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Publication numberUS2333842 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication date9 Nov 1943
Filing date9 Jul 1942
Priority date9 Jul 1942
Publication numberUS 2333842 A, US 2333842A, US-A-2333842, US2333842 A, US2333842A
InventorsDomenico Cascio, Koch Stanley J
Original AssigneeHenry A De Phillips
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Device for irradiating substances
US 2333842 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Nov. 9, 1943.

D. CASCIO ET AL DEV'ICE FOR IRRADIATING SUBSTANCES Filed July 9. 1942 M v@ lll 'im z5 z3 22 2l l5 25 INVENToRsz.

By Sian/cy Jc/Z Patented Nov. 9, 1943 t y jf'assiduav t i y.unificationinmmA'rmesnnsmNcEs f jnoinenicp'cascmiiuannc Highnnaanastsniey f l Animationen-ly 19.13942, sensi Nutrient-os F1a cia-ima' (ci. 25o-149.5)

"The presentf'linvention relates-todeviees tot' irradiating Vsubstances and more partieuiarlyitor Vbombarding `such substances vas ib'iood with' ciectrons described in the capenc'iiiug United statesPatent application, ser.l No.'` tiesto; niet June 11, `19'12.

It is `an -objectfof theffnesent invention tof provide a .device 'by which :substances may be ir'- radiated in a Way not done heretofore. r lIt is a further object of this invention to construct fanfirradiatng- .device `in` such la, way that thei'eis no. gaseous vmatten-as tor instance air,

in thepath 'of theiirmdiatingrays fnom thei source to the substance .toxineirradiated.l

It is stillyalfurtherobject Yof.thepresent inl' y Vention4 -to'provide ai new device for bomba-editing substances; particulariyqfluids `as blood or the like,` with' electrons, ,in such almanner` .tha-tano air or other ionizable foreignv matter `isin the path off the bombarding electrons from. :their sourceto the substanceftobe"bombanded i -Another object of v the presenti inventionfconsists ,of a new type ofelectro'nemitting tube: without anyacelerating electrode arranged outside of this tube, ftherebyzavoiding-the :danger of electrical shockscreatedup'to now by such eliec-` It is still another "object of the' irlesent iirvenf.

tion to create a new-.electron tube emitting ciections4 through an elect-ron Y transmitting window f into the` space outside of this. tube Whici'ineeds` much lower voltages andhas amuch larger elec-g K tron output than .a known electron. tubes of this.'

Withlthe `above objects inview,.mynresentfinvent-ion mainly `consists inV` a ydevice for Vvirradiat- '1 ing a :substance which conmrisesv two tharnocrsJ a `partition rwalle.orimleteiy-'. Separating these: chambers, and ray emitting means arrangednf.

one oi these chamber. z` lafnorticn .of thee-bote mentioned .partiticnawaliv-has to be constructed so as-:to be adapted to transmit chef` rays by.Y

Which-die substance-iste bef-irradiated and hasl to be arranged in the pathof the raysvemittedeby the above-mentioned' ray emitting meanssothat; these ray-s are enabled 'to pass throughthis wailportion into theiother of theabovejinen-tioned chambersifths rather ,chamber hasatoibe :con-- structed .sd-,as to make-i. possiblearrangcmentof thefsubstance tobe irradiated in direct contact;v with this ray transmitting wall portion. y

`In case continuous irradiation ofthe substance is desired,r `the above mentionedother chamber basto .be provided withlinlet and outlet openings 1- construoted sofas to enablecontinuous passage` ofthe substance tof be liirradiat.ed ine direct con-y tact with .theA above mentioned ray transmitting wall.11ct'.tio1i..y e

A dev ieeiciothis type. ispartitulariy adapted A forbomberding. substances; especially uidafas blood or the like, vwith velections;:infants casali one ofA the chambers has to" be ievacuatedia'nd electron emitting means lof well-:known type have.

to :be .airangedcin this ievacuated `chamber and 5;; constructed softhatthefelectrons emitted by these means are directed against the electron transmitting mall portion aprovidegd inthe ipartition Wall between the -ltwo chambers and are ypassing" thn'ough thisk window into the other non-'etjacu`` `10." ated chamber; as already `mentioned above.` this'v 'otherV chamber hastobe constructed yso Las to` enable'arrangement or; iff desired, continuous.

