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Publication numberCN1125369 C
Publication typeGrant
Application numberCN 96110861
Publication date22 Oct 2003
Filing date26 Jul 1996
Priority date26 Jul 1995
Also published asCN1146560A, US5999320
Publication number96110861.4, CN 1125369 C, CN 1125369C, CN 96110861, CN-C-1125369, CN1125369 C, CN1125369C, CN96110861, CN96110861.4
Inventors白崎正孝
Applicant富士通株式会社
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: SIPO, Espacenet
Virtual imae plase-control array used as wave length signal separator and mfg method
CN 1125369 C
Abstract  translated from Chinese
本发明为虚像相控阵或“光分波器”,它接收一批载波的波分复用光并对各载波产生一可从空间上区别的输出光。 The present invention is a virtual image phased array or "light demultiplexer", which receives a number of carriers and generating a wavelength-multiplexed light from spatially distinguishable output light for each carrier. 此相控阵包括第一与第二面的透明件。 This phased array includes a transparent piece first and second side. 第二面的反射率允许透过部分入射光。 Reflectance of the second surface of the transparent part of the incident light allows. 复用光于第一和第二面间多次反射生成一批透射过第二面的光,这批光相互干涉而给各载波产生相应的输出光。 Multiplexed optical between the first and second surfaces to generate a number of multiple reflections of light transmitted through the second face, these light interfere with each other and to the respective carrier wave generating corresponding output light. 各载波对应的波长是在连续波长范围内,上述输出光可与由具有在此范围内任何其它波长的输入光所形成的输出光相区别。 Wavelength corresponding to the respective carriers within a continuous range of wavelengths, said output light having the output light may be distinguished from any other in this range of input light wavelengths formed. 制备此相控阵的方法包括在透明件上形成反射膜与窗口。 The method of preparing this phased array includes a transparent member formed on a reflecting film and window.
Claims(29)  translated from Chinese
1.一种光分波器,用来接收所具有的相应波长是在一连续波长范围内的输入光同时促致续此输入光发生多次反射而产生出形成一种输出光的自干涉,其特征在于:它包括将输入光聚焦成一直线的透镜,一个具有相互分开的一个第一表面与一个第二表面的装置,上述直线输入光接收在此相互分开的一个第一表面与一个第二表面之间,此输入光在此第一与第二表面间发生多次反射,所述第二表面具有这样一个反射率,可以在输入光的多次反射中,当输入光每次从此第二表面上反射时有一部分输入光通过其中,由此可使一批透射光通过此第二表面,而这批透射光相互干涉,使输入光产生自干涉而形成输出光,此输出光可与具有此连续波长范围内任何其它波长的输入光所形成的输出光在空间上相区分。 An optical demultiplexer for receiving the corresponding wavelength is input with in a continuous range of wavelengths simultaneously procure Continued This input light generating multiple reflections to produce the output light to form a self-interference, characterized in that: it comprises an input light focused into a line of the lens, a device separate from each other a first surface and a second surface having the linear light receiving input in this separated from each other a first and a second surface between the surfaces, the input light between said first and second surface multiple reflection occurs, said second surface having a reflectivity, can enter multiple reflection of light, when the input light from every second wherein a portion of input light through, thereby allowing a number of the transmitted light through the second surface, and these transmitted light interfere with each other, so that the input light to produce self-interference of the output light is formed on the surface reflection, the output light may have a This continuous wavelength range within any output other wavelengths of the input light is formed in the space relative to the optical distinction.
2.如权利要求1所述光分波器,其特征在于:还包括一种玻璃件,前述第一与第二表面则位于此玻璃件上而此玻璃件则位于此第一与第二表面间,在此玻璃件之中且在此第一与第二表面之间发生输入光的多次反射。 2. The optical demultiplexer of claim, characterized in that: further comprising a glass member, said first and second surfaces is located on the glass member and the glass member is located at said first and second surfaces between, among the glass member and the multiple reflection of the input light between said first and second surfaces occurs.
3.如权利要求1所述光分波器,其特征在于还包括:由光接收器和光传输线路这两个器件所构成的用来接收从所述透镜聚集输出光的组件中的一个器件。 The optical demultiplexer as claimed in claim, characterized by further comprising: by an optical receiver and an optical transmission line composed of these two devices for receiving components from said output light gathering lens in a device.
4.如权利要求2所述光分波器,其特征在于还包括:至少是部分透明的且形成于前述玻璃件上的一个窗,从上述直线上辐射出而后通过此窗的输入光即进入此玻璃件内,在所述第一与第二表面之间反射。 4. The second optical demultiplexer as claimed in claim characterized by further comprising: at least one window portion is transparent and is formed on the glass member, from the straight line, and then radiated through the input light enters this window Within this glass member, between said first and second surface reflection.
5.如权利要求1所述光分波器,其特征在于:所述输入光包括一种或多种各具有不同波长的光,而此设备对于此输入光的各种光各形成一相应的输出光,每一输出光与其它输出光在空间上可相互区分。 5. The optical demultiplexer of claim, wherein: said input light comprises one or more light each having different wavelengths, and the device for this input light of each of a variety of light to form a respective output light, each of the output light and the other output light is spatially distinguishable from each other.
6.如权利要求1所述的光分波器,其特征在于:所述输入光是一种包括许多载波的波分复用光,而此设备对于此输入光的各个载波各形成一相应的输出光,每一输出光与其它输出光在空间上可相互区分。 6. An optical demultiplexer as claimed in claim 1, wherein: said input light is a wavelength-multiplexed light comprising a plurality of carriers, and this equipment for this input light of respective carriers are each formed of a respective output light, each of the output light and the other output light is spatially distinguishable from each other.
7.如权利要求6所述的光分波器,其特征在于还包括:相互分开的第一与第二表面,此设备促致所述输入光在此第一与第二表面间多次反射,其中所述第二表面具有这样一个反射率,可以在输入光的多次反射中,当输入光每次在此第二表面上反射时有部分输入光通过第二表面,由此可有一批透射光通过此第二表面,这批透射光相互干涉,使输入光产生自干涉,而给此输入光的各个载波形成相应的输出光。 7. An optical demultiplexer according to claim 6, characterized by further comprising: first and second spaced apart surface, the input device procuring multiple reflections of light between said first and second surfaces , wherein the second surface has a reflectivity, the light can enter multiple reflections, each time when the input light reflected on the second surface when a second portion of input light through the surface, whereby a group transmitted light passes through this second surface, these transmitted light interfere with each other, so that the input light to produce self-interference, and to this input light of each carrier to form the corresponding output light.
8.如权利要求5所述的光分波器,其特征在于:所述每种输出光是以不同于其它各输出光的方向传播,而使它们成为在空间上可以区分的。 8. An optical demultiplexer according to claim 5, wherein: each of said output light is different from each other in the direction of the output light propagation, leaving them in the space can be distinguished.
9.一种光分波器,用来接收输入光和产生可从空间上区别的输出光,它包括:用来将输入光聚集成一直线的透镜,一种上面有第一和第二表面的透明材料件,此第二表面所具有的反射率可使入射到其上的一部分光透过其中,此输入光可在透明材料件中于此第一和第二表面间作多次反射,造成一批透过此第二表面的光,这批透射光相互干涉而生成出输出光,其中,所述输入光是在一连续波长范围内的一个相应波长上,且所述输出光可与具有在此连续波长范围内的任何其它波长的输入光所形成的输出光从空间上相区分。 A light demultiplexer, for receiving input light and produce spatially distinguishable from an output light, comprising: means for gathering the input light in a straight line of the lens, one of the above first and second surfaces transparent material member, the reflectance of the second surface having a portion of the light incident on the can through which thereon, the input light may be limited to first and second surfaces intercropping multiple reflections in the transparent material member, resulting in a Batch light passing through this second surface, these transmitted light interfering with each other to produce the output light, wherein said input light is a respective wavelength within a continuous range of wavelengths, and the output light may have a Enter any other output wavelengths within the continuous range of wavelengths of light to distinguish from the space formed by photogenic.
10.如权利要求9所述的光分波器,其特征在于:所述第一与第二平面是相互平行的。 10. An optical demultiplexer according to claim 9, wherein: said first and second planes are parallel to each other.
11.如权利要求9所述的光分波器,其特征在于:所述第一表面的反射率基本上是100%。 11. An optical demultiplexer according to claim 9, wherein: the reflectance of the first surface is substantially 100%.
12.如权利要求9所述的光分波器,其特征在于:所述第二表面的反射率大于80%而小于100%。 12. An optical demultiplexer according to claim 9, wherein: the reflectance of the second surface is greater than 80% but less than 100%.
13.如权利要求11所述的光分波器,其特征在于:所述第二表面的反射率大于80%而小于100%。 13. An optical demultiplexer according to claim 11, wherein: the reflectance of the second surface is greater than 80% but less than 100%.
14.如权利要求9所述的光分波器,其特征在于:它还包括一种窗,这种窗至少是部分透明的,形成在前述透明材料件上,所述输入光通过此种窗进入透明材料件内,并在上述第一与第二表面间反射。 14. An optical demultiplexer according to claim 9, characterized in that: it further comprises a window, this window is at least partially transparent, transparent material is formed on said member, said input light passes through such a window into the transparent material member, and is reflected between said first and second surfaces.
15.如权利要求14所述的光分波器,其特征在于:前述的窗是形成在所述透明材料件上且与第一与第二表面中之一处在同一平面上。 15. An optical demultiplexer according to claim 14, wherein: the aforementioned window is formed on the transparent material member, and with one of the first and second surfaces are on the same plane.
16.如权利要求14所述的光分波器,其特征在于:所述输入光是依某个角度通入此窗内,而得以防止此输入光经此窗出射同时使此输入光在所述第一与第二表面间反射。 16. An optical demultiplexer according to claim 14, wherein: said input light is passed through by a certain angle within this window, and to prevent the input light emitted by this window while the input light in the between said first and second surface reflection.
17.如权利要求9所述的光分波器,其特征在于:所述输入光包括两或多种各在一不同波长上的光,而前述这批透射光相互干涉,相对于此输入光的各种光产生出一相应的输出光,每种输出光在空间上可与其它输出光相区分。 17. An optical demultiplexer according to claim 9, wherein: said input light comprises two or more of each of the light on a different wavelength, and the aforementioned group of transmitted light interfere with each other, relative to this input light Various light produces a corresponding output light, each of the output light can be spatially distinguished from the other output light.
18.如权利要求9所述的光分波器,其特征在于:所述输入光是一种包括有至少两个各在不同波长上的载波的波分复用光,而所述这批透射光相互干涉,产生出相对于此输入光的各个载波的相应输出光,各输入光均可从空间上与其它输出光相区分。 18. An optical demultiplexer according to claim 9, wherein: said input light is a wavelength division multiplexed light comprising at least two different wavelengths of the respective carriers, and the transmission of these light interfere with each other, resulting in a contrast of the output light corresponding to input light of each carrier, each of the input light can be spatially distinguished from the other output light.
19.如权利要求18所述的光分波器,其特征在于:所述各输出光是以一不同于其它输出光的方向传播,而使它们在空间上是可区分的。 19. An optical demultiplexer according to claim 18, wherein: each of said output light to a direction different from the other output light propagation, leaving them in the space are distinguishable.
20.一种光分波器,用来接收包括至少两种载波的波分复用光同时对于各个载波产生一可从空间上区分的输出光,它包括:用来将输入光聚焦成一直线的透镜,一个具有第一与第二表面的透明材料件,此第二表面所具有的反射率可使入射到它上面的一部分光透射过它,此波分复用光在透明材料件中于所述第一和第二表面间多次反射,造成一批透射过此第二表面的光,这批透射光相互干涉,给此波分复用光的各载波产生一相应的输出光,其中各载波所对应的波长是在一连续波长范围内,而对于一相应载波所形成的输出光,则从空间上可与具有任何其它在此连续波长范围内的波长的载波对应形成的输出光相区分开。 20. A light demultiplexer, comprising at least two carriers for receiving wavelength-multiplexed light for each carrier while generating a spatially distinguishable from an output light, comprising: means for focusing the input light in a straight line lens, a transparent material member having first and second surfaces, the reflectance of the second surface portion having thereon to enable the incident light is transmitted through it, the wavelength-multiplexed light in the transparent material to the member the reflective surface between the first and second times, resulting in a number of light transmitted through the second surface, these transmitted light interfere with each other, to the wavelength-multiplexed light of each of the carriers produces a corresponding output light, wherein each is the wavelength corresponding to the carrier in a continuous wavelength range, and the output light for a respective carrier is formed, from the space with a carrier having any other wavelength within the continuous range of wavelengths corresponding to the output light formed distinguished open.
21.一种波长信号分离器的虚像相控阵的制备方法,包括下述步骤:在一种透明材料的第一表面上形成第一反射膜;在此透明材料上形成第二反射膜,此第一与第二反射膜经形成为可使一输入光在此透明材料中于第一和第二反射膜之间反射多次,此第二反射膜所具的反射率小于第一反射膜所具的反射率,可允许上述输入光的一部分在每次通过时,此输入光即从第二反射膜上反射掉,导致有一批透射光通过此第二反射膜,此外,第一与第二反射膜定位成可使这批透射光相互干涉而给此输入光提供自干涉,由此而形成一种光输出,它能在空间上与具有任何其它在连续波长范围内的波长的输入光所形成的输出光相区别。 21. A wavelength demultiplexer for preparing a virtual image of the phased array, comprising the steps of: a first reflecting film is formed on a first surface of a transparent material; on the transparent material of the second reflective film is formed, this first and second reflecting film formed so as to make an input light between the first and second reflecting films multiple reflections in the transparent material, the reflectivity of the second reflector is less than the first film having reflective film with the reflectance, may allow a portion of the input light at each pass, i.e., the light reflected off the input from the second reflective film, resulting in a group of transmitted light through the second reflecting film, in addition, the first and second reflective film positioned to make these transmitted light interfere with each other to provide a self-interference of the input light, thereby forming an optical output, it can have any other space with a wavelength within a continuous range of wavelengths of the input light output light formed by phase difference.
22.如权利要求21所述的方法,特征在于它还包括有步骤:在所述透明材料件上且在与所述第一和第二反射膜中之一同一的平面上,形成一种至少是部分透明的窗,使得所述输入光能通过此窗而接收到透明材料件中,并在所述第一与第二反射膜之间反射。 22. The method of claim 21, further comprising the steps of: on the transparent material in the upper member and one of the first and second reflection films in the same plane, forming an at least partially transparent window, so that the input light is received through the window and a transparent material member, and reflected between the first and the second reflecting film.
23.如权利要求22所述方法,特征在于:所述形成窗的步骤包括:通过在与要形成的窗处于同一平面上的反射膜上剥离一部分这种反射膜来形成所述窗。 23. A method as claimed in claim 22, wherein: the step of forming the window comprises: through the window to be formed in the same plane as the reflective film on the peeled part of this reflective film to form the window.
24.如权利要求22所述方法,特征在于:所述形成窗的步骤包括:通过在与要形成的窗处于同一平面上的反射膜上腐蚀掉一部分这种反射膜来形成该窗。 24. The method of claim 22, wherein: the step of forming the window comprises: a reflective film on the same plane as part of this reflective film is etched to form the window through the window is to be formed with.
25.如权利要求22所述的方法,特征在于:所述形成窗的步骤包括:用掩模方法来防止把与所需形成的窗处于同一平面中的反射膜,形成到前述的透明材料件的一部分上。 25. The method of claim 22, wherein: the step of forming the window comprises: a method using a mask to prevent the formation of the desired window in the same plane of the reflective film, is formed to the aforementioned transparent material member The upper part.
26.如权利要求22所述的方法,特征在于:所述第一与第二表面是相互平行的。 26. The method of claim 22, wherein: said first and second surfaces are parallel to each other.
27.一种用来形成光分波器的方法,包括如下步骤:在一种透明材料的第一表面上形成第一反射膜;在上述透明材料与第一表面平行的第二表面上形成第二反射膜,此第二反射膜所具的反射率小于第一反射膜的反射率;在上述透明材料上形成一个至少是部分透明的窗,使输入光能通过此窗而被上述透明材料接收,并在所述第一和第二反射膜之间反射。 27. A method for optical demultiplexer forming method, comprising the steps of: on a first surface of a transparent material, a first reflecting film; forming a first transparent material on said first surface parallel to the first surface second reflection film, the reflectance of the second reflection film having the reflectance of less than a first reflective film; forming on the transparent material an at least partially transparent window, so that the input light is received through the window above transparent materials and between said first and second reflecting film.
28.如权利要求27所述方法,特征在于:所述形成窗的步骤包括:通过在与要形成的窗处于同一平面上的反射膜上剥离一部分这种反射膜来形成所述窗。 28. The method as claimed in claim 27, wherein: said step of forming a window comprising: a window with a reflective film to be formed in the same plane on the release part of this reflective film to form the window.
29.如权利要求27所述方法,特征在于:所述形成窗的步骤包括:通过在与要形成的窗处于同一平面上的反射膜上腐蚀掉一部分这种反射膜来形成该窗。 29. The method according to claim 27, wherein: the step of forming the window comprises: a reflective film on the same plane as part of this reflective film is etched to form the window through the window is to be formed with.
Description  translated from Chinese
作为波长信号分离器的虚像相控阵及其制备方法 Like phased array as a wavelength demultiplexer imaginary and its preparation method

