US 1515389 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nuv. 1, 1924. 1,515,389
c. v. HOPKINS GOGGLES Filed March 20, 1922 INVENTOR;
I CLARENCE V. HOPKINS,
Patented Nov. 11, 1924.
UNITED STATES CLARENCE V. HOPKINS, 0'! LOS ANGELES, CALII'OBNTA.
Application, filed larch 20. .1922. Serial No. 545,254.
To all whom it ma concern.
Be it known that CLARENCE V. I-lopxms, a citizen of the United States, residing at Los Angeles, in the county of Los Angeles and State of California, have invented new and useful Goggles, of which the following is a specification. I
This invention relates to devices for shielding the eyes from intense light.
One of the objects of this invention is to provide a device in which the shading efiect can be adjusted.
Another object is to provide a device 1n which a liquid is used for producing the shading and protecting efi'ect.
Another object is to provide transparent members spaced one from another so that a shading material or object can be held between the members for producing a-shadingand protecting efiect in connection and conjunction with the transparent members.
Another object is to provide transparent members yieldably, in spaced relation f or adjusting the density or shading capacity of the device.
Another object is to provide transparent members yieldably, in spaced relation for adjusting purposes, and having a fluid disposed between the spaced transparent members to form the adjustable shading and pro- J tecting means of the device.
" Another object is to provide spaced transparent members for yieldably enclosing a colored fluid, and providing operatlng means for adjusting the density of the fluid between the transparent members while the device is in use. Another ob 'ect is to provide a device in which a shading .efi'eot is produced in a graduated manner, having-certain ints in which the shading effect is of a deslred normal density while at other points the shadin effect is of different shade or densit l )ther objects will appear from the 0 owing description and appended claims as well as from the accompanying drawing, in which- Fi 1 is a perspective view of. a pair of gogg es, illustrating a simple form embody- "n the invention.
Fig. 2 is a midsectional illustration of the arrangement of the co-operating chambers or compartments in a device of this t e.
. ig. 3 is a fra entry detail erspective view of a sh itly modified operating mechanism for controlling the shading efiect.
Fig. 4 is a cross-sectional view of a portion of the framework, of proportionally rigid type, requiring the transparent members to be of yielding material.
Fig. 5 is a cross-sectional view of a portion of the framework, being made of yieldin material, as of thin corrugated sheet meta the transparent members being in this case of more rigid material, as of glass, this being a slightly modified form over the illustration in. Fig. 4.
Fig. 6 is a eneral cross section through the reserve an overflow, compartment illustrating the operation of the positive adjustment for the shading medium in .a simple form, i
Fig. 7 is a similar section through the reserve and overflow compartment, illustrating a slightly modified form of adjustment.
The framework of this device is preferably made so as to form a compartment for normally holding and enclosing a movable shading material, as a liquid or fluid.
There are preferably at least two trans parent members for each eye, to be protected by this device. Such transparent members are so spaced as to form a space between two oppositely arranged members. The space between the oppositely arranged transparent members is in communication with the shading-material-oontaining compartment in the frame-work, so that the movable material may pass from the compartment to the space between the transparent members and back, by the action of suitable operating mechanism.
The transparent members-may be of glass, mica, (isingl-ass) or any other similar suitable material without departing from the principle of this invention, as will easily be understood from this application.
In Fig. 1, the device consists mainly of the framework 6, the holding members 7, and the transparent membersB.
The arrangement within the framework is roughly illustrated in Fig. 2, the walls being shown as of comparatively heavy material merely for the purpose of illustration, since displayed. in a midsectional view. The space at 9 indicates the normally filled compartment. The spaces at 10 and 11 are normally closed at the opposite sides by the transparent members. The compartment is in communication with the spaces 10 and 11, in the drawing, proportionally small passages being indicated at 12, but it will easily be understood that for that matter no partition of any kind is re uired be tween the compartment 9 and t e spaces 10 and 11.
The shading material in the compartment may be of colored water, oil, or any other similar suitable material, which can be moved from one compartment into the other and back, and which is otherwise suitable for a filling for the device.
Using isinglass according to the form in the illustration in Fig. 4, the framework may be of proportionally rigid material, since the isinglass will easily yield when the filling is forced to an increased amount between the oppositely arranged members 13 and 14, without affecting the framework, or without requiring a yielding of the framework.
Using glass for the transparent members, according to the form in the illustration in Fig. 5, the framework must be of more yieldable material, as of thin corrugated sheet metal so as to yield when an increased amount of the filling is forced between the oppositely arra'nged glasses or transparent members 15 and 16.
Making the whole framework of yielding material, as of thin corrugated sheet metal, a pressing of the walls of the compartment 9 causes the filling to pass over into the spaces between the transparent members, thereby rendering the Vision through the transparent members more cloudy, and thereby increasing the protecting capacity of the device.
Making the framework, encircling the transparent members, of more rigid material as indicated at 17 in Fig. 4, it is sufiicient that the flat sides or walls of the compartment 9 be of material yieldable to such an extent that a suitable pressure may be applied to force filling material from the compartment 9 into the spaces betweeen the transparent members 13 and 14.
