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Publication numberCN1946918 A
Publication typeApplication
Application numberCN 200580012726
PCT numberPCT/US2005/013893
Publication date11 Apr 2007
Filing date22 Apr 2005
Priority date23 Apr 2004
Also published asCA2563525A1, CA2563525C, CA2563583A1, CA2563583C, CA2563585A1, CA2563585C, CA2563589A1, CA2563589C, CA2563592A1, CA2563592C, CA2564515A1, CA2564515C, CA2579496A1, CN1946917A, CN1946917B, CN1946918B, CN1946919A, CN1946919B, CN1954131A, CN1954131B, CN1957158A, CN1957158B, CN1985068A, CN101107420A, CN101107420B, DE602005006114D1, DE602005006114T2, DE602005006115D1, DE602005006115T2, DE602005006116D1, DE602005006116T2, DE602005011115D1, DE602005013506D1, DE602005016096D1, EP1738052A1, EP1738052B1, EP1738053A1, EP1738054A1, EP1738054B1, EP1738055A1, EP1738055B1, EP1738056A1, EP1738056B1, EP1738057A1, EP1738057B1, EP1738058A1, EP1738058B1, US7320364, US7353872, US7357180, US7370704, US7383877, US7424915, US7431076, US7481274, US7490665, US7510000, US8355623, US20050269077, US20050269088, US20050269089, US20050269090, US20050269091, US20050269092, US20050269093, US20050269094, US20050269095, US20050269313, US20060005968, US20060289536, US20130206748, US20140231070, WO2005103444A1, WO2005103445A1, WO2005106191A1, WO2005106193A1, WO2005106194A1, WO2005106195A1, WO2005106196A1
Publication number200580012726.6, CN 1946918 A, CN 1946918A, CN 200580012726, CN-A-1946918, CN1946918 A, CN1946918A, CN200580012726, CN200580012726.6, PCT/2005/13893, PCT/US/2005/013893, PCT/US/2005/13893, PCT/US/5/013893, PCT/US/5/13893, PCT/US2005/013893, PCT/US2005/13893, PCT/US2005013893, PCT/US200513893, PCT/US5/013893, PCT/US5/13893, PCT/US5013893, PCT/US513893
Inventors白太绪, DS金, FHK兰博, HJ维内加
Applicant国际壳牌研究有限公司
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: SIPO, Espacenet
Inhibiting effects of sloughing in wellbores
CN 1946918 A
Abstract  translated from Chinese
本发明提供一种用于处理地下岩层的方法。 The present invention provides a method for treating a subterranean formation. 该方法包括将一个或多个爆炸物放入岩层中的选择用于爆炸的一个或多个井筒的部分中。 The method comprises the formation of one or more explosives into portions of one or more selected for the explosion in the wellbore. 所形成的井筒处于岩层中的一个或多个区域中。 Wellbore formed in the formation of one or more regions. 该方法还包括在一个或多个井筒中可控制地爆炸该爆炸物,从而环绕所选择的井筒的至少某些岩层具有增强的渗透率。 The method further comprises one or more wellbore explode the explosive can be controlled, so that the choice of the wellbore surrounding the at least some of the formations having enhanced permeability. 该方法还包括在一个或多个井筒中提供一个或多个加热器。 The method further comprises providing one or more heaters in the one or more wellbore.
Claims(22)  translated from Chinese
1.用于处理地下岩层的方法,包括:将一个或多个爆炸物放入岩层中一个或多个井筒的选择用于爆炸的部分中,该井筒形成在岩层中的一个或多个区域中;在一个或多个井筒中使该爆炸物进行可控制地爆炸,从而环绕所选择的井筒的至少某些岩层具有增强的渗透率;及在该一个或多个井筒中设置一个或多个加热器。 1. The method of treating a subterranean formation, comprising: one or more explosives into the formation of one or more wellbore portion selected for the explosion, which form the wellbore in the formation of one or more regions ; in one or more of the wellbore can be controlled manipulation of the explosives detonated, which surround the choice of at least some of the formations of the wellbore with enhanced permeability; and set up one or more of the one or more wellbore heating device.
2.如权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,该方法还包括在将加热器设置在所选择的井筒中之前,对所选择的井筒进行扩孔。 2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the method further comprises, prior to the heater is installed in the selected wellbore, the selected wellbore reaming.
3.如权利要求1或2所述的方法,其特征在于,增强的渗透率发生在半径距离至少一个井筒至少0.3米,至少0.5米,或至少1米处。 The method according to 1 or 2 claim, characterized in that the increased permeability occurs at least one wellbore radius distance of at least 0.3 m, at least 0.5 m, or at least 1 m.
4.如权利要求1至3所述的方法,其特征在于,该增强的渗透率增大了一个或多个井筒附近的垂直渗透率。 4. The method according to claim 1 to 3, characterized in that the enhanced permeability increases vertical permeability near the wellbore to one or more.
5.如权利要求1至4所述的方法,其特征在于,爆炸物包括细长的柔性材料,该材料构造成将放置在至少一个井筒的长度中。 5. The method according to claim 1-4, characterized in that the explosives comprise elongated flexible material which is configured to be placed in at least one wellbore length.
6.如权利要求1至5所述的方法,其特征在于,爆炸禁止至少一个井筒中的材料在加热期间崩落。 1-5 Method according to claim 6, characterized in that the at least one wellbore explosion prohibiting material during heating avalanche.
7.如权利要求1至6所述的方法,其特征在于,该方法还包括允许热量从一个或多个加热器传递给岩层的一个或多个区域。 7. The method according to claim 1-6, characterized in that the method further comprises allowing heat to transfer from one or more heaters to the one or more regions of the formation.
8.如权利要求1至7所述的方法,其特征在于,该方法还包括:从一个或多个加热器向岩层的至少一部分提供热量,其中该加热器的一个或多个处于一个或多个井筒中,该井筒至少部分将尺寸加工成使得井筒和井筒中的其中一个加热器之间的距离具有一宽度,该宽度禁止所选尺寸的颗粒在该空间中自由移动。 8. The method according to claim 1-7, characterized in that the method further comprises: providing heat from one or more heaters to at least a portion of the formation, wherein one or more of the heaters in one or more a wellbore, the wellbore is at least partially dimensioned such that the distance in the wellbore and wellbore wherein a heater having a width of between, the width of the particle size of the selected prohibit move freely in the space.
9.如权利要求8所述的方法,其特征在于,该空间的宽度最大为2.5厘米,最大为2厘米,或最大为1.5厘米。 9. The method according to claim 8, characterized in that the maximum width of the space is 2.5 cm, at most 2 cm, or at most 1.5 cm.
10.如权利要求7至9所述的方法,其特征在于,该方法还包括控制岩层的该区域的加热,从而一个或多个区域的加热速度保持在20摄氏度/天以下至少15天,10摄氏度/天以下至少30天,或者5摄氏度/天以下至少60天,从而禁止加热器附近的材料在加热期间和/或加热之后崩落。 10. The method according to claim 7-9, characterized in that, the method further comprising controlling the formation of the heating region, so that one or more regions of the heating rate was maintained at 20 C / day or less at least 15 days, 10 Celsius / day for at least 30 days, or 5 degrees Celsius / day at least 60 days, thus disabling after material near the heater during the heating and / or heating avalanche.
11.如权利要求7至10中任意一个所述的方法,其特征在于,加热控制在至少一个井筒的1米之内,0.5米之内,或0.3米之内。 11. A method as claimed in any one of claims 7 to 10, characterized in that the heating is controlled within 1 meter, 0.5 meters, or within 0.3 m of at least one wellbore.
12.如权利要求7至11中任意一个所述的方法,其特征在于,该方法还包括加热岩层中的某些烃,从而这些烃的至少一部分热解。 Whereby at least a portion of claim 12. The pyrolysis of these hydrocarbons according to any one of claim 7 to 11, characterized in that the method further comprises heating the formation of certain hydrocarbons.
13.如权利要求7至12中任意一项所述的方法,其特征在于,该方法还包括从岩层生产混合物,其中所生产的混合物包括可凝结烃,该可凝结烃具有至少25的API重力。 13. A method as claimed in any one of claims 7 to 12, characterized in that, the method further comprising producing the mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, the condensable hydrocarbon having API gravity of at least 25 .
14.如权利要求7至13中任意一项所述的方法,其特征在于,该方法还包括控制所提供的热量,以禁止具有高于25的碳数的岩层产生烃。 14. A method as claimed in any one of claims 7 to 13, characterized in that the method further comprises controlling the provided heat to inhibit the formation having greater than 25 carbon atoms to produce a hydrocarbon.
15.如权利要求7至14中任意一项所述的方法,其特征在于,该方法还包括将岩层的一部分加热到至少270摄氏度的最小热解温度。 15. The method according to any one of claims 7 to 14, characterized in that the method further comprises the formation of a portion of the pyrolysis is heated to a minimum temperature of at least 270 degrees Celsius.
16.如权利要求1至15中任意一项所述的方法,其特征在于,该方法还包括评估岩层的一部分的渗透率,并选择井筒用于爆炸,加工井筒的尺寸,和/或以所评估的渗透率为基础控制各区域的加热。 16. A method according to any one of claims 1 to 15 claims, characterized in that the method further comprises formation permeability evaluation portion, and selects the wellbore for explosion, processing wellbore size, and / or to the permeability assessment based controlled heating of each region.
17.如权利要求16所述的方法,其特征在于(a)选择用于爆炸的井筒处于,(b)将井筒和加热器之间的空间尺寸加工处于,和/或(c)将加热控制在具有最多50微达西,最多20微达西,或最多10微达西的渗透率的岩层的部分中。 17. The control method of claim 16, wherein the heating requirements, characterized in that (a) selected for the explosion in the wellbore, (b) the size of the processing space between the wellbore and the heater in, and / or (c) having up to 50 micro Darcy, up to 20 micro Darcy, or by up to 10 micro Darcy permeability rock formations of.
18.如权利要求1至17所述的方法,其特征在于,该方法还包括评估岩层的一部分的粘土含量,并选择井筒用于爆炸,加工井筒的尺寸,和/或以所评估的粘土含量为基础控制各区域的加热。 18. The method according to claim 1 to 17, characterized in that the method further comprises a portion of the clay content of the formation evaluation, and selection for explosion wellbore, wellbore size processing, and / or clay content is assessed based on controlling the heating of each region.
19.如权利要求18所述的方法,其特征在于(a)选择用于爆炸的井筒处于,(b)将井筒和加热器之间的空间尺寸加工处于,和/或(c)将加热控制在具有至少2%,至少3%,或至少5%的粘土体积含量的岩层的部分中。 19. The control method of claim 18, wherein the heating requirements, characterized in that (a) selected for the explosion in the wellbore, (b) the size of the processing space between the wellbore and the heater in, and / or (c) In the portion having at least 2%, at least 3%, or at least 5% clay content by volume in the formation.
20.如权利要求18或19所述的方法,当在具有至少大约2%,至少3%,或至少5%粘土体积含量的区域中形成井筒时,在钻井液中使用粘土稳定剂。 20. The method according to claim 18 or claim 19, when having at least about 2%, at least 3%, or at least the region of 5% clay content by volume in a wellbore is formed using a clay stabilizer in drilling fluids.
21.如权利要求1至20中任意一项所述的方法,其特征在于,各区域靠近岩层中一个或多个井筒。 21. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 20, characterized in that each of the region near the formation of one or more wellbores.
22.如权利要求1至21中任意一项所述的方法,其特征在于,至少其中一个井筒具有放置在井筒中加热器和岩层之间的衬里,并且该衬里包括开口,该开口将尺寸加工成使得流体能够通过衬里,但是所选尺寸的颗粒无法通过衬里。 22. The method of any one of claims 1 to 21 claims, characterized in that the at least one wellbore having a wellbore heater is placed between the liner and the rock, and the liner includes an opening dimensioned so fluid through the liner, but the particle size can not be selected by the lining.
Description  translated from Chinese
井筒中的崩落的禁止效应 Wellbore avalanche effect prohibited

