US 2043701 A
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June 9, 1936. F. E. HARTMAN OZONE MACHINE Filed Feb. 14, 1930 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 9, 1936. F. E. HARTMAN OZONE MACHINE Filed Feb. 14, 1930' 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 MwN wm \R Q Patented June 9, 1936 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE OZONE MACHINE Application February 14, 1930, Serial No. 428,284
The invention relates to ozone machines.
In ozone machines for water purification, it has been common practice to utilize the pressure of the water to be purified for creating the suction which draws air through the ozone generators,
and to mix ozonized air from the generators I sure to draw the proper quantity of air through the ozone generator would cause the circuit supplying current to the generator to be opened. When depending upon the lack of water pressure to stop the supply of electricity to the generator, the protection afiorded is deficient because a stoppage or leakage in the air line also produces conditions which are destructive to the ozone generators, and the water-pressure control would not be responsive to variations in the flow of air through the generator or the air line; for'example, if there was a stoppage in the air line, the water pressure would not be influenced and the ozone generators would not be protected, although no air would be flowing therethrough.
One object of the present invention is to provide an ozone machine which is provided with a protective device responsive to the flow of air through the generators, so that the current supplied to the generators will be cut 01! whenever the fiow of air is stopped or becomes insufllcient from any cause.
Another object or the invention is to provide an ozone machine which is controlled by the flow of air so that it will be automatically stopped when any condition is present which will produce destructive efiects on the generator or improper ozonizing, such as leakage or stoppage or air in the airline or an excessive flow or air.
Another object of the invention is to provide an improved water purifying machine which is controlled by the flow of air so that it will be automatically stopped when the air flow through the ozonizer produced by the delivery of water is stopped or becomes insufllcient.
Another object of the invention is to provide an ozone machine with improved and simple means for automatically stopping the machine when conditions are present which render it desirable-to cut off the supply of current to the generator.
Other objects of the invention will appear from the detailed description.
The invention consists in the several novel features hereinafter set forth and more particularly described by claims at the conclusion hereof.
In the drawings: Fig. l is a diagram of a water purifying system embodying the invention. Fig. 2 is a detail section of the device controlled by the flow of air to the ozone generator for automatically stopping the machine. Fig. 3 is a section on line 3-3 of Fig. 2. Fig. 4 is a section on line 4-4 of Fig. 2. Fig. 5 is a diagram showing the invention embodied in a machine for ozonizing air for ventilating purposes.
In Fig. 1, the invention is exemplified in a machine .or system comprising a tank A in which ozonized air and water are mixed to purify the water; a pipe a for delivering water to an injector a, which discharges into tank A and draws ozonized air through pipe 1) into said tank; a tank E, into which the purified water irom tank A is delivered by pipe of, and from which it is delivered to the place of use; a valve H operated by an automatically controlled solenoid magnet h; an ozone generator B connected toreceive dry air from a pipe c and to deliver the ozonized air into pipe I) which leads to the injector a; a dehydrator C which receives air through a pipe d and discharges dry air into pipe c which leads into the air-inlet of the ozone generator; a lineswitch G comprising a pair or movable members a a a magnet g for closing switch G; a switch I comprising fixed contacts 1', 2 and a bridge contact i operated by a float i in tank E to control the operation of magnet g for the line-switch; and a cut-out switch L comprising a-fixed contactil,
a movable member I, which is held normally open by a spring 1 and a latch l for holding member I in its closed position. The mixing tank A, tank E, valve H, switches I and G, injector a, ozone generator B, and dehydrator C may be of usual construction, as well understood in the art, and consequently no detail illustration thereof is deemed necessary. The pipe a is connected to a suitable source of water-supply and delivers water through the injector a into the mixing column A. The injector draws air through the air line including pipe b, ozone generator B, pipe 0, dehydrator C, and the inletpipe (1, into the mixing tank A, where the ozonized air will be mixed with and purify the water. Pipe a delivers the purified water from the mixing column A into the storage tank E from which pipe a which-will ,deliver it to the points of consumption. The float i in tank E operates the switch I to open the circuit which controls the line-switch G to interrupt the supply of current to the ozone generator and to close the watersupply valve H when the tank E is full. Valve H is automatically operated by solenoid magnet h to permit it to close when the tank E has been filled, and to automatically open when the switch G is closed to cause the machine to operate. The electrodes of the ozone generatorB arerespectively connected by conductors b, b oi the secondary coil f of a transformer F. g
The device D for controlling the cut-out switch L to automatically stop the supply of current to the ozone-generator and also stop the fiow -01 water to the inJector a is responsive to the fiow of air through the pipe at from which the air passes to and through the dehydrator, thence to and through the ozone generator and thence to the mixing tank. This device D is dependent upon kinetic, rather than static conditions in the air-flow, and responds to changes in volume, so that the operation is controlled by the proper flow of air through the machine and directly upon the air-conditions in the system, rather than upon the fiow of water delivered to the mixing tank, Resultantly, the switch L will be controlled by 30.
