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Publication numberCN1750514 A
Publication typeApplication
Application numberCN 200510109819
Publication date22 Mar 2006
Filing date23 Jun 2005
Priority date23 Jun 2004
Also published asCN1750514B, DE602005006478D1, EP1617608A1, EP1617608B1, US7616575, US20050286426
Publication number200510109819.2, CN 1750514 A, CN 1750514A, CN 200510109819, CN-A-1750514, CN1750514 A, CN1750514A, CN200510109819, CN200510109819.2
InventorsBD兹尔, JD帕德海, 小RP德拉弗斯
Applicant微软公司
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: SIPO, Espacenet
System and method for link quality routing using weighted cumulative expected transmission time metric
CN 1750514 A
Abstract  translated from Chinese
使用加权累计的期望传输时间路径度量来连接质量路由的系统和方法。 Using a weighted cumulative expected transmission time path metric system and method for link quality routing. 一种用于在特定网络里路由的系统,及一种在所述网络里用于测量路由的链路质量的方法,包括根据分组越过所述链路所期望的传输时间而对链路权值的分配,及将路由的单个链路权值合并成路径度量。 In a particular method of a system for routing of the network, and a method for measuring link quality in the route network, including the link over the desired transmission time according to the packet and the link weights distribution, and the single link weights are combined into a path routing metrics. 所述路径解决使用共享信道的链路之间的干扰。 The path to resolve the interference using a shared channel links. 在路径度量的计算中,当对非干扰链路的期望传输时间分开考虑时,彼此干扰的链路的期望传输时间增加。 In the calculation of the path metric, when the non-interfering links are considered separately a desired transmission time, transmission time desired links interfere with each other increases.
Claims(20)  translated from Chinese
1.一种用来在特定网络中进行路由的系统,所述系统包括:用于向链路分配权值的机制;及用来将路由的个别链路权值合并成路径度量的机制,其中所述路径度量说明了使用共享信道的链路之间的干扰。 1. A method for routing in a particular network system, said system comprising: a mechanism to assign weights to links; and is used to merge the individual link weights for the route into a path metric mechanism, wherein The path metric illustrates the use of a shared channel interference between the links.
2.如权利要求1所述的系统,其中所述特定网络包括一个或多个具有多个无线电收发器的节点。 2. The system of claim 1, wherein said particular network comprises one or more nodes having multiple radio transceivers.
3.如权利要求1所述的系统,其中所述特定网络包括一个或多个具有多个同种无线电收发器的节点。 3. The system of claim 1, wherein said particular network comprises one or more nodes having multiple radio transceivers of the same species.
4.如权利要求1所述的系统,其中给链路分配权值进一步包括:根据在链路上传送分组以使分组成功穿过链路的所期望时间的测量值乘以链路的带宽测量值,来确定权值。 4. The system of claim 1, wherein the weight assigned to the link further comprises: measuring the bandwidth of the link multiplied by the measured values transmitted on the link packet to the packet successfully across the link so that a desired time values to determine the weights.
5.如权利要求4所述的系统,其中在链路上传送分组以使分组成功穿过链路的所期望时间的测量包括ETX测量。 5. The system of claim 4, wherein the packet transmitted on the link so that a desired packet successfully across the link comprises measuring time ETX measurement.
6.如权利要求4所述的系统,其中带宽测量是凭经验来确定的。 6. The system according to claim 4, wherein the bandwidth measurement is determined empirically.
7.如权利要求4所述的系统,其中带宽测量是使用分组对技术来确定的。 7. The system of claim 4, wherein the bandwidth measurement is determined using the packet-pair technique.
8.如权利要求1所述的系统,其中路径度量包括加权的平均值,(1-β)*Σi=1nWi+β*max1≤j≤kXj]]>其中n是路由中链路的数量,Wi是链路i的权值,Xi是信道j上权值的总和,K是信道的数量,及β是符合0≤β≤1的参数。 8. The system of one of the preceding claims, wherein the path metric means comprise weighted, (1- & beta;) * & Sigma; i = 1nWi + & beta; * max1 & le; j & le; kXj]]> where n is the route chain number of road, Wi is the weight of link i, Xi is the sum of the weights of the channel j, K is the number of channels, and β is in line 0≤β≤1 parameters.
9.如权利要求8所述的系统,其中信道j上的权值(例如Xj)的总和由 9. The system of claim 8, wherein the sum of the weights (e.g., Xj) on channel j by 来计算,因此,总的路径吞吐量由瓶颈信道来决定,其中瓶颈信道是具有最大Xj值的信道。 Is calculated, and therefore, the total path throughput is determined by the bottleneck channel, wherein the bottleneck channel is the channel having the largest Xj value.
10.如权利要求8所述的系统,其中链路i的权值包括在链路i上传送分组以使分组成功穿过链路的的所期望时间的测量值,乘以链路i的带宽测量值。 10. The system of claim 8, wherein the weight of the link i comprises transport packets across the link i so that the packet successfully across the link of the desired measurement time, multiplied by the bandwidth of the link i measurements.
11.在多跳网络里,一种用于测量从源节点到目标节点的路由的链路质量的方法,所述路由包括多个链路,所述方法包括:根据链路的性能,为路由里的每个链路分配权值;及将为路由分配的链路权值合并成路径度量,其中所述路径度量说明了使用共享信道的链路之间的干扰。 11. In the multi-hop network, a link quality measurement from the source node to the destination node of the routing method for routing the link, said method comprising the plurality comprising: based on performance of the link, the routing where the weights assigned to each link; link weights assigned to the route and will be merged into a path metric, wherein the path metric described using a shared channel interference between the links.
12.如权利要求11所述的方法,其中所述多跳网络包括一个或多个具有多个无线电收发器的节点。 12. The method of claim 11, wherein said multi-hop network includes one or more nodes having multiple radio transceivers.
13.如权利要求11所述的方法,其中所述多跳网络包括一个或多个具有多个同种无线电收发器的节点。 13. The method of claim 11, wherein said multi-hop network includes one or more nodes having multiple radio transceivers of the same species.
14.如权利要求11所述的方法,其中链路的性能包括在链路上传送分组以使分组成功穿过链路的所期望时间的测量值,乘以链路的带宽测量值。 14. The method of claim 11, wherein the performance of the link comprises transmitting a packet on the link so that the packet successfully across the link desired measurement time, multiplied by the measured value of the link bandwidth.
15.如权利要求14所述的方法,其中所述带宽测量是凭经验确定的。 15. The method of claim 14, wherein the bandwidth measurement is determined empirically.
16.如权利要求14所述的方法,其中所述带宽测量是使用分组对技术确定的。 16. The method of claim 14, wherein the bandwidth measurement is determined using the packet-pair technique.
17.如权利要求14所述的方法,其中将为路由分配的链路权值合并成路径度量包括:为路由里的链路计算期望传输时间的总和;为一个或多个链路使用的每个信道确定共享信道的链路的子集;为每个子集里的链路计算期望传输时间的总和;确定具有最大总和的子集;及通过用(1-β)乘以路由中链路的期望传输时间的总和加上β乘以具有最大总和的于集的期望传输时间的总和来计算路径度量,其中β是符合0≤β≤1的参数。 17. The method of claim 14, wherein the assigned link weights for the route into a path metric merge comprising: a link in the route to calculate the expected sum of the transmission time; use for each of one or more links determining a subset of the channels of the link shared channel; calculating the sum of the transmission time for each subset of the desired link; determining a subset having a maximum sum; and by (1-β) multiplied by the route link desired transmission time plus β multiplied by the sum of the sum of the desired transmission time having the maximum sum to the set of calculated path metrics, wherein β is in line 0≤β≤1 parameters.
18.一种具有在其上存储用来测量从源节点到目标节点的路由的链路质量的计算机可读指令的计算机可读媒体,所述路由包括多个链路,所述计算机可读指令包括:根据在链路上分组的期望传输时间,为路由里的每个链路分配权值;及将为路由分配的链路权值合并成路径度量,其中路径度量说明了使用共享信道的链路之间的干扰。 18. having stored thereon a computer to measure the source node to the destination node from the link quality routing computer readable instructions readable medium, the route comprising a plurality of links, the computer-readable instructions comprising: the expected transmission time of a packet over the link, the route where the weights assigned to each link; link weights assigned to the route and will be merged into a path metric, wherein the path metric illustrates the use of the shared channel chain path between the interference.
19.如权利要求18所述的计算机可读媒体,其中期望传输时间包括在链路上传送分组以使分组成功穿过链路的所期望时间的测量值,乘以链路的带宽测量值。 18 19. The computer-readable medium of Claim, wherein the desired transmission time includes transmitting a packet over the link so that the packet successfully across the link, the desired measurement time, multiplied by the measured value of the link bandwidth.
20.如权利要求18所述的计算机可读媒体,其中将为路由分配的链路权值合并成路径度量包括:为路由中的链路计算期望传输时间的总和;为一个或多个链路使用的每个信道确定共享信道的链路的子集;为每个子集里的链路计算期望传输时间的总和;确定具有最大总和的子集;及通过用(1-β)乘以路由里链路的期望传输时间的总和加上β乘以具有最大总和的子集的期望传输时间的总和来计算路径度量,其中β是符合0≤β≤1的参数。 For one or more links; Providing route links to calculate the expected sum of the transmission time: 18 20. The computer-readable medium according to claim, wherein the link weights are combined into a route is assigned a path metric including Each channel is used to determine a subset of the shared channel of the link; the sum of the transmission time is calculated for each subset of the desired link; determining a subset having a maximum sum; and by multiplying by (1-β) in the route desired transmission time plus β multiplied by the sum of the link having the largest sum total of the subset to calculate a desired transmission time path metric, wherein β is in line 0≤β≤1 parameters.
Description  translated from Chinese
使用加权的累计期望传输时间度量进行高质路由的系统和方法 Using a weighted cumulative expected transmission time measurement system and method for high-quality routing