技术领域 Technical Field

本发明基本涉及用于从如含烃岩层之类的各种地下岩层生产烃、氢和/或其它产品的方法和系统。 The present invention relates to a basic rock from a hydrocarbon such as the various subsurface formations containing producing hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and / or other products and systems. 尤其是,此处所述某些实施例涉及用于防止崩落材料影响加热器或生产井筒中设备和/或操作的方法和系统。 In particular, certain embodiments described herein relates to prevent caving material impact heater or production wellbore apparatus and / or method and system operation.

发明背景从地下岩层获得的烃经常用作能源,如原料和消费产品。 Background of the invention obtained from the hydrocarbon subterranean formations are often used as energy sources, such as raw materials and consumer products. 对现有烃资源耗尽的关注和生产的烃的整体质量改变已经导致现有烃资源的更加有效恢复、处理和/或使用的方法的改进。 Depletion of hydrocarbon resources of the existing concerns and changes in the overall quality of the production of hydrocarbons has led to more effective rehabilitation of existing hydrocarbon resources, process improvements and / or use of the method. 原地处理可以用于从地下岩层去除烃材料。 Situ treatment can be used to remove hydrocarbon materials from subterranean formations. 地下岩层中烃材料的化学和/或物理属性可能需要改变,以允许烃材料更加容易从地下岩层去除。 Hydrocarbon material in a subterranean formation of chemical and / or physical properties may need to be changed to allow hydrocarbon material is more easily removed from the subterranean formation. 化学和物理改变可以包括:生产可去除流体的原地反应,成分变化,溶解度变化,密度变化,相位变化,和/或岩层中烃材料的粘性变化。 Chemical and physical changes may include: the production can be removed in situ reaction fluid composition changes, solubility changes, density changes, phase changes, and / or viscosity changes of the hydrocarbon material formation. 流体可以是但不局限于气体、液体、乳状液、浆液和/或具有类似于液流的流动特征的固体颗粒流。 The fluid may be, but is not limited to gases, liquids, emulsions, slurries and / or solid particles flow with a stream of flow characteristics similar.

加热器可以放置在井筒中,以在原地处理期间加热岩层。 Heaters can be placed in the wellbore to the formation during the in situ heat treatment. 使用井地加热器的原地处理的例子在Ljungstrom的美国专利Nos.2,634,961;Ljungstrom的2,732,195;Ljungstrom的2,780,450;Ljungstrom的2,789,805;Ljungstrom的2,923,535;和Van Meurs等的4,886,118中进行了说明。 Examples of using the heater borehole in situ treatment of Ljungstrom U.S. Patent Nos.2,634,961; Ljungstrom of 2,732,195; Ljungstrom of 2,780,450; Ljungstrom of 2,789,805; Ljungstrom of 2,923,535; and 4,886,118 are Van Meurs, etc. are described.

某些岩层层可能具有导致在井筒中崩落的材料特征。 Some rock layers may have lead to caving in the wellbore material characteristics. 材料在井筒中的崩落可能导致过热、堵塞、设备变形,和/或井筒中的流体流动问题。 Material caving in the wellbore may cause overheating, congestion, equipment modification, and / or wellbore fluid flow problems. 禁止崩落具有允许岩层中井的更加有效和容易操作的技术优点。 Prohibition avalanche formation in wells has allowed more effective and easy to operate technical advantage.

发明内容 DISCLOSURE

本发明提供用于处理加热器井筒和将加热器安装在地下岩层中的方法,包括:将一个或多个爆炸物放入岩层中的选择用于爆炸的一个或多个井筒的部分中,该井筒形成在岩层中的一个或多个区域中;在一个或多个井筒中使该爆炸物进行可控制地爆炸,从而环绕所选择的井筒的至少某些岩层具有增强的渗透率;及在该一个或多个井筒中设置一个或多个加热器。 The present invention provides a process heater wellbore and the heater is installed in a subterranean formation comprising for: one or more explosives into the formation of choice for part of one or more of the wellbore explosion, the wellbore formed in the formation of one or more regions; in one or more of the wellbore may be controlled manipulation of the explosives were detonated, which surround the choice of at least some of the wellbore with enhanced permeability formations; and in the one or more wellbores provided one or more heaters.

本发明还提供一个或多个上述发明的组合:(a)允许热量从一个或多个加热器传递给岩层的一个或多个区域;(b)从一个或多个加热器将热量提供给岩层的至少一部分,其中一个或多个加热器处于一个或多个井筒中,该井筒至少部分经过尺寸加工,从而井筒和井筒中其中一个加热器之间的空间具有一宽度,该宽度禁止所选尺寸的颗粒在该空间中自由移动;及(c)控制岩层的各区域的加热,从而一个或多个区域的加热速度保持在20摄氏度/天以下至少15天,在10摄氏度/天以下至少30天,或在5摄氏度/天以下至少60天,从而禁止加热器附近的材料在加热期间和/或加热之后崩落。 The present invention also provides one or more of the above invention combination: (a) allows the transfer of heat from one or more heaters to one or more regions of formation; (b) from one or more heaters to heat to rock at least a portion of one or more of the one or more heaters in the wellbore, the wellbore size at least in part through the processing, whereby the wellbore and wellbore wherein a space between the heater has a width that prohibits the selected dimension The particles move freely in the space; and (c) controlling the heating of the formation of the various regions, so that one or more regions of the heating rate was maintained at 20 C / day or less at least 15 days, at 10 C / day or less at least 30 days , or 5 degrees Celsius / day at least 60 days, thereby inhibiting material near the heater during and after heating and / or heating avalanche.