技术领域 FIELD

本发明涉及一种虚像相控阵(VIPA)或“光分波器”,它接收包括一批载波的波分复用光,并将此波分复用光分成一批与这批载波分别对应且在空间上可相互区分的光流。 The present invention relates to a virtual image phase array (VIPA), or "light demultiplexer", which receives the wavelength-multiplexed light comprising a number of carriers, and this is divided into a number of wavelength-multiplexed light, respectively, and these correspond to the carrier and spatially distinguishable from each other optical flow.

背景技术 BACKGROUND

波分复用技术用在光纤通信系统中以高速来传输较大量的数据。 WDM technology used in high-speed optical fiber communication system to transmit a larger amount of data. 具体地说,是将许多各由信息调制的载波合成一种波分复用光。 Specifically, is synthesized by many information of each modulated carrier a wavelength-multiplexed light. 然后将此波分复用光通过一根光纤到达接收器。 And reaches the receiver via an optical fiber of this wavelength-multiplexed light. 此接收器将此波分复用光分离到各个载波中,使得可以检测出此各个载波。 The receiver of this WDM optical separation into individual carriers, making it possible to detect the various carriers. 在此方式下,一个通信系统就能在一根光纤上传送较大量的数据。 In this manner, a communication system can transfer a relatively large amount of data on a single fiber.

因此,接收器能精确分离此种波分复用光的能力将显著影响这一通信系统的性能。 Therefore, the receiver can accurately separate wavelength-multiplexed light of this capacity will significantly affect the performance of the communication system. 例如,即使是大量的载波能组合成波分复用光,但要是接收器不能精确地分离此波分复用光,也不应去传送这种波分复用光。 For example, even if a large number of carriers can be combined into a wavelength-multiplexed light, but if the receiver does not accurately separate the wavelength-multiplexed light, this should not be to transmit wavelength-multiplexed light. 为此,需要有一种能包括高精度光分波器在内的接收器。 To do this, the need for a receiver capable of including high-precision light demultiplexer including.

图1示意地表明了采用了多层干涉膜的、用作光分波器的一种传统的滤光片。 Figure 1 schematically shows the use of a multilayer interference film, an optical demultiplexer is used as a conventional filter. 参看图1,在透明基片22上形成有一种多层干涉膜20。 Referring to Figure 1, on a transparent substrate 22 is formed with a multilayer interference film 20. 必须是平行光的一束光24入射到膜20上,然后在膜20内重复反射。 Must be a parallel light beam of light 24 is incident on the membrane 20, the membrane 20 is then reflected repeatedly inside. 由膜20的特性所确定的光学条件只允许具有波长λ2的光26通过。 By the characteristics of the film 20 of the optical conditions determined 26 by allowing only light having a wavelength of λ2. 包括着所有不满足上述光学条件的光的一束光28,则不通过膜20而被反射。 Including the above optical conditions do not satisfy all of the light beam of light 28, not through the membrane 20 and is reflected. 这样,图1中所示的滤光片可用来分离只包括两种不同波长λ1与λ2的载波的波分复用光。 Thus, the filter shown in Figure 1 can be used to separate only include wavelengths λ1 and λ2 of two different carriers wavelength-multiplexed light. 遗憾的是,上述滤光片本身不能分开具有多于两种的载波的波分复用光。 Unfortunately, the filter itself can not be separated from the above-described carrier having more than two of the wavelength-multiplexed light.

图2示意地表明了用作光分波器的一种传统的法布里-珀罗干涉仪。 Figure 2 schematically shows an optical demultiplexer is used as a conventional Fabry - Perot interferometer. 参看图2,设置有相互平行的高反射率的反射膜30与32。 Referring to Figure 2, the reflection film 30 disposed parallel to each other with a high reflectance 32. 必须为平行光的一束光34入射到反射膜30上,并在反射膜30与32之间反射多次。 Must be a parallel light beam of light 34 is incident on the reflecting film 30, and reflected between the reflection film 32 and 30 times. 满足此法布里-珀罗干涉仪特性所确定的通过条件的波长λ2的光通过此反射膜32。 Satisfy this Fabry - Perot interferometer characteristics determined by the conditions of the wavelength λ2 passes through the reflection film 32. 波长λ1的光不满足此通过条件而被反射掉。 The wavelength λ1 of the light does not satisfy this condition by being reflected off. 在此方式下,具有两种不同波长的光可以分裂成分别对应于这两种不同波长的两束不同的光。 In this manner, light having two different wavelengths, respectively, can be split into two different wavelengths corresponding to two different light beams. 这样,与图1所示的滤光片相同,传统的法布里-珀罗干涉仪可用来分离只包括两种不同波长λ1与λ2的载波的波分复用光。 Thus, with the same filter as shown in FIG. 1, a conventional Fabry - Perot interferometer can be used to separate only the wavelength-multiplexed light including different wavelengths λ1 and λ2 of two carriers. 遗憾的是,这种法布里-珀罗干涉仪不能分离开具有两种以上载波的波分复用光。 Unfortunately, such a Fabry - Perot interferometer can not be separated from the optical wavelength division multiplexing with two or more carriers.

图3示意地给出了一种传统的迈克尔逊干涉仪。 Figure 3 shows a schematic of a conventional Michelson interferometer. 参看图3,平行光40入射到半透反射镜42上并分裂成相互垂直的第一束光44和第二束光46。 Referring to Figure 3, the parallel light 40 is incident on the half-mirror 42 and split into orthogonal first and second beam of light 44 beam 46. 反射镜48反射第一束光44,而反射镜50反射第二束光46。 48 first light reflection mirror 44, and mirror 50 reflects the second beam 46. 半透反射镜42与反射镜48之间的距离以及半反射镜42与反射镜50间的距离便表明出光程差。 The distance between the semi-transparent mirror 48 and the mirror 42 and the half mirror 42 and the distance between the mirror 50 would indicate that the optical path difference. 由反射镜48所反射的光返回到半透反射镜42,同反射镜50所反射而返回到半透反射镜42的光相干涉。 Reflected by the mirror 48 to return to the light semi-transparent mirror 42, the mirror 50 with the reflected light returned to the partial mirror 42 interfere. 结果使分别具有波长λ1与λ2的光52与54相分开。 Result wavelengths λ1 and λ2 respectively have 52 and 54 light phase separated. 与图1所示的滤光片同时与图2所示的法布里-珀罗干涉仪相同,图3所示的迈克尔逊干涉仪可用来分离只包括两种不同波长λ1与λ2的载波的波分复用光。 With the filter shown in Figure 1 simultaneously with the Fabry-2 shown in Fig. - Perot interferometer same, shown in Figure 3 can be used to separate the Michelson interferometer comprises only two different wavelengths λ1 and λ2 of the carrier WDM light. 遗憾的是,这种达克尔孙干涉仪不能分解具有多于两种的载波的波分复用光。 Unfortunately, this can not be decomposed 达克尔 Sun WDM optical interferometer has more than two carriers.