l A passage of the substance te bebombarded with electrons, in "direct contact Withthis electron 145ik transmitting wall portion;A i v i A preferred embodiment -oi suchza device-com.-

prises, in accordance With-the present-invention, a vacuum tube,f=means for `ernittingwan electron beam .arranged inside thisvacuumgtube, atubu- 2,01 lar conduit `ifor the; :substance to be irradiated passingthrough this Vacuum tube so as to formY within this-tube a tubular space being entirely separatedfrom the space inSidesaid tube, andy 'an {electrontransmitting.windewqin -the Wall et. this .tubular conduitpthis rray transmitting win- V dow has to'be arrangediin `a portioniofthelconf duit wallwhich isnside ysaid lvacuum `tube andi hasftojbe. positioned in the path ofl the electrons:

inorder to transmit the same and .enable born-` bardm-entofthe substance passing ythroughthis tubuiarconduit with these electrons.

. The novel features which areconsidered .charf aeteristie in the. presentinvention` aref set forth in particular in the appended claims. .The iny'jg' ven'tionfitself, however, both aste `its constructionkand its method ofoperation,V together with)` additional objects and advantages thereowtiill lbe, best understood from, thev following 1descrip-- tion. of specific embodiments, when `read in con- 40". nectvion.` with the yraccon-ipanying. drawing, ine` which: v 1

Figureliis .a side viewof a new electronemit Vting-...Vacuum tube according tothe present`in--` vention, seen in .direction of arrow l of Figure 2; Figure2 is anotherfside View of thetube shown in Figure 1, seen indirection ofvarrow of Fign ure 1,; q

4Figure 3 is a cross section throughfthe tube,

shown in Figures 1 and 2 alongline` 3-3 ofFigure 1;, v .e u

Figure/i is a, cross section through a.detai1 ofv l the tubeshowniin Figures 1 to 3 along'line 414 of Figure 3; .and

Figure 5 shows anevaporatingdeviee'usedin the tube shown in Figures 1 to 3,.part1y inside View and partly in longitudinal section. i i

y i Asexplained above, the new device consists of` two` chambersone oi whichis represented in the embodiment described herewith by awacuum 60.* tube ligand theother by a tubular conduit `IntiV einen uis and l1 into the wan of tube' lo so l that the tubular space yformed by conduit I is entirely separated from the evacuated space within .tube I U.

Electron emitting means I I are arranged in they vacuum tube I0; both this tube I0 and the elec-Y` ytron emitting means Ilare oi. usual type, `Well known to everybody skilled in this art, and need surrounding the window.

transmitting window 20 a layer of an electrical- Y' j" y shown in the drawing',y this metallic layer has not be described in detail. 'Iwhese electronemit ting means II linclude a first acceleratin'g elec-,1.,y trode I2 while a second accelerating electrode" I3v is provided as a metallic coating on the inner surface of tube I0 and connected in well-known.

` ropen'ing'24 L'corresponding in shape and position the shape vof lajsleeve 23 entirely surrounding the tubular conduit' I5` and being provided with 4an to the electron transmitting window 2|). The

wayeby means of a contact I4 and an electric conductor not shown in 'the drawing, with an electric. circuit;v

"The tubular'conduit/ I5 is openat both endsl Y I8 and I9,-enabling continuous passage of the substance, e.v g.fiiuid, to be bombarded ,withy the transmitting wall portion, i. e; electron transmitting windowA 2D, arranged inthe path of the electronbeam created within tube I0 by means of the'ielectron emitting means IIv and the accelerating electrodes "I2 land I3. i

electrons emitted by the electronemitting meansv In'view of the'fact that the constructioniof this electron transmitting window isan important part ofthe present invention, it will be described below in detail:

The window consists of an extremely thin glass e layer 2I having va thickness of less than onel thousandth of anr inch. This thin glass layer is sealed into a corresponding opening in the'walll of the tubular conduit I5. 'it has been foundy that a window of such extreme thinness is proway. This causes the extremely thin wall of the'V glass bulb to melt along these edges and adhere permanently fto ythe same, thereby covering the opening in conduit |51 with the needed extremely` thin layer;

'As well known, it "is necessary to arrange janx additional accelerating electrode in the path of the electrons near` thiselectron transmitting` glassv layer 2l, In order to avoid any'possbility of electrical shocks and undesiredelectrical influ-` ences on the treated Asubstance by such an electrode if, the same is`,'arranged outside of tube I0,"i. ef'inside the tubular conduit I5vand contacts directly thev treated substance, e. g. fluid,`

it `is herewith proposed to arrange this third additionalaccelerating electrode, as shown in Figures 3 and 4, as a thin ele-ctron'transmitting`- coating A220i aluminum or another electrically well-conductiveV material on' that surface .of the,

glass layer 2l which is inside tube I0.