本发明还提供一个或多个上述发明的组合:(a)评估岩层的一部分的渗透率,和选择用于爆炸的井筒,加工井筒的尺寸,和/或以所评估的渗透率为基础控制各区域的加热;及(b)评估岩层的一部分的粘土含量,和选择用于爆炸的井筒,加工井筒的尺寸,和/或以所评估的粘土含量为基础控制各区域的加热。 The present invention also provides a combination of one or more of the above invention: a part of penetration (a) evaluate the formation and selection for the explosion of the wellbore, processing wellbore size, and / or permeability assessed on the basis of controlling each heating area; part of clay content and (b) assess the rock, and selected for the explosion of the wellbore, processing wellbore size, and / or clay content assessed on the basis of controlling the heating of each region.

本发明还提供一个或多个上述发明的组合:其中至少其中一个井筒具有放置在井筒中的加热器和岩层之间的衬里,并且该衬里包括开口,将该开口的尺寸加工成使得流体能够通过衬里,但是所选尺寸的颗粒无法通过该衬里。 The present invention also provides a combination of one or more of the above-described invention: wherein the at least one wellbore having a liner disposed in the wellbore between the heater and the rock, and the liner includes an opening, the size of the opening so that fluid can be processed through lining, but the particle size can not be selected by the liner.

附图描述参照下面的详细描述和附图,本领域技术人员将清楚本发明的优点,其中:附图1说明了加热含烃岩层的步骤。 Described with reference to the accompanying drawings and the following detailed description of the drawings, it will be apparent to those skilled in the advantages of the present invention, wherein: Figure 1 illustrates the step of heating the hydrocarbon containing formation.

附图2示出了用于处理含烃岩层的原地转换系统的一部分的实施例的示意性视图。 Figure 2 shows a schematic view of an embodiment of the in situ conversion system for treating the hydrocarbon containing formation part.

附图3说明了用于在开口中提供受控爆炸的实施例。 Figure 3 illustrates an embodiment for providing a controlled explosion in the opening.

附图4说明了在开口中进行受控爆炸之后该开口的实施例。 Figure 4 illustrates an embodiment of a controlled explosion after the opening of the opening.

附图5说明了开口中的衬里的实施例。 Figure 5 illustrates an embodiment of an opening in the liner.

附图6说明了拉伸构造中衬里的实施例。 Figure 6 illustrates an embodiment of a tensile liner configuration.

附图7说明了膨胀构造中衬里的实施例。 Figure 7 illustrates an embodiment of the liner in the expanded configuration.

尽管本发明易于进行各种修改和备选形式,但是在附图中利用例子示出了其特定实施例,并且在此处可以对其详细描述。 While the invention is susceptible to various modifications and alternative forms, but by way of example in the accompanying drawings which illustrate specific embodiments, and detailed description thereof will be here. 附图不对范围进行限定。 BRIEF not be limited scope. 然而,应当理解的是,附图及其详细描述不将本发明局限于所公开的特定形式,但是相反,试图包括所有落入由所附权利要求限定的本发明的精神和范围内的修改、等效物和备选方案。 However, it should be understood that the specific form of the drawings and detailed description of the present invention is not limited to the disclosed, but the contrary, is intended to include all modifications within the spirit and scope of the appended claims fall within the present invention, equivalents, and alternatives.

具体实施方式 DETAILED DESCRIPTION

下面的描述基本涉及用于处理岩层中的烃的系统和方法。 The following describes the basic relates to systems and methods for processing the formation of hydrocarbons. 这些岩层可以处理成生产烃产品、氢和其他产品。 These formations can be treated to produce hydrocarbon products, hydrogen and other products.

“烃”基本上定义为主要由碳和氢原子形成的分子。 "Hydrocarbon" is defined as a molecule substantially mainly composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms. 烃还可以包括其它元素,如但不局限于卤素、金属元素、氮、氧和/或硫。 Hydrocarbons may also include other elements, such as, but not limited to, halogens, metallic elements, nitrogen, oxygen and / or sulfur. 烃可以是但不局限于油母、沥青、焦沥青、油、天然矿物蜡和沥青岩。 Hydrocarbons may be, but are not limited to, kerogen, bitumen, bitumen coke, oil, natural mineral waxes and asphalt rock. 烃可以位于地球中的矿物矩阵中或其附近。 Hydrocarbons may be located in the mineral matrix in the earth or in the vicinity. 矩阵可以包括但不局限于水成岩、沙子、沉积石英岩、碳酸盐、硅藻土和其他多孔介质。 Matrices may include, but are not limited to sedimentary rock, sand, sedimentary quartzite, carbonate, diatomaceous earth and other porous media. “烃流体”是包括烃的流体。 "Hydrocarbon fluids" are fluids include hydrocarbons. 烃流体可以包括、夹带或夹带到非烃流体中(例如,氢、氮、一氧化碳、二氧化碳、硫化氢、水和氨)。 Hydrocarbon fluids may include, entrain, or entrained into the non-hydrocarbon fluids (e.g., hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and water).

“重烃”是粘稠的烃流体。 "Heavy hydrocarbons" are viscous hydrocarbon fluids. 重烃可以包括高粘度烃流体,如重油、焦油和/或沥青。 Heavy hydrocarbons may include highly viscous hydrocarbon fluids such as heavy oil, tar and / or bitumen. 重烃可以包括碳和氢,以及小浓度的硫、氧和氮。 Heavy hydrocarbons may include carbon and hydrogen, and small concentrations of sulfur, oxygen and nitrogen. 在重烃中也可以存在微量辅助元素。 Assist in trace elements of heavy hydrocarbons may also be present. 重烃可以用API重力分类。 Heavy hydrocarbons may be classified by API gravity. 重烃基本具有20以下的API重力。 Heavy hydrocarbons are substantially less with 20 API gravity. 例如,重油一般具有10-20的API重力,而焦油一般具有10以下的API重力。 For example, heavy oils typically have API gravity of 10-20, whereas tar generally has an API gravity of 10 or less. 重烃的粘度在15摄氏度下一般为至少100厘泊。 The viscosity of heavy hydrocarbons at 15 degrees Celsius is usually at least 100 cps. 重烃还可以包括芳族化合物或其它复环烃。 Heavy hydrocarbons may also include aromatics or other complex ring hydrocarbons.

“API重力”指的是15.5摄氏度(60华氏度)下的API重力。 "API gravity" refers to API gravity is 15.5 degrees Celsius (60 degrees Fahrenheit) under. API重力用ASTM方法D6822决定。 API Gravity ASTM method D6822 decided. “ASTM”指的是美国材料试验标准。 "ASTM" refers to the ASTM standards.

“岩层”包括一个或多个含烃层,一个或多个无烃层,上覆岩层和/或下伏岩层。 "Formation" includes one or more hydrocarbon containing layers, one or more non-hydrocarbon layers, an overburden, and / or the underlying rock. 该“上覆岩层”和/或“下伏岩层”包括一个或多个不同类型的不渗透材料。 The "overburden" and / or "underburden" includes one or more different types of impermeable materials. 例如,上覆岩层和/或下伏岩层可以包括岩层、页岩、泥岩或湿/紧碳酸盐。 For example, overburden and / or underburden may include rock formations, shale, mudstone, or wet / tight carbonate. 在原地转换过程的某些实施例中,上覆岩层和/或下伏岩层可以包括含烃层或多个含烃层,它们在原地转换处理期间是不渗透的并不受到加温,这导致了上覆岩层和/或下伏岩层的含烃层的显著特性变化。 In some embodiments, in situ conversion process, the overburden and / or underburden may include a hydrocarbon containing layer or hydrocarbon containing layers which are in place during the conversion process is not limited by impermeable heating, which leads to the overburden and / or underburden significant characteristic changes of the hydrocarbon-containing layer. 例如,下伏岩层可以含有页岩或泥岩,但是下伏岩层在原地转换过程期间不允许加热到热解温度。 For example, underburden may contain shale or mudstone, but underburden place during the conversion process does not allow heat to pyrolysis temperature. 在某些情况下,上覆岩层和/或下伏岩层可以是稍微渗透的。 In some cases, the overburden and / or underburden may be slightly permeable.