可以将若干滤光片,法布里-珀罗干涉仪或迈克尔逊干涉仪组成一个巨大的阵列,而得以从单一的波分复用光分裂出其它波长的载波。 Can be several filters, Fabry - Perot interferometer or a Michelson interferometer instrument composed a huge array, and to divide the light from a single WDM wavelengths of other carriers. 但是,这种阵列结构太昂贵,效率不高,而且构成了一种过大的接收器。 However, such an array structure is too expensive, inefficient, and constitutes a receiver is too large.

衍射光栅或是阵列波导光栅常被用来分裂包括两种或多种不同波长载波的波分复用光。 A diffraction grating or an arrayed waveguide grating is often used to split comprising two or more different wavelengths multiplexed optical carriers.

图4示意地表明了一种传统的用于分裂波分复用光的衍射光栅。 Figure 4 shows a schematic for a traditional division multiplexed optical diffraction grating. 参看图4,衍射光栅56具有一种凹凸形表面58。 Referring to Figure 4, the diffraction grating 56 to have a concavo-convex surface 58. 具有多种不同波长载波的平行光60入射到此凹凸形表面58上。 Parallel light 60 having a plurality of different wavelengths incident thereto carriers 58 on the concavo-convex surface. 这些不同波长的载波被反射并相互干涉。 These carriers of different wavelengths are reflected and interfere with each other. 结果,具有不同波长的载波62、64与66便以不同的角度从射衍光栅56输出,因而被相互分离开。 As a result, the carrier 62, 64 and 66 having different wavelengths will be emitted at different angles from the diffraction grating 56 outputs, they have been separated from each other.

不幸的是,衍射光栅是以相当小的色散角输出不同波长的载波的。 Unfortunately, the diffraction grating is relatively small dispersion angle output different wavelengths of carriers. 结果使接收器难以精确地接收为此衍射光栅所分离的不同载波信号。 Results difficult for the receiver to receive different carrier signals separated diffraction grating for this accurately. 这一问题对于用衍射光栅来分离包含大量的具有相当近似的波长的波分复用光时,就尤为严重。 For this problem when using a diffraction grating contains a large number of quite separate wavelength approximate wavelength-multiplexed light, is particularly serious. 此时由衍射光栅产生的色散角将会是极其之下。 In this case the dispersion angle generated by the diffraction grating would be extremely below.

此外,衍射光栅会受到入射光偏振的影响。 In addition, the diffraction grating will be incident polarisations. 具体地说,入射光的偏振可以影响此衍射光栅的性能。 Specifically, the polarization of incident light may affect the performance of this diffraction grating. 同时,衍射光栅的凹凸表面要求复杂的制造过程才能生产出精密的衍射光栅。 Meanwhile, the uneven surface of the diffraction grating requires a complicated manufacturing process in order to produce precise diffraction grating. 此外,衍射光栅还必须接收平行光。 In addition, the diffraction grating must also receives parallel light.

图5示意地表明了一种传统的用于分离波分复用光的阵列波导光栅。 Figure 5 schematically shows a conventional wavelength-multiplexed light for separating the arrayed waveguide grating. 参看图5,包含一批不同波长载波的光经入射口68被接收,同时通过许多波导70被分离。 Referring to Figure 5, comprises a number of carriers of different wavelengths of light through the entrance port 68 is received, while the waveguide 70 is separated by a number. 光出射口72位于各个波导70的端部,产生一输出光74,这批波导70的长度互不相同,因而提供了不同长度的光路。 The light exit port (72) located at respective ends of the waveguide 70, and produces an output light 74, the waveguide 70 of these mutually different lengths, thus providing different optical path lengths. 于是通过这些波导的各束光便具有相互不同的相位,而在它们通过出射口72输出时便相互干涉。 Thus each of these beams through the waveguide will have mutually different phases, and at their exit through the output port 72 when they interfere with each other. 干涉的结果导致不同波长的光依不同的方向输出。 Result of interference leads to different wavelengths of the optical output according to different directions.

在阵列波导光栅中,通过使这些波导取适当的构型可以在某种程度上调节色散角。 In the arrayed waveguide grating by taking these waveguides suitable configuration can be adjusted to some extent, the dispersion angle. 但是,阵列波导光栅受到温度变化和其它环境因素的影响。 However, the arrayed waveguide grating and by the influence of other environmental factors of temperature change. 于是温度的变化和环境因素便使得色散角难以适当地调节好。 So changes in temperature and environmental factors make it difficult to properly adjust the dispersion angle is good.

发明内容 SUMMARY

为此,本发明的一个目的在于提供这样一种光分波器,它的构型简单,能够同时从波分复用光中分离出一批载波。 To this end, an object of the present invention is to provide an optical demultiplexer, its configuration is simple, a number of carriers can be simultaneously separated from the WDM light.

本发明的另一个目的在于提供这样一种光分波器,它能以较大的色散角分离开载波,同时能抵抗环境状态的变化。 Another object of the present invention is to provide an optical demultiplexer, which can to a large dispersion angle separated from the carrier, while resistant to changes in environmental conditions.

本发明的这些目的可以这样地实现:一种光分波器,用来接收所具有的相应波长是在一连续波长范围内的输入光同时促致续此输入光发生多次反射而产生出形成一种输出光的自干涉,其特征在于:它包括将输入光聚焦成一直线的透镜,一个具有相互分开的一个第一表面与一个第二表面的装置,上述直线输入光接收在此相互分开的一个第一表面与一个第二表面之间,此输入光在此第一与第二表面间发生多次反射,所述第二表面具有这样一个反射率,可以在输入光的多次反射中,当输入光每次从此第二表面上反射时有一部分输入光通过其中,由此可使一批透射光通过此第二表面,而这批透射光相互干涉,使输入光产生自干涉而形成输出光,此输出光可与具有此连续波长范围内任何其它波长的输入光所形成的输出光在空间上相区分。 The object of the present invention can be achieved: an optical demultiplexer for receiving the corresponding wavelength is input in having a continuous range of wavelengths simultaneously procure Continued This occurs multiple reflection of the input light to produce a formed A self-interference of the output light, characterized in that: it comprises an input light focused into a line of the lens, a device separate from each other a first surface and a second surface having the linear light receiving input spaced from each other in this between a first surface and a second surface, the input light between said first and second surface multiple reflection occurs, said second surface having a reflectivity, may be multiple reflections of the input light, when reflected light every time when the input from the second surface to form an output portion of the input light to pass therethrough, thereby allowing a number of the transmitted light through the second surface, and these transmitted light interfere with each other, so that the input light to produce self-interference of light, the output light may have an output with the input of any other wavelength within the continuous range of wavelengths of light formed by the light in the space relative to distinguish.

本发明的上述目的还可以这样地实现:一种光分波器,用来接收输入光和产生可从空间上区别的输出光,此设备包括:用来将输入光聚集成一直线的透镜,一种上面有第一和第二表面的透明材料件,此第二表面所具有的反射率可使入射到其上的一部分光透过其中,此输入光可在透明材料件中于此第一和第二表面间作多次反射,造成一批透过此第二表面的光,这批透射光相互干涉而生成出输出光,其中,所述输入光是在一连续波长范围内的一个相应波长上,且所述输出光可与具有在此连续波长范围内的任何其它波长的输入光所形成的输出光从空间上相区分。 The above object of the present invention also can be achieved: an optical demultiplexer for receiving input light and produce an output light from the spatial difference, the apparatus comprising: means for gathering the input light in a straight line of a lens, a kinds of transparent material above a first member and a second surface, the reflectance of the second surface can have a portion thereof is incident on the light to pass therethrough, the first input light thereto and may be a transparent material member intercropping second surface multiple reflections, resulting in a number of light transmitted through the second surface, these transmitted light interfering with each other to produce the output light, wherein said input light in a continuous wavelength range within a respective wavelength , and the output light can be distinguished from an output light of other wavelengths in this continuous input of any wavelength range of light from the space formed by photogenic.

上述目的还可以通过提供这样一种设备来实现,一种光分波器,用来接收包括至少两种载波的波分复用光同时对于各个载波产生一可从空间上区分的输出光,此设备包括:用来将输入光聚焦成一直线的透镜,一个具有第一与第二表面的透明材料件,此第二表面所具有的反射率可使入射到它上面的一部分光透射过它,此波分复用光在透明材料件中于所述第一和第二表面间多次反射,造成一批透射过此第二表面的光,这批透射光相互干涉,给此波分复用光的各载波产生一相应的输出光,其中各载波所对应的波长是在一连续波长范围内,而对于一相应载波所形成的输出光,则从空间上可与具有任何其它在此连续波长范围内的波长的载波对应形成的输出光相区分开。 The above object can also be implemented to provide such an apparatus, an optical demultiplexer for receiving comprises at least two carriers at the same time for each of the wavelength-multiplexed light to produce output light of a carrier wave can be distinguished from the space, this apparatus comprising: means for input light focused into a line of a lens, a transparent material member having first and second surfaces, the reflectance of the second surface portion having thereon to enable the incident light is transmitted through it, this wavelength-multiplexed light in the transparent material member to multiple reflection between the first and second surfaces, resulting in a number of light transmitted through the second surface, these transmitted light interfere with each other, to the wavelength-multiplexed light Each carrier produces a corresponding output light, wherein the wavelength corresponding to each carrier is in a continuous wavelength range, and for the upper output light formed by a respective carrier, from having any other space in the continuous wavelength range Output light with a wavelength within the region corresponding to the formation of the carrier separately.

再有,本发明的上述目的可以通过提供这样一种设备来实现,此设备用来接收包括有至少两种载波的波分复用光。 Further, the above object can be achieved by the present invention to provide such an apparatus is achieved, the apparatus for receiving comprises at least two wavelength division multiplexed optical carriers. 此设备对于各个载波产生一空间上可区别的输出光。 This equipment generates for each carrier on a space distinguishable output light. 此设备包括一种具有第一与第二表面的透明材料。 This device comprises a transparent material having first and second surfaces. 此第二表面所具有的反射率允许入射到它上面的光的一部分透射过其中。 This reflectivity of the second surface has allowed light incident thereon is transmitted through a part in which. 波分复用光在此透明材料中于第一和第二表面间反射多次,促使有一批光线透射过此第二表面。 Wavelength-multiplexed light between the first and second surface reflection several times in the transparent material, prompting a group of light transmitted through the second surface. 这批透射的光线相互干涉,对于此波分复用光的各个载波产生相应的输出光。 These transmitted light interfering with each other, the wavelength-multiplexed light for each carrier to produce a corresponding output light. 此外,各个载波所对应的波长是在一连续的波长范围内,而对于各载波所形成的输出光,在空间上可与具有任何其它在此连续波长范围内的波长的载波所形成的输出光相区别。 In addition, each carrier corresponding to a wavelength within a continuous range of wavelengths, and for the output light formed by each carrier in space may have any other carrier wavelength of the output light in this wavelength range is continuously formed phase difference.