the properfiow or airin the air line so that the machine will not be operated, unless the proper air flow is maintained, and thus the generator will be iully protected against destructive inmg and outside oi! the bellows.
fiuences, such as a subnormal or excessive fiowaoi air as well as stoppage. This makes it possible to stop the machine under substantially all improper conditions under whichit should be stopped, such as a stoppage or leak in the air-line, which would not aflect the pressure of water, orwhen the air-flow becomes excessive. The device D comprises a venturi tube Illncluded in pipe d, and provided with a restricted throat d, a convergent inlet d? and a divergent outlet d; an air-tight casing ll comprising a cylindrical body, a head l2, bolted to one end of the body and supported in any suitable manner, and a head l3 removably secured to the other end of the body; an expansible metallic bellows II, the open end of which is secured, as at II, to the-inner face oi. head I2, and the inner end of which is closed; a pipe l3 leading mm the inlet side of the venturi to head I! and in communication with the chamber in the closed bellows; and a pipe. I! leading iromthe discharge side of the'venturi to the body of easing II and communicating with the sealed chamber in said cas- The inside of the bellows will be subjected to the' high pressure present at the inlet side oi! the venturi and the outside 01' the bellows to the lower pressure at the outlet side of the venturi. The diflerential in the pressures will cause the bellows to expand responsively to the volume of flow of air through the venturi. The inner end of the bellows has pivotaflly connected to it, at I 3. a stem l3, which is adapted to operate a switch 5 in the casing for controlling a solenoid magnet K which is adapted to release the latch l of switch L. Stem I3 is held against lateral movement in a slot 2| in a guide-post 20 which is mounted in the casing while the slot permits vertical movement oi the stem I3. The switch 8 consists oi! a sealed tube 22 containing mercury to bridge a pair of contacts s, s in the tube and is fixed on a cradle-plate 23 which is fixed on a pivotally thirty seconds, has elapsed.
supported shaft. Bald shaft is mounted in bearings 23 which are adiustably held on fixed mercury to bridge the contacts s, 8'. These contacts are connected by flexible conductors 29 and 30 to binding posts 3| and 32, and so that they will gravitate into closed position, except when the plate 231s shifted or restrained by stem I3. I By adjusting the position of the cradle plate 23 relatively to the end oi stem I 9 through adjustment oishaft 23, the operation 01 the device D maybe varied to open the switch in a range of differential pressures.
In practice it is necessary to deter the opening oi. the cut-out switch L until the machine has fully started and the normal fiow of air has been established through the venturi, and it is also desirable not to stop the machine during momentary fluctuations in the air-line. A timing device is provided, for this purpose which consists of a piston I: attached to the stem k which carries the armature otthe magnet K. This piston slides in a dash pot k which is filled with a suitable liquid, such as oil, and is provided with a leak port to retard the movement of the stem and armature so the stem willnot engage and release thelatch launtil a sufilcient period,say
The operation of the controlling device D will be as follows: The pipe i3, which maintains communication between the chamber in the bellows i4 and the inlet side of the venturi will admit air to the inside 01' the Bellows corresponding to the pressure of the air flowing to the venturi, and pipe ll between the outlet side of the venturi and the chamber in the casing around the bellows will admit air under pressure to the outside of the bellows corresponding to the pressure of air flowing from the venturi and to the ozone generator. As a result. the inside and outside of the bellows will be subjected to the diiierential pressures produced by the flow oi! air to and from the venturi, and the bellows will be contracted or expanded responsively to the diii'erences in kinetic pressure. When air in the desired volume and under the desired pressure for proper operation of the ozone generator is passing through the venturi, the restriction at the throat will cause a diflerence in pressure between the air flowing through the inlet and outlet sides thereof, so that pipes l3 and I1 will cause the inside and outside 01. the bellows to be subjected to diflerential pressures, dependent upon the volume 01' air flowing through the venturi and the machine. When the predetermined volume of air desired is flowing through the venturi, there will be relatively high pressure at the inlet side of the venturi and in the bellows, and a relatively low pressure in the casing H outside of the bellows and at the outlet side of the venturi. This will cause the bellows to expand, so that its stem It will engage the abutment 23" on plate "23 and tilt the plate sumciently to cause the mercury in tube 22 to now As long as this difi'erential pressure in the desired degree is maintained, switch 8 will be held open the mercury in tube 22, contact a, conductor 30,