“岩层流体”和“采出液”指的是从岩层去除的流体,并可以包括热解流体、合成气、流动烃和水(蒸汽)。 "Formation fluid" and "produced fluids" refers to the removal of fluid from the formation, and may include pyrolysis fluid, synthesis gas, the flow of hydrocarbons and water (steam). 岩层流体可以包括烃流体以及非烃流体。 Formation fluids may include hydrocarbon fluids as well as non-hydrocarbon fluids.

“碳数”指的是分子中碳原子的数量。 "Carbon number" refers to the number of carbon atoms in the molecule. 烃流体可以包括具有不同碳数的各种烃。 Hydrocarbon fluids may include various hydrocarbons having different carbon numbers. 可以用碳数分布描述烃流体。 It can be described by a carbon number distribution of hydrocarbon fluids. 碳数和/或碳数分布可以由真沸点分布和/或气-液色谱法决定。 Carbon atoms and / or carbon number distribution may be distributed by the true boiling point and / or gas - liquid chromatography decisions.

“热源”是用于基本通过传导和/或辐射热量传递向岩层的至少一部分提供热量的任何系统。 "Heat source" is any system for providing the basic transfer heat to at least a portion of the formation by conductive and / or radiant heat.

“加热器”是用于在井或近似井筒区域中产生热量的任何系统。 "Heater" is used in the well or near wellbore region of the heat generated in any system. 加热器可以是但不局限于电加热器、循环的热传递流体或蒸汽、燃烧器、与其中的材料或岩层的生成物和/或其组合反应的燃烧室。 Heaters may be, but is not limited to the electric heater, heat transfer fluid or steam cycle, the burner, in which material or product formation and / or combinations combustion reactions. 词语“井筒”指的是岩层中的孔,通过将导管钻孔或插入到岩层中制成。 The term "wellbore" refers to a hole in the rock, by drilling or insertion of a catheter into the formation thereof. 如此处所使用的那样,词语“井”和“开口”,当指的是岩层中的开口时,可以与词语“井筒”互换使用。 As used herein, the term "well" and "open", when referring to an opening in the rock, you can use the term "wellbore" interchangeably.

“热解”是化学键由于受热而断裂。 "Pyrolysis" is the breaking of chemical bonds due to the heat. 热解包括只通过加热将化合物转换成一种或多种其它物质。 Pyrolysis includes only by heating to convert the compound into one or more other substances. 热量可以处递给一部分岩层以导致热解。 Heat can be transmitted to a portion of the formation to cause pyrolysis. “热解流体”或“热解产物”指的是在烃的热解期间产生的流体。 "Pyrolysis fluid" or "pyrolysis products" refers to fluid during pyrolysis of hydrocarbons produced. 通过热解反应产生的流体可以与岩层中其它流体混合。 Fluid produced by pyrolysis reactions may mix with other fluids in the formation. 该混合物可以看作热解流体或热解产物。 The mixture can be regarded as pyrolysis fluids or pyrolysis products. 热解流体包括但不局限于,烃、氢、二氧化碳、一氧化碳、硫化氢、氨、氮、水和其混合物。 Pyrolysis fluids include, but are not limited to, hydrocarbons, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, nitrogen, water, and mixtures thereof.

“可冷凝烃”是在25摄氏度101kPa绝对压力下冷凝的烃。 "Condensable hydrocarbons" are at 25 C 101kPa absolute pressure of the condensed hydrocarbon. 可冷凝烃可以包括具有大于4的碳数的烃的混合物。 Condensable hydrocarbons may include a mixture having more than 4 carbon atoms of the hydrocarbon. “非可冷凝烃”是在25摄氏度和101kPa绝对压力下不冷凝的烃。 "Non-condensable hydrocarbons" are at 25 degrees C and 101kPa absolute pressure is not condensed hydrocarbons. 非可冷凝烃可以包括具有小于5的碳数的烃。 Non-condensable hydrocarbons may include hydrocarbons having less than five carbon number.

可以以各种方式处理岩层中的烃,以产生多种不同产物。 It may be treated in various ways in the formation of hydrocarbons, to produce a variety of different products. 在某些实施例中,分步处理这些岩层。 In certain embodiments, the processing step formations. 附图1说明了加热含烃岩层的几个步骤。 Figure 1 illustrates the steps of heating the hydrocarbon containing formation. 附图1还说明了在来自岩层的每吨岩层流体的油等效物的桶产量(“Y”)(y轴)与受热岩层的摄氏温度(“T”)(X轴)对比的例子。 Figure 1 also illustrates the formation fluid from the formation of oil per ton of barrel equivalents yield ("Y") (y-axis) of the heated formation in degrees Celsius ("T") (X-axis) comparative examples.

在第1阶段加热期间发生甲烷的解吸和水的蒸发。 Evaporation of methane desorption and water occurs during stage 1 heating. 通过第1阶段可以尽快进行岩层的加热。 By Phase 1 can be heated rock as soon as possible. 例如,当含烃岩层最初受热时,岩层中的烃将吸附的甲烷解吸。 For example, when initially heated hydrocarbon-containing formation, the formation of methane desorption of the adsorbed hydrocarbons. 岩层可以产生解吸的甲烷。 Rock can produce methane desorption. 如果含烃岩层进一步受热,则含烃岩层中的水受到蒸发。 If further heated hydrocarbon-containing formations, the hydrocarbon-bearing formations of water by evaporation. 在某些含烃岩层中,水可能占到岩层中孔隙体积的10%至50%。 In some hydrocarbon containing formations, water may account for 10-50% of the pore volume of the rock. 在其它岩层中,水占孔隙体积的更大或更小的部分。 In other formations, water accounts for a greater or smaller portion of the pore volume. 水通常在岩层中在160℃至285℃之间600kPa绝对压力至7000kPa绝对压力下蒸发。 Water is usually in the formation between 160 ℃ to 285 ℃ 600kPa to 7000kPa absolute pressure absolute pressure evaporation. 在某些实施例中,蒸发的水在岩层中产生湿度变化和/或增大的岩层压力。 In certain embodiments, the evaporation of water produced changes in humidity and / or increased formation pressure in the formation. 湿度变化和/或增大的压力可以影响岩层中的热解反应或其他反应。 Changes in humidity and / or increased pressure may affect pyrolysis reactions or other reactions in the formation. 在某些实施例中,岩层产生蒸发的水。 In some embodiments, generating the formation of water evaporation. 在其它实施例中,蒸发的水用于岩层中或岩层外的抽汽和/或蒸汽蒸馏。 In other embodiments, the evaporation of water is used for steam extraction and / or steam distillation or rock formations outside. 从岩层中去除水和增大岩层中孔隙体积增大了孔隙体积中烃的存储空间。 Removal of water and increase the formation pore volume increases the pore volume of the hydrocarbons from the formation of the storage space.

在某些实施例中,在步骤1加热之后,岩层进一步受热,从而岩层中的温度达到(至少)初始热解温度(如步骤2所示温度范围低端处的温度)。 In certain embodiments, after the heating step, the formation is heated further, so that the temperature of the formation reaches (at least) an initial pyrolysis temperature (temperature at the low end of the temperature range as shown in step 2). 岩层中的烃可以通过步骤2热解。 Hydrocarbon formation through the pyrolysis step 2. 热解温度范围根据岩层中烃的类型而改变。 Pyrolysis temperature range according to the type of hydrocarbon formation and change. 该热解温度范围可以包括250℃至900℃之间的温度。 The pyrolysis temperature range may include temperatures between 250 ℃ to 900 ℃ the. 用于产生期望产品的热解温度范围可以只延伸通过总热解温度范围的一部分。 Pyrolysis temperature range for producing desired products may extend only a portion of the total pyrolysis temperature range by heat. 在某些实施例中,用于产生期望产品的热解温度范围可以包括250℃至400℃之间的温度或270℃至350℃之间的温度。 In certain embodiments, for generating the desired products pyrolysis temperature range may include temperatures between 250 ℃ to 400 ℃ or 270 ℃ to a temperature between 350 ℃. 如果岩层中烃的温度通过250℃至400℃的温度范围缓慢升高,则当温度达到400℃时热解产品的产生可以基本完成。 If the temperature of hydrocarbons in the formation through the temperature range of 250 ℃ to 400 ℃ slowly rises, when the temperature reaches 400 ℃ produce pyrolysis products may be substantially complete. 用数个热源加热含烃岩层可以在热源周围建立热梯度,该热梯度缓慢升高岩层中烃的温度使其通过热解温度范围。 A plurality of heat source with the hydrocarbon containing formation may establish thermal gradients around the heat source, the thermal gradient increases slowly to make the temperature of hydrocarbons in the formation through the pyrolysis temperature range.