For normal adjustments, a pressing of fingers upon the fiat sides or walls next to the compartment 9 is fully suflicient to produce such a moving or passing of the filling between the compartment 9 and the spaces between the transparent members. However, in cases where a more permanent adjustment is desirable, a screw 18 is provided as illustrated in Fig. 1, for engaging the oppositely arranged sides or Walls, and for permanently holding the oppositely arranged walls in adjusted relation.
Other operating or adjusting means can easily be provided without departing from the principle of this invention. As long as the framework, encircling the transparent members, is made of yielding material, the outermost edges 19 and 20 can easily be forced apart, thereby drawing filling material from the compartment 9 into the space between the transparent members. Such a forcing apart of the framework can be accomplished in different ways and by different means. In Fig. 1, the holding members 7 are pivotally connected to one edge as indicated at 21. A connecting member 22 is pivotally connected at 23 to the opposite edge of the framework. The other end of the connecting member 22 is pivotally engaged at 24 with a small lever 25 on the holding member 7. Any outward moving of the holding members 7 causes the connecting members 22 to force the opposite edge 20 away from the edge 19, thereby forcing the transparent members apart, of course, within the limits possible with yielding walls as indicated at 26 in Fig. 5. The holding members 7 are provided with downwardly extending members 27, as illustrated in Fig. 1. The members 27 can be operated by a moving of the cheek-muscle or bone of the user, so that, for instance, the driver of an automobile may use his hands for the operation of the automobile while still able to adjust his goggles by the mere actions of his cheek-muscles or cheek-bones, enough to overcome the glare of an approaching vehicle. While the members 7 of the form illustrated in Fig. 1 are mounted on the main frame to normally swing in a horizontal plane around the pivots 21; in the slightly modified form, illustrated in Fig. 3, the member 7 is intended to turn around its own axis. An eye, or box, in form of a bearing is easily provided on the main frame in a similar manner as the pivot supports at 21 in Fig. 1, to support the member 7 for such turning actions, as will easily be understood without further illustration. Instead of having the axis of the eyes of the pivots at 21 in a practically vertical direction, the axis of such a bearing merely has to be in a practically horizontal direction to support the turning member 7 of the slightly modified form in the illustration of Fig. The connecting members 28 are pivotally engaged at 30 and 31 to the edges of the oppositely arranged'frame portions of the device, indicated by the dotted lines at 19 and 20. A small lever 33 on the holding member 7 is pivotally engaged at 34 with the other ends of the connecting members 28, so that the edges 19 and 20 will be forced apart by a pressing of the lever 33 on the pivot 34.
he transparent members are preferably arranged so that the filling between the transparent members is held in a graduated manner and shade. In Figs. 4 and 5, for instance, the transparent members are provided with convexed faces or surfaces, the convexed surfaces of the oppositely arranged transparent members being disposed so as to face one another. This arrangement allows only comparatively little filling material between the trans arent members at the center while more filling material is maintained around the center. With round transparent members, the center forms the most transparent point of each transparent member in the device. Such most transparent points may be called the focusing points in relation to the eyes on which the device is being used, and the direction or line from the eyes through the focusing points of the device may be called the focusing line or direction.
The structures in Figs. 6 and 7 serve to illustratethat the screw adjustment in the center of the goggle is more positive, permanent, and steady than the adjustment by the levers on the sides of the goggle. The screw 18, and the adjustments by this screw may be varied just as well to quite an extent as the lever adjustments at the sides of the goggles. While slightly modified forms of the side adjustments and levers have been illustrated in Figs. 1 and 3, slightly different forms of adjustments in place of the screw 18 have been illustrated in Figs. 6 and 7. In Fig. 6, the screw 35 engages with its threads within the boss 36 of the side plate 37. The end 38 of the screw 35 presses against the inside of the side plate 39. With this form of screw, the walls or plates of the compartment 9 are preferably provided with inwardly moving springing tendency, so that, on a removing of the screw, the walls or plates 37 and 39 collapse or move towards each otherto the positions in which they are illustrated in Fig. 6. On moving or actuating the screw 35 inwardly, the end 38 presses against the plate 39, and, by reason of the thread-engagement of the screw within'the boss 36, the two plates are pressed apart. In Fig. 7, the illustrated structure produces a reversed action. The screw 40 is also provided with threads to engage within the boss 41 of the plate 37. One end of the screw 40 is provided with a head-like termination 42, to engage turnably against the outside of the plate 39. To facilitate a removing of this screw, the thumb-button 43 is preferably riveted or similarly secured to the opposite end of the screw, as indicated at 44. With this form of screw, the walls or plates 37 and 39 are preferably provided with springing tendency acting outwardly, so that the walls or plates 37 and 39 may be drawn together by the action of the screw. From the above, it will easily be understood that the design of the screw engagement may be varied slightly in one direction or another, as long as the volume or capacity of the compartment 9 can be controlled thereby for producing a variation of the shading facilities of the hollow lenses or transparent members by overflow as described above.