to cause the machine to continue its operation. Should, however, the flow of air to the machine be subnormal or fail, there will be no or insuflieient difference in pressure at the inlet and outlet sides of the venturi so the bellows will be contracted by spring 40 to permit the tube 22 and plate 23 to swing into position to close the contacts throughconductors 29 and 30 and establish a circuit for the operation of the magnet K to open the cut-out switch L. As a result, any stoppage in the flow of air to the ozone generator, either as the result of an obstruction in the dehydrator or in the failure of the injector to draw the proper volume of air, will cause the device D to operate to open this switch. The stem I9 is pivoted so that if the pressure at the inlet side of the venturi becomes excessive, the stem ill will ride over the abutment 23 and permit plate 23 and tube 22 to swing into position to close the switch, the off-center weight of the tube and plate being suiilcient to lift stem l9. This exemplifies means for controlling an ozone machine by which the volume of air flowing to the machine controls its operation, so that if the air flow becomes insufficient or excessive, the machine will be automatically stopped as hereinafter more fully'set forth. By adjustment of the cradle plate 23 to and from the stem IS, the switch may be adjusted to cause the switch to operate according to the volume of air which is necessary for the proper functioning of the machine. The electrical connections between the controlling devices may be as shown, and will be apparent from the description of the operation.
The operation of the machine will be as follows: To start the machine. under automatic control, the switch member I will be manually shifted so it will be held by latch 1 into position to close the switch L. When the column of water in tank E is below the cut-off point, the following circuit for automatically closing the line-switch G will be established: line conductor 50, conductor 5|, switch-member l, and contact I of switch L, conductor 52, contacts 1?, i and i of switch I, conductor 53, magnet a, conductor 54 and line conductor 55. This will energize magnet g which will then close switchG to establish the following circuit for opening the water valve H; viz. line conductor 50, switch-member g conductors 56 and 51, and the helix of magnet h which will open the water valve H to cause water to flow to the injector a and into tank A. Simultaneously, another circuit will be completed for the operation of the generator B through conductors 56, 58, the primary coil of the transformer F, and conductors 59, 60. The secondary coil ,1 of the transformer F will be energized, and conductors b and b will supply current to the electrodes of the ozone-generator B to ozonize the air passing through the generator. If, when this last named circuit has been closed, air in the proper volume is flowing to and from the ozone generator B, the device D will open the mercury switch S, so that the magnet K will not be energized. When the flow through the air-line and pipe d becomes deficient, stops, or becomes excessive, the lack of differential in pressures at the inlet and outlet sides of the Venturi tube ill will permit the bellows l8 to contract and shift stem l9 so plate 23 and switch-tube 22 will be released so the following circuit will be establlshed for the operation of the magnet K, to open the switch L; viz. conductor 50, member g? of the line-switch G, conductors 55, 58, conductor 6i, binding post 3|, conductor 29, contacts 8,
post 32, conductor 62, the helix of solenoid magnet K, conductors 53, 59, 60, member of switch G and line-conductor 55. This will cause ma net K to be energized and to slowly lift the stem k under the influence of the retarded piston k If, during the period in which the stem k is being slowly lifted, the flow of air through pipe d remains insuflicient or excessive, the stem It will trip the latch l and release the member I of switch L, so that the circuit through magnet a will be interrupted at l, l', whereupon the lineswitch G will be opened by its spring g, and this will cut oil the supply of current to the transformer Fand to the magnet 71., so that the ozonegenerator B will be inoperative and the water valve H will be automatically closed. The machine will then be inspected and the condition which has caused the improper flow of air, no
matter where it has arisen, will be corrected.