As this extremely thin aluminu1n`coatingf22 has to serve as accelerating(electrode, it has to be connected Abycontact means andan electri` cal conductor to an electricalcircuit, so that an adequate voltage can'be applied to it. In order to facilitate electrical connection between this coating "22 and contact means, it has been found advantageous to provide around the electron aluminumfcoating k22 covers, as shown in Figurevfl, not l-only the glass'layer 2I but also the ,f' y adjacent portions of the metallic layer 23.1Con-A i tact members 25 made preferably fofnnickel or other well-conductive metal, .are'.connected"to2 Y layer 23; these contacts 25 are in turn connected; y by the electrical conductor 26, toV an electrical?v4 circuit, not showny in the drawing. By.frileux-sz,v j

of this circuit and these conductor andV contacts; the necessary voltage isapplied'to the aluminum coating -ZZ-,servingas n'al accelerating elecf trode. 1 r 'i f,v

In view ofthe fact that. this coating 22 has to be extremely thin, it has been `found advanw tageousto produce it by evaporating the metal-'o1' which this coating consists, e. g. aluminum, in-i side tube I0 after evacuationy of the same. LThis',` is done by 'means of v the vevaporating' i, device 5 21 shown in Figure 5in detail. 4This' device'con-` sists of a longitudinal,tubulary body'28;prefer,;

' ably made of non-conductive;ergfceramic,` ma-.


terial, and provided with a longitudinal fslit'ir A heating coil 30 made of tungsten oil-like ma.;

terial is arranged lwithin this tubular-body. 2l'.

and surrounds'athin lrody 3| consisting of` the' metal'to be evaporated, e.- g'.r aluminum. Heating' coil 30 isv oonnected,-byxthe electrical conductorI 32',y witha ,source of electrical current not shown inA the drawing. Bypassing Icurrent throught coil 30, the same is heated and the metalfrod' 3l evaporated; theevaporated metal particles are passing throughslit 29V andare deposited on the glass .layer 2I andthe surrounding portions?"v of sleeve 23; After preparation of themetallic? coating, this evaporating device hasno further' functiona'nd does lnot take any'active part in v c,

the electron emission and in the process of pass? ingthese emitted electrons throughthe` electron transmittingvwin'dow 20; it is therefore advisable l to ground itv after evaporation in well-known way," in order to avoid its havinganyk unwanteelv in fiuence.'-` r yAlthough the second accelerating electrodeIl` has already a vcertain concentrating effect', ifel has the tendency of concentrating allemitted `j electrons tinto any electron beam, it is'soxnetlm'es advisable to provide 'separate electro-magnetic concentrating means which are" of weil-knowny type andtherefore not shown in thedrawingiisometimes it is also of advantage 'tofprovide" means for deflecting the emitted electron-beam inv order to correct the position `of thisjbealm Landi-'` t" concentrate it on the electron trans'mittin's'zi e f Y Window 20. f f 1V In view or the fac't that itis 'of pertain ad:

'vantage' if only electrons and-no ions are reachi', ing the electron transmitting window?v 20`,"vitfls;V proposedincertain cases, to direct onlythe elec# trons against this window;` this can benone-by* using electro-magnetic 'deilectingv means,v eig;A i

deecting solenoids with such low voltafgethaty e they have influence on th'e electrons eonly andr do not deflect ions.v Thus'it" ispos'sible to sep-f;

In the embodiment"r r` amante crate the electron beam;I trom the emitted' ions and to ccnnttateonly Vthiselectronbeam -on the 'electron transmittingwndow 2d y v :It will be understood that each of *the elements Vdescnibed above .or two or ,more together, may lalso Lind ,a useful .application 'in other' types oi electron discharge vessels or :electron tubes diitcring rfrom the types `described above.; thus,

it should bestressed that the construction of thevelectron transmitting window and .the "final electrode combinedwi-th ,this window and 'the `method .of producing this Window aswell .as this i-nal yelectrode arel new .mdependentlv `from the other .features `of the present ,haven-tionand may also be used in combination with all electron dis-` charge vessels Aor electron tubes .in which the electrons `have to -be emitted-into the space `outside nof these. ,vessels and tubes.

