US 2294617 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept. l, 1942. o. HoRowl-rz GARMENT AND CLOSURE THREFOR Filed Jan. 29, 194i INVENTOR. OSCAR HoRown-z Patented Sept. 1, 1942 lUNITED STATES ATENT OFFICE 2 Claims.
In one aspect my invention relates generally to a body encasing garment of the diaper type and in another aspect to an arrangement for securing a garment in body encasing relation.
I have illustrated my invention in the drawing as embodied in a diaper and will in my description make reference to details of oonstruction that are peculiar to the diaper. It will be understood that this is by way of illustration only, because my invention is capable of a It will be understood further that my invention is to be limited as to its use or as to its details of construction only insofar as is called for by the prior art or by the express language of the claims.
One of the features of my present invention relates to improvements in body encasing garments, diapers or the like and in the means for securing such garments in position on the body.
Another feature of specifically to a securing means for garments generally to serve for temporarily uniting garment parts to eiect a closure thereof.
The first feature has been embodied in a garment of the diaper type.
I have illustrated the second feature as embodied in the diaper construction of the first because of advantages in the functioning of the diaper resulting from the employment of my aforementioned securing means.
One of the objects of my invention is the provision of a diaper which can be readily put in position and removed, can be readily adjusted for varying conditions, and is convenient and effective in use, inexpensive to make and easy on the infant.
Another object of my invention is the provision of a securing means for temporarily uniting garment parts to effect closures thereof which is simple, effective and convenient.
A further object of my invention is an arrangement whereby the aforementioned securing means and the diaper construction are so integrated as to enhance the effectiveness of the diaper, and so as to enhance the effectiveness of each and to obtain the aforementioned objectives more effectively.
The general object of this invention is the provision of a simple, effective and inexpensive construction in a vgarment and in a garment closure of the character described.
Among the more particular objects of my invention is the provision, in a closure of the character described, of a construction in which the interengagement and disengagement of the parts 55 v my invention relates more' of the tongue may be conveniently and readily effected when required, but in which the parts when once interengaged will be held against accidental separation when the garment is subjected to ordinary stresses.
Among the more particular objects of my invention is also the provision in a garment closure `of the character described of a resilient tongue provision of a tongue or tab comprising fusible fabric as a constituent thereof, which fusible fab-ric may be :fused to other layers of fabric constituting the tongue, and may be used to impart resiliency to the tongue.
The more particular objects of my invention also include the provision, in a garment closure and slit type, of an improved construction of the slit or slits, whereby the tongue or tab, and further the yis Asecurely held and whereby contact of the closure with the body and irritation of the body thereby is prevented. y
These objects and such other objects as will hereinafter appear .or be pointed out are attained in the illustrative embodiments of my invention shown in the drawing, in which:
Figure 1 is a View in perspective of a garment in the form of an infants diaper having my improved closure thereon, the diaper being shown in vplace on an infant;
Figure 2 is a plan view on a larger scale of the diaper of Figure 1 as it appears when opened 11D;
Figure 3 is a plan View of the diaper of Figure 2 as it appears when doubled over and with the parts of the closure shown in interengagement;
Figure 4 is a fragmentary sectional view on an enlarged scale taken in the plane indicated by the line 4-4 of Figure 2, looking in the direction of the arrows, and the showing being more or less diagrammatic;
Figure 5 is a fragmentary sectional View on an enlarged scale, as seen in the plane indicated by the line 5-5 of Figure 3, of the closure parts in interengagement and the showing also being more or less diagrammatic;
Figures 6, 7 and 8 are views, in plan, of the parts used in assembling one form of tongue or tab for my improved garment closure, this form being one that I have found satisfactory in practice, for which reason it has been selected for purposes of illustration;
Figure 9 is a plan view showing ther parts of Figures 6, '7 and 8 assembled after afirst opera-- tion in the manufacture of the tongue;
Figure is a sectional View in the plane indicated by the line Ill-l0 of Figure 9, looking in the direction of the arrows, and the showing being more or less diagrammatic;
Figure 11 is a view in plan of the assembly of Figure 9 as it appears in its finished form, after inversion;
Figure 12 is a sectional view, on an enlarged scale and more or less diagrammatic, as seen in a plane indicated by the line 9-9 of Figure 8, looking in the direction of the arrows and showing the tongue as it appears before fusing;
Figures 13 and 14 show respectively modified forms of tongues; and
Fig. 15 shows a modified form of my invention in more or less diagrammatic form.