When this has been done, the switch-member 1 will be restored to its latched position. This will cause the magnet a to be energized to close the line-switch G and again render the transformer operative and to open the water valve H as before described. The switch S, which is normally closed, will close. the circuit through magnet K, but before the stem h reaches the latch 1 .the air fiow through pipe d and the venturi Ill will cause the device D to open said switch and deenergize the magnet K, so that the machine will continue to operate, as long as the desired flow of air into the ozone generator continues. When the tank E is filled, the float i will open switch I and the circuit through magnet g, to open the line-switch G which will cause the transformer and the magnet h for the water valve H to be cut from the line, to discontinue the operation of the machine until the column of water in the tank E falls below the predetermined level, whereupon theswitch I will be closed to again render the machine operative. The control through switch .I will not afiect the cut-out switch L. So longas the projer flow of air continues through the pipe d and venturi Ill, the machine will continue to operate under control of switch L.
Fig. 5 exemplifies the invention in a machine for conditioning air for ventilating, which comprises an ozone-generator B, a ,dehydrator C from which dry air is delivered through a pipe b" to the generator B; a blower N for forcing air through a pipe 11., the dehydrator, ozone generator, and the delivery pipe d" for ozonized air; an electric motor M suitably connected to drive the blower N, a three-contact line-switch G and a controlling device D similar in construction to the device D and containing a switch S as hereinbefore described and operatively connected to a venturi ill in the pipe d", through which the ozonized air is delivered to its point of use, a
magnet g" for closing the lineswitch, and astart and stop switch K These control devices are electrically connected, as illustrated in the drawings.
Assuming the machine to be stopped andthe switch G to be open, the machine is started by pressing the normally open switch member k of switch K against contacts k" and It" for a sumcient period to start the machine and to establish the following circuit: line-conductor 50",
nected to close the line switch G", which com- 76 prises three members a", a", and a". when the,
line switch is thus closed, a circuit for the operation of the electric motor M which drives the blower N to force air through the dehydrator and ozone generator will be established as follows: line-conductor 50, switch-member g", conductor m, motor M, conductor m, switch-member g", and line conductor 55''. Simultaneously, the following circuit will be established through members 9 and g" of switch 6 and the transformer F for charging the electrodes of the generator B; viz. conductors m, I", the primary coil 1 of the transformer, conductors f and m. The secondary coil i of the transformer F is connected to the electrodes of the ozone generator, as well understood in the art. After the operator has held the switch-member k closed for a sufficient period to start the machine and cause the ozonized air to flow through the delivery pipe 11 and the venturi IO in said pipe for operating the controlling device D", the switch member It" can be released as soon as the flow of ozonized air through the delivery pipe d" is of the proper volume, the diflerential pressures at the inlet and outlet sides of the venturi Ill will shift the mercury valve S in the device D to close the following circuit through magnet g" to hold the switch G closed; viz. conductors 50', in", the helix of magnet conductors 50, d", the contacts of the switch S in the controlling device D conductor d, which terminates at a contact for spring-closed switch member 1:", conductor 55', member 9 of line-switch G conductor k switch-member a" and line-conductor 55 The control device D is of the same construction as the device D, except that the contacts of the mercury switch 5 are located so that the mercury in the tube will be positioned to normally open said circuit and to close it as long as the bellows are extended by the differential pressures at the inlet and outlet sides of the venturi. When, through any stoppage, deficiency or excess pressure in the ozonized air flowing through the pipe d occurs, the bellows permit the mercury switch to swing into position to open the switch 8, the last described circuit will be interrupted and magnet y will be deenergized so the llne-switchi' will be automatically opened by its spring a" to cut off the supply of current to the motor M andto the transformer 1''", thus causing the blower to automatically stop, and the supply of current to the ozone generator to be cut oil. When this occurs, the machine will remain idle until the correction has been. made to cause the proper flow of ozonized air through pipe d", and the 'machine can then be started by pressing the switch-member k into position to close the circuit through the magnet a andv contacts k", k", whereupon the machine will again start and continue to operate so long as the proper flow of ozonized air through the delivery pipe d is maintained. If, at any time, it is desired to manually stop the machine, the switch-member k" may be pressed away from its associated contact which will interrupt the circuit through the magnet g and the switch S in the controlling device D. This form of the invention exemplifies one in which the operation of the machine is controlled by the fiow of the product; that is, ozonized air. As a result, if there isleakage in the air line or an obstruction which reduces the normal or predetermined flow of air through delivery pipe d from any cause whatsoever, such as a leakage or a partial stoppage of the machine, the controlling device D will automatically cause the machine to stop until the proper repair has been made to cause it to operate properly.