相关申请本专利申请要求2004年6月23日申请的、申请号为60/582,360的美国临时专利申请为优先权,并引用在此作为参考。 RELATED APPLICATIONS This patent application claims the June 23, 2004 application, U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60 / 582,360 as the priority application, and incorporated herein by reference.

技术领域 FIELD

本发明一般地涉及计算机网络,尤其是涉及在多跳(multi-hop)无线网络里用于高质路由协议的度量。 The present invention relates generally to computer networks, particularly relates to multi-hop metric (multi-hop) wireless networks used in high-quality routing protocols.

背景技术 BACKGROUND

路由是指选择穿越计算机网络的一个路径的问题,消息将沿这个路径从源节点传输到目标节点。 Route is to choose a path through the computer network of the problem, the message will be transmitted along the path from the source node to the destination node. 多跳特定(ad hoc)网络中的路由提出了特殊的挑战。 Multihop specific (ad hoc) network routing presents special challenges. 特定网络是自组织网络,在这些网络里,节点共同地维持网络连通性。 Specific networks are self-organizing networks, these networks, the nodes together to maintain network connectivity. 特定网络里的节点都装备了无线电收发器,诸如符合IEEE 802.11标准的网络接口卡。 In particular network nodes are equipped with a radio transceiver, such as compliance with IEEE 802.11 standard network interface card. 这些无线电收发装置允许在节点之间通信而不需要集中式网络管理机构或固定的网络基础结构。 These radio devices allow communication between nodes in a network without the need for a centralized administration or fixed network infrastructure. 由于每个无线电收发装置都具有有限的有效范围,因而两个远距离的节点必须穿过多跳路径来通信。 Since each radio devices have a limited effective range, two distant nodes must thus pass through the multi-hop path to communicate. 在这个路径中的中间节点通过转发分组来充当路由器。 In this path through intermediate nodes to forward the packet as a router.

无线共同体(community)“网状”网络是一种越来越重要的多跳无线网络,可用来提供到共同体的宽带英特网访问。 Wireless Community (community) "mesh" network is an increasingly important multi-hop wireless networks can be used to provide broadband Internet access to the community. 在这些网络里,节点或是静止的或是最低限度可移动的,并且一般不依赖于电池电源。 In these networks, the node either stationary or minimally mobile and typically do not rely on battery power. 用于无线共同体网络的路由技术聚焦在提高网络容量或单独传输的性能上,而不是应付灵活性或使功率用量最小化。 Routing techniques for wireless community networks focus on improving network capacity or the performance of a single transmission, instead of dealing with flexibility or to minimize power usage.

次优的网络容量是与多跳无线网络相关的普遍问题。 Suboptimal network capacity is a common problem with multi-hop wireless network related. 在这些网络里,随着跳跃数量的增加,吞吐量快速下降。 In these networks, the increase in the number as jumping, rapid decline in throughput. 在802.11网络里,这个原因部分是由于802.11MAC所固有的不公平,这个固有的不公平可以拖延多个跳跃上的分组流。 In the 802.11 network, this is partly due to the inherent unfairness 802.11MAC, this inherent unfairness can delay packet flows on multiple jumps. 此外,这些网络一般在每个节点上只使用了可用频谱的一小部分和单个无线电收发装置来发送和接收分组。 Further, these networks typically used on each node, and a small portion of the available spectrum a single radio transceiver to transmit and receive only the packets.

改善多跳无线网络网络容量的一个方法是为节点装备多于一个的无线电收发装置。 One way to improve the multi-hop wireless network node network capacity is to equip more than one radio transceiver. 这个解决方法具有几个优点。 This solution has several advantages. 具有多个无线电收发装置的节点可以同时发送和接收。 Node having a plurality of radio transceiver devices can send and receive simultaneously. 而且,具有两个无线电收发装置的节点可以同时在两个信道上发送,使得网络可以利用较大部分的频谱。 Moreover, the radio transmitting and receiving means having two nodes may simultaneously transmit two channels, so that the network can use a larger portion of the spectrum. 此外,多个不同种类的无线电收发装置的使用可以提高耐用性、连通性和性能,所述不同种类的无线电收发装置在不同频带(例如在5Ghz的802.11a和在2.4Ghz的802.11b/g)上操作,具有不同带宽、波段(range)和衰减特性。 In addition, a plurality of different kinds of radio apparatus can improve durability, connectivity and performance, the different types of radio devices in different frequency bands (e.g., the 802.11a and in 5Ghz in 2.4Ghz the 802.11b / g) operation, with different bandwidth, band (range) and attenuation characteristics. 最后,802.11网络接口卡是快速减价可用的现成商品元件。 Finally, 802.11 network interface cards are readily available to quickly reduce the price of goods components.

用于多跳无线网络的大部分路由协议集中在选择具有最少中间跳数量的路径上。 Most routing protocols for multi-hop wireless networks have focused on the selection of the minimum number of intermediate hops path. 在这些网络里申请最短路径路由的缺点是非常公知的。 Disadvantages application shortest path routing in these networks are very well known. 选择最少跳数量的路径会导致差的性能,部分是因为这些路径通常在包括远距离节点之间缓慢的或者有损耗的衰减的无线链路。 Selecting a least number of hops of the path can lead to poor performance, in part because such paths often include slow or lossy wireless links between distant attenuation nodes. 在具有多个无线电收发装置节点的网络里一般较差地执行最短路径路由技术。 In the network having a plurality of radio transceiver nodes perform poorly in general shortest path routing technology. 这些可通过以下两个示例来说明。 These can be explained by the following two examples. 第一,设定一个网络,其中每个节点都具有802.11a和802.11b无线电。 First, setting a network, wherein each node has 802.11a and 802.11b radio. 通常802.11b无线电比802.11a无线电具有较长波段。 802.11b radio usually has a longer wavelength than the 802.11a radio. 因此,如果使用最短路径路由,那么该网络里的大量通信量将在较慢的802.11b链路上执行。 Therefore, if you use the shortest path routing, then the network in a large number of traffic will be executed on the slower 802.11b links. 现在假设该网络里的节点更换为具有两个802.11b无线电,一个转向信道1,另一个转向信道11。 Assuming now that the replacement of the network nodes having two 802.11b radios, one steering channel 1 and the other steering channel 11. 假设在这个网络里具有两跳(三个节点)。 Assumed to have a two-hop (three nodes) in the network. 完整地穿越信道1或信道11的路径将比在两个不同信道上的两跳的路径的吞吐量差得多。 Complete path through a channel 11 or channel is much more than the difference in the throughput of the two-hop path two different channels. 因此选择不能保证跳是位于不同信道上的路径的最短路径算法将产生次优的性能。 So choose not guarantee the jump is the shortest path algorithm in different channels paths will produce suboptimal performance.