本发明的前述目的还可以通过提供一种波长信号分离器的虚像相控阵的制备方法来达到。 The foregoing object of the present invention may also be achieved by providing a wavelength demultiplexer virtual image production method to achieve phased array. 此方法包括下述步骤:(a)在一种透明材料的第一表面上形成第一反射膜;(b)在此透明材料上形成第二反射膜。 This method comprises the steps of: (a) on a first surface of a transparent material forming a first reflective film; (b) a second reflective film is formed on the transparent material. 此第一与第二反射膜经形成为可使一输入光在此透明材料中于第一和第二反射膜之间反射多次。 The first and second reflecting film formed so as to make an input between the first and second light reflecting film on the transparent material in multiple reflections. 此第二反射膜所具有的反射率小于第一反射膜所具有的反射率,可允许上述输入光的一部分在每次通过时,此输入光即从第二反射膜上反射掉,导致有一批透射光通过此第二反射膜。 This reflectance of the second reflecting film has a reflectance smaller than the first reflection film has, may allow a portion of the input light at each pass, the input light that is reflected away from the second reflective film, leading to a group transmitted light passes through this second reflection film. 此外,第一与第二反射膜定位成可使这批透射光相互干涉而给此输入光提供自干涉,由此而形成一种光输出,它能在空间上与具有任何其它在连续波长范围内的波长的输入光所形成的输出光相区别。 Furthermore, the first and second reflecting films positioned to make these transmitted light interfere with each other to provide a self-interference of the input light, thereby forming an optical output, it can have any other spatially in a continuous wavelength range the input light wavelength output light formed distinguished.

此外,本发明的目的还可以通过一种形成光分波器的方法来达到。 Furthermore, object of the present invention may also be an optical demultiplexer by a method of forming to achieve. 此方法包括如下步骤:在一种透明材料的第一表面上形成第一反射膜;在上述透明材料与第一表面平行的第二表面上形成第二反射膜,此第二反射膜所具的反射率小于第一反射膜的反射率;在上述透明材料上形成一个至少是部分透明的窗,使输入光能通过此窗而被上述透明材料接收,并在所述第一和第二反射膜之间反射。 This method comprises the steps of: on a first surface of a transparent material, a first reflecting film; a second reflective film is formed on the first surface of the transparent material and parallel to a second surface, the second reflective film with the reflectance is less than the reflectance of the first reflection film; forming on the transparent material is an at least partially transparent window, so that the input light is received through the window of the transparent material, and said first and second reflecting films between reflection.

附图说明 Brief Description

根据下面结合附图对本发明最佳实施例所作的说明,将能认识和更容易理解本发明上述的以及其它的目的与优点。 According to the following description the accompanying drawings of the preferred embodiments of the present invention is made, will be able to recognize and easier to understand the above and other objects and advantages of the present invention.

图1(先有技术)示意地表明了一种传统的采用多层干涉膜的滤光片。 Figure 1 (prior art) schematically shows a conventional multilayer interference filter film.

图2(先有技术)示意地表明了一种传统的法布里-珀罗干涉仪。 Figure 2 (prior art) schematically shows a conventional Fabry - Perot interferometer.

图3(先有技术)示意地表明了一种传统的迈克尔逊干涉仪。 Figure 3 (prior art) schematically shows a conventional Michelson interferometer.

图4(先有技术)示意地表明了一种传统的衍射光栅。 Figure 4 (prior art) schematically shows a conventional diffraction grating.

图5(先有技术)示意地表明了一种传统的用来分离一波分复用光的阵列波导光栅。 Figure 5 (prior art) schematically shows a conventional wavelength-multiplexed light for separating an arrayed waveguide grating.

图6示意地表明了依据本发明一实施例的光分波器。 Figure 6 schematically shows an optical demultiplexer according to an embodiment of the present invention.

图7示意地表明了沿着依据本发明一实施例的在图6中所示的光分波器的VII-VII线的横剖面。 Figure 7 schematically shows a cross section in the optical demultiplexer shown in Fig. 6 VII-VII line in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention along the example.

图8示意地表明了依据本发明的一实施例的光分波器所产生的反射光之间的干涉。 Figure 8 schematically shows the interference of reflected light of a light demultiplexer according to an embodiment of the present invention is produced between the.

图9示意地表明了依据本发明一实施例,沿图6中所示光分波器中VII-VII线的横部面,用来表明光通量的形成。 Figure 9 schematically shows the light flux forming an embodiment of the invention, FIG. 6 along the optical demultiplexer shown in cross-section line VII-VII of the plane, is used to indicate basis.

图10示意地表明依据本发明一实施例,沿图6所示光分波器沿VII-VII线的横剖面,阐明用来测定输入光的倾角的光分波器的特性。 Figure 10 schematically shows in accordance with an embodiment of the invention, shown in Figure 6 along the optical demultiplexer along line VII-VII cross-section, to clarify the inclination of the input light for measuring optical characteristics of the demultiplexer.

图11示意地表明依据本发明一实施例的用于接收器的一种光分波器。 Figure 11 schematically shows an optical demultiplexer according to a receiver for an embodiment of the present invention.

图12示意地表明依据本发明另一实施例的用于接收器的一种光分波器。 Figure 12 schematically shows an optical demultiplexer according to a receiver of another embodiment of the present invention.

图13示意地表明依据本发明的另一实施例的一种光分波器。 Figure 13 schematically shows an optical demultiplexer according to another embodiment of the present invention.

图14示意地表明依据本发明一实施例的一种波导型光分波器。 Figure 14 schematically shows a waveguide type according to an embodiment of the invention an optical demultiplexer.

图15(A)、15(B)、15(C)与15(D)示意地说明用来生产依据本发明一实施例的光分波器的方法。 Figure 15 (A), 15 (B), 15 (C) and 15 (D) schematically illustrates a method for producing an embodiment of the present invention, an example of an optical demultiplexer basis.

具体实施方式 DETAILED DESCRIPTION

下面将对本发明的最佳实施例作详细的说明,这些实施例将通过附图加以说明,附图中统一以相同的标号指示相同的部件。 The following will be a preferred embodiment of the present invention will be described in detail, these embodiments will be illustrated by the drawings, the same reference numerals indicate like parts in the drawings unity.

图6示意地表明了依据本发明一实施例的一种光分波器。 Figure 6 schematically shows an optical demultiplexer according to an embodiment of the present invention. 下面对“光分波器”与“虚像相控阵”这两个词可以交替地使用。 Of "optical splitter" and "virtual image phased array" These two words can be used interchangeably below.

参看图6,光分波器76最好用薄的玻璃板制成。 Referring to Figure 6, an optical demultiplexer 76 is preferably made of a thin glass plate. 输入光77由透镜80(例如半柱面透镜)聚焦成一条直线78,使得输入光77进入光分波器76内。 Input light 77 is focused by the lens 80 (e.g., semi-cylindrical lenses) into a straight line 78, so that the input light 77 enters the optical splitter 76. 直线78以后称作为“焦线78”。 78 straight hereinafter referred to as "the focal line 78." 输入光77从接收到光分波器76中的焦线78处沿径向传播。 77 receives input light to propagate from the optical demultiplexer 76 in the focal line 78 in the radial direction. 然后光分波器78输出一准直光的光流82,这里的光束82的输出角随输入光77波长的变化而变化。 Then 78 minutes of light output is collimated light wave optical flow 82, where the beam output angle 82 with the change of the input light wavelength varies 77. 例如,当输入光是在波长λ1处时,则光分波器76使在一特定方向输出一在波长λ1处的光流82a。 For example, when the input light is at a wavelength λ1, the optical splitter 76 in a specific direction of the output stream 82a at a light wavelength λ1 nm. 当输入光77是在波长λ2处时,光分波器76便在一不同方向输出一在波长λ2入的光束82b。 When the input light 77 is at a wavelength λ2, the optical demultiplexer 76 at the wavelength λ2 is output into a beam 82b in a different direction. 要是输入光77是由波长为λ1的光和波长为λ2的光组合成的波分复用光,则光分波器便以不同的方向同时输出两束不同的光束82a与82b。 If the input light 77 is light having a wavelength of λ2 wavelength λ1 is combined into the optical wavelength-multiplexed light, the optical demultiplexer will be in different directions simultaneously output two beams of different beam 82a and 82b. 于是,光分波器76便产生出在空间上可相互区分的光流82a与82b。 Thus, the optical demultiplexer 76 will produce a spatially distinguishable from each other optical flows 82a and 82b. 这样,光分波器76便能从一波分复用光中分离出两种或多种从空间上可相互区别的载波光。 Thus, the optical demultiplexer 76 will be able to separate the two or more spatially distinguishable from each other from one carrier light in the wavelength-multiplexed light.

图7示明依据本发明一实施例的如图6所示的光分波器76沿它的VII-VII线的横剖面。 Figure 7 shows an embodiment according to the present invention as shown in an optical demultiplexer 76 shown in Figure 6 along line VII-VII of its cross-section. 参看图7,光分波器76包括一种材料64,例如玻璃,它上面具有反射表面86与88。 Referring to Figure 7, an optical demultiplexer 76 comprises a material 64, such as glass, it has a reflecting surface 86 and the top 88. 反射表面86与88相互平行,分开一间隔t。 The reflective surface 86 and 88 parallel to each other, separated by a spacing t. 反射表面86与88通常是蒸镀于材料84上的反射膜。 The reflective surface 86 and the reflective film 88 is typically deposited on a material 84. 反射表面88具有近似100%的反率,反射表面86具有约95%的反射率。 The reflective surface 88 having a rate of approximately 100% of the anti-reflecting surface 86 having about 95% reflectivity. 这样,反射表面86便具有约5%的透射比,使得入射到反射表面86上的光约有5%透过,约有95%被反射。 Thus, the reflecting surface 86 will have a transmittance of about 5%, so that the light incident on the reflecting surface 86 on about 5% through about 95% is reflected. 但是,反射表面86与88的反射率并无意分别限制为此95%与100%。 However, the reflective surface 86 and 88, respectively, and is not intended to limit the reflectivity of 95% and 100% for this. 相反,取决于所用的特定的光分波器,这种反射率是易于加以改变的,但一般地说,反射表面86所具有的反射率应小于100%,以便能透过一部分反射光。 Rather, the specific optical demultiplexer depends on the, this reflectivity is easy to be changed, but in general, the reflectivity of the reflective surface 86 has to be less than 100% so that the through portion of the reflected light.

反射表面86上有一辐射窗90。 Radiation window 90 has a reflecting surface 86. 辐射窗90最好是无反射地或是以极低的反射率让光透过。 Radiation window 90 is preferably a non-reflective manner or in a very low reflectance allow light transmission. 辐射窗90接收输入光92,使此输入光92接收在反射表面86与88之间并于其间反射。 90 receive input light radiation window 92, so this input light reflective surface 92 received between 86 and 88 and in the meantime reflection. 辐射窗90并非总是需要的,相反,例如可以直接通过反射表面86透过输入光92,使其在反射表面86与88之间反射。 Radiation window 90 is not always necessary, on the contrary, for example, directly through the reflective surface 86 through the input light 92, so that in between the reflective surface 86 and 88 reflections. 但是这时的输入光92在反射表面86与88之间反射之前将有显著的损耗。 However, this time the input light 92 in the reflective surface 86 before reflection between 88 and there will be a significant loss. 因此,最好采好用辐射窗90来接收输入光92。 Therefore, it is preferable to adopt useful radiation window 90 receives input light 92.

由于图7表示的是沿图6中VII-VII线的横剖面,于是图6中的焦线78作为一个“点”出现于图7中。 Since Figure 7 shows the Figure 6 along line VII-VII cross-section, so in Figure 6 as a focal line 78 "dot" appears in Figure 7. 输入光92然后从焦线78沿径向传播。 Input light 92 then propagates radially from focal line 78. 此外,如图7所示,焦线78是位于辐射窗90之中。 Further, as shown in FIG 7, focal line 78 is situated among radiation window 90. 尽管并不要求焦线78处在辐射窗90的表面上,但焦线78在定位中的位移会稍许改变光分波器76的分波特性。 Although not required focal line 78 in the upper surface 90 of the radiation window, but the focal line 78 in the positioning of the displacement will slightly change the optical demultiplexer 76 min Wave. 一般,焦线78实际将位于辐射窗90与反射表面88之间。 Generally, the actual focal line 78 will be located between the radiation window 90 and the reflective surface 88.