While .the present invention :has been illustrated fandldescribedsonly asgernbodied indevices for irradia-ting substances,particularly in devices` tor bem-bardingv .substances 'with'. electrous. we do :not-.intendfto be `limited to `the details` shown, since` various modifications and structural changes may :be made without departing .in any. Way thespi-ri-t vci Aour invention.

Without further analysis, `the toregoing `will' so fully reveal the gist of our invention that otherscan .by applying ,currentknowiledge readily adapt it tor various Vanplications without omitting features that, '.-fromthe standpoint nf prior art, fairly constituteV-essential characteristics of the genericV orspeoiiic' aspects ci this invention', 4and theref ore .such adaptations :should Aand ,are intended to be comprehended within the meaning and range ofeduivalence of the tolle-wingclaims.. l

Vilfatis claimed as new and .desi-red to secure by Letters Patent is: i

l. A device Afor bombarding ya substance with electrons Looinprisinglfan.,electron discharge vessel, electron `emitting.means within said vessel, an electron transmitting wall .portion the wall .ci .said vessel arranged-in5suoh aman-ner `that .the electrons emitted by" .said .electron emitting means are directed against saidj..electuon transmitting ,welll portion .and .are passing through `said wall-l yportion into the spaceolutside lof `said electron discharge vessel, `an irradiating, chamber .sealed to the outer' :surface lof the Wall .of .said electron discharge vessellin ,such .amanner as to surround said electron transmittingvvall portion,

and 'inlet and outlet openings .in said .second irradiating chamber Ybeing constructed :so as Ito enable continuous passage of theisubs'tance to be .bombarded 'by electrons direct contact with said `electronftransniitting'Wall portion.

2. A device for irradiatng .a substance .com pris'ing a vacuumtube, rmeans forjcmitting 4a beam of rays .arranged 'inside said vacuum tube,`

a tubular conduitor'the 'substanceitoibe irradi.. ated passing through said .vacuum tube seas 'to iormV inside said vacuum tube a tubular lspace being entirely separatedv fromhthe sarna said tubuiar conduit being 'open lat 'its Yends Ain order;`

electrons comprising an electron `discharge vessel, means for emitting a beam of electrons ar- 75 ranged ,inside said discharge-vessel, a tubular conduit rfor thesuhstance 'to qbe Abon-ibar-ded pass-- ilfbroiugl'iy said discharge t vessel and f being seaied into sadidisohange Wessel so as toiormV :6 'inside fsaiddischarge vessels, .spa-ce `being entirely V:separrated trom the :samesaidtubular conduit being openlat its ends inV order to enable ,passage of the substance t to be bombarded through the same,and an Velectron `transmitting 10 Window providedzinthat portion of the wall of said tubular membra-r` `Whichis- .arranged inside said dischange-vessel in such a manner as to-be pcsitiened .in the 4path Iof `the `electronbeam emittedby saidielectron-emitting means. a 51.? .A device for bombardilla.; a substance with electrons, Acomprising .two chambers, .one of them evacuated, a vpartition wall completely senarating :said chambers, an :electrontransmitting wall portion consisting Vof electron tran-smit-v ,20 ting material forrlfiing part of said jpartition mail, said electron transmitting wall portion 4being covered only on that surface which is inside saidv evacuated chamber with a thin` electron transmitting electrically well conductive metallic .'25 layer, and electron emittingmeans arranged vin said evacuated :chamber and constructed so that the .electrons emitted `by 'said'.means :are directed l against .saidelectron transmitting Wall port-ion and are passing through said .window ,into the `30 other Iof said chambers, said other chamber `being constructed so as to Aenable arrangement Aof the substance to bebombarded with said electrans y.directcontact with said `electron transzwal-l per-tion. v

electrons comprising two chambers, `one of said eliambersbeing evacuated, La partition Wall ccmpletely separatingisaid chambers, uan air impermeable electron transrriitting window in Ysaid par,I