基于链路高质的路由是最短路径路由的一个公知替换。 Routing based on link quality is replaced by a well-known shortest path routing. 研究人员已经提出了用于多跳无线网络的几个链路高质度量,但这些计划集中在具有同种的单一无线电节点的网络上。 Researchers have proposed several link quality metrics for multi-hop wireless networks, but these schemes have focused on a single radio network node of the same species. 一个示例是在DSJDe Couto,D.Aguayo,J.Bicket,和R.Morris的“A High-Throughput Path Metric for Multi-Hop Wireless Routing,”ACMMOBICOM(2003年9月)中所描述的ETX度量,引用在此作为参考。 An example is the ETX metric DSJDe Couto, D.Aguayo, J.Bicket, and R.Morris of "A High-Throughput Path Metric for Multi-Hop Wireless Routing," ACMMOBICOM in (September 2003) as described in reference incorporated herein by reference. ETX需要经过链路发送单路传送分组来测量期望的传输时间,该传送包括重发。 ETX need to go through the link send unicast packets to measure a desired transmission time, the transmission comprises a retransmission. 所述路径度量是用于所述路径里每个链路的ETX值的总和。 Is the sum of the path metric for the path in the ETX values for each link. 路由协议选择具有最小路径度量的路径。 Routing protocols to select the path having the smallest path metric.

回顾ETX对理解本发明在此公开的实施例是有用的。 Recalling ETX understanding of embodiments of the invention disclosed herein are useful. ETX的引出始于在向前和向后方向(分别用pf和pr表示)里潜在的分组丢失可能性的测量。 ETX begins with measurements of the lead in the forward and backward directions (respectively represented by pf and pr) in the potential possibility of packet loss. 首先,计算分组发送不成功的的可能性。 First, the possibility of sending a packet calculation unsuccessful. 对于发送成功的分组,所述802.11协议请求所述分组的成功肯定。 For a successful packet transmission, the 802.11 protocol request the packet successfully affirmative. 让p表示分组传送从x到y不成功的可能性。 Let p denote the possibility of unsuccessful packet transmission y from x to. 那么:p=1-(1-pf)*(1-pr)所述802.11MAC将为这些发送不成功的重发分组。 Then: p = 1- (1-pf) * (1-pr) the 802.11MAC will send these unsuccessful retransmission packet. 让s(k)表示在k次尝试之后,分组从x到y传递成功的可能性。 Let s (k) shows after k attempts, the packet is passed from x to y likelihood of success. 那么:s(k)=pk-1*(1-p)最后,用ETX表示需要成功地将分组从x传递到y的期望的传送时间:ETX=Σk=1∞k*s(k)=11-p]]>由于ETX在同种的单一无线电网络环境里性能较好,ETX不需要在上述的多无线电方案里选择好的路由。 Then: s (k) = pk-1 * (1-p) Finally, ETX represents needs to successfully pass the packet from x to y of the desired delivery time: ETX = & Sigma; k = 1 & infin; k * s (k ) = 11-p]]> Because ETX single radio network environment where the same kind of good performance, ETX do not need to choose a good route in multi-radio program in the above. 在第一种方案里,每个节点具有802.11a无线电和802.11b无线电,ETX为了两个原因将在802.11b链路上路由大量的通信量。 In the first scheme, each node having a radio 802.11a and 802.11b radio, ETX will be two reasons for the large number of road traffic in 802.11b links. 第一,ETX只考虑链路上的丢失比率,而不考虑他们的带宽。 First, ETX only considers loss ratio on the link, regardless of their bandwidth. 第二,在使全球资源使用最小化的尝试里,只要较短路径上的丢失比率不是显著的高于较长路径上的丢失比率,ETX被设计为给较短路径优于较长路径的选择权。 Second, the use of resources in the global minimization of attempts, as long as the shorter path loss ratio is not significantly higher than the longer path loss ratio, ETX is designed to give a shorter path than the longer path selection Right. 在第二个方案里,每个节点具有两个802.11b无线电,由于ETX没有将任何的优先选择提供给信道传输路径,ETX再次选择次优的路径。 In the second scenario, each node has two 802.11b radios, due to ETX did not have any preference to the channel transmission path, ETX choose suboptimal path again. 因此,像其它现有的路由技术和路径度量一样,ETX不能从多个无线电的可用性和链路干扰的存在和多跳网络里变化的带宽中获取全部的利益。 So, like other existing routing techniques and path metrics like, ETX can not radio link interference from multiple availability and presence and changes in multi-hop network bandwidth get full benefits.

发明内容 SUMMARY

本发明的几个方面提出了一种使用加权的累计期望传输时间路径度量、根据链路质量进行路由的系统和方法。 Several aspects of the present invention proposes a method of using a weighted cumulative expected transmission time path metric, a system and method for routing according to link quality. 一种用于在多跳特定网络里进行路由的系统,及用于测量网络中路由的链路质量的方法,包括根据链路上分组的期望传输时间对链路加权的分配,及将一路由的个别链路权值权值合并到路径度量中。 A method for multi-hop network in a particular routing system, and means for measuring link quality of a route network, including the transmission time according to a desired allocation of uplink packet weighted links, and all the way from The weights of the individual link weights into the path metric. 路径度量说明了使用一共享信道的链路之间的干扰。 Path metric illustrates the use of a shared channel interference between the links. 在计算路径度量时,增加彼此干扰的链路的期望传输时间,而分别考虑非干扰链路的期望传输时间。 In calculating the path metric, the transmission time to increase the desired links interfere with each other, while non-interfering links are considered the desired transmission time. 本发明的实施例将在多跳网络里进行,所述网络里的节点装备了一个或多个无线电收发器。 Embodiments of the invention will be carried out in a multi-hop network, the network where the nodes are equipped with one or more radio transceivers.

本发明可整个的或部分的在软件里、硬件里及其组合中实施。 The present invention may be in software, hardware, and combinations implemented in whole or in part. 网络里计算设备预期被配置为实现所述系统和执行与本发明相关的方法。 The network is expected to be a computing device configured to implement the system and execute methods associated with the present invention.

附图说明 Brief Description

图1是根据本发明的实施例,说明为计算ETT测量的丢失比率而由探针发送器节点采取的步骤的流程图。 Figure 1 is an embodiment of the invention, a flowchart illustrating the steps for calculating the loss ratio ETT measurement taken by the probe and the node transmitter.

图2是根据本发明的实施例,说明由探针接收器对于丢失比率计算采取的步骤的流程图。 Figure 2 is an embodiment of the invention, a flowchart illustrating a probe receiver for calculating the loss ratio steps taken.

图3是根据本发明的实施例,说明在为每个链路计算带宽时由探针发送器采取的初始步骤的流程图。 Figure 3 is an embodiment according to the present invention, a flowchart for the calculation of the bandwidth of each link taken by a probe sender initial step instructions.

图4是根据本发明的实施例,说明由探针接收器对于带宽计算采取的步骤的流程图。 Figure 4 is an embodiment of the invention, a flowchart illustrating the steps of a probe for the receiver bandwidth calculation taken.