如图7所示,聚焦于焦线78上的输入光从焦线78上沿径向传播出去,到达反射表面88。 As shown in Figure 7, focusing on the input light 78 on the focal line along the focal line 78 from radially spread out, to reach the reflective surface 88. 输入光92覆盖住反射表面88上的区域A1,然后为反射表面88反射。 Input light 92 to cover the area A1 on reflecting surface 88, and then reflected to the reflective surface 88. 点P1指区域A1周边上的点。 Point P1 refers to the point on the periphery of the region A1.

输入光92从反射表面88上的区域A1上反射后便沿反射表面86传播。 Input light 92 reflected from the area A1 on the reflecting surface 88 after propagation along the reflective surface 86. 由于反射表面86的反射率小于100%,从区域A1上反射的输入光92实际上便透过反射表面86,而作为由光线R1所规定的输出光Out1输出到一外部区域上。 Since the reflectivity of the reflective surface 86 is less than 100%, the reflected light from the area A1 input 92 through the reflecting surface 86 will in fact, and as output light Out1 defined by rays R1 are output to an external area.

由于反射表面86的反射率,从区域A1上反射的入射光92中约95%为反射表面86所反射并入射到反射表面88的区域A2上。 Since the reflectivity of the reflective surface 86, reflected from the area A1 of the incident light 92 in about 95% to 86 reflected by the reflecting surface of the reflective surface is incident on the area A2 88. 点P2指的是区域A2周边上的点。 Point P2 refers to a point on the periphery of the region A2. 输入光92从反射表面88上的区域A2上反射后便传播到反射表面86上,并通过反射表面86部分地透射,作为由光线所规定的输出光Out2。 92 after the propagation of input light reflected from the region A2 to the reflective surface 88 on the reflecting surface 86, and through the reflective surface 86 is partially transmissive, as specified by the light output light Out2. 这样,如图7所示,输入光92在反表面86与88之间经历着多次反射,其中从反射表面86上的每一次反射也都形成一次将透过它的相应的输出光(例如输出光Out1与Out2)。 Thus, shown in Figure 7, the input light 92 between the counter surface 86 and 88 undergoing multiple reflections, in which each reflection from the reflective surface 86 are also formed on a corresponding output light (e.g., through its output light Out1 and Out2). 于是,例如当输入光92从区域A3与A4所反射,便生成输出光Out3与Out4。 Thus, for example, when the input light reflected from the region of 92 A3 and A4, then generate output light Out3 and Out4. 点P3指区域A3周边上的点,点P4指区域A4周边上的点。 Point P3 refers to the point on the periphery of the region A3, A4 point P4 refers to the point on the periphery of the area. 输出光Out3由光线R3规定,输出光Out4由光线R4规定。 Output light from the light Out3 R3 predetermined, specified by the output light Out4 rays R4. 尽管图7中只示明了输出光Out1、Out2、Out3与Out4,但实际上取决于输入光的功率和反射表面86与88的反射率,是会有多得多的输出光的。 Although Figure 7 shows only the output light Out1, Out2, Out3 and Out4, but in fact depends on the input power and the light reflective surface 86 and 88 of the reflectance, there will be many more output light.

如图7所示,每个继后的输出光所具有的宽度较前一输出光的大。 As shown in Figure 7, the output light having a large width of each of the following previous output than light. 例如输出光out3的宽度大于输出光Out2的宽度,而输出光Out2的宽度大于输出光Out1的宽度。 For example, the output light out3 a width greater than the width of the output light Out2, and output light Out2 is wider than the width of the output light Out1. 输出光Out1、Out2、Out3与Out4相互干涉,形成一光流。 Output light Out1, Out2, Out3 and Out4 interfere with each other to form an optical flow. 此光流的方向依输入光92的波长而改变。 Depending on the direction of the optical flow of input wavelength of light 92 is changed.

图7示明了包含一个波长的输入光92的例子。 Figure 7 shows an example of an apparent contains 92 input light wavelength. 要是输入光包括许多波长(例如包括一批波长各不相同的载波的波分复用光)时,此输入光将以相同的方式反射。 When and if the input light comprises a plurality of wavelengths (e.g., including a number of different wavelength of WDM optical carriers), the input light will be reflected in the same manner. 但是,分别对应于各个载波将形成有一批光流。 However, one for each carrier will be formed with a number of optical flow. 每一光流将以一个不同于其它光流的角度从光分波器中输出。 Each of the optical flow will be an angle different from the other light stream output from the optical splitter.

图8示意地表明了从本发明一实施例的光分波器中产生的反射光之间的干涉。 Figure 8 schematically shows the interference of reflected light from the optical demultiplexer to an embodiment of the present invention is produced between the. 参看图8,从焦线78传播出的光由反射表面88所反射。 Referring to Figure 8, the propagation of light from the focal line 78 is reflected by the reflective surface 88. 如前所述,反射表面88具有约100%的反射率,因而基本上起到反射镜的作用。 As described above, the reflective surface 88 having a reflectance of about 100%, and thus essentially acts as mirror. 结果,输出光Out1可以从光学上分析为,似乎是反射表面86与88不存在,而相反,此输出光Out1是从一焦线I0发射出的。 As a result, output light Out1 can be optically analyzed as seems to be the reflective surface 86 and 88 does not exist, but on the contrary, the output light Out1 was emitted from a focal line I0 out. 类似地,输出光Out2、Out3与Out4也可以(但并非必要)分析为,似乎它们分别是从焦线I1、I2与I3发射出。 Similarly, output light Out2, Out3 and Out4 can also (but not necessary) for analysis, as if they were from the focal lines I1, I2 and I3 emitted.

于是,焦线I1表示从反射表面88所反的输入光92到反射表面86上,再到反射表面88上所形成的输出光Out2。 Thus, focal line I1 shows the anti-reflection surface 88 on the input light 92 to the reflecting surface 86, and then to output light Out2 on the reflective surface 88 is formed. 此外,如图8所示,焦线I1距焦线I0的距离为2t,t为反射表面86与88间的距离。 In addition, 8, focal line I1 from focal line I0 distance 2t, t is the reflective surface 86 and 88 of the distance. 类似地,每一继后的焦线距紧邻前一焦线的距离是2t。 Similarly, each of the following distance immediately after the focal line distance between the front focal line is a 2t. 例如焦线I2距焦线I1的距离是2t。 For example focal line I1 I2 distance from the focal line is 2t. 此外,在反射表面86与88之间每一继后的多次反射所产生的输出光,在强度上弱于前一输出光。 In addition, the reflective surface 86 and the light output of each following multiple reflections between 88 generated in the intensity weaker than the previous output light. 于是,输出光Out2的强度弱于输出光Out1的强度。 Thus, the intensity of the output light Out2 is weaker than the intensity of the output light Out1.

如图8所示,从焦线上传播出的输出光相互叠加并干涉。 Shown in Figure 8, spread out from the focal line of the output light superposition and interference. 干涉结果产生出的光流在一取决于输入光92的波长的特定的方向上传播。 The result of the interference of the optical flow in a particular direction depending on the wavelength of the input light 92 propagation.

本发明上述实施例的光分波器具有的增强条件成为这种光分波器设计中的重要特点。 Light demultiplexer of the present invention having the above-described embodiment of the boosting condition becomes such an optical demultiplexer important design features. 这些增强条件加强了输出光的干涉而形成了光流。 These enhancements strengthen the interferometer output light conditions to form the optical flow. 光分波器的此种增强条件由下述方程(1)表示:2t×cosθ=mλ (1)式中Q指从一垂直于反射表面86和88的直线算起的,合成的光流的传播方向,λ表示输入光的波长,t指反射表面86与88间的距离,而m表示整数。 Optical demultiplexer such boosting condition by the following equation (1) represents: 2t × cosθ = mλ (1) wherein Q means from a perpendicular to the reflector surface 86 and 88 of the linear counting, the combined light stream the direction of propagation, λ represents the wavelength of the input light, t refers to the distance 86 and 88 of the reflective surface, and m represents an integer.

于是,假设t和λ是常数时,给m指定具体值,则可以确定对于具有波长λ的输入光所形成的光流的传播方向θ。 Thus, assuming that t and λ is a constant specific to the specified value m, it is possible to determine the propagation direction of the input light having the wavelength λ of the formed optical flow θ.

更确切地说,此输入光是从焦线78起通过一特定角度沿径向分散的。 More specifically, the input light from the focal line 78 through a specific angle radially dispersed. 于是,具有相同波长的输入光将从焦线78出发按众多的不同方向传播,而在反射表面86与88之间反射。 Thus, the input light having the same wavelength from the focal line 78 by a number of different directions starting propagate, and between the reflective surfaces 86 and 88 reflections. 光分波器的这种增强条件促致光依一特定方向传播,以通过输出光的干涉增强来形成这样的光流,此光流具有一个与输入光波长相对应的方向。 Such light demultiplexer input light wave with an enhanced appearance to procure a direction corresponding to the conditions according to a specific direction of light propagation, in order to enhance the light output by the interference to the formation of such an optical flow, the optical flow has. 按不同于此增强条件所需特定方向的方向传播的光,则将由于输出光的干涉而减弱。 This condition is different from the enhancement of light required by a specific direction propagating direction, due to the interference of the output light will be weakened.

此外,如果输入光包括着具有许多不同波长的光,则前述增强条件将导致对于此输入光中的各个波长来形成不同的光流。 In addition, if the input light includes the light having a plurality of different wavelengths, the foregoing conditions will lead to the enhancement of this input light of respective different wavelengths to form an optical flow. 每一光流将有一个不同的波长。 Each optical stream will have a different wavelength. 于是,这种光分波器便能接收波分复用光,而产生出一批在不同方向上传播且对应于此波分复用光中各个波长的光流。 Thus, this optical demultiplexer will be able to receive wavelength-multiplexed light, and generates a group propagate in different directions, and corresponding to this wavelength division multiplexed light for each wavelength of light flow.

图9示意地表明根据本发明一实施例的光分波器76来形成光流的情形,同时表明一个沿图6中的VII-VII线的横剖面。 Figure 9 schematically shows the case 76 to form an optical flow in accordance with an embodiment of the optical demultiplexer of the present invention, while Figure 6 shows that along a line VII-VII of the cross section. 具体地说,图9示明的光分波器76能够形成一批光流,每一光流具有一个取决于输入光波长的不同的传播方向。 Specifically, Figure 9 showing the optical demultiplexer 76 can be formed of a number of optical flows, each having an optical flow depends on the wavelength of the input light in different directions of propagation.

参看图9,从焦线78上沿径向传播出具有多种波长的输入光,使此输入光在反射表面86与88间反射。 Referring to Figure 9, the focal line 78 from the radially spread the input light having a plurality of wavelengths, so that the input light 86 and 88 reflected at the reflective surface. 假定这种反射光具有三个不同的波长。 Postulated that this reflected light having three different wavelengths. 于是对应于各个波长的光将从焦线78起依不同的方向散播。 Then corresponding to the respective wavelengths of light from the focal line 78 depending on the direction of spread. 光分波器76的增强条件促使具有同一波长依特定方向传播的光,为在不同方向上传播的光所增强,形成一个具有与输入光波长相对应的方向的光流。 Optical demultiplexer 76 boosting condition prompted propagating light having the same wavelength according to a particular direction, for light propagating in different directions are enhanced, and the input light wave is formed having a direction corresponding to the appearance of optical flow. 例如,波长为λ1从焦线78上依方向θ1传播的光,将为依不同方向传播的光增强,并将形成一条传播方向为θ1的光流LF1。 For example, light having a wavelength of λ1 from the focal line 78 in the direction of propagation of θ1, the light will be enhanced depending on the direction of propagation, and to form a light propagation direction θ1 flow LF1. 类似地,波长为λ2且从焦线78处依方向θ2传播的光将由依不同方向传播的光增强,而将形成一条传播方向为θ2的光流LF2。 Similarly, the wavelength λ2 and the light 78 from the enhanced direction θ2 by propagating optical power depending on the line by the propagation direction and will form a light propagation direction θ2 flow LF2. 同样,波长为λ3且从焦线78处依方向θ3传播的光将由依不同方向传播的光增强,而将形成一具有传播方向θ3的光束LF3。 Similarly, the wavelength λ3 and the light from the focal line 78 in the direction of θ3 by propagation light propagating in different directions depending on enhancements, and will form a light beam having a propagation direction of θ3 LF3 of.