在某些原地转换实施例中,岩层的一部分加热到期望温度,而不是缓慢加热温度使其通过温度范围。 In some in situ conversion embodiments, a portion of the formation is heated to a desired temperature instead of slowly heating the temperature through a temperature range it. 在某些实施例中,期望温度是300℃、325℃或350℃。 In certain embodiments, the desired temperature is 300 ℃, 325 ℃ or 350 ℃. 也可以选择其它温度作为期望温度。 You can also select other temperature as the desired temperature. 来自热源的热量的叠加允许在岩层中较快和较有效地建立期望温度。 Superposition of heat from a heat source to allow faster and more effective to establish the desired temperature in the formation. 可以调节从热源输入到岩层中的能量,以将岩层中的温度基本保持在期望的温度。 You can adjust the heat input into the formation energy to the formation of the temperature remained at a desired temperature. 岩层的受热部分基本保持在期望温度,直到热解衰退为止,从而来自岩层的期望岩层流体的产品变得不经济。 Heated portion of the formation is maintained substantially at the desired temperature until pyrolysis until the recession, whereby the desired product formation fluid from the formation becomes uneconomical. 进行热解的岩层的部分可以包括通过只从一个热源传递的热量达到热解温度范围的区域。 Be part of rock pyrolysis may include only reached by pyrolysis temperature range from a heat source heat transfer area.

在某些实施例中,岩层产生包括热解流体的岩层流体。 In certain embodiments, the formation produced include pyrolysis fluid formation fluid. 随着岩层的温度升高,所产生的岩层流体中可冷凝烃的数量可能降低。 With formation temperature, formation fluid produced condensable hydrocarbons may reduce the number. 在高温下,岩层可能主要产生甲烷和/或氢。 At high temperatures, the formation may produce mainly methane and / or hydrogen. 如果含烃岩层加热穿过整个热解范围,则岩层可能朝热解范围的上限只产生少量氢。 If the hydrocarbon containing formation is heated through the entire pyrolysis range, the formation may be towards the upper limit of the pyrolysis range produced only a small amount of hydrogen. 在所有现有的氢用尽时,将通常发生岩层产生最少量的流体产品。 When all existing hydrogen is exhausted, it will produce the least amount usually occurs formation fluid products.

在烃的热解之后,在岩层中可能仍然存在大量的碳和一些氢。 After the hot hydrocarbon solution, it may still exist a number of large amounts of carbon and hydrogen in the formation. 含在岩层中的碳的主要部分可以从岩层生产成合成气的形式。 The main part of the carbon contained in the rock formations can be produced from the formation to form synthesis gas. 合成气的产生可以发生在附图1中所示第3阶段加热期间。 Generating synthesis gas may take place during stage 3 heating 1 shown in the drawings. 第3阶段可以包括将含烃岩层加热到足以允许合成气产生的温度。 Stage 3 may include a hydrocarbon containing formation is heated to a temperature sufficient to allow synthesis gas produced. 例如,合成气可以在从400℃到1200℃、500℃到1100℃,或550℃到1000℃的温度范围中产生。 For example, synthesis gas can be from 400 ℃ to 1200 ℃, produced at 500 ℃ to 1100 ℃, or 550 ℃ to 1000 ℃ temperature range. 合成气产生流体导入岩层时岩层的受热部分的温度决定岩层中所产生的合成气的成分。 Synthesis gas produced fluid is introduced into the formation temperature of the heated portion of the rock formations decision ingredients produced syngas. 所产生的合成气体可以通过一个或多个生产井从岩层去除。 The synthesis gas produced may be removed from the formation through one or more production wells.

附图2说明了用于处理含烃岩层的原地转换系统的一部分的实施例的示意图。 Figure 2 illustrates a schematic view of an embodiment of a portion of the processing in situ conversion system for hydrocarbon containing formation of. 热源20放置在岩层的至少一部分中。 Heat source 20 is placed at least a portion of the formation. 热源20可以包括如绝缘导体之类的电加热器、导管中的导体加热器、表面燃烧器、无焰分布式燃烧室,和/或自然分布式燃烧室。 The heat source 20 may comprise insulated conductors such as electric heater, the heater conduit conductor, surface burners, flameless distributed combustion chamber, and / or natural distributed combustor. 热源20也可以包括其它类型的加热器。 The heat source 20 may also include other types of heaters. 热源20向岩层的至少一部分提供热量,以加热岩层中的烃。 Heat source 20 provides heat to at least a portion of the formation to heat hydrocarbons in the formation. 能量可以通过供料管线22供给热源20。 Energy source 20 may be supplied through the feed line 22. 供料管线22可以根据用于加热岩层的热源或多个热源的类型而结构不同。 22 according to a heat source used to heat the formation of one or more different types of heat sources feed line structure. 用于热源的供料管线22可以为电加热器传送电流,可以为燃烧室传输燃料,或者可以传输在岩层中循环的热交换流体。 Feed line for heat source 22 can transmit current of electric heaters, may transport fuel combustion chamber, or can be transmitted in the formation of the heat exchange fluid circulation.

生产井24用于从岩层去除岩层流体。 24 production wells for the removal of formation fluids from the formation. 生产井24所产生的岩层流体可以通过收集管26输送到处理设备28。 Formation fluid production wells 24 may be generated by collecting tube 26 transported to the processing device 28. 岩层流体也可以从热源20产生。 Formation fluid can also be generated from the heat source 20. 例如,流体可以从热源20产生,以控制与热源相邻的岩层中的压力。 For example, fluid may be produced from the heat source 20, and the heat source to control the pressure in an adjacent formation. 从热源20产生的流体可以通过管道或管输送到收集管26,或者产生的流体可以通过管道或管直接输送到处理设备28。 Fluid resulting from the heat source 20 may be piped to a collection tube or pipe 26, or generated fluids can be delivered directly through the pipe or tube to the processing device 28. 处理设备28可以包括分离单元、反应单元、浓缩单元、燃料井、涡轮、贮存罐,和/或用于处理所产生的岩层流体的其它系统和单元。 Processing device 28 may include separation units, reaction units, concentration unit, a fuel well, turbine, storage tanks, and / or for processing the produced formation fluid systems and other means.

该用于处理烃的原地转换系统可以包括栅栏井30。 The in situ conversion system for treating hydrocarbons may include barrier wells 30. 栅栏井用于在处理区域周围形成栅栏。 Well fence fence in the process for forming around the area. 该栅栏禁止流体流入和/或流出处理区域。 The fence prohibit fluid flow into and / or out of the processing area. 栅栏井包括但不局限于脱水井、真空井、捕获井、喷射井、灌浆井、冻结井或其组合。 Including but not limited to the fence well dewatering wells, vacuum wells, capture wells, injection wells, grout wells, freeze wells, or combinations thereof. 在某些实施例中,栅栏井30为脱水井。 In some embodiments, the barrier well 30 as dewatering wells. 脱水井可以去除液体水和/或禁止液体水进入将加热的岩层的一部分,或正在加热的岩层。 Dewatering wells may be removed and a portion of the liquid water / or prohibit the heated liquid water into the rock, or rock is heated. 在附图2中所示的实施例中,脱水并示出为只沿着热源20的一侧延伸,但是脱水井通常环绕用于或将用于加热岩层的所有热源20。 In the embodiment shown in figures 2, the dehydration and shown as extending only along one side of the heat source 20, but dewatering wells typically encircle or be used for all the heat sources for heating the formation 20.

如附图2中所示,除了热源20之外,一个或多个生产井24放置在岩层中。 As shown in figures 2, in addition to the heat source 20, one or more production wells 24 placed in the formation. 岩层流体可以通过生产井24生产。 Formation fluid production by 24 production wells. 在某些实施例中,生产井24包括热源。 In certain embodiments, production well 24 includes a heat source. 生产井中的热源可以加热生产井处或其附近的岩层的一个或多个部分,并允许岩层流体的气相去除。 The production well may heat source or a production well at or near the formation of a plurality of portions, and allows formation fluid gas removal. 可以减少或消除对液体从生产井的高温泵送的需要。 It can reduce or eliminate fluid from the high production wells pumping needs. 避免或限制液体的高温泵送可以明显降低生产成本。 Avoid or limit the temperature of the liquid pumped can significantly reduce production costs. 倘若在生产井处或通过生产井加热:(1)当这种生产流体在生产井中移动接近超载时,禁止生产流体的凝结和/或回流,(2)增加输入到岩层中的热量,和/或(3)增强生产井处或其附近岩层的渗透率。 If the production wells at or through the production well Heating: (1) when such production fluid is moving in the production well when approaching overload, banning the production of fluid in the coagulation and / or reflux, (2) increase heat input into the formation and / or (3) to enhance the production well at or near the rock permeability. 在某些原地转换过程的实施例中,每米生产井从生产井供给岩层的热量少于从热源应用到岩层的热量,该热源加热每米热源的岩层。 In the embodiment of some in situ conversion process, from the production well per meter of heat supplied to the formation of the production well is less than the heat from the heat source is applied to the formation of the heat source heat per meter of rock.