图5是根据本发明的实施例,说明由探针回复接收器对于带宽计算采取的步骤的流程图。 Figure 5 is an embodiment according to the present invention, illustrating the steps for the receiver bandwidth calculation flowchart taken by the probe reply.

图6是根据本发明的实施例,说明一给定路径的WCETT的计算中涉及的步骤的流程图。 Figure 6 is an embodiment according to the present invention, a flow chart illustrating a given path WCETT calculation steps involved.

图7是说明可在其中结合本发明实施例的示例性网络环境的示意图。 Figure 7 is a schematic diagram in which embodiments of the invention in conjunction exemplary network environment description.

图8是说明可用于本发明一示例性实施例中的示例性计算机设备的示意图。 Figure 8 is a schematic representation of an exemplary embodiment for the present invention, an exemplary computer device.

具体实施方式 DETAILED DESCRIPTION

在以下的描述里,将呈现本发明的一些实施例。 In the following description there will be presented some embodiments of the present invention. 为了说明的目的,阐明特定的结构和细节来对实施例提供一个彻底的理解。 For purposes of explanation, specific configurations and details are set forth to provide a thorough embodiments understanding. 然而,对本领域的技术人员而言,显而易见的是也可以不需要这特定细节来实施本发明。 However, the skilled artisan, may also be apparent that these specific details are not required to practice the invention. 此外,为了不使描述的实施例晦涩,可以忽略或简化公知的特征。 In addition, in order not to obscure the embodiments described, can be ignored or simplified well-known features.

本发明的实施例包括一个新的路由度量,即加权的累计期望传输时间(WCETT),用来在多跳网络的源节点和目标节点之间选择高吞吐量路径。 Embodiments of the present invention include a new routing metric, i.e., a weighted cumulative expected transmission time (WCETT), is used between the source node and the destination node of a multi-hop network to select high throughput path. 尽管它不仅限于此,度量在无线网络里尤其具有优势,所述无线网络里的至少一些节点装备了多个同种的无线电收发装置并且所述网络里的一些链路彼此干扰。 Although it is not limited to this, metrics in a wireless network is particularly advantageous in at least some of the wireless network nodes in the radio apparatus equipped with a plurality of the same kind and the network where some links interfere with each other. WCETT度量能够选择信道各异的路径。 WCETT metric can select a channel different path. 基于固定大小的分组的期望传输时间(ETT),对每个链路分配权值以成功的在所述链路上发送。 Based on a fixed-size packet of a desired transmission time (ETT), to assign weights to each link on the successful transmission link. 所述ETT是所述链路的丢失比率和带宽的函数。 The ETT is a function of the link loss rate and bandwidth. 在本发明的可选实施例里,可使用链路质量的测量而不是ETT。 In an alternative embodiment of the present invention, the link quality measurements may be used rather than ETT. 个别链路权值被合并成WCETT路径度量,所述度量明确说明了使用同一信道的链路之间的干扰。 Individual link weights are combined into WCETT path metric, the metric explicitly use the same channel interference between the links. 可使用控制参数β来调节信道多样性和路径长度之间的权衡。 Control parameter β may be used to adjust the trade-off channel diversity and path length. 可以调节WCETT的计算或者使给定流的吞吐量最大化,或者使其对其它流的影响最小。 You can adjust WCETT calculations or so to maximize the throughput of a given flow, or its impact on other traffic is minimal.

本发明的一些实施例被设计为应用在无线网络里,该无线网络里的节点具有遵循802.11的无线电。 Some embodiments of the present invention is designed for applications in the wireless network, the wireless network node has to follow in the 802.11 radio. 然而,其它实施例可应用在基于其它无线技术的网络里。 However, other embodiments may use other wireless technology based on the network. 本发明可与一个或多个其它技术或机制一起使用以提高多跳无线网络里的网络容量,诸如剥离(striping)技术或定向天线的使用。 The present invention may be used with one or more other techniques or mechanisms for improving multi-hop wireless network where the network capacity, such as stripping (striping) using techniques or directional antenna. 此外,由于在此描述了用于无线环境的实施例,因此本发明提供了一种更通用和广泛的应用技术,以便将路由总成本的测量和路由瓶颈组件的测量合并,以生成路径度量。 Further, since the embodiment described herein for the wireless environment, and therefore the present invention provides a more versatile and widely used technique for the measurement of the total cost of the route and the route measuring bottlenecks components were combined to produce a path metric.

为了计算WCETT路径度量,首先需要为给定的链路计算ETT。 To calculate the WCETT path metric, we first need to calculate the given link ETT. 在一个实施例里,通过将链路期望传输的时间(如ETX)乘以链路带宽的测量来得到ETT,以得到发送分组所花费的时间的测量。 In one embodiment, the transmission by the time the desired link (e.g., ETX) multiplied by the measured link bandwidth to get ETT, to obtain a measure of the time it takes to transmit the packet. 以ETX为例,所述ETT变成:ETT=ETX*SB]]>其中S是固定的分组大小(如1024字节),B表示链路的带宽(原始的数据率)。 With ETX, for example, the ETT becomes: ETT = ETX * SB]]> where S is a fixed packet size (eg 1024 bytes), B indicates that the link bandwidth (raw data rate). 其它实施例可使用期望传输时间的求解(derivation)而不是ETX求解来计算ETT。 Other embodiments may use the desired transmission time solving (derivation) rather than solving the ETX calculated ETT. 所述期望传输时间(ETT)不限于使用ETX来测量,可以使用从发送成功概率得到的其它计算方法。 The desired transmission time (ETT) is not limited to measurements using ETX to, other calculation methods may be used from the transmission success probability obtained.

计算ETT需要知道各个链路的正反丢失比率(分别是Pf和Pr)和带宽。 Calculate ETT need to know the pros and cons of each link loss ratio (respectively Pf and Pr) and bandwidth. 用来确定Pf和Pr值的一个方法是使用广播分组技术,诸如是上文所参考的、由De Couto等人所公开的技术。 A method for determining the value of Pf and Pr is the use of a broadcast packet technique such as the above referenced by the De Couto et al., The disclosed techniques. 在这个方法里,每个节点周期地(例如每秒一次)发出一个广播分组。 In this method, each node periodically (e.g., once per second) sends a broadcast packet. 注意的是所述广播分组不被802.11MAC重发。 Note that the broadcast packets are not retransmitted 802.11MAC. 在滑动时窗(例如是10秒)期间,节点追踪从每个相邻节点接收到的探针数量,并将该信息包括在它们自己的探针里。 In the sliding window (e.g., 10 seconds), the trace received from each node to the neighboring node number of the probe, and include that information in their own probes inside. 节点可以从它在时间窗口里从相邻节点接收到的探针数量直接计算出Pr,并且该节点可以使用在来自相邻节点的最后一个探针里接收到的关于它自己的信息来计算Pf。 Pr node can be calculated directly from it receives from neighboring nodes in the time window to the number of the probe, and the node may be used in the last probe from a neighbor in the received information on its own calculated Pf . 其它确定Pf和Pr值的方法在不离开本发明的精神和范围时也可使用。 Other determining Pf and Pr values approach in without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention may also be used. 例如,可以对网络接口卡(NIC)上的重发计数器作出询问来发现正反丢失比率。 For example, inquiry may be made to the retransmission counters network interface card (NIC) to discover the forward and reverse loss ratio.

图1示出了由探针发送器在为ETT测量计算丢失比率时所采取的步骤。 Figure 1 shows the steps of a probe sender in calculating the loss ratio for the ETT measurement taken. 节点等待一个周期的时间(丢失探针周期)(步骤101)。 Node waits for a period of time (the probe is lost period) (step 101). 所述节点计算从前一次发送的探针开始从每个相邻节点接收到的探针数量(步骤103),并创建包括这个信息的探针(步骤105)。 The node calculates the start of the probe from a previous transmission from each neighbor node to receive the number of the probe (step 103), and including the probe information is created (step 105). 该节点也为到每个相邻节点的链路计算丢失比率(步骤107)。 The node also for the link to each neighbor node is calculated loss ratio (step 107). 所述节点广播所述探针(步骤109)并返回步骤101等待。 The node of the probe (step 109) and returns to step 101 to wait for the broadcast.