Referring now to the drawing in detail, I have shown in Figures 1, 2 and 3 a diaper D `for in.- fants, this diaper being shown in position on an infant in Figure 1 with the closures C thereof in interengaging relation.
In Figure v2 the diaper D is shown in plan as it appears when spread out at. It will be observed that it maybe described as comprising an upper relatively wide main portion D| and a lower relatively narrow fiat portion D-2, and the shape as a whole may be compared to that of a letter T. The wide portion is provided at its sides or wings D.- -3 and D-4 with complementary members constituting closures designated as a whole by the letterC, and is intended to encircle the body, while the fiap D-2 is intended to be placed underneath the wings D-3 and D-4 (see Figure 1) and between the same and the body. Since it is only held in place by friction, it will be observed that it can be readily adjusted to various sizes, without manipulation of fastening means, and it can also readily be withdrawn from underneath the wings D-3 and D-4 so as to open up thegarment. The garment is shown in folded position in Figure 3, the folding of the flap D-2 having taken place about a line such as the line X-X of Figure 2.
As will appear hereinafter the closures C are also adjustable, so that the diaper D has a wide range of adjustability adapting it for use under 'a wide range of conditions.
As appears from the sectional view of Figure 4, the diaper comprises a pair of outer layers or plies of fabric I6 and I1, which are coextensive with the diaper, and which are shown united at their edge portions by tape 2U secured in place by stitching 2|. If desired additional layers of fabric may be interposed between the outer plies I6 and |1. Two such layers I8 and |9 are shown by way of example, and these are shown as coeXtensive with the outer plies except that they do not extend into the sides or wings D-3 and D-4 of the main portion D-l The fabric plies I6 and I1 may be of any suitable or preferred material, having the necessary body as well as the necessary absorptive properties. For particular purposes it may also be found desirable to make one or more layers or portions thereof of waterproof material.
The closures C, of which two are shown by way of example, each comprise a tongue or tab portion 25, and a portion 26 to receive said tongue in order to effect the closure.
The tongues 25 are shown as each comprising a shank portion 23 that is relatively narrow and a head portion 29 that is relatively wide, for a purpose that will presently be explained. 'I'his head portion is preferably made of resilient material for a purpose that will appear as the description proceeds.
The portions 26 are shown by way of example as separate pieces of material having a plurality of slits 21 formed therein, these slits being of a size so that they will receive the stem portions 28 of the tongues 25 but so that the head portion 29 of said tongues will not pass therethrough as long as said head portion remains flat. By doubling over or buckling the said head portion, however, as will be explained subsequently, the head portion may be caused to pass through the slits 21. After such passage therethrough the head 29 is flattened and it will then serve to retain the tongue in place in the member 26.
The members 26 may then be secured to the diaper or to one ply thereof as by stitching 30 which is applied around the marginal portion and stitching 3| may also be applied to intermediate portions, provided that the material around the slits 21 is left unsecured so that the tongue 25 ymay be passed freely in and out through the slits 2,1 and between the member 26 and the adjacent ply of the diaper.
It will be understood, of course, that any number ,of slits 21 may be provided. By way of example rI have shown four slits and these are arranged in pairs each pair serving to form a strap 32 beneath which a tongue 25 may be passed. By providing a plurality of'these straps 32 in different positions the girth of the garment may be adjusted; the tongue 25may be passed under any one of the straps thereby giving different adjustments, or the tongue 25` may be passed underneath more than one of the straps 32 whereby the advantage is obtained lof securing extra friction to hold the tongue in place.
4In Figure 5.the member 26 is shown as provided with four slits v21, Wherebytwo straps 32 are formed, and the tongue is shown passed underneath both of the straps 32.