如上所述,为了增强形成一光流的输出光之间的干涉,应该满足方程(1)。 As described above, in order to enhance the formation of the interference output light of an optical flow between the should satisfy the equation (1). 此外,材料84的厚度最好是固定的。 In addition, the thickness of the material 84 is preferably fixed. 于是,输入光的入射角范围应设定成,使此输入光能依一个满足方程(1)的传播方向θ进入光分波器76。 Thus, input light incident angle range should be set so that the input light propagation direction by a number satisfying the equation (1) is θ enters the optical demultiplexer 76. 更具体地说,输入光的传播方向可以固定,反射表面86与88间的距离t可以固定,同时输入光的波长可以事先测定。 More specifically, the propagation direction of the input light can be fixed, and the distance between the reflective surface 86 between t 88 may be fixed, while the wavelength of the input light can be pre-determined. 于是,可以确定对应于输入光中各波长所产生的光流的特定角度,而光分波器76的增强条件能该满足。 Thus, to determine the optical flows corresponding to a specific angle in each wavelength of the input light generated, and the optical demultiplexer 76 can be enhanced conditions that satisfy.

此外,由于输入光是从焦线78上依许多不同方向辐射,就可判定此输入光将依一个满足上述增强条件的角度传播。 Further, since the input light is radiated from the focal line 78 by a number of different directions, can determine the input light is propagated by a number satisfying the condition of the reinforcing angle.

图10示意地表明依据本发明一实施例,沿图6中光分波器的VII-VII线的一个横剖面,说明用来测定输入光入射角或倾角的光分波器的特性。 Figure 10 schematically shows in accordance with an embodiment of the invention, a cross section along the optical demultiplexer of FIG. 6 VII-VII line, described for measuring the input light incident angle or inclination of the optical branching filter characteristics.

参看图10,输入光92由一柱面透镜(未示明)所会聚并聚焦于焦线78上。 Referring to Figure 10, input light 92 is condensed by a cylindrical lens (not shown) and focused on a focal line 78. 如图10所示,焦线78覆盖住反射面86上宽度等于“a”的一个区域。 10, the focal line 78 to cover the width of the reflection surface 86 is equal to "a" of a region. “a”约等于衍射极限值。 "A" is approximately equal to the diffraction limit. 当输入光92一旦从反表面88上反射后,就入射到反射表面86上,并在反射表面86上覆盖一个有宽度“b”的区域。 When the input from the reverse light 92 once after the reflection surface 88, it is incident on the reflecting surface 86, and cover a width "b" of the area on the reflective surface 86. 此外,如图10所示,输入光92沿一光轴94传播,此光轴相对于反射表面86的法线成一倾角θ1。 In addition, as shown in FIG. 10, input light 92 propagate along an optical axis 94, the optical axis with respect to the normal to the reflecting surface 86 at an inclination angle θ1.

倾角θ1应调节成防止输入光在第一次为反射表面88反射后从辐射窗90传播出。 Inclination θ1 should be adjusted to prevent the input light reflection at the first reflecting surface 88 after radiation spread from the window 90. 换言之,倾角θ1应设定成,使输入光9保持为“被陷获”在反射表面86与88之间而不会通过辐射窗90逸出。 In other words, inclination angle θ1 should be set so that the input light 9 is kept "was trapped" between reflective surfaces 88 and 86 and will not escape through radiation window 90. 于是,为了防止输入光92从辐射窗90传播出,倾角θ1依据下述方程(2)设定:光轴的倾角θ1≥(a+b) Thus, in order to prevent the spread of the input light 92 from the radiation window 90, inclination angle θ1 in accordance with the following equation (2) is set: the optical axis inclination θ1≥ (a + b) (2)于是,如图6-10所示,本发明的实施例包括一种光分波器,它接收相应波长在一连续波长范围内的入射光。 (2) Then, as shown in Figure 6-10, embodiments of the present invention comprises an optical demultiplexer, which receives the respective wavelength of the incident light in a continuous wavelength range. 这种光分波器促使输入射光多次反射而形成自干涉,由此产生一输出光。 Such light demultiplexer output incident prompted formed self-interference of multiple reflections, thereby generating an output light. 此输出光在空间上可与任何其它波长在此连续波长范围内的输入光所形成的输出光相区别。 This output light can be entered on the space with any other wavelength within the continuous range of wavelengths in the output light formed by the light phase difference. 例如,图7示明输入光92在反射表面86与88之间经历了多次反射,其结果产生一批输出光Out1、Out2、Out3与Out4,它们相互干涉生成一光流(例如图9所示的光流LF1、LF2或LF3)。 For example, Figure 7 shows the input light 92 in between the reflective surface 86 and 88 has undergone multiple reflections, which result Shipment output light Out1, Out2, Out3 and Out4, they interfere with each other to generate a light flow (e.g., FIG. 9 optical flow shown LF1, LF2 or LF3).

“自干涉”一词指来自同一光源的许多的光或光束之间发生的干涉。 "Since the intervention" refers interference between many of the light or beam from the same light source. 于是,输出光Out1、Out2、Out3与Out4的干涉即是输入光92的自干涉,这是因为输出光Out1、Out2、Out3与Out4都来自同一光源(即输入光92)。 Thus, output light Out1, Out2, Out3 and Out4 interference that is self-interference of input light 92, because the output light Out1, Out2, Out3 and Out4 all from the same source (i.e., input light 92).

根据本发明的上述实施例,输入光可以是一连续波长范围内任一波长上的光。 According to the above-described embodiments of the present invention, the input light may be light in a continuous wavelength range on any wavelength. 这样,输入光并不限于选自一列离散值上的波长。 Thus, the wavelength of the input light is not limited to discrete values selected from a list of on. 例如,如果一个连续的波长范围包括有某两个离散值,则输入光所对应的波长值可以是一个介于这两个离散值之间的值。 For example, if a continuous range of wavelengths comprises a two discrete values, the input light corresponding to the wavelength value may be a value which is between the two discrete values.

此外,根据本发明的上述实施例,在一连续波长范围内某个特定波长上的输入光所产生的输出光,在空间上可与在此连续波长范围内一不同波长上的输入光所产生的输出光相区别。 Further, according to the above-described embodiments of the present invention, the output light in a continuous wavelength range of the input light of a specific wavelength generated, and the generated light can be entered on the continuous wavelength range within a different wavelength spatially output light phase difference. 作为说明,例如当输入光77是在一连续波长范围内的不同波长上时,如图6所示,光流82的传播方向(即“空间特性”)就不相同。 As described, for example, when input light 77 is at different wavelengths within a continuous range of wavelengths, as shown in Figure 6, the propagation direction of the optical flow 82 (i.e., "spatial characteristic") is not the same. 可将上述工作特点与图1-3中所示的传统的光分波器相比较,在传统的情形,可对输入光的两个不同波长从空间上区分输出光,但是不能对连续波长范围内的输入光的各个波长,从空间上区分输出光。 Working characteristics described above can be compared with FIG conventional optical demultiplexer shown in 1-3, in the conventional case, the input light can distinguish two different wavelengths of light output from the spatial, but not for a continuous wavelength range input light within a respective wavelength, the output light from the spatial distinction. 例如,在图1所示的滤光片中,在不具有波长λ2的波分复用光中的所有载波都将作为光28输出。 For example, the filter shown in FIG. 1, not all carriers in the wavelength-multiplexed light having the wavelength λ2 of the light will be output as 28.

图11示意地表明依据本发明一实施例的、用于接收器的一种光分波器。 Figure 11 schematically shows basis, an optical demultiplexer for receiving the one embodiment of the present invention. 参看图11,在一厚度为t(例如100μm)的玻璃制平行板100的两侧上蒸镀有多层反射膜96与98。 Referring to Figure 11, in a thickness t (e.g., 100μm) on the both sides of the parallel plate 100 made of glass was deposited multilayer reflective film 96 and 98. 平行板100的厚度最好从20至2000μm。 The thickness of the parallel plate 100 from 20 to 2000μm. 反射膜96与98则最好是多层高反射率干涉膜。 Reflective film 96 and 98 is preferably a high reflectivity multilayer interference film.

反射膜98的反射率近似100%,反射膜96的反射率近似95%。 Reflection film 98 is approximately 100% reflectivity, the reflectivity of the reflective film 96 of approximately 95%. 但是反射膜96的反射率不限于95%而可以是另一种值,只要能从反射膜96反射足够的光并允许在反射膜96与98之间有多次反射即可。 However, the reflectance of the reflective film 96 is not limited to 95% but may be another value as long as the reflection from the reflective film 96 and allow sufficient light between the reflective film 96 and 98 can have multiple reflections. 反射膜96的反射率最好从80%至较100%低百分之几的值。 A few percent of the value of the reflectivity of the reflective film 96 is preferably from 80% to lower than 100%. 此外,反射膜98的反射率也不限于100%,但应高到足以在反射膜96与98间发生多次反射。 In addition, the reflectivity of the reflective film 98 is not limited to 100%, but should be high enough to multiple reflections in the reflective film 96 and 98 occurs.

有一辐射窗102接收入射光并位于平行板100的与反射膜96所在的相同表面上。 A radiation window 102 receives the incident light and on the same surface of the reflective film 96 is located parallel to the plate 100. 辐射窗102可由在平行板100的表面上的反射率近似0%的膜形成。 Radiation window 102 may be formed on the surface of the parallel plate 100 is approximately 0% reflectance film is formed. 如图11所示,辐射窗102与反射膜96之间的边界最好是一直线。 As shown, the radiation window 102 and the boundary 96 between the reflective film is preferably a straight line 11.

输入光是从例如光纤(未示明)中输出而为一准直透镜106所接收。 The input light is received by a collimator lens 106 such as an optical fiber (not shown) in output from. 准直透镜106将输入光变换为由一柱面透镜108所接受的平行光104。 The collimator lens 106 converts light input by a cylindrical lens 108 to accept the parallel light 104. 柱面透镜108将平行光104聚焦到辐射窗102的一条焦线110上。 Cylindrical lens 108 focuses the parallel light 104 onto the focal line 110 a radiation window 102. 焦线110与反射膜96和辐射窗102间的直线边界相邻近并平行。 Focal line 110 and the reflective film 96 and 102 radiation window straight boundary of adjacent and parallel. 输入光即在这样的方式下经辐射窗102进入平行板100中。 I.e., the input light in such a manner by the radiation window 102 into the parallel plate 100.

输入光102的光轴相对于反射膜96的法线成一倾角,使得此输入光不会在进入平行板100后,经辐射窗102逸出。 Input light 102 with respect to the optical axis of the reflective film at an inclination angle of the normal line 96, so that the input light is not entering the parallel plate 100, the radiation window 102 after the escape. 上述倾角则据所说方程(2)确定。 According to the above mentioned inclination of equation (2) OK.

输入光一旦进入平行板100内,便在反射膜96与98之间历经多次反射(例如图7中所示)。 Once the input light enters the parallel plate 100, the reflective film 96 will be in between 98 and through multiple reflections (e.g., shown in Figure 7). 每次输入光入射到反射膜96上,就有约95%的这一输入光反射向反射膜98,同时约有5%的这一输入光通过反射膜96而形成一输出光(例如图7中所示的输出光Out1)。 Every input light is incident on the reflective film 96, to about 95% of the input light reflected toward the reflective film 98, while about 5% of the input light reflection film 96 is formed by an output light (e.g., Fig. 7 output light Out1 shown). 反射膜96与98间的多次反射便形成了一批输出光。 Reflective film 96 with multiple reflections 98 will form a group of output light. 这批输出光相互干涉,形成一传播方向依赖输入光波长的光流112。 These output light interfere with each other, forming a propagation direction of the input light wavelength dependent optical flows 112.