图2示出了由接收器对丢失比率计算而采取的步骤。 Figure 2 shows the steps by the receiver to the loss ratio calculated taken. 节点接收探针(步骤201)。 Node receives the probe (step 201). 所述节点查找和已经被发送器接收到的探针有关的信息(步骤203)。 Finding and has been received to the transmitter information relating to the probe (step 203) the node. 它更新从发送器接收到的探针数量(步骤205)并返回步骤201。 It updates received from the transmitter to the number of probes (step 205) and returns to step 201.

计算带宽是一个更复杂的问题。 Calculate the bandwidth is a more complex issue. 一种可能是将每个802.11无线电的带宽限制为一个给定的固定值。 One possibility is to limit the bandwidth of each 802.11 radio to a given fixed value. 另一个可能是允许无线电为每个分组自动地选择带宽。 Another possibility is to allow each packet radio bandwidth is automatically selected. 这个特征,通称为自动比率(autorate),被许多现代802.11卡支持。 This feature, known as automatic ratio (autorate), is supported by many modern 802.11 cards. 然而,在自动比率算法不能为公众熟知以及带宽信息不能被驱动程序支持的802.11卡的情况下,带宽的精确测量只能凭经验来获得。 However, in the case where the ratio of the automatic algorithm can not be known to the public as well as the bandwidth information is not supported by the driver 802.11 card, accurate measurement bandwidth can only be obtained empirically.

在一个实施例中,使用熟知的分组对技术来获得带宽的经验测量。 In one embodiment, using well known techniques to obtain a packet-pair bandwidth measurement experience. 例如,在S.Keshav所著的“A Control-Theoretic Approach to Flow Control,”ACMSIGCOMM(1991年9月)中对所述分组对技术进行了描述,并引用在此以作参考。 For example, in S.Keshav book "A Control-Theoretic Approach to Flow Control," ACMSIGCOMM in (September 1991) to the packet technology are described, and incorporated herein by reference. 每个节点周期地(例如每分钟)对每个相邻节点发送出两个紧接着的(backto back)探针分组。 Each node periodically (e.g. every minute) for each neighbor node sends out (backto back) two probe packets immediately. 第一个探针分组很小(例如是137字节),而第二个分组很大(例如是1137字节)。 The first probe packet is small (e.g., 137 bytes), while the second packet is large (e.g. 1137 bytes). 每个相邻节点测量在第一个分组和第二个分组的接收之间的时间差,并将所述值传回给发送器。 Measured at each adjacent node and the receiving time of the first packet of the second packet difference between, and the value back to the transmitter. 发送器取一组连续样本的最小值(例如10个连续样本的最小值),然后通过把第二个探针分组的大小除以最小样本来估计带宽。 The transmitter takes a set minimum value (e.g., 10 consecutive samples the minimum value) of consecutive samples, and then through the second probe packet size divided by the sample to estimate the minimum bandwidth. 这个估计忽视了几个影响分组传递时间的因素,但对于实质上不同带宽的链路之间的区分,这是足够精确的。 This estimate ignores the several factors affect packet delivery time, but for a substantially different bandwidths to distinguish between links, which is sufficiently accurate.

图3示出了由探针发送器在为每个链路计算带宽时采取的步骤。 Figure 3 illustrates steps by a probe sender in calculating the bandwidth for each link is taken. 节点等待一个周期(分组对探针周期(Pktpair Probe Period))(步骤301)。 Node waits for one cycle (cycle probe packet (Pktpair Probe Period)) (step 301). 它为相邻节点创建探针对(步骤303)。 It is adjacent nodes to create a probe (step 303). 所述节点然后紧接着发送所述探针对(步骤305),然后返回步骤301。 The node then sends the probe pair immediately (step 305), then returns to step 301.

图4示出了由探针接收器在带宽计算中采取的步骤。 Figure 4 shows the steps taken by the probe receiver in the bandwidth calculation. 节点接收探针(步骤401)。 Node receives the probe (step 401). 如果探针不是一对探针中的第一个探针(步骤403),那么所述节点放弃所述探针(步骤405)并返回到步骤401。 If the probe is not one pair of probes in the first probe (step 403), then the node give up the probe (step 405) and returns to step 401. 否则,所述节点接收第二探针(步骤407)。 Otherwise, the node receives a second probe (step 407). 如果这个探针不是一对探针中的第二个(步骤409),那么所述节点放弃所述探针(步骤405)并返回至步骤401。 If the probe is not one of the second probe (step 409), then the node give up the probe (step 405) and returns to step 401. 否则,所述节点计算在第一探针和第二探针的接收之间的延迟(步骤411)。 Otherwise, the receiving node calculation between the first and second probes of the delay (step 411). 然后节点创建探针回复(步骤413),并将所述探针回复发送给发送器(步骤415)。 Then Node Creation probe reply (step 413), and the probe reply to the transmitter (step 415). 然后节点返回到步骤401。 Then node returns to step 401.

图5示出了由探针回复接收器在带宽计算时采取的步骤。 Figure 5 shows the steps taken by the probe reply receiver in the bandwidth calculation. 节点接收探针回复(步骤501)。 Node receives a probe reply (step 501). 它将延迟值转换成带宽样本(步骤503)。 It converts the delay value into a bandwidth sample (step 503). 如果这个带宽值比最大带宽大(步骤505),所述节点就放弃这个样本(步骤507)。 If this value is greater than the maximum bandwidth bandwidth (step 505), the node will abandon this sample (step 507). 否则,它将更新到目前为止最小的延迟值(步骤509)。 Otherwise, it updates the minimum delay value so far (step 509). 如果依然没有收集到全部的一组样本(步骤511),那么节点返回到步骤501。 If you still have not collected a full set of sample (step 511), then the node returns to step 501. 否则,该节点为这个链路更新带宽测量并将样本数量设为0(步骤515),然后返回到步骤501。 Otherwise, the node updates the bandwidth measurement for this link and the number of samples is set to 0 (step 515), then returns to step 501.

一旦计算了从节点x到节点y的每个链路i的ETT,即ETTi,就必须将沿着一路径的跳跃的个别ETT链路权值合并成一度量WCETT,该度量反映该路径的整个需求。 Once calculated for each link from node x i to node y of ETT, i.e. ETTi, it must be combined along jumping individual ETT link weights of a path into a metric WCETT, that reflects the overall metric of the path needs. 对于WCETT路径度量有三个基本的设计目标。 For WCETT path metric has three basic design goals. 第一,当选择包含在路由路径中的链路时,路径度量应当考虑链路带宽以及物理层的丢失比率。 First, when you select the link contained in the routing path, the path loss ratio should be considered a measure of link bandwidth and physical layer. 例如,在802.11网络中,由于802.11MAC结合了ARQ机制,因而在无线链路上的分组传输时间取决于这两者因素。 For example, in 802.11 networks, due to a combination of ARQ mechanism 802.11MAC, therefore on the two factors at the time of transmission of packets on the wireless link.

第二,应当增加合并个别链路权值的度量。 Second, it should increase the combined measure of individual link weights. 也就是说,如果将一跳跃增加到现有路径里,路径的成本不应该降低,而是应该增加。 That is, if a jump to an existing path, the path should not reduce costs, but should be increased. 对于这个需求的一个判断方法是,附加跳跃的遍历包括了附加资源的消耗。 The demand for a judgment method, the additional jumping traversal includes additional resource consumption. 另一个判断方法是,跳跃的附加增加了沿路径的总延迟。 Another method is to determine, jumping additional increases the total delay along the path. 对于TCP连接,这将产生增加的往返时间并因此降低吞吐量。 For a TCP connection, which will increase the round-trip time to produce and thus reduce the throughput.

