US 2298046 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
J. H. EMERSON Oct. 6, 1942, 2,298,04
APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR USE IN FEVER THERAPY :s Sheets-Sheet 1 KN. \N 1 M \m WC mm M QNQ \& RN 0 bk \N a \N N NW Oct. 6, 1 942. .1. H. EMERSCN APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR USE IN FEVER THERAPY a Sheets-Shee t 2 Filed June l1, 1940 1942- J. H. EMERSON APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR USE IN FEVER THERAPY Filed June 11, 1940 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Patented Oct. 6, 1942 PPARATUS AND T D O U E FEVER THERAPY Claims.
This invention relates to a novel method and apparatusfor use in fever therapy and more particularly to an improved method-utilizing very finely divided fog-like heated water particles.
Fever therapy is used for the treatment of patients suffering from certain types of arthritis, syphilis, gonorrhoea, and other diseases. It consists in raising the patients temperature to from 103 to 109 F. for periods of time ranging from one-half an hour to as long as twenty hours. The elevated temperature of the patient for the required period .of time tends to destroy some, if not all, of certain disease germs and to speed recovery of the patient. The temperatures used and duration of the treatment depends upon the disease being treated and the physical condition of thepatient, and they should be prescribed only by a competent physician.
The primary object of the present invention is to provide a fever therapy method and apparatus utilizing very finely divided fog-like heated water particles for raising and maintaining-a patients temperature.
Further objects are the provision of such a method and apparatus which utilizes such foglike water particles to produce substantially 100% relative humidity in the patient-enclosing chamber, which retains the particles in the chamber without subjecting them to any substantial air currents and an optional method which periodically utilizes finely divided fog-like particles of cooled water.
Another object is the provision of a novel and useful method of fever therapy and novel apparatus for carrying out said method.
Further objects will be apparent from a consideration of the following description and the annexed drawings which exemplify one embodiment of an apparatus which may be used to carry out my method and which has been chosen for the purpose of illustration.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a sectional view of an apparatus for use in carrying out my method, the section being taken on the lines I-l of Fig. 5;
Fig. 2 is a top plan view of the apparatus with the cover and patient-receiving tray or pan rem ed;
Fig. 3'is an end elevational view looking at the foot end of the apparatus;
Fig. 4 is an end elevational view looking at the head end of the apparatus;
Fig. 5 is a section on the line 55 of Fig. 1 and Fi 6 is asectional view of one of the humidifiers used in the apparatus.
A frame Ill is mounted upon the Wheels l'l so that the apparatus may be moved from place to place as desired. A horizontal water-containing pan I2 (Figs. 1 and 5) is secured adjacent its edges to the frame It. The pipe [3 and valve l4 afford an outlet through which the water 9 may be drained from the pan I2 and through which fresh water may be supplied to the pan by attaching a hose between the valve I4 and any convenient water tap.
Two humidifiers I5 are supported by the rods I6 which have theirouter ends welded or otherwise secured to the strips I! which in turn are secured to the frame [0.
At the foot end of the apparatus a separate chamber is provided by means of the partition l8 and the pan I9 (Fig. 1) which are secured adjacent their edges to the frame II]. A hinged door .23 (Figs. 1 and 3) afiords access to this chamber and a humidifier 2| is mounted therein. A pipe 22 and valve 23 aiford a water outletand inlet to and from the pan I9.
Two heating units 25 (Figs. 1 and 5) extend substantially parallel to the pan I2 and each heating unit is electrically connected with the control box '26 (Figs. 1 and 4) and with a suitable electric outlet for the reception of a cord and plug 21 leading to any convenient source of cur-' rent such as a wall socket in the room. The control box is provided with suitable switches or controls whereby the current in the heating units 25 may be turned on and off to regulate the temperature of the water in the pan l2.
A pan 28 (Figs. Band 1) is supported by the two longitudinally extending members 29 which extend parallel to the sides of the frame and which are welded or otherwise secured to the cross members 30. The ends of the cross members 30 are welded or otherwise secured to the members I? which in turn are secured to the frame. The pan 28 may be lifted from the supporting members 29 if desired (Figs. 5 and 2). The bottom of the pan slopes toward the orifice 33 and beneath the orifice there is mounted a conduit 34 the lower end of which terminates above a removable basin 35. Any perspiration or other fluids which fall into the pan 28 pass through the orifice 33 to the basin 35 which may be emptied from time to time.