光流112然后为一透镜114聚焦,聚焦到一聚焦点上。 Stream 112 then is a light lens 114, and the focus to a focal point. 对于输入光的不同波长,此聚焦点沿一直线路径116运动。 For input light of a different wavelength, the focal point of movement along a straight line path 116. 例如,随着输入光的波长增加,此聚焦点便沿此直线路径116移动得更远。 For example, with the increase of the input light wavelength, the focal point will move along the linear path 116 farther. 在此直线路径116上排列有一批接收器118来接收已聚焦的光流112。 On this linear path 116 are arranged to have a number receiver 118 receives the focused light stream 112. 于是,各接收器118可定位来接收对应于一特定波长的光流。 Thus, each receiver 118 may be positioned to receive a specific wavelength corresponding to the optical flow.

通过控制光分波器中两反射膜或反射表面间的距离t,在此两反射膜或反射表面间所反射的光的相位差便可以改变一预定的量,由此得以实现优异的环境稳定性。 By controlling the optical demultiplexer in two points from the reflective film or the reflective surfaces of t, the phase difference between these two reflective film or reflective surface of the light reflected can be changed by a predetermined amount, thereby to realize an excellent environmental stability sex. 此外,本发明的上述实施例的与偏振有关的光学性能只有很小的变化。 In addition, the polarization-related optical properties of the above-described embodiments of the present invention, only a small change.

图12示意地表明依据本发明另一实施例的用于9接收器的一种光分波器。 Figure 12 schematically shows an optical demultiplexer according to 9 for the receiver to another embodiment of the present invention. 示于图12的这种光分波器类似于图11中所示的光分波器,只是反射膜96与98的反射率反过来。 This is shown in Figure 12 is similar to FIG light demultiplexer in an optical demultiplexer 11 shown, but the reflective film 96 and the reflectance 98 in turn. 具体地说,在图12所示的光分波器中,反射膜98的反射率近似为95%,而反射膜96的反射率约为100%。 Specifically, in the optical demultiplexer shown in Fig. 12, the reflectance of the reflective film 98 is approximately 95%, while the reflectance of the reflective film 96 of about 100%. 如图12所示,通过反射膜98传播的输出光的干涉,形成了光流112。 As shown in Figure 12, the output light reflected by the interference film 98 spread, forming a light stream 112. 这样,当输入光进入平行板100的一侧内时,就在平行板100的另一侧上形成上述光流112。 Thus, when the input light into the side of the parallel plate 100, 112 is formed on the optical flow on the other side of the parallel plate 100. 在其它方面,图12所示的光分波器是与图11所示的光分波器的相似的方式工作。 In other aspects, the optical demultiplexer shown in Fig. 12 works in a similar manner the optical demultiplexer 11 shown in FIG.

图13示意地表明了依据本发明又一实施例的光分波器。 Figure 13 schematically shows the optical demultiplexer according to a further embodiment of the present invention. 参看图13,例如由玻璃制成的一块平板120上具有反射膜122与124。 Referring to Figure 13, for example a flat plate made of glass with a reflective film 122 and 124 120. 反射膜122的反射率约为95%或更高,但低于100%。 Reflective film 122 reflection of approximately 95% or more, but less than 100%. 反射膜124则具有近似100%的反射率。 Reflective film 124 having a reflectance of approximately 100%. 辐射窗126的反射率近似0%。 Reflectance of radiation window 126 is approximately 0%.

输入光128通过辐射窗126由柱面透镜130聚焦成一焦线129。 Input light through radiation window 128 126 130 focused by a cylindrical lens into a focal line 129. 焦线129是在板120的镀有反射膜122的这一面上。 Focal line 129 in the plate 120 has the plated surface of the reflective film 122. 这样,此焦线129实际上是通过辐射窗126聚焦于反射膜122上的一条直线。 Thus, the focal line 129 through radiation window 126 is actually focused on a straight line on the reflective film 122. 焦线129的宽度可以称作为由柱面透镜130所聚焦的输入光128的“光束腰”。 The width of the focal line 129 may be referred to cylindrical lens 130, the focused input light 128 is "beam waist" grounds. 这样,图13所示本发明的实施例便把输入光128的光束腰聚焦到远表面(即上面有反射膜122的表面)上,而以前所述的本发明的实施例则是把光束腰聚焦到近表面(即上面有反射膜124的表面)上。 Thus, embodiments of the present invention shown in FIG. 13 put the input light 128 is focused onto the far surface of the beam waist (i.e., above a surface of the reflective film 122), while the previously described embodiments of the present invention is the optical Focus waist to the near surface (ie, above a surface reflection film 124) on. 通过把光束腰聚焦到板120的远表面上,本发明的这一实施例,便可以减少在以下两种区域之间发生重叠:(i)输入光128在通过辐射窗126时所覆盖的板120表面上的辐射窗126的区域(例如图10中所示的区域“a”),以及(ii)输入光128在第一次为反射膜124反射时所覆盖的在反射膜124上的区域(例如图10中所示的区域“b”)。 By focusing the beam waist on the far surface of plate 120, this embodiment of the present invention, can reduce the overlap between the following two areas: (i) when the input light 128 through radiation window 126 covered When the radiation window on the surface area 126 of the plate 120 (e.g., the region shown in Fig. 10 "a"), and (ii) in the first input light 128 is reflected by the reflective film 124 is covered on the reflective film 124 region (e.g. region 10 shown in FIG. "b"). 为了确保这种光分波器的正常作业,最好减少这种重叠。 In order to ensure such an optical demultiplexer normal operation, is preferable to reduce this overlap.

在图13中,输入光128的光轴132具有一个小的倾角θ。 In Figure 13, the optical axis 132 of input light 128 having a small inclination angle θ. 在为反射膜122作第一次反射后,输入光的5%通过反射膜122并在光束腰之后发散,而此输入光的95%则反射向反射膜124。 After the reflection film 122 as a reflection of 5% of the input light by reflecting film 122 and diverges after the beam waist, and 95% of this input light is reflected toward the reflective film 124. 在为反射膜124第一次反射之后,此种光再次射向反射膜124第一次反射之后,此种光再次射向反射膜122,但位移了一个距离d。 After the reflective film 124 after the first reflection, this light reflection film 124 again toward the first reflection, such light toward the reflection film 122 again, but shifted by a distance d. 然后,5%的这种光通过反射膜122。 Then, 5% of such light through the reflection film 122. 在类似的方式下,如图13所示,输入光以恒定的间隔分离到许多光路中。 In a similar manner, shown in Figure 13, the input light is separated at constant intervals to a plurality of light path. 各光路中的光束形状使得这种光从光束腰129的各虚像134处发散开。 Each optical path so that this light beam shape from the beam waist of each virtual image 134 129 diverge. 这些虚像134以恒定的间距2t沿一条与板120垂直的直线定位,这里的t是板120的厚度。 The virtual image 134 at a constant spacing 2t along a straight line with the vertical plate 120 positioned, where t is the thickness of the plate 120. 各虚像134中光束腰的位置是自准直的,不需去调整各个位置。 Each virtual image of the beam waist position 134 is self-collimation, without adjustment to various locations. 然后,从各虚像134发散出的光相互干涉,形成一准直光136,在一随输入光128的波长而变化的方向中传播。 Then, each of the virtual image 134 emanating light interfere with each other, forming a collimated light 136, transmitted with the input light 128 in a wavelength direction varies.

上述光路间的间距d=2tsinθ,而相邻光束间的光路长度的差为2tcosθ。 Pitch of the optical path between the d = 2tsinθ, while the optical path length difference between adjacent beams is 2tcosθ. 角色散正比于这两个数的比值,即为cotθ。 Angular dispersion is proportional to the ratio of these two numbers, namely cotθ. 结果,本发明的实施例与传统的光分波器相比,在不同的载波的光流之间产生出大得多的角色数。 As a result, embodiments of the present invention compared with the conventional optical demultiplexer, the optical flow between the different carriers to generate a much larger number of characters.

前面业已指出,“光分波器”与“虚像相控阵”等词在此可交互使用来描述本发明的各种实施例。 It has been noted that the front, "optical splitter" and "virtual image phased array" and other terms are used interchangeably herein to describe various embodiments of the present invention. 从图13容易看出,“虚像相控阵”一词是起源于形成了虚像134的一种阵列结构。 Easily seen from Figure 13, "virtual image phased array," the term originated in the formation of a virtual image of an array structure 134.

图14示意地表明了依据本发明一实施例的波导型光分波器。 Figure 14 schematically shows the basis for waveguide type optical demultiplexer of an embodiment of the invention. 参看图14,光138从光纤(未示明)中输出,并由设在一基片142上的波导140所接收。 Referring to Figure 14, the light output from the optical fiber 138 (not shown), by provided on a substrate 142 of the waveguide 140 receives. 波导140例如是由铌酸锂制备的。 For example, the waveguide 140 is made of lithium niobate prepared. 光138包含着在具有不同波长上的一批载波上调制光信号。 138 contains light modulated on a carrier having a number of optical signals on different wavelengths.

光138从光纤输出后具有某种色散宽度。 138 has a certain width light dispersion from the optical output. 于是,用一准直透镜142将光138变换为平行光。 Thus, with the collimator lens 142 is converted into light 138 parallel light. 此平行光再由一柱面透镜144汇集,聚焦成一焦线146。 The parallel light then pooled by a cylindrical lens 144, focused to a focal line 146. 光138然后从焦线146射入光分波器148,通过一辐射窗150。 Light 138 from the focal line 146 is then incident light demultiplexer 148, 150 through a radiation window.

光分波器148包括一平行板156以及在此板上的反射膜152与154。 An optical demultiplexer 148 includes a parallel plate 156 and the reflective film 152 and 154 in this plate. 反射膜154设在平行板156的一侧,而反射膜152和辐射窗150则在平行板156的另一侧上。 Reflective film 154 is provided on one side of the parallel plate 156, and the reflective film 152 and radiation window 150 on the other side of the parallel plate 156 on. 反射膜152的反射率近似100%,反射膜154的反射率小于100%。 Reflectivity of the reflective film 152 of approximately 100% reflectivity of the reflective film 154 is less than 100%. 为平行板156所反射的光的光流158输出到平行板156上与辐射窗150相对的一侧上。 Parallel plate 156 for light reflected light 158 output stream 150 to the opposite side of the parallel plate 156 and radiation window.

如果输入光138包括着多种不同波长的光,就会形成一批光流158,它们沿由此输入光138的各个波长所确定的不同的方向传播。 If the input light 138 includes a plurality of different wavelengths of light, will form a number of optical flows 158, whereby they enter different directions along the respective wavelength of the light 138 of the determined propagation. 取决于光流158的传播方向,为光分波器148所形成的这一光流158由一透镜160聚焦到不同的点上。 Depends on the light propagation direction 158 of the flow, the optical flow is formed by an optical demultiplexer 148 158 is focused by a lens 160 to a different point. 于是,如图14所示,具有波长λ1、λ2和λ3的光流158a、158b和158c分别形成在不同的聚焦点上。 Thus, 14, having the wavelength λ1, λ2 and λ3 of the optical flow 158a, 158b and 158c are formed on the different focusing point.

在这些聚焦点上设有一批接收波导162。 Focus point is provided on a number of these reception waveguide 162. 各接收波导162导引一光信号和具有单一波长的相应载波。 Each receiving an optical waveguide 162 pilot signals and corresponding carrier having a single wavelength. 于是能通过各个信道同时接收和传送一批光流。 So through the various channels of simultaneous reception and transmission of a number of optical flow. 每一接收波导146有一设在后级上的相应的接收器(未示明)。 Each receiver has a waveguide 146 provided on the subsequent stage of the respective receivers (not shown). 这种接收器通常是光电二极管。 Such a receiver typically is a photodiode. 于是,为各个接收波导162所导引的光在被相应的接收器探测出后便受到处理。 Thus, for each receive waveguide 162 guides the light to be subjected to processing corresponding receiver detected after.