第三,由于运行在相同信道上的链路间的干扰,路径度量应该明确解决吞吐量的下降。 Third, due to the interference between the link to run the same channel, the path metric should explicitly solve decline in throughput. 相似地,它也应当解决沿着一路径的、不在相同信道上操作、彼此没有干扰的链路的情况。 Similarly, it should also solve along a path, not on the same channel operation, no mutual interference situation link. 因此,由不同信道上的跳跃所组成的路径优先于所有跳跃在同一信道上的路径。 Therefore, the path on different channels by jumping composed precedence over all paths in the same channel of jumps.

为了符合这些设计目标,当附加链路增加到现有路径中时WCETT值应当增加。 In order to meet these design goals, while additional link to an existing path when WCETT value should be increased. 可通过把WCETT设为路径上所有跳跃的ETT的总和来确保这一特性。 Can be set by the sum of all the jumping ETT WCETT path to ensure this feature. 然而,这样却不正确地假设了所有链路都是干扰的。 However, this is not correctly assumed that all links are interference. WCETT的另一个目标是反映信道差异的影响。 Another objective is to reflect the effect WCETT channel differences. 由于没有区分不同信道上的跳跃之间的区别,因此简单地累计ETT将不能保证该特性。 Since there is no difference between jumping distinguish between different channels, it is simply the cumulative ETT will not guarantee this feature. 因此WCETT度量需要附加项。 So WCETT measure requires additional items.

首先我们假设,如果路径上的两个跳跃在同一信道上,那么它们通常彼此干扰。 First, we assume that if two jumps in the same channel path, then they typically interfere with each other. 这个假设对于校短的路径一般精确,但对较长路径则稍微有点不容乐观。 This assumption is generally shorter path for accurate calibration, but it is slightly longer path is not optimistic. 当路径上的两个跳跃互相干扰时,在一个时间里只可操作一个跳跃。 When two jump path interference, is operable at a time only one jump. 这可以通过将干扰跳跃上的分组传输时间加在一起来获得。 This can be achieved by interfering packet transmission time jump on added together to obtain. 为了概括起见,考虑具有n个跳跃的路径,并假设所述系统总共具有k个信道,定义Xj如下: For the sake of generalization, consider having n jump path, and assume that the system has a total of k channels, Xj is defined as follows: Xj是信道j上跳跃的传输时间的总和。 Xj is the sum of channel j on the transmission time of the jump. 总路径吞吐量将由具有最大Xj值的瓶颈信道来决定。 Will be used to determine the total path throughput bottleneck channel has a maximum value of Xj. 基于这个,一个建议是可以使用该最大值Xj作为WCETT的定义。 Based on this, one suggestion is to use the maximum value of Xj as the definition WCETT. 通过这样定义,所述度量将支持具有更多不同信道的路径。 By this definition, the measure will support paths with more different channels. 然而,可以看到,由于使用非瓶颈信道的附加跳跃不会影响度量的值,因而这个度量值将不能随着更多的跳跃加入到路径而一直增加。 However, you can see, the use of non-bottleneck channels do not affect the value of the additional jumps metric, therefore this measure will not be added as more jumps to the path has been increased.

先前参考的两个路径度量的预期特性(ETT的总和以及最大Xj)可以通过采用它们的权值平均数来合并成一个满意的度量:WCETT=(1-β)*Σi=1nETTi+β*maxi≤j≤kXj]]>因此,WCETT度量是两个数值的加权平均值:沿路径的所有跳跃的ETT的总和,及瓶颈信道上ETT的总和。 Desired characteristics of the two previously with reference to the path metric (the sum of the ETT, and the maximum Xj) can be combined into one satisfactory metric by using the average value of their weights: (1- & beta;) * & Sigma; WCETT = i = 1nETTi + & beta; * maxi & le; j & le; kXj]]> So, WCETT measure is a weighted average of the two values: the sum of all the jumps along the path of the ETT, and the sum of the bottleneck channel of ETT. 第二个数值迫使不同信道路径的选择。 The second force values to select different channel paths. β是符合0≤β≤1的可调参数。 β is consistent 0≤β≤1 adjustable parameters. 选择β为0.5时可以给不同信道和ETT的总和提供相等的权值。 Select β of 0.5 can provide equal to the sum of the weights of different channels and the ETT. 如果将β选择为0,WCETT仅基于链路的丢失比率和带宽来选择链路,而不考虑不同信道。 If β is selected as 0, WCETT loss ratio based only on the link to select a link and bandwidth, without regard to the different channels. 在一个实施例里,β的选择可以自动的基于当前网络带宽。 In one embodiment where, β selection automatically based on the current network bandwidth.

加权平均的WCETT表达式可以用两种方法来解释。 Weighted average WCETT expression can be interpreted in two ways. 第一,它可以被看作是全局利益和利己主义之间的权衡。 First, it can be seen as a trade-off between global interests and egoism. 第一项是网络里沿着所有跳跃的传输时间的总和。 The first item is the sum of the network along all the transmission time of jumping. 这反映了沿这个路径的总的网络资源消耗。 This reflects along this path of total network resource consumption. 第二项反映了将最大限度地影响路径吞吐量的一组跳跃。 The second reflects the impact of the path will maximize the throughput of a set of jumps. 于是可以把加权平均值看作试图是平衡这两者。 The weighted average can then be viewed as trying to balance the two. 也可以将所述等式看作是吞吐量和延迟之间的权衡。 The equation can also be seen as a trade-off between throughput and latency. 可以将第一个项看作是路径等待时间的测量。 The first term can be regarded as the path waiting time measurement. 由于第二项表示瓶颈跳跃的影响,因此它可以被看作为路径吞吐量的测量。 Since the second term represents the impact of bottleneck jump, so it can be viewed as a path throughput measurement. 因此,也可以将加权平均值看作为试图平衡这两者。 Therefore, a weighted average can also be seen as attempting to balance the two.

图6示出了对于一给定路径、在WCETT计算中涉及的步骤。 Figure 6 shows that for a given path, the steps involved in the calculation of WCETT. 对于路径上的每个链路,节点利用丢失比率和带宽来计算ETT(步骤601)。 For each link on the path, node and bandwidth utilization loss ratio calculated ETT (step 601). 节点计算ETT的总和(步骤603)。 Node computes ETT sum (step 603). 然后根据信道将链路分组并为每个组计算ETT总和(步骤605)。 Then according to the uplink packet channel and calculate ETT sum (step 605) for each group. 所述节点查找具有最大ETT总和的组(步骤607)。 Find the node set (step 607) having the maximum ETT sum. 最后,节点为每个路径计算WCETT,具体是由(1-β)乘以ETT的总和,再加上β乘以信道组里ETT总和的最大值。 Finally, each node for path computation WCETT, specifically ETT sum by (1-β) multiplied, plus β multiplied by the maximum ETT sum channel group.

图7示出了可以实施本发明实施例的示例性网络环境。 Figure 7 shows an exemplary network environment may be implemented embodiment of the present invention. 所述示出的网络部分地是多跳无线网络。 The shows are part of a network of multi-hop wireless networks. 如所描述的,所述网络包括无线节点701、703、705、707、709、711、713、715、717、719。 As described, the network includes a wireless node 701,703,705,707,709,711,713,715,717,719. 作为典型,所描述的无线网络不能独立于其它网络而运行;如示出的,所述网络通过网关设备723、721连接至通常是较大网络的第二网络,例如因特网,所述网关设备通过有线通信装置725连接至第二网络。 As typical, the wireless network can not be described independently of the other network operation; As shown, the network connection through the gateway device typically 723,721 to a second network of a larger network, such as the Internet, via the gateway device a wired communication device 725 is connected to the second network. 所述破折线表示现有的无线电链路。 The broken line shows a conventional radio link. 诸如节点701这样的节点是计算设备,可具有许多通用或专用的配置和结构,这对本领域的技术人员是公知的。 Such a node, such as node 701 is a computing device, may have many generic or specific configuration and structure of which those skilled in the art are well known. 通常,这些设备将至少具有处理器和存储器分级体系,及有线和无线网络接口硬件。 Typically, these devices will have at least a processor and a memory hierarchy, and wired and wireless network interface hardware. 尤其是,这个网络里的节点可以具有一个或多个数字分组无线电收发器,以便穿越频率信道而没有限制的进行无线通信,例如,这些包括在网络接口卡里的无线点收发器可以适用于802.11a和802.11g IEEE标准。 In particular, this network node may have one or more digital packet radio transceivers, so that the crossover frequency channel without limitation wireless communications, for example, which includes a wireless network interface card can be applied to the point transceiver 802.11 a and 802.11g IEEE standard.