某些岩层层可以具有导致崩落井筒中的材料特征。 Some rock layers may have lead to material characteristics caving wellbore. 例如,油页岩岩层的贫粘土层受热时可能崩落。 For example, oil shale formation may caving poor clay when heated. 崩落指的是岩层材料(例如,岩层或粘土)的脱落或摆脱到井筒中。 Refers to a rock avalanche material (for example, rock or clay) is off or get rid of the wellbore. 富有膨胀粘土的层具有较高的崩落趋势。 Expanded clay rich layer having a high avalanche trend. 粘土可以降低贫层中的渗透率。 Clay depleted layer can reduce permeability. 当热量快速提供给具有降低的渗透率的层时,水和/或其他流体可能无法从层中排出,直到压力导致材料的机械损坏为止。 When the fast heat to the layer with reduced permeability, water and / or other fluids may not be discharged from the layer, resulting in mechanical damage to the material until the pressure is reached. 当内压超过层中岩层的拉伸强度时,发生机械损坏,并产生崩落。 When the pressure exceeds the tensile strength of the inner layer of rock, the occurrence of mechanical damage and produce avalanche.

材料在井筒中的崩落可能导致井筒中过热、堵塞、设备变形和/或流体流动问题。 Material caving in the wellbore may cause overheating of the wellbore, congestion, equipment modification and / or fluid flow problems. 崩落的材料可能捕获或陷落到井筒中加热器中或其周围。 Caving materials may capture or fall into the wellbore or around the heater. 例如,崩落的材料可能陷落到加热器和岩层的壁之间接触或接近加热器的膨胀富层上方。 For example, the avalanche of material may be exposed at or near the top of the heater expansion between rich layer of rock fall to the heater and the wall. 崩落的材料可以松散地包裹,并具有较低的热传导性。 Avalanche of material can be wrapped loosely, and low thermal conductivity. 低热传导性的崩落材料可能导致加热器的过热和/或热量缓慢传递给岩层。 Low thermal conductivity of the avalanche material can lead to overheating of the heater and / or heat transfer to the slow formation. 含烃岩层(如油页岩岩层)中的崩落材料可能具有在1毫米(“mm”)和2.5厘米(“cm”)之间,1.5毫米和2厘米之间,或5毫米和1厘米之间的平均颗粒直径。 Hydrocarbon containing formations (such as oil shale formation) in the avalanche material may have at one millimeter ("mm") and 2.5 centimeters ("cm") between, between 1.5 mm and 2 cm, or 5 mm and 1 cm of The average particle diameter between.

具有非常低的渗透率(例如,10微达西(“μdarcy”)或以下,20微达西或以下,或50微达西或以下)的地下岩层的体积可能具有崩落的趋势。 It has a very low permeability (for example, 10 micro Darcy ("μdarcy") or less, and 20 micro Darcy or less, or 50 micro Darcy or less) the volume of subsurface formations may have a breakout trend. 对于油页岩,这些体积通常是具有5%或更大体积含量的粘土的贫层。 For oil shale, these volumes typically have 5% or more by volume depletion layer of clay content. 粘土可以是蒙脱石粘土或伊利粘土。 Montmorillonite clay or clay can be Erie clay. 具有非常低的渗透率的体积材料可能在地下岩层的加热期间碎石化(rubbilize)。 The volume of material has a very low permeability may occur during heating of subterranean formations of gravel (rubbilize). 该碎石化可能由粘土结合水的膨胀、其它粘土结合流体和/或岩体中的气体导致。 The gravel of possible combinations of water swelling clay, clay combined with other fluids and / or gases cause rock.

几项技术可以用于禁止崩落或与崩落相关的问题。 Several techniques can be used to prohibit or caving caving-related issues. 这些技术包括初始加热井筒,从而在近井筒区域中具有初始缓慢的温度上升,在加热之前用稳定流体预处理井筒,在加热之前在井筒中提供受控爆炸,将衬里或筛网放置在井筒中,并将井筒和放置在井筒中的设备的尺寸加工成使得崩落材料无法导致井筒中的问题。 These techniques include initially heating the wellbore so as to have an initial slow temperature increase in the near-wellbore region, with a stabilizing fluid prior to heating the wellbore pretreatment, providing a controlled explosion in the wellbore prior to heating, the liner or screen is placed in the wellbore , size and placed in the wellbore and wellbore equipment processing such materials can not lead to the wellbore caving problems. 各种技术都可以独立使用或彼此组合使用。 Various techniques can be used independently or in combination with one another.

在某些实施例中,大量地下岩层的渗透率受到评估。 In some embodiments, a large number of subterranean formation permeability be evaluated. 在某些实施例中,该区域地下岩层的粘土含量受到评估。 In certain embodiments, the clay content of the subterranean formation region be evaluated. 所评估的体积或区域的渗透率和/或粘土含量处于井筒处或其附近(例如,在井筒的1米、0.5米,或0.3米之内)。 Permeability and / or clay content are evaluated in a volume or region at or near the wellbore (e.g., 1 m, 0.5 m, or within 0.3 m of the wellbore). 可以通过例如Stoneley波衰减声速测井评估渗透率。 For example, by Stoneley wave attenuation sonic logging assess permeability. 可以通过例如脉冲中子测井系统(如来自Schlumberger OilfieldServices(H0uston,TX,USA)的RST(水库饱和工具)评估粘土含量。从密度和中子测井之间的差评估粘土含量。如果评估显示井筒附近的一个或多个区域具有低于所选值的渗透率(例如,最多10微达西,最多20微达西,或最多50微达西)和/或高于所选值的粘土含量(例如,至少5%体积,至少3%体积,或至少2%体积),则井筒处或其附近的岩层的初始加热可以受到控制,以将加热速度保持在所选值之下。所选加热速度根据岩层的类型,岩层中井筒的图案,使用的加热器类型,岩层中井筒的间隔或其它因素改变。 Can (as RST (Reservoir Saturation Tool) from Schlumberger OilfieldServices (H0uston, TX, USA) assessed by the clay content such as pulsed neutron logging system. Difference between assessments from clay density and neutron logs. If the assessment shows one or more regions of the wellbore below the selected value close to having a permeability (for example, up to 10 micro Darcy, up to 20 micro Darcy, or up to 50 micro-Darcy) and / or higher clay content in the selected value (e.g., at least 5% by volume, at least 3% by volume, or at least 2% by volume), initial heating of the wellbore at or near the formation can be controlled to maintain the heating rate below a selected value. The selected heating speed according to the type of rock, the rock borehole pattern, type of heater use, spacing, or other factors change wellbore formation.

初始加热可以保持在所选加热速度或以下特定的时间长度。 Initial heating may be maintained at or below the selected heating rate for a particular length of time. 在一定时间之后,井筒处或其附近的渗透率可能增大到由于层中气体的缓慢膨胀而不再可能发生崩落的值。 After a certain time, at or near wellbore permeability may increase due to the slow expansion of the gas layer, rather than the value of the avalanche may occur. 较缓慢的加热速度允许水或其它流体具有从层中蒸发和溢出的时间,禁止层中压力快速增长。 Slower speed allows heating water or other fluids with evaporation and spills from the layers of time, prohibit rapid growth layer pressure. 缓慢的初始加热速度允许膨胀的水蒸气和其他流体在岩层中产生微裂缝,而不是岩层快速受热时可能发生的井筒损坏。 Wellbore damage that may occur in the initial heating slow speed allows water vapor and other fluids expanded produce micro cracks in the formation, rather than when the rock is heated quickly. 随着热前端从井筒移开,温度上升速度减慢。 With the heat the tip away from the wellbore, slow rate of temperature rise. 例如,温度上升速度通常在距离井筒0.1米、0.3米、0.5米、1米、3米或更大距离处极大减小。 For example, the temperature rise rate is generally at a distance of 0.1 m wellbore, 0.3 m, 0.5 m, 1 m, 3 m or more at a great distance decreases. 在某些实施例中,井筒处或其附近的地下岩层的加热速度(例如井筒的3米之内,井筒的1米之内,井筒的0.5米之内,或井筒的0.3米之内)保持在20摄氏度/天以下至少15天。 In certain embodiments, the wellbore at or near the heating rate of a subsurface formation (within 3 meters, 1 meter, for example, within the wellbore within 0.5 m of the wellbore, wellbore or wellbore 0.3 meters) to maintain at 20 C / day for at least 15 days. 在某些实施例中,井筒处或其附近的地下岩层加热速度保持在10摄氏度/天以下至少30天。 In certain embodiments, the wellbore at or near the subterranean formation is maintained at a heating rate of 10 C / day or less at least 30 days. 在某些实施例中,井筒处或其附近的地下岩层的加热速度保持在5摄氏度/天以下至少60天。 In certain embodiments, the wellbore at or near the subterranean formation at a heating rate was maintained at 5 C / day or less at least 60 days. 在某些实施例中,井筒处或其附近的地下岩层的加热速度保持在2摄氏度/天以下至少150天。 In certain embodiments, the wellbore at or near the heating rate is maintained at an underground formation 2 C / day at least 150 days.