图15(A)、15(B)、15(C)与15(d)示意地说明用来生产根据本发明一实施例的光分波器的方法。 Figure 15 (A), 15 (B), 15 (C) and 15 (d) schematically illustrate the production method according to an embodiment of the present invention, an optical demultiplexer embodiment.

参看图15(A),平行板164最好由玻璃制成,要具有极优的平行性。 Referring to FIG. 15 (A), a parallel plate 164 is preferably made of glass, to have a very excellent parallelism. 用真空蒸镀、离子溅射或其它类似方法,在平行板164的两侧上形成反射膜166与168,这两层膜中之一具有接近100%的反射率,而另一个的反射率则低于100%但最好要高于80%。 Vacuum deposition, ion sputtering or other similar methods, on both sides of the parallel plate 164 is formed a reflective film 166 and 168, one of the film having the two layers close to 100% reflectivity, the reflectivity and the other is preferably less than 100% but higher than 80%.

参看图15(B),反射膜166与168中之一已部分剥开而形成一辐射窗170。 Referring to FIG. 15 (B), one of reflecting films 166 and 168 have been partially stripped and a radiation window 170 is formed. 在图15(B)中,所示的反射膜业已剥开,使辐射窗170能形成在平行板164的与反射膜166所在的同一表面上。 In FIG. 15 (B), the reflective film has been shown to peel, so that radiation window 170 can be formed on the reflective film 166 and parallel plate 164 is located on the same surface. 但也可相反,可将反射膜168部分剥离,而将此辐射窗形成在平行板164的与反射膜168所在的同一表面上。 But can also be the opposite, the reflective film 168 may be partially peeled, and this radiation window is formed on the reflective film 168 and parallel plate 164 is located on the same surface. 正如本发明的各实施例所阐明的,辐射窗可形成于平行板164的任一侧上。 As various embodiments of the present invention as set forth, the radiation window may be formed on either side of the parallel plate 164.

可以用腐蚀法来进行反射膜的剥离,但也能采用较便宜一机械剥离方法。 Can be performed by etching the peeling reflective film, but can also use a less expensive mechanical stripping methods. 但要是采用机械方法来剥离反射膜时,应细致地处理平行板164使对它的损伤减至最小。 But if the use of mechanical means to release the reflective film should be carefully treated so that the parallel plate 164 to minimize its damage. 例如,当构成辐射窗的平行板164的此部分严重受损后,平行板164就会由于所接收的输入光的散射产生过多的损耗。 For example, when this portion of parallel plate 164 constitutes the radiation window severely damaged, parallel plate 164 will be due to scattering of the received input light to produce excessive losses.

代替首先形成反射膜而后再剥离以形成辐射窗的方法,也可以这样地来形成辐射窗:预先掩蔽平行板164上与辐射窗相对应的部分,然后使这部分不为反射膜所覆盖。 Instead of first forming a reflecting film and then peeled off to a method of forming a radiation window, and to be in such a manner to form a radiation window: pre-masking plate 164 and the parallel portion corresponding radiation window, then this part is not covered by the reflective film.

参看图15(C),将一种透明胶172涂布到反射膜166以及平行板164的已除去反射膜166的部分上。 Referring to FIG. 15 (C), the adhesive 172 is applied to a transparent reflective film 166 and parallel plate 164 is removed from the partially reflective film 166. 由于此透明胶172是涂布到平行板164的构成辐射窗的这部分上,由此透明胶所产生的光损耗应尽可能地小。 Since the transparent adhesive 172 is applied to this radiation window parts of the parallel plate 164, whereby the transparent plastic optical loss generated as small as possible.

参看图15(D),将一块透明的保护板174加到透明胶172上来保护反射膜166和平行板164。 Referring to FIG. 15 (D), would a transparent protective plate 174 is added onto transparent plastic protective reflective film 172 166 164 and parallel plate. 由于透明胶172在涂布中充填了因除去反射膜166所产生的凹部,所以透明保护板174可以设置成与平行板164的顶表面相平行。 Since the transparent adhesive 172 is filled in the coating due to the concave portion generated by removing the reflective film 166, so the transparent protective plate 174 may be arranged parallel to the top surface of the plate 164 is parallel.

类似地,为了保护反射膜168,可在它的顶表面上涂布一层胶(未示明),然后应设置一块保护板(未示明)。 Similarly, to protect reflecting film 168, can be on its top surface is coated with a layer of glue (not shown), and then to be provided a protective plate (not shown). 如果反射膜168的反射率近似100%,则在此板164的同一表面上不存在辐射窗,而此种胶与保护板则不必是透明的。 If the reflectance of the reflective film 168 of approximately 100%, on the same surface of the plate there is no radiation window 164, and such rubber with a protective plate is not necessarily transparent.

此外,可在透明保护板174上涂上一层消反射膜176。 Furthermore, can be coated on the transparent protective plate 174 anti-reflection film layer 176. 例如,透明保护板174与辐射窗170上可以覆盖上消反射膜176。 For example, the transparent protective plate 174 and radiation window 170 can cover the anti-reflection film 176.

根据本发明上述各实施例,焦线经描述为处在辐射窗的表面上或是处在平行板的进入输入光的这一相对表面上。 The above-described embodiments, been described as a focal line in the surface of the radiation window, or in the opposite surfaces of the parallel plates of the light entering the input according to the present invention. 但是此焦线可以在平行板之中或在辐射窗的前面。 But this can be the focal line or in front of the window in a parallel-plate radiation being.

根据本发明的上述实施例,有两层反射膜在它们之间将光反射,其中一层反射膜的反射率近似100%。 According to the above-described embodiments of the present invention, there are two layers of reflective film to reflect light therebetween, wherein the reflectivity of a reflective film is approximately 100%. 但是,使这两层反射膜都具有低于100%的反射率时可以取得类似的效果。 However, the reflective film so that the two layers have a similar effect can be obtained when less than 100% reflectivity. 例如,可使这两层反射膜的反射率都是95%。 For example, the two layers can reflectance reflective film is 95%. 此时各个反射膜中都有光传播而引起干涉。 In this case each reflection film in both the light propagation caused by the interference. 结果在形成此反射膜的平行板的两侧上,形成了在与波长有关的方向中传播的光流。 Results on both sides of the parallel plate is formed in this reflective film, is formed in the direction of the optical flow in the wavelength-dependent transmission. 这样,本发明各实施例中的各个反射率易于根据光分波器所要求的特性改变。 Thus, in this embodiment the reflectance of the respective embodiments of the present invention can be easily changed according to the optical demultiplexer characteristics required.

根据本发明的上述实施例,是把波导型的光分波器描述成由一块平行板或是由相应平行的两个反射表面所形成。 According to the above-described embodiments of the present invention, is to the waveguide type optical branching filter described as a parallel plate, or by the two reflecting surfaces are formed by respective parallel. 但是这种板或表面可不必是平行的。 However, this plate or surface may not necessarily be parallel.

根据本发明的上述实施例,能够同时分离包括有一批波长的光。 According to the above-described embodiments of the present invention, comprising a group capable of simultaneously separating wavelengths. 于是可以成功地减小用于波分复用通信中的接收器的尺寸。 Thus can be successfully reduced in size for WDM communication receiver.

根据本发明的上述实施例,所给出的光分波器可以将一波分复用光同时相对于输入光的各个波长分光。 According to the above-described embodiments of the present invention, an optical demultiplexer can be given at the same time with respect to a wavelength-multiplexed light for each wavelength of input light spectrophotometry. 此外,可以通过形成这种光分波器的平行板的厚度t来调节色散角。 Further, by forming such an optical demultiplexer parallel plate thickness t to adjust the dispersion angle. 结果可使此色散角大到足以使接收器易于接收各个分离的信号。 This result allows the dispersion angle large enough to enable the receiver easy to receive respective separate signals. 例如,传统的衍射光栅对于大的色散角需要有精细的凹凸表面。 For example, a conventional diffraction grating for a large dispersion angle requires fine concavo-convex surface. 但是,制备一种细微而精密的凹凸表面很难,从而限制了色散角的大小。 However, the preparation of a fine uneven surface is difficult and sophisticated, thus limiting the size of the dispersion angle. 相反,依据本发明上述实施例的光分波器,只需改变平行板的厚度就能实现较大的色散角。 On the contrary, according to the present invention, an optical demultiplexer of the above embodiment, simply by changing the thickness of the parallel plates can achieve greater dispersion angles.

此外,根据本发明上述实施例的一种光分波器能形成较传统衍射光栅为大的色散角。 In addition, an optical demultiplexer according to the present invention, the above-described embodiment can be formed as compared with the conventional diffraction grating large dispersion angle. 于是,采用了依据本发明的上述实施例的光分波器的接收器,即使是在实现高水平复用过程的波分复用通信中,也能准确无误地接收光信号。 Thus, using a light demultiplexer of the above embodiment of a receiver according to the present invention, even in the process of achieving a high level of multiplexing wavelength division multiplexing communications can be received optical signal accurately. 此外,上述接收器结构较简并能较廉价地生产。 In addition, the above-described receiver structure is relatively simple and can be produced relatively inexpensively.

根据本发明的上述实施例的光分波器利用了多次反射并在相干涉的光之间保持一恒定的相位差。 Utilizing a multiple reflection optical demultiplexer above-described embodiment of the present invention and the interference between the phase of a light holding a constant phase difference. 结果,这种光分波器的特性稳定,由此减小了因偏振引起的光学性能变化。 As a result, this optical demultiplexer is stable characteristics, thereby reducing the change in optical properties caused by polarization. 与此相反,传统的衍射光栅的光学性能则会发生与输入光的偏振有关的不利变化。 In contrast, the optical properties of the conventional diffraction grating occurs unfavorable changes associated with the input polarization of the light.

此外,此阵列波导光栅相比,依据本发明上述实施例的光分波器只需用较简单的结构,而能取得稳定的光学特性和对环境状态变化的抵抗性。 In addition, compared to the array waveguide grating, the optical demultiplexer according to the present invention, the above-described embodiment only with relatively simple structure, and can achieve stable optical characteristics and resistance to environmental conditions change.

本发明的上述实施例描述了能提供相互“在空间上可区分的”光流。 The above-described embodiments of the present invention to provide a description of the mutual "spatially distinguishable" optical flow. “在空间上可区分的”是指从空间上可以分别这些光流。 "Spatially distinguishable" refers to the space from these optical flows are possible. 例如,要是有种种光流是准直的并在不同方向上传播或是聚焦到不同位置上时,它们在空间上是可区分的。 For example, if there are a variety of optical flow is collimated and focused onto different positions or spread on in different directions, which is spatially distinguishable. 但是本发明则不局限于上述精密条件下的例子,而是可以用许多其它方式来从空间上相互区分这些光流。 Examples of the present invention under the above conditions is not limited to the precise, but may be many other ways to distinguish these from each other on the optical flow space.

尽管已在上面示明并描述了本发明的几个最佳实施例,但应认识到,内行的人在不脱离本发明的原理与精神下是可以在这些实施例中作出种种改变的,本发明的范围是由权利要求书及其等效范围确定。 Despite showing above and described preferred embodiments of the present invention, it is to be appreciated that the person skilled in the art without departing from the principles and spirit of the invention under various changes may be made in these embodiments, the present scope of the invention is defined by the claims and their equivalents determine the scope.

Classifications
International ClassificationG02B6/42, G02B27/10, G02B6/12, G02B27/42, G01J3/26, G02B6/293, G02B6/26, G02B6/34
Cooperative ClassificationY10S359/90, G02B6/29358, G02B6/2938
European ClassificationG02B6/293I10, G02B6/293W2
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