由于无线电具有有限的无线通信范围,因而这个网络里的许多对节点不能直接进行通信,而是必须依赖所述网络里的一个或多个合作节点作为中介节点来从源节点向目标节点转发数据。 Since the radio has a limited wireless communication range, and thus the number of nodes in the network can not communicate directly, but must rely on the network in one or more co-nodes as intermediate nodes to forward data from the source node to the target node. 因而,源节点一般将数据分组传送给它可以直接通信的相邻节点。 Thus, the source node typically transmits data packets to neighboring nodes it can communicate directly. 所述相邻节点顺序的将所述分组传送给它的相邻节点中的一个,如此,直到将所述分组传送给它的最后目标。 Said adjacent node order to deliver the packet to its neighboring nodes a, so, until the packet to its final goal. 分组发送所越过的每条链路称为“跳跃”。 Transmitting the packet across each link is called "jumping." 分组从源节点到最终目标节点所经历的链路组是所述分组的路由或路径。 Packet from the source node to the final destination node of the link group is experienced by the packet of the route or path. 可以通过以分布方式运行在多跳网络的几个节点上的路由协议来发现路由。 You can find routes run through a distributed manner on several multi-hop network node routing protocol. 在图7中,描述了两个示例性路由。 In Figure 7, two exemplary routes are described. 节点S1 707将分组传送给中介节点R1 709,中介节点R1 709再将分组传送给中介节点R2 703,中介节点R2 703将所述分组传送给目标节点D711。 Node S1 707 transmits the packet to intermediate node R1 709, intermediate node R1 709 then transmits the packet to intermediate node R2 703, intermediate node R2 703 deliver the packet to the destination node D711. 这些节点之间的实心黑色箭头线表示包括这个路由的数据通信链路。 Solid black arrow lines between these nodes represent the data including the route of the communication link. 节点S2 717向中介节点R3 719发送去往外部网络的分组,中介节点R3 719将所述分组传送给网关723。 Node S2 717 sends a packet destined for the external network to intermediate node R3 719, intermediate node R3 719 deliver the packet to the gateway 723.

在本发明的实施例里,WCETT度量与MR-LQSR(多无线电链路高质源路由)一起实施,该MR-LQSR是运行在网状连通层(MCL)路由框架里的链路质量源路由(LQSR)协议的一个修改版本。 In an embodiment of the present invention where, WCETT metric MR-LQSR (radio link quality multi-source routing) together embodiment, the MR-LQSR Link Quality Source Routing is run in a mesh communication layer (MCL) routing framework of A modified version (LQSR) protocol. 2004年2月23日申请的美国专利申请号为10/784,687的“System and Method for Link Quality Source Routing”公开了LQSR的一些特征,上述申请与本申请具有共同的发明人,并在此引用以作参考,以及在2003年6月30日申请的美国专利申请号为10/610,397的“Methodand System for Providing a Virtual Protocol Interlayer”中公开了MCL一些特征,上述申请与本申请是共同的发明人,并在此引用以作参考。 US Patent Application No. 23 February 2004 Application 10 / 784,687 for "System and Method for Link Quality Source Routing" feature LQSR disclosed some of the above apply to this application have a common inventor, and incorporated herein by reference to for reference, as well as some features MCL disclosed in US Patent Application No. 30 June 2003 Application 10 / 610,397 for "Methodand System for Providing a Virtual Protocol Interlayer" in the application of this application is a common inventor, and is hereby incorporated by reference. 这些特征中的部分也在RPDraves,J.Padhye,和BDZill的“Comparison of Routing Metrics for StaticMulti-Hop Wireless Networks”Technical Report(技术报告)MSR-TR-2004-18,Microsoft Research(微软公司研究报告)(2004年3月)中有论述,并在此引用以作参考。 These features are part of RPDraves, J.Padhye, and BDZill of "Comparison of Routing Metrics for StaticMulti-Hop Wireless Networks" Technical Report (Technical Report) MSR-TR-2004-18, Microsoft Research (Microsoft Research Report) (March 2004) have discussed, and hereby incorporated by reference.

MCL实现了一个处于层2(链路层)和层3(网络层)之间的中间层内的虚拟网络适配器。 MCL implements a virtual network adapter in the intermediate layer layer 2 (link layer) and Layer 3 (network layer) between the inside. 对较高层应用,MCL看起来是另一个以太网链路,具有自己的48位虚拟以太网地址,不同于底层物理适配器的层2地址。 For higher-level applications, MCL appears to be another Ethernet link, with its own 48-bit virtual Ethernet address is different from the underlying physical adapter layer 2 address. MCL对较低层则看起来是另一个运行在物理链路上的协议。 MCL is on the lower layer appear to be another protocol running over the physical link. 多个物理网络适配器可以复合成单一虚拟链路,网络协议可以在该单一虚拟链路上运行而无须修改。 Multiple physical network adapters combined into a single virtual link, network protocols can be run without modification on the single virtual link.

MCL适配器使用MR-LQSR对分组进行路由。 MCL adapter uses MR-LQSR packet routing. 对于给定的节点,通过合并链路权值来形成路径度量,MRLQSR协议发现节点的相邻节点,向节点与相邻节点之间的链路分配权值,将这个信息传播给网络里的其它节点,并使用所述链路权值来查找到达给定目标的好路径。 For a given node, to form a path metric by combining the link weights, MRLQSR neighbor discovery protocol node and assign weights to the link between the node and the neighboring nodes, will disseminate this information to the network of other node, and use the link to find the right value for a given path to reach the goal of good. 读者可以参考以上所引用的相关专利申请和举证的技术报告来获得有关MCL和LQSR的其它细节。 Readers can refer to the technical reports related patent application and proof of the above referenced to obtain additional details about the MCL and LQSR. 然而本发明不限于基于MCL和LQSR的实施。 However, the present invention is not limited to the embodiment based on the MCL and LQSR. 在本发明的其它实施例里可使用其它路由协议和框架。 In other embodiments of the present invention may be used in other routing protocols and frameworks.

为了实施WCETT,与每个链路的丢失比率和带宽或ETT一起传送信道号是必须的。 To implement WCETT, with each link bandwidth or the ETT loss ratio and transmitted together with the channel number is required. 在一个实施例里,度量值的8位用来编码为抽象的信道号。 In one embodiment, the metric used to encode abstract eight channel number. 传送信道号的其它方法也是可能的。 Other methods of transmitting the channel number are possible.