tition walilwsaid v'electron transmitting window consisting of a thin ,glass .laver covered .on that surface which is-inside said :evacuated chamber with avthinclectron transmittingahiminum layer v serving :as accelerating electrode, `electron emit` ting means arranged in said evacuated chamber and `cdnstnu,cteld @so that ,the electrons emitted by said means zare directed against said electron transmitting window and are passing through said windowzinfto the other-of said chambers, sai-d other chamber-being constructed so as 4to :enable anramgement of thesubstance bombarded with said electrons in direct'contact with said electron transmittingwigndow. l A ti. Adevioetor bombardinga substance with electrons comprising xtwo chambers, ione of said .Chambers -being evacuated, a )partition wail ccmpletelv .separating .said chambers, an air .impermeable electron transmitting window .in ysaid pantition-wall, said electron transmitiingwindow consisting of a: glass layerihavi-ng -a thick-ness of less .than -one thousandth .of` I`an inch fand an aluminum `coating only on that surface of said class flayer ..wihichis inside said evacuated vcham-` ber, and 'electron emitting arranged yin saidrevacuatedchamber and constmicted so that the .elecimons emitted by .-said means are directed againstvsaidsalectron transmitting Window and f are massingthtengh said window .into the other ot-sa-id chambers., Said .other chamber beingcons structed, soY asl in enable nursingement fof the substance to be bombarded with :said `electrons; in direct contact with said electron transmitting window. n i s s 74A device for bombarding a substance with 5. A dev-ice :tor ybombarding a substance with electrons comprising two chambers, one of said" ohambers'being evacuated; a partition Wall comi pletely separatingA said chambers, an' airimper-j meable electronl transmitting thin glassfWi'ndoW in said partition Wall, an-electrically'well'conduce tive metallic layer "covering'inside said? evacuated vessel the surface of Vsaid'partition wall substantially around said electron trans'initti'ng-v glass window', a thin electron' transmitting electrically Well conductive metallic coating Yserving as accelerating electrode arranged inside' said evacuated chamber and coveringsaidglass'vvindow andat least part of said metallic layer around'said Window, and electron emitting means arrangedin said evacuated chamber and constructed so that the electrons'emitted by 'said means are directed' against said electron transmitting Window and are passing through said Window into'the other of said chambers, said other chamberjbeing constructed soy as to enable arrangement ofthe substance Vto be bombarded'with'said electrons Vin direct' contact with rsaid electron transmitting window. -Y 85. A device for bombarding'a Substance with electrons,` comprising V`an electronv discharge vesf sel, means for emitting -a beamof electron'sf'arrangedy inside lsaid `discharge vessel, a tubular conduit for the substance'to be vbombarded pass-v ing through said* ldischarge vessel andV being sealed into said discharge vessel sc as to form inside said discharge vesself'a-,space being entirely separatedv from the same, said tubular` conduit being open at its 'ends in order to enable passage ofthe substance to'be bombarded through 'the same, an air impermeable electron transmitting window arranged in the path" of the electron beam emitted by' said electronv emitting means 'in' that portion of the Wall offs-aid tubular Conduit which is arranged inside said discharge vessel, said electron transmitting tvindowconsistingfof a thin glass layer covered on thatfsurface Which is inside said'dischargevessel with a thin elec'- tron'r transmitting aluminum coating 'serving as accelerating electrode, an electrical "circuit, "and an electrical conductonconnecting vsaid 'circuit with said aluminum layer; k

9 YA device' for bor`nbar`dinf r a substance'with electrons, comprisinganelectron discharge Ves` sel, means for emitting aV beam of electrons arranged inside said 'discharge vessel; a tubular conduit for the substance to be bombarded passingfthroughV said'fdischarge vessel and being sealed into said discharge vessel so as to forni inside said discharge Vvessel ra yspace being entirely separated from the same, said tubular conduit being open -at-its ends'in'order'to enable passage of the 'substance to" be vbombarded through the same, an -air impermeable electron transmitting thin'glass 'Window arranged inthe path of the" electron beam emitted'bysaid elec# tron emitting means in'dthat portion of the Wall of'said tubular conduit which is 'arranged inside said discharge vessel, an electrically Well vcondu'c tive metallic laye'r'covering inside said discharge l vessel substantially that portion of the wall of said tubular conduit which Asurrounds said electron*transmitting'glass window, vand a'thinelecl .i tron 'transmitting electrically well vconductive metallic coating serving as accelerating electrode' arranged inside said discharge vessel and 'covering' said Aglass 'window and at least part r"of said metallic layerfaround said Window. f