It will be observed that this construction has the advantage that the tongu'e will not come into contact with the wearers body. It has the further advantage that themembers 26 may be made from material manufactured in continuous tape form with the button-holes therein, whereby button-holin'g operations on the main body of the garment are rendered unnecessary, thereby effecting a saving in cost. The members 26 further may be made of material which may be selected solely from Athe standpointV of resisting wear and which need not be absorbent like the body of the diaper. I have found relatively coarse' material very satisfactory.
The tongue 25 is shown in Figure 4 as attached to the diaper D. by having its end portion inserted under the tape 2D and secured by the stitching 2| which holds the tape 22 in place on the diaper and serves to unite the plies |6 and |1.
I have discover-ed that fusible fabric, that is, fabric impregnated with cellulose acetate or the like, which maybe rendered adhesive by the action of a suitable solvent, will provide an eX- tremely simple and effective securing means which presents many advantages. When the fusible fabric is associated with plies of nonfusible fabric it may be caused to adhere thereto. This operation is called fusing and it consists of the operations of applying a solvent to the fusible fabric so as to dissolveY a portion of the cellulose acetate, and thereafter applying heat and pressure to theassembly.
I have found such a construction highly desir.
'lanceert able as it imparts resiliency to the tongue which is not lost as the result of laundering operations, but instead I have found that laundering operations tend to restore resiliency which had been partially lost due to use.
It will be observed that the fusing operation increases the rigidity and the resiliency of an assembly comprising plies of fusible and non-fusible material above that of the fusible material alone. This is due to the fact that a portion ofA the cellulose acetate, or other substance used in the fusible material, penetrates the adjacent portions of the non-fusible fabrics contacting the fusible fabric so as to render these other fabrics rigid and resilient in some measure.
A further advantage in the use of fusible fabric as -compared with other resilient material that might be used is the ease and convenience with Which it can be associated with other fabric, and
also its comparative durability when subjected to wear or to laundering operations.
Referring now to Figures 6 to 12 inclusive, I have shown in Figure 6 a piece of fabric 40 and in 'Figure 7 a piece of fabric 4I of a shape identical With the piece 4S. The pieces 4B and 4I are of elongated form with one end 44 and 45 respectively widened out as shown.
In Figure 8, I have shown a piece of fusible fabric 42. The piec-e 42 is of such shape that its mid-portion 43 can be laid over the widened end portions 44 and 45 of the pieces 4G and 4I, which are assembled in overlying relation. The lateral portions 4B and 41 of the piece 42 are then folded over` the reverse side of the end portions 44 and 45 and the whole secured together by stitching 43 as shown in Figure 9.
The relative positions of the three pieces 40, 4| and 42 will be readily understood with the aid of Figure 10.
The assembly of Figure 9 is neXt inverted or l turned inside out, so that it appears as shown in Figures 11 and 12, The latter figure in particular makes the relation of the various layers or plies clear. It will be seen that the fusible piece 42 is positioned completely inside the tongue, the outer plies of which are constituted by the pieces 49 and 4l. The mid-portion 43 of the fusible piece 42 underlies the outer ply 4| throughout the Whole width of the enlarged head portion, while the lateral portions 46 and 41 of the piece overlie the lateral portions of the ply 40, leaving the central portion of the ply 44 without an overlying layer of fusible material.
It will be observed that the various parts of the head portion of the tongue are of varying thickness and consequently of varying stiffness. The edge portions of the widened head are constituted by eight layers or plies of material, four of these being of fusible material and four of non-fusible material. At its mid-portion it has only three layers one of which is of fusible material, while intermediate the central portion and the edge it comprises four layers, the inner two layers being fusible and the outer two non-fusible.
After the assembly is effected, as shown in Figures 11 and 12, the tongue may be subjected to a fusing operation which comprises the vapplication of a solvent, such as a mixture of acetone and methyl alcohol Where cellulose acetate is used, to the fusible material, and the various plies are then pressed together with the aid of heat so as to form an integrated whole. In this form the tongue may then be applied to the garment, as shown by way of example in Figure 4.