在某些实施例中,具有导致崩落的区域的岩层中的井筒受到预处理,以禁止在加热期间崩落。 In certain embodiments, it has led to the formation of the avalanche region wellbore by pretreatment to inhibit caving during heating. 在加热器放入到井筒中之前可以处理井筒。 Before the heater can be processed into the wellbore to the wellbore. 在某些实施例中,具有所选粘土含量的井筒用一个或多个粘土稳定剂进行处理。 In certain embodiments, the wellbore with a selected clay content with one or more of clay stabilizer for processing. 例如,粘土稳定剂可以加入到在井筒的形成期间使用的盐水溶液中。 For example, clay stabilizers may be added to the aqueous solution during the formation of the salt used in the wellbore. 粘土稳定剂包括但不局限于氧化钙或油田工业中已知的其他含钙材料。 Clay stabilizers include, but are not limited to calcium oxide or other known in the oilfield industry calcium-containing material. 在某些实施例中,限制(或避免)包括卤素的粘土稳定剂的使用,以减少(或避免)对井筒中使用的加热器或其它设备的腐蚀问题。 In certain embodiments, the limit (or avoid) comprises using a halogen clay stabilizer to reduce (or avoid) heater or other equipment used in the wellbore corrosion problems.

在某些实施例中,通过在井筒中提供受控爆炸处理井筒。 In certain embodiments, the wellbore by providing controlled explosion process in the wellbore. 该受控爆炸可以沿着所选长度或在井筒的所选区域中进行。 The controlled explosion in the wellbore may or selected areas along the selected length. 通过将受控的爆炸系统放置到井筒中进行受控爆炸。 A controlled explosion by the controlled explosion system into the wellbore. 通过控制井筒中爆炸的垂直传播速度实施该受控爆炸。 By controlling the vertical wellbore explosion propagation velocity of the implementation of the controlled explosion. 受控爆炸系统的一个例子是可从Ensign-Bickford Company(Spanish Fork,Utah,USA)获得的Primacord导炸索。 An example of a controlled explosion system is Primacord guide available from Ensign-Bickford Company (Spanish Fork, Utah, USA) fried request. 受控爆炸系统可以设置成沿着井筒的所选长度或所选区域爆炸。 Controlled Explosion System may be arranged along the length of the wellbore or a selected region of a selected explosion. 可以控制爆炸系统,以限制井筒中爆炸的量。 Explosion system can be controlled to limit the amount of wellbore explosion.

附图3说明了用于在开口中提供受控爆炸的实施例。 Figure 3 illustrates an embodiment for providing a controlled explosion in the opening. 开口32形成在烃层34中。 An opening 32 is formed in the hydrocarbon layer 34. 爆炸系统36放置在开口32中。 Explosion system 36 placed in the opening 32. 在实施例中,爆炸系统36包括Primacord。 In an embodiment, explosive system 36 includes Primacord. 在某些实施例中,爆炸系统36具有爆炸区域38。 In certain embodiments, the system 36 explosion explosive region 38. 在某些实施例中,爆炸区域38位于具有较高粘土含量的层和/或将受到加热的具有很低渗透率的层(如贫层40)附近。 In certain embodiments, the explosive 38 is located in the region having a higher clay content layer and / or near the subject to the heating layer having a low permeability (such as lean layers 40). 在某些实施例中,爆炸系统36的非爆炸部分可以放置在富有烃并且粘土含量低的层(如富层42)附近。 In some embodiments, the non-explosive part of the explosion system 36 can be placed in a low clay content and hydrocarbon-rich layer (such as rich layer 42) nearby. 在某些实施例中,爆炸部分可以邻近贫层40和富层42延伸。 In certain embodiments, the explosion part of the depleted layer 40 may be adjacent to and extending rich layer 42. 爆炸区域38可以在井筒处或其附近进行受控爆炸。 Explosive region 38 can be controlled explosion at or near the wellbore.

附图4说明了在开口中进行受控爆炸之后开口的实施例。 Figure 4 illustrates an embodiment of the opening after a controlled explosion in the opening. 受控爆炸增大了区域44的渗透率。 Controlled explosion increases the permeability region 44. 在某些实施例中,区域44具有从开口32的壁向外延伸到贫层40和富层42中0.1米至0.3米之间,0.2米至2米之间,或0.3米至1米之间的宽度。 In certain embodiments, the region 44 having an opening 32 extending outwardly from a wall to lean layers 40 and rich layers 42 between 0.1 to 0.3 m, between 0.2 to 2 meters, or from 0.3 to 1 m of width between. 在一个实施例中,该宽度为0.3米。 In one embodiment, the width of 0.3 meters. 通过在区域中微裂缝,增大区域44的渗透率。 Microcracks in the region by increasing the permeability region 44. 在已经产生区域44之后,加热器46安装在开口32中。 After the region 44 has been generated, the heater 46 is mounted in the opening 32. 在某些实施例中,在将加热器46安装到开口中之前,将开口32中通过受控爆炸形成的碎石去除(例如,钻出或挖出)。 In some embodiments, prior to the heater 46 is mounted into the opening, the opening gravel removal 32 formed by a controlled explosion (for example, drilled or excavated). 在某些实施例中,在开始受控爆炸之前,将开口32钻得较深(钻得超过所需长度)。 In some embodiments, before starting a controlled explosion, the opening 32 drilled deeper (drilled more than the required length). 过度钻深的开口可以允许爆炸产生的碎石落入开口的额外部分(底部)中,从而禁止碎石干扰安装在开口中的加热器。 Additional drilling depth over the opening section allows explosion rubble falling in the opening (bottom), so that prohibit interference gravel heater installed in the openings.

在井筒中进行受控爆炸产生微裂缝,并增大井筒附近区域中岩层的渗透率。 Carried out a controlled explosion in the wellbore microcracks near wellbore region and increase the permeability of the formation. 在实施例中,受控爆炸产生微裂缝,在岩层中具有受限的碎石或没有碎石。 In an embodiment, the controlled explosion of micro-cracks in the rocks have limited or no gravel gravel. 增大的渗透率允许气体在加热的早期阶段在岩层中释放。 Increased permeability allows gas release in the early stages of heating in the formation. 气体释放禁止岩层中气体压力增大,该压力增大可能导致井筒区域附近材料的崩落。 Gas release prohibit the formation of gas pressure increases, the pressure increases may lead to avalanche near wellbore region of the material.

在某些实施例中,通过进行受控爆炸产生的增大的渗透率在加热岩层的早期阶段中是有利的。 In certain embodiments, the increased permeability through a controlled explosion is advantageous in early stages of formation heating. 在某些实施例中,增大的渗透率包括增大的水平渗透率和增大的垂直渗透率。 In certain embodiments, the increased permeability includes increased vertical permeability and horizontal permeability increased. 增大的垂直渗透率可以连接岩层中的层(例如富层和贫层)。 Increased vertical permeability formations can be connected to the layer (for example, poor-rich layer and layer). 如附图4中箭头所示,由加热器46提供的热量在富层42中所产生的流体从富层通过区域44流到贫层40。 As shown in the drawing the arrow 4, the fluid heat provided by the heater 46 in the 42-rich layer generated from lean-rich layer region 44 flows through the layer 40. 区域44的增大的渗透率有利于从富层42流到贫层40。 Increased permeability region 44 in favor of the poor layer 40 flows from rich layer 42. 贫层40中的流体流到生产井筒或用于生产的低温井筒。 Depleted layer 40 in the wellbore fluid flowing production or for the production of low-temperature wellbore. 该流动方式禁止流体受到加热器46过度加热。 The flow pattern of fluid by the heater 46 is prohibited from overheating. 加热器46对流体的过度加热可能导致开口32中或开口32处焦化。 Excessive heating heater 46 pairs of fluid may result in an opening 32 in the opening 32 or coking. 区域44具有宽度,该宽度延伸超过从开口32的壁的焦化半径,以允许流体在焦化半径外侧的距离处与开口同轴或平行流动。 Region 44 has a width that extends beyond the opening of the wall 32 from the coking radius, distance to allow fluid to flow in parallel or coaxially with the opening in the outer radius of coking. 通过禁止热量裂化和烯烃以及其它低质量产品的产生,流体的减少加热也可能提高产品质量。 By disabling produce heat cracking and olefins, and other low-quality products, reduce the heating fluid may also improve product quality. 在加热的早期阶段中,由于岩层流体从区域44通过贫层40流动,所以加热器46以更高的速度提供给烃层34更多热量。 In the early stages of heating, since the formation fluid from the region 44 flows through the depleted layer 40, so that the heater 46 to a higher speed to provide more heat to hydrocarbon layer 34.

