube in front-of the grip,` arigidplunger'slid'ably mounted in the=tube; one end of the triggerextending into said tubein engagement' with oneend' of the plunger, interengageable cammeans' on the other endof the plunger and onthe inner endf of the secon-djaw-likemember and operative, when said plunger is slidtoward thesecondjaw-like' mem*- ber, to rock the latter aboutitspivot, and' resilient means on said plunger' engaging the inner end of said secon-dl jaw-like-member to maintain said cam means in engagement;
2. InaV tool of the'classdescribed; a rigid tube having a hand' grip` extending transversely from one end and a stationary jaw-like member extendingA longitudinally from the other end, a second jaw-like member pivoted at` the latter end' of the tube and adapted to pivot toward andi away from` theA stationary* jaw member, av trigger piv otallymountedl at the first endl of the tube in front ofthe grip, a rigidv plunger'slld'abl'ymounted in the tube, one end ofrthe trigger' extendingl into said tube in engagement withv one end' of' the plunger; and' cammeans operatively` connecting the other end of thev plunger with the inner end of the second jaw-like member for rocking the same4 about its-pivot, the latter end ofl the plunger having a spring' forv resillently holding' the inner end'r of-'the second jaw-like member against the` cam means when the plunger is' shifted toward'the second jawelike member by the trigger;
3'. In a; tool of the class described', a rigid tube having ahand: grip extendingV transversely from one end'Y and' a stationary jaw-like member extendinglongitudinall'y from the'- other end, a second jaw-likeV member pivotedV at the latter`- end` of the tube and adapted'` to pivot toward and away from the stationaryl jaw member, said second jaw-like` member having acam surface disposed within the tube, a trigger-pivotally mounted at' the first' end ofthe tube in front of the grip, a rigid plunger'slidably mounted in the tube, one end2 of the'trigger extendinginto sai'd" tube in engagementwithY one end ofthe plunger; the other end of the plunger having a bevelled end adapted to' engagethe cam surface of the second jaw-like membery for rocking thesame about' its pivot when the plunger| is forced' towards' the same by the trigger; andi a spring on said plunger engag-` ing the inner end of said second jaw-likeA member to maintain said cam surface' and said bevelledv endr in engagement;
4. In a; tool of the= class described, a rigid tube having a hand grip extending transversely from one end and a stationary jaw-like member extending longitudinally from the other end, a second jaw-like member pivoted at the latter end of the tube and adapted to pivot toward and away from the stationary jaw member, a trigger pivotally mounted at the rst end of the tube in front of the grip, and a rigid plunger slidably mounted in the tube, one end of the trigger extending into said tube in engagement With one end of the plunger, the other end of the plunger having a bevelled end adapted to engage the inner end of the second jaw-like member for rocking the same about its pivot when the plunger is forced towards the same by the trigger, the latter end of the plunger having an extended resilient arm for engaging the inner portion of the second jaw-like 6 member at the side opposite the bevelled end of the plunger for holding the former against the latter.
WILLIAM J. MILLER.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the le of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 2,113,246 Wappler Apr. 5, 1938 FOREIGN PATENTS 15 Number Country Date 89 Great Britain Jan. 2, 1900 61,503 Germany Mar. 18, 1892