在本发明描述的上下文中,术语“一”“和“这”及相似情况的使用解释为覆盖单数和复数,除非这里有指定或文本里有清楚的矛盾。术语“包括”、“具有”、和“包含”解释为开放式结束术语(意为“包括,但不限于”),除非有其它标注。这里值的范围的列举仅意指作为一种单个的参考每个落入这个范围之内的分离值的速记方法,除非这里有指定,并且每个分离值都被合并进入本说明书,就像在此分别举证的一样。这里使用的任何和所有的示例或示例性语言(“诸如”,“例如”,“如”等)仅仅意图更好的说明本发明,并没有在本发明的范围上指定限制,除非有其它请求。说明书里没有语言应当解释为指定任何非请求的元素为本发明的实施的本质。 In the context of the present invention described herein, the term "a", "and" This "and using similar conditions construed to cover both the singular and the plural, unless there has designated or text in a clear contradiction. The term" including "," having ", and "comprising" is interpreted as an open ended terms (meaning "including, but not limited to,") unless otherwise denoted. Recitation of ranges of values herein is meant only within this range as a reference for each individual falls shorthand method of separating the value, unless there is specified here, and each separate value are merged into the present specification, as if this were the same proof. As used herein, any and all examples, or exemplary language ("such as", "e.g.", "such as", etc.) is intended merely to better illustrate the present invention, and not specify a limit on the scope of the invention unless otherwise requested. No language in the specification should be construed to designate any element of the present invention unsolicited The nature of implementation.

参见图8,示出了用来实现本发明的示例性系统,包括计算设备,诸如计算设备800。 Referring to Figure 8, illustrates the present invention used to implement an exemplary system, includes a computing device, such as computing device 800. 在基本的配置里,计算设备800一般包括至少一个处理单元802和系统存储器804。 In the basic configuration, computing device 800 typically includes at least one unit 802 and system memory 804 processing. 根据准确的配置和计算设备的类型,系统存储器804可以是易失性的(诸如RAM)、非易失的(诸如ROM、快速存储器等)或这两个的结合。 Depending on the type and the exact configuration of computing device, system memory 804 may be volatile (such as RAM), non-volatile (such as ROM, flash memory, etc.) or a combination of both. 系统存储器804一般包括操作系统805,一个或多个应用程序806,并也可以包括程序数据807。 System memory 804 typically includes an operating system 805, one or more application programs 806, and program data 807 may also include. 这个基本的配置在图8中由虚线808中的这些部件来示出。 This basic configuration in FIG. 8 by dashed lines 808 to these components is shown.

计算设备800也可以具有额外特征或功能。 Computing device 800 may also have additional features or functionality. 例如,计算设备800可包括额外的数据存储设备(可移动和/或不可移动),例如磁盘,光盘或磁带。 For example, computing device 800 may include additional data storage devices (removable and / or non-removable) such as disks, optical disks or tapes. 这个额外存储器在图8中由可移动存储器809和不可移动存储器810来示出。 This additional memory in Figure 8 by removable storage 809 and non-removable memory 810 is shown. 计算机存储媒体可包括为了信息的存储,在任何方法和技术中实现的易失和非易失的,可移动和不可移动媒体,所述信息诸如是计算机可读指令、数据结构、程序模块或其它数据。 Computer storage media may include for storing information, in any of the methods and techniques implemented in volatile and nonvolatile, removable and non-removable media, the information such as computer readable instructions, data structures, program modules or other data. 系统存储器804、可移动存储器809和非可移动存储器810是计算机存储媒体的所有示例。 System memory 804, removable storage 809 and non-removable storage 810 are all examples of computer storage media. 计算机存储媒体包括,但不限于,RAM、ROM、EEPROM闪存或其它存储器技术、CD-ROM,数字化视频光盘(DVD)或其它光学存储器、磁带盒、磁带、磁盘存储器或其它磁性存储设备,或任何其它可以用来存储期望信息并可以被计算设备800访问的媒体。 Computer storage media includes, but is not limited to, RAM, ROM, EEPROM flash memory or other memory technology, CD-ROM, digital video disc (DVD) or other optical storage, magnetic cassettes, magnetic tape, magnetic disk storage or other magnetic storage devices, or any the other can be used to store the desired information and which can be accessed by computing device 800 media. 任何这些计算机存储媒体可以是设备800的一部分。 Any such computer storage media may be part of device 800. 计算设备800也可具有输入设备812,诸如键盘、鼠标、笔、声音输入设备、触摸输入设备等。 Computing device 800 may also have input devices 812, such as a keyboard, mouse, pen, voice input device, touch input device, etc.. 也可以包括诸如是显示器、扬声器、打印机等的输出设备814。 May also be included such as a display, speakers, printer, etc. The output device 814. 所有的这些设备都是本领域公知的并不需要在这详细论述。 All these devices are known in the art need not be discussed in detail.

计算设备800也包括允许所述设备与其它计算机设备818例如在网络或无线网状网络上进行通信的通信连接816。 Computing device 800 also includes allowing the device 818 with other computer devices such as a communication connection 816 to communicate on a network or a wireless mesh network. 通信连接816是通信媒体的一个示例。 Communication connection 816 is one example of communication media. 通信媒体一般包含计算机可读指令、数据结构、程序模块或在诸如是载波或其它传输机构的已调制数据信号里的其他数据,并包括任何信息传递媒体。 Communication media typically embodies computer readable instructions, data structures, program modules, or in such as a carrier wave or other transport mechanism of the modulated data signal in the other data, and includes any information delivery media. 术语“已调制数据信号”意指具有一个或多个特征集的信号,或以这种方式改变以便在信号里编码信息。 The term "modulated data signal" means a signal having one or more of its characteristics set or changed in such a manner so as to encode information in the signal. 以举例的方式,但不限制,通信媒体包括诸如是有线网络或直接有线连接的有线媒体,和诸如是声学的、RF,红外线的和其它无线媒体及其它无线媒体。 By way of example, but not limitation, communication media includes wired media such as a wired network or direct-wired connection, and such as are acoustic, RF, infrared and other wireless media, and other wireless media. 这里使用的术语“计算机可读媒体”包括存储媒体和通信媒体。 As used herein, the term "computer-readable medium" includes a storage media and communication media.

根据本发明,在一个实施例里,应用程序806进一步包括应用程序820来执行网状网络功能。 According to the present invention, in one embodiment, applications 806 further include application 820 to perform the function of the mesh network. 应用程序820表示的功能可以由包括在计算设备800中的、用来建立和维持特定网络的附加输入设备812、输出设备814和通信连接816来进一步支持。 Functionality of the application 820 may be represented by include the computing device 800, is used to establish and maintain a specific network of additional input device 812, an output device 814 and a communication connection 816 to further support.

已经在此描述了本发明的优选实施例,所述实施例包括为发明人所知的用来实施本发明的最佳方式。 Have been described herein the preferred embodiments of the present invention, the embodiment of the invention including the best mode known to the to the present invention. 在这些优选实施例上的变化对阅读了前述描述的本领域的普通技术人员而言是显而易见的。 Example on changes in these preferred embodiments of ordinary skill reading the foregoing description of the present art that are obvious. 发明人期望技术人员合理的使用这些变化,并且发明人提供的本发明除这里指定的描述之外可以实施。 The inventors expect skilled rational use of these changes, and in addition to the description specified here can be implemented by the present inventors to offer. 因此,在法律允许的范围内,本发明包括在所附权利要求里引用的要点的所有变化和替换。 Therefore, within the scope permitted by law, the present invention includes all modifications and substitutions in the appended claims in reference to the main points. 此外,在其可能的变化中的上述要素的任何可能的结合都包含在本发明之内,除非这里有指定或在上下文中有明显的矛盾。 Moreover, any possible combination of these elements in their possible variations are included within the present invention, unless specified here or apparent contradiction in context.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
CN101473608B *31 Jul 200712 Aug 2015富士通株式会社通信系统
CN101651599B12 Aug 200830 May 2012中国移动通信集团公司Multipath wireless routing method and device
CN102098301A *6 Jan 201115 Jun 2011复旦大学Multilink self-adaptation data transmission method and system
CN102098301B *6 Jan 201129 Jul 2015复旦大学多链路自适应的数据传输方法与系统
Classifications
International ClassificationH04L12/28, H04L12/56
Cooperative ClassificationH04W40/02, H04L45/00, H04L45/124, H04W16/14, H04W84/18
European ClassificationH04W40/02, H04L45/00, H04L45/124
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