在某些实施例中,穿孔衬里(或穿孔导管)放置在加热器外侧的井筒中,以禁止崩落材料接触加热器。 In certain embodiments, the liner perforations (perforations or ducts) is placed in the wellbore outside of the heater, the heater contacts the material to inhibit caving. 附图5说明了开口中衬里的实施例。 Figure 5 illustrates an embodiment of an opening in the liner. 在某些实施例中,衬里48用碳钢或不锈钢制成。 In some embodiments, the liner 48 is made of carbon steel or stainless steel. 在某些实施例中,衬里48禁止膨胀材料使加热器46变形。 In certain embodiments, the liner 48 of the heater 46 is prohibited expandable material deformation. 衬里48具有只比开口32的初始直径略小的直径。 The liner 48 has a diameter of only 32 initial diameter than the opening of slightly smaller. 衬里48具有允许流体通过衬里的开口50。 The liner 48 has an opening to allow fluid through the liner 50. 开口50为例如狭槽或狭缝。 50, for example, opening a slot or slots. 开口50将尺寸加工成使得流体通过衬里48但是崩落材料或其它颗粒不通过衬里。 An opening 50 dimensioned such that the fluid 48 through the liner material or other particles but without caving through the liner.

在某些实施例中,衬里48可选择地放置在可能导致崩落的层(如富层42)处或其附近。 In certain embodiments, the liner 48 may be selectively placed cause avalanche layer (such as rich layers 42) at or near. 例如,具有较低渗透率(例如,最多10微达西,最多20微达西,或最多50微达西)的层可能导致崩落。 For example, a low permeability (for example, up to 10 micro Darcy, up to 20 micro Darcy, or up to 50 micro-Darcy) layer may lead to avalanche. 在某些实施例中,衬里48为筛网,线网或其它线结构,和/或可变性衬里。 In certain embodiments, the liner 48 mesh, wire mesh or other wire structure, and / or variability liner. 例如,衬里48可以是具有开口50的可膨胀管状。 For example, the liner 48 may have an opening 50 of the expandable tubular. 在衬里安装到开口中之后,衬里48可以用心轴或“锭块”张开。 After installation into the opening in the liner, the liner 48 may be a mandrel or "ingot" open. 当岩层受热时,衬里48可以变形或弯曲,但是来自岩层的崩落材料将过大,而无法通过衬里中的开口50。 When the rock is heated, the liner 48 can be deformed or curved, but the avalanche material from the formation will be too large to an opening 50 through the liner.

在某些实施例中,衬里48是以拉伸构造安装在开口中的可膨胀筛网。 In certain embodiments, the liner 48 is installed in the opening configured to draw expandable mesh. 衬里48可以松散地进行如下安装。 The liner 48 may be loosely follows the installation. 附图6说明了处于拉伸构造的衬里48的实施例。 Figure 6 illustrates an embodiment of a liner in a stretched configuration 48. 衬里48具有连接到衬里底部上的重物52。 Liner 48 having a liner attached to the bottom of the weight 52. 重物52自由悬挂,并提供张力,以拉伸衬里48。 Weight 52 free-hanging, and provide tension to stretch the lining 48. 当重物接触底部表面(例如,开口的底部)时,重物52可能停止移动。 When contacting the bottom surface of the weight (e.g., the bottom of the opening), the weight 52 may stop moving. 在某些实施例中,重物从衬里释放。 In certain embodiments, the weight is released from the liner. 在来自重物52的张力去除的情况下,衬里48释放到膨胀构造,如附图7中所示。 In the case of the removal of tension from the weight 52, the liner 48 is released to the expanded configuration, as shown in Figure 7. 在某些实施例中,衬里48以紧凑构造安装在开口中,并用心轴或锭块张开。 In certain embodiments, the liner 48 installed in a compact construction in the opening, and the mandrel or ingot open. 通常,可膨胀的衬里为穿孔的或开缝的管状,它们放置在井筒中,并通过迫使心轴穿过衬里而展开。 Typically, the expandable liner is perforated or slotted tube, which is placed in the wellbore, and by forcing the mandrel through the liner and expand. 这些可膨胀衬里可以展开靠在井筒的壁上,以禁止壁材料崩落。 The inflatable liner can be expanded against the borehole wall to wall material prohibited caving. 典型可膨胀衬里的例子可从Weatherford US,LP(Alice,TX)和HalliburtonEnergy Services(Houston,TX)获得。 Typical examples of expandable liner from Weatherford US, LP (Alice, TX) and HalliburtonEnergy Services (Houston, TX) to obtain.

在某些实施例中,井筒或开口将尺寸加工使得井筒中崩落的材料不防碍井筒中加热。 In certain embodiments, the wellbore or opening dimensioned such that the wellbore breakout material does not interfere with the wellbore heating. 井筒和加热器可以将尺寸加工成使得加热器和井筒之间的环带较小,足以禁止所选尺寸(例如,崩落材料的尺寸)的颗粒在环带中自由移动(例如,由于重力而落下,由于流体压力而移动,或由于地质现象而移动)。 Wellbore and the heater can be dimensioned so that the endless belt between the heater and the wellbore is small enough to prohibit selected size (e.g., size caving material) particles are free to move in the endless belt (e.g., to fall by gravity Since the fluid pressure moving, or due to geological phenomena and mobile). 在某些实施例中,环带的所选部分将尺寸加工成禁止颗粒自由移动。 In some embodiments, selected portions of the endless belt dimensioned to inhibit free movement of the particles. 在某些实施例中,加热器和井筒之间的环带具有最多2.5厘米,最多2厘米,或最多1.5厘米的宽度。 In certain embodiments, the annulus between the heater and the wellbore having at most 2.5 cm, at most 2 cm, or at most 1.5 cm in width. 此处所述减小崩落效应的不同方法都可以单独使用或组合使用。 Different methods described herein reduce avalanche effect can be used alone or in combination.

在该描述的基础上,本领域技术人员将清楚本发明的各个方面的其他修改和备选实施例。 On the basis of the description, one skilled in the art will appreciate the various aspects of other modifications and alternative embodiments of the present invention. 尤其是,此处所公开的禁止崩落效应的不同方法可以组合或单独使用。 In particular, the different methods disclosed herein avalanche effect ban be used alone or in combination. 因此,该描述将构造成只是说明性的,并出于向本领域技术人员说明实现本发明的基本方式的目的。 Therefore, the description will be configured to only illustrative, and out of those skilled in the legend to achieve the basic purpose of the present invention. 应当理解的是,此处所示和所描述的本发明的形式用作优选实施例。 It should be understood that the form shown here and the present invention is used as described in the preferred embodiment. 此处说明和描述的元件和材料可以替换,部件和过程可以颠倒,并且本发明的某些特征可以单独使用。 Components and materials illustrated and described herein can be replaced, components and processes may be reversed, and certain features of the present invention may be used alone. 在不脱离如所附权利要求中公开的本发明的精神和范围的情况下,可以在此处所述元件中进行改变。 Without departing from the spirit and scope of the appended claims as disclosed in the present invention may be varied in the element here. 另外,将理解的是,此处所述特征可以是独立的,在某些实施例中可以组合。 Further, it will be appreciated that where the feature may be independent, may be combined in some embodiments.

Classifications
International ClassificationH05B3/14, E21B43/30, H05B6/10, E21B43/24, H05B3/10, E21B43/38, E21B29/00, E21B43/12, E21B36/04, E21B43/00
Cooperative ClassificationE21B36/04, E21B43/2405, E21B43/2401, E21B43/12, E21B43/122, E21B43/24, H05B3/141, E21B43/38
European ClassificationH05B3/14C, E21B36/04, E21B43/24, E21B43/24K, E21B43/12, E21B43/12B2, E21B43/24B, E21B43/38
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
11 Apr 2007C06Publication
6 Jun 2007C10Request of examination as to substance
3 Nov 2010C14Granted