` '1o.niiev1cercr tomba'r'dmg a substance with l electrons, :comprising an electron "discharge vesfsel, means for emitting` abeam off electronsrfarranged inside said' dischargevessel, a tubular conduit for' the substance to be bombarded passi` ing throughsaid discharge vessel and being sealed into said dischargev vessel'so as'to form inside saididischarge vesselua space being entirely same, an`f`air impermeable electron transmitting v thin glass Window'arranged the pathoftheelectron beam emitted by said electron emitting i meansin-thatrp'ortion of the Wall of saidy tubular y conduit which is-arranged inside saidfdischarge vessel,V an electrically Well conductive metallic* sleeve surroundingy saidtubular conduit and be-v ing" provided with an opening,correspondingv in shape substantially toithe shape of z'said glass Window and being superimposed upon the' same,

sol that ,said Window isv'positionre'd withiri/ saidv openingand surrounded by said metallic sleeve,

and a Vthin'electron transmitting electrically well conductive metallic coating arranged insidefsaid discharge vessel and covering at least th'elopening in said metallic sleeve and the glass window inside said opening. v .I I

11; In an electron discharge vessel for emitjting electrons into the spaceoutside of said vesi sel, an electron transmitting window in fthe wall of said discharge vessel,v said electron transmit# ting Window consisting of a thin glass layer covgered only on that surface' WhichY is inside saidV discharge vessel with a thin'electrontransmittlng aluminum `coating' serving asv` accelerating eleciy trode, an electrical circuit, and an electrical'con`v ductor connecting-said aluminum coatingqwith' said electrical circuit.y

12).. In an electron discharge vessel lfor emittingv electrons into the 'space outside'of lsaid vessel;r an'electron transmitting Window4 in the wall o! v said dischargev vessel consistinglof a glass layer having a thickness of less` than" one thousaridth of an inch, an accelerating electrode consisting of a relatively thick electrically well conductiveme'e tallic layer arranged inside vsaid electron Idischarge vessel around said yelectron trans'rnitting Window coveri'ngftheA Wall portion Yaround the same, and an extremely thin aluminum coating covering the inner surface of said electrontrans-A mitting Window and atleast the edges `oi? the memtallic'layer surrounding the same.

v 13. A devicel for bombardiv g a substance vvith electro-ns comprising an electron discharge ves-iA sel, electron emitting vmeans Wthinsaid vessel,

an electronV transmitting Wall4 portion .in the ywall o f said vessel arranged ink such amanner that the. electrons emitted vby rsaid yelectron 'emitting` meansarejdirected againstv said electron trans-' 'l miti-,ing Wall portion and are passing through said Wall portion, andan irradiating chamber being constructed sofasftoenable Aarrangem'ent of the substance to be bombarded with saidelectronsin direct contact withr saidl electron transmitting Wall portion.



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US2665390 *18 Aug 19515 Jan 1954Gen ElectricAnode target
US2680814 *14 Sep 19508 Jun 1954High Voltage Engineering CorpMethod of and apparatus for sterilizing streams of fluent material
US2680815 *28 Dec 19508 Jun 1954High Voltage Engineering CorpMethod of and apparatus for treating substances with high energy electrons
US2737593 *3 Jul 19526 Mar 1956High Voltage Engineering CorpMethod of irradiating streams of liquids, gases, finely divided solids, etc., by continuous beams of high instantaneous ionization density
US2785313 *26 Jul 195212 Mar 1957High Voltage Engineering CorpMethod and apparatus for sterilizing by electron bombardment
US3296491 *19 Sep 19613 Jan 1967Martin M DeckerMethod and apparatus for producing ions and electrically-charged aerosols
US3702973 *17 Sep 197014 Nov 1972Avco CorpLaser or ozone generator in which a broad electron beam with a sustainer field produce a large area, uniform discharge
US4633611 *31 Dec 19846 Jan 1987Bakish Materials CorporationProcess and apparatus for disinfecting seeds
US4839142 *8 Jul 198713 Jun 1989Charm Stanley EHigh temperature, short time heating system and method of sterilizing or pasteurizing heat sensitive biological fluids
US4975246 *23 Jan 19894 Dec 1990Charm Stanley EHigh temperature, short time heating system and method of heating heat-sensitive material
US5434421 *31 Jan 199118 Jul 1995Gesellschaft Fuer Unweltschutzberatung Und -Technik GbrProcess and device for treating particulate material with electron beams
U.S. Classification250/432.00R, 422/22, 250/435, 313/420, 250/492.1, 313/550
International ClassificationH01J33/00
Cooperative ClassificationH01J33/00
European ClassificationH01J33/00