The racks 36 are supported by the pan 28 and the patient reclines upon a rubber covered mattress ,(not shown) which is supported by these racks. Thevheadrest 3! (Figs. 1, 2 and 4) is adjustably secured to the head end of the frame. A cover 40 is hinged to the frame at 4| (Figs. 1
and 3) and the rods 42 have their upper ends secured to the hinges or to the cover so that said rods move with the cover about the axis of the hinges. A horizontal rod 43 is secured between the lower ends of the rods 42 and a coil spring 44 has one end secured to the rod 43 and the other end secured to the bottom of the pan l2. Thus when the cover is moved upwardly about the axis of the hinges 4| the spring 44 aids its movement and when the cover is returned to the closed position shown in Fig. 1 the spring tends to retard its movement. Removable doors 4B are provided in the sides of the cover for ready access to the patient during treatment.- A towel rack or bar 4'! is secured to the head end of the cover and is used to support a blanket or towel for providing a closure between the end of the cover and the patients neck duringtreatment. The walls of the cover, the door 46, and the frame H! are insulated as shown in Figs. 1 and 5.
Communication between the patient-enclosing chamber and the chamber at the foot end of the apparatus is provided by the hollow member 50 (Figs. 1 and 2). Communication between the patient-enclosing chamber and the chamber which houses the Vaporizers I5 is provided by the space between the edge of the pan 28 and the sides of the frame, as shown in Figs. 5, 2 and 1.
The humidifiers l5 and 2| are each of the construction shown in Fig. 6, which is a vertical section of such a humidifier. Each humidifier comprises a cover 60 provided with outlet perforations 6|. The cover 60 is supported on the peripheral flange 62 of the housing 63. A felt cushion 64 is provided between the flange and the cover. The housing 63 is provided with drain openings 65. A flanged cylinder 66 is supported upon legs 61 which are secured to the housing. The cylinder 66 is provided with a plurality of vertical slots 68 and just above the upper end of the slots a horizontal supporting member 69 is secured to the cylinder 66. The electric motor 10 is mounted upon the supporting member 69 and current for operation of the motor is supplied by the cord H which runs to the control box 26 (Fig. 1) where a control switch is provided for the motor of each humidifier. The
' motor is provided with a rotating drive shaft 12 to which the knife-edged disk-shaped member 13 is secured by the set screw 14. A vertical cylinder pump member 15 is secured to the disk 13 and the drive shaft 12. The lower end of the pump member 15 is provided with a cap 16 having a slot 11 which permits water to enter therethrough. An annular groove 18 is provided in the disk 13 and four horizontal tubes 19 connect this groove with the interior of the pump member 15. A mesh screen 80 covers the groove '18. Four or more fan blades 8! are formed beneath the disk 13. The lower end of the pump member 15 is surrounded by a spaced strainer 82 which is secured to the housing 63.
When the motor is operated the disk 13 and the pump 15 are continuously rotated by the motor drive shaft 12. Rotation of the pump causes water to enter the opening 11 in the cap 16 and to rise along the inner wall of the pump until the water reaches the ends of the horizontal tubes 19 through which it passes to fill the groove 2'8. The water then overflows through the screen 80 to the surface of the rotating disk 73 and flows over the surface of the disk until it reaches the knife blade periphery where it is thrown from the edge of the disk in the form of very fine fog-like particles which pass through the vertical slots 68. The fan blades 84 create suflicient air circulation to cause the fog-like water particles to pass upwardly through the ports 6|. Any moisture which is condensed during the process passes downwardly through the holes 65 and returns to the pan [2 (Fig. 1).
In use of the apparatus for carrying out my novel method, to raise the patients temperature it is usually necessary to raise the temperature in the patient enclosure or chamber to about 130 F. and to hold it there until the patients temperature reaches the desired elevation of -from 103 to 109 F. The temperature of the enclosure is then lowered to approximately the temperature of the patient and is maintained at that temperature until termination of the treatment.
Before the patient is inserted the heating elements 25 are turned on, raising the temperature of the water in the pan I2 to approximately 130 F. and the motors of the humidifiers l5 are started to test operability of each humidifier.