The tongues of Figures 6 to 12 and also of 75 Figures 2 to 5 have` their head portions Wider than the length of the slits 26 so that they cannot pass therethrough without folding. Their shank portions, as shown at 28 in Figure 3 are of less Width than the length of the slits 26. However, for particular purposes it may be found desirable to make the shank Width greater than the length of the slits, and this is equally feasible Whether the shank 28 is made of resilient material (provided it is flexible and not too stiff) or of non-resilient material, as will be obvious, because in either case the material of the shank may be wrinkled or doubled over to permit it to pass through the slit. Obviously also the shank Width may be made equal to the length of the slits 2'6.
In Figure 13 I have a tongue 5d which is of the same width throughout except that its end portion is tapered. With the tongue contoured in this fashion its width may be made equal to the length of the slits 25 or greater than the length of the slits 26. In either of these cases, furthermore, the entire tongue may be made of resilient material or only its end or tip portion may be made of resilient material, and in either case it Will be held in place frictionally as already explained in connection with Figures 2 to 5. Where the Width of the end portion of the tongue is greater than the length of the slits, the end portion will in addition act more or less as an abutment which can not be readily drawn through the last of the slits 26 through which it projects.
In Figure 14 I have shown a tongue 5I in which the shank 52 carries an arrow shaped head portion 53 whereby square shoulders 54 are provided Which increase the abutment effect mentioned in the preceding paragraph. In this case, also, the shank 52 may be made of resilient or of non-resilient material and its width may be equal to or greater than the length of the slits 2B. It is also apparent that the width of the shank 52 may be made less than the length of the slits, as the shoulders 54 provide a holding action that is sufficient Without any holding cooperation from the shank portion 52.
In Figure 15 I have shown a modified form of my invention in which complementary closure means are applied to opposed portions 6I and 62 o-f a garment. A loop 63 is shown projecting from one of these portions, and a tongue 64, which may be similar to the tongues hereinbefore described, is secured to the portion 6I, so that when the portions 6I and 62 are brought into overlapping relation the tongue may be passed through the loop 63, as indicated in dolt-and-dash lines in Figure 15, whereupon it Will be held in interengaging relationship due to its resiliency, as has been explained in connection with the other embodiments of my invention.
It will be observed that in the form of Figure 15 the portions of the garment separate in a direction at right angles to the direction of the tongue, Whereas in the embodiment of Figures 2 to 5 the separation of the garment portions occurs in the direction of the length of the tongue. For this reason the construction of Figure 15 will be found of advantage for certain purposes.
While I have shown and described several illustrative embodiments of my invention it will be understood that the same may be embodied in many other forms as will be obvious to those skilled in the art, and that the disclosure herein is intended to be by way of illustration only and is not to be interpreted in a limiting sense, and that I do not limit myself other than as called for by the prior art.
Having thus described my invention and illustrated its use, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is:
1. In a garment closure comprising intertting tongues and slits, a tongue comprising two layers of fab-ric initially Vsuperposed over each other and having l,an elongated shank and a widened portion vat its head, a layery of fusible fabric superposed over the said widened head portion and having lateral extensions folded around to the reverse side of said head portion, said extensions being of an extent so that they leave the reverse side of said widened headportion uncovered at its midportion, stitching uniting said layers along all edges except at the end of the shank, and said tongue being cornpleted by turning the assembly inside out and fusing the fusible fabric to the other fabric.
2V. For use in a garment closure, a tongue comprising a pair of outer layers of non-fusible fabric, and layers of fusible fabric interposed between portions of said outer layers, said respective layers being united throughout the greater extent of the edge portions of the tongue by stitching and the `resulting hem being turned inward, whereby the tongue will have a thickness of eight plies at those parts of its edge portions that include the fusible fabric, four of said plies being of fusible and four of non-fusible fabric, while the other hemmed edge portions will have a thickness of four plies of non-fusible fabric, and the inner portions of the tongue will have portions of four-ply thickness, with two of said plies of fusible fabric, other portions of three-ply thickness with one ply of fusible fabric, and still other portions of the tongue having a thickness of two plies of non-fusible fabric, said fusible fabric plies being fused to said non-fusible fabric plies.