The invention exemplifies an ozone machine which is automatically controlled by the volume 01 air flowing through the air line, as contradiss tinguished from the pressure of water, so that the ozone generators will be properly protected by stoppingthe supply of current thereto whenever there is any stoppage, deficiency, or excess of air flow which results in improper product or operation of the machine. It also exemplifies a control which is controlled by the volume of the air flow, the device D functioning as a meter upon which the operation of the machine is dependent. The invention is applicable for purifying water 15 with ozone or conditioning air with ozone for ventilation purposes. When applied to a water purifying machine in which the volume of water drawn into the mixing column is controlled by the flow of water into the column through an in- Jector, any deficiency in the water supply will cause a corresponding deficiency in the flow of air and cause the controlling device to stop the machine, as well as when the deficiency of air Y flow is caused by leakage of air or any stoppage in the air line. As a result, the operation of the. machine is dependent upon the correct flow of air through the airline in the water machine and also in the air machine. In water machines in which the control is dependent directly upon them pressure or flow of water, any stoppage in the air-line would not cause the machine to automatically stop, and the invention exemplifies means by which this defect is overcome.
The invention is not to be understood as restricted to the details set' forth, since these may be modified within the scope of the appended claims, without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.
Having thus described the invention, what I 40 claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is: v
1. In ozone apparatus, the combination of an electric ozone generator, means for circulating water in such manner as to cause a flow of air through the generator for ozone-forming purposes and further to cause the ozone formed by the generator to be brought into commingling relation with the water, means for supplying current to the generator, and means controlled by variation in theflow of air through the generator forstopping the supply'of current to the generator and stopping the fiow of air through the generator.
2. In ozone apparatus, the combination of an electric ozone generator, means for circulating water in such manner as to cause a flow of air through the generator for ozone-forming purposes and further to cause the ozone formed by the generator to be brought into commingling relation with the water, means for supplying current to the generator, a device for restricting the now of air, and means for stopping the supply of current to the'generator and stopping the flow of air through the generator, controlled by the variations in the volume of the air flowing through said device.
3. In ozone apparatus, thecombination of an electric'ozone generator, means for circulating waterin such manner as to cause a flow of air through the generator for ozone-forming purposes and further to cause the ozone formed by the generator to be brought into commingling relation with the water, means for supplying 7i current to the generator, a device through which passes the air which flows through the generator, and means for controlling the supply of current to the generator and the water circulating means 7 further to cause the ozone formed by the gen-' erator to be brought into commingling relation with the water, and means for controlling the supply of current to the generator and also said water circulating means, comprising a flow-restricting device responsive to difierential pres-- sures in the air flowing through said device.
5. In ozone apparatus, the combination of an electric ozone generator, water-supplying means, means for mixing ozonized air and water, means for producing a flow of air through the generator, means for supplying current to the generator, means for controlling the supply of water to the mixing means, and means comprising a device responsive to the flow of air through the generator, for cutting ofi the supply of current to the generator and the delivery of water by the water controlling means.
6. In ozone apparatus, the combination of an electric ozone generator, water-supplying means, means for mixing ozonized air and water, means for producing the flow ofair through the generator, means for supplying current'to the generator, means for controlling the supply of water to the mixing means, water-controlled means for automatically controlling the current and water supply means, and means comprising a device responsive to the flow of air, for cutting oi the supply of current to the generator and the delivery of water by the water controlling means.
7.- In ozone apparatus, the combination of an electric ozone generator, a connection for supplying water, means for mixing ozonized air and water, a water jet for producing a flow of air through the generator, means for supplying current to the generator, a valve for controlling the supply of water to the jet and'mixing means, an air pipe connected to the generator, a device in said pipe responsive to the flow of air therethrough, and a switch for cutting oil? the supply of current to the generator and closing said valve, controlled by said device.
8. In ozone apparatus, the combination of an electric ozone generator, a connection for supplying water, means for mixing ozonized air and water, a water let for producing a flow of air through the generator, means for supplying current to the generator, a valve for controlling the supply of water to the jet and mixing means,
means controlled by the ozonized water for automatically controlling the valve and the current supply to the generator, an air pipe connected to the generator, 9. device in said pipe responsive to the flow of air therethrough, and a switch for cutting ofi the supply of current to the generator and closing said valve, controlled by said device.