From the above it is clear that the driver of an automobile obtains his clearest vision only in one direction, which is the. direction straight ahead, while his vision is more dimmed in all other directions. At the same time, an approaching vehicle can only affect the eyes of the driver when directly ahead of the driver, while the eyes of the driver are protected from a glare of the approaching vehicle as soon as the approaching vehicle is not directly ahead of the driver. Furthermore, the eyes of the driver may even be protected when another vehicle is approaching in the focusing direction of the driver by the adjustments described above, without requiring the driver to take his hands away from any operating mechanism of the automobile.
While in the foregoing description reference has been made to cheek bones, it will easily be understood that the operation may be accomplished by the movements and actions of the muscles of'the face of the user, or by a mere inflating of the mouth. Of course, a driver may also reach up with his hand and operate the members or levers 27. The side operations, however, are intended only for very short and temporary purposes, as for instant dimming on approaching an unexpected glaring light; while a more permanent and steady adjustment of th shading effect is better and more conveniently producedby the center adjustment at 18.
I wish it understood that I do not limit myself to the specific details described above and illustrated in the drawing, and that modifications may be made to quite an extent without departing from the principles set forth above and brought out in the following claims.
Having thus described my invention, I claim:
1. In goggles, a frame structure formedto hold transparent members in pairs opposite one another and having a yielding portion between the opposite holding'portions for each pair of transparent members.
2. In goggles, transparent members yieldingly spaced, a filling disposed between the transparent members forming the adjustable shading means of the goggles, and operating means for controlling the amount of filling contained between the spaced transparent members.
3. In gog les, transparent members yieldingly spaced, an independent compartment in a frame holding the transparent members, the com artment in the frame having com munications with the siplpces between the transparent members, a ling disposed between the trans arent members forming the adjustable sha ing means of the goggles, and operating means for controlling the filling in relation to the compartment and the spaces between the transparent members.
4. In goggles, transparent members arranged in pairs having convex surfaces opposing one another in the pairs for holdin a shading medium so as to form a centra point of vision dually dimmed around the central point y reason'of the graduated space formed between the opposing convex surfaces'of the transparent members.
5. In goggles, transparent members arranged in pairs having convex surfaces opposing one another, and a shading material disposed between the transparent members forming a graduated transparent body in conjunction with the convex transparent members from a central point of clearest vision gradually dimmed to a darker rim.
6. In gog les, transparent members yieldingly spaces: a filling medium disposed between the transparent members forming an adjustable shadlng means for the goggles, operating means for instantly and temporarily adjusting the shading capacity produced by the shading medium between the transparent members while in operative position before the eyes of the user, and operating means for more permanently and steadily adjusting the shading capacity of the goggles.
7. In goggles, transparent members yleldingly arranged in pairs having convex surfaces opposing one-another, a shading med1- um movabl disposed between the transparentlmembers forming a graduated transparent body in conjunction with the convex transparent members, operating means for instantly and temporarily adjusting the shading capacity produced by the shading medium by parts of a face while the device is in operative position before the eyes of the user, and operating means for more permanently and steadily adjusting the shading capacity of the goggles.
8. In goggles, transparent members yieldingly arranged in pairs having convex surfaces opposin one another, a shading medium movably isposed between the transparent members, and means operative by the face of user for adjusting the shading capacity of the said medium between the transparent members while the device is in operative position before the eyes of the user.
9. In goggles, in combination with adjustable lenses, operating means operative by movements of the face of the user for adjusting the shading facilities of the goggles double engaging while the device is in operative position before the eyes of the user.
10. In goggles, a frame structure having rims for holding lenses in pairs opposite one another and having a yielding portion between the opposite rim portions, lenses in the frame in pairs opposite one another, a shading medium disposed between the opposite lenses, and operating means for controlling the yielding portion between the engaging rims adapted to adjust the shading capacity of the shading medium between the lenses.
11. In goggles, a frame structure having double engaging rims for holding lenses in pairs opposite one another and having yielding portions between the opposite rim portions adapted to be controlled by co-operating adjusting means.
12. In goggles, a frame structure having double engaging rims for holding lenses in pairs opposite one another, yielding portions between the opposite rim portions, and operating means for controlling the space between the rim portions.
13. In goggles, a frame structure having double engaging rims for holding lenses in pairs opposite one another, yielding portions between the opposite rim-portions and forming an adjustable housing for the rim portions, and operating means for controlling the yielding of the housing.
14. In goggles, a frame structure consisting of oppositely arranged rims for holding lenses in pairs opposite one another, yielding portions between the opposite rim portions forming an adjustable housing between the opposite rim portions, operatin means for permanently adjusting the space etween the opposite rim portions, and other operating means for instant! and temporarily adjusting the space between the opposite rims by movements of the face of the user while the device is in operative osition before the eyes of the user, the adjustng and spacing of the rims being co-active with the yielding of the said housing portion.
In testimony that I claim the foregoing as my invention I have signed my name in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.
CLARENCE V. HOPKINS.
O. H. KRUIGER, Jnssm A. MANOOK.