To insert the patient the cover 40 is moved upwardly about the axis of the hinges and the patient is placed upon the support with his head upon the headrest, the cover is closed and a towel or blanket is arranged to seal the space between the patients neck and the head end of the cover. The patient is thus secured in an insulated substantially air-tight enclosure.
The humidifiers I5 are then started and they eject very finely divided fog-like particles of water which are heated to approximately 130 F. These fog-like particles float slowly upwardly around the edges of the pan 29 into the patientenclosing chamber until the atmosphere is saturated therewith. The result is an atmosphere of substantially relative humidity and a temperature of approximately 109 F. After the chamber has been filled with the fog-like water particles there are substantially no air currents in the patient-enclosing chamber and the chamber is filled with what might be described as static fog at a temperature of about 109 F.
When the patients temperature reaches 103 to 109 F. the temperature of the water in the pan I2 is reduced so that the temperature of the fog in the patient-enclosing chamber will be maintained at substantially the patients temperature. The use of these finely divided fog-like water particles is of great importance because it permits the use of substantially 100% relative humidity in the patient-enclosing chamber, the use of substantially no air currents therein, and the use of a minimum temperature (103 to F.) for raising and maintaining the patients temperature. Under such conditions it has been found that the patients skin is heated as little as possible, there is less stimulation to the sweat glands and to the nerve endings and patient exhibits far less restlessness, runs lower pulse rates and there is less likelihood of delirium. Such a method of fever therapy treatment has been found far superior to a method in which water is sprayed directly into the chamber creating air currents necessitating the use of higher temperatures of water to elevate and maintain the patients temperature and producing less than 100% relative humidity.
When patients are in the apparatus for extremely long periods it may be desirable to occasionally give them physical relief from the high temperature. This is done by placing cold Water in the pan l9 and running the humidifier 2| for a short period. This humidifier conveys finely divided cold Water particles to the patientenclosing chamber, thereby lowering its temperature.
While I have shown and described one desirable method and one desirable embodiment of apparatus for carrying out the method, it is to be understood that this disclosure is for the purpose of illustration and that various forms of the apparatus may be used and that the substitution of equivalent steps in the process may be made Without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as set forth in the appended claims.
1. Method of fever therapy comprising heating a body of water to from 100 to 130 F., breaking up a portion of said water into finely divided fog-like particles, conveying said particles to a chamber in which the patient body is enclosed to thereby subject the body of the patient to said heated, finely divided fog-like particles, and returning the water which collects on the walls of the patient-enclosing chamber to said body of heated water, whereby the temperature of said chamber is elevated to and maintained at from 100- to 130 F.
2. Method of fever therapy comprising heating a body of water to from 100 to 130 F., breaking up a portion of said water into finely divided fog-like particles, conveying said particles to a chamber in which the patients body is enclosed to thereby subject the body of the patient to said heated, finely divided fog-like particles, returning the Water which collects on the wall of the patient-enclosing chamber to said body of heated water, and collecting moisture which drips from the patients body to prevent said moisture from returning to said body of heated water, whereby the temperature of said chamber is elevated to and maintained at from to F.
3. In a fever therapy apparatus having a patient-receiving chamber and a substantially horizontal support in said chamber for supporting the patients body, the improvement which comprises a tank below said support constructed and arranged to receive and retain water collecting upon and running down the walls of the chamher, and mechanical means constructed and arranged to receive water from said tank and to break it up into finely divided fog-like particles.
4. In fever therapy apparatus having a patient-receiving chamber and a substantially horizontal support in said chamber for holding the patients body, the improvement which comprises a water tank below said support constructed and arranged to receive and retain water collecting upon and. running down the walls of the chamber, electrical mean to control the temperature of the water in said tank, and mechanical means constructed and arranged to receive water from said tank and to break it up into finely divided fog-like particles.
5. In fever therapy apparatus having a patient-receiving chamber, a substantially horizontal support in said chamber for holding the patients body, and a pan below said support constructed and arranged to collect moisture from the patients body, the improvement which comprises a water tank below said pan constructed and arranged to receive and retain water collecting upon and running down the walls of the chamber, electrical means to control the temperature of the water in said tank, and mechanical means constructed and arranged to receive water from said tank and to break it up into finely divided fog-like particles.
JOHN H. EMERSON.