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Publication numberCN102369783 B
Publication typeGrant
Application numberCN 201080014372
PCT numberPCT/US2010/000967
Publication date24 Feb 2016
Filing date31 Mar 2010
Priority date31 Mar 2009
Also published asCN102369783A, EP2415322A2, EP2415322A4, US8363580, US20100246542, WO2010117426A2, WO2010117426A3
Publication number201080014372.X, CN 102369783 B, CN 102369783B, CN 201080014372, CN-B-102369783, CN102369783 B, CN102369783B, CN201080014372, CN201080014372.X, PCT/2010/967, PCT/US/10/000967, PCT/US/10/00967, PCT/US/2010/000967, PCT/US/2010/00967, PCT/US10/000967, PCT/US10/00967, PCT/US10000967, PCT/US1000967, PCT/US2010/000967, PCT/US2010/00967, PCT/US2010000967, PCT/US201000967
Inventors凯利迈克尔奥什
Applicant罗斯蒙德公司
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: SIPO, Espacenet
无线网状网中的全异无线电装置 Wireless mesh disparate radio translated from Chinese
CN 102369783 B
Abstract  translated from Chinese
一种无线网状网,利用有策略地安置的具有无线电装置的节点,通过使用高增益天线、MIMO技术、高功率发射机、高灵敏度接收机、上述组合等,所述无线电装置具有较高级的通信范围。 A wireless mesh network, the use of strategically placed nodes with radio apparatus, by using a high gain antenna, MIMO technology, high power transmitter, high-sensitivity receiver, the above combinations, the radio has a higher level communication range. 除了扩展网络的物理覆盖区这一明显的效果以外,由具有较高级的范围的节点形成的较长距离链路的效果是通过减少跳数使无线网状网平坦,从而改进性能、延迟、可靠性、成本、功耗等因素。 Apart from the obvious effect of extended physical coverage area of the network, the effect of long distance links from nodes with higher range is formed by reducing the number of hops of the wireless mesh network is flat, thereby improving performance, latency, reliable , cost, power consumption and other factors.
Claims(20)  translated from Chinese
1.一种无线网状网,包括: 多个第一节点,每个第一节点包括现场设备以及具有第一通信范围的无线电装置;以及第二节点,包括现场设备以及具有第二通信范围的无线电装置,其中,所述第二通信范围大于第一通信范围; 其中,所述第一节点和第二节点能够在它们的通信范围内与无线网状网的任何其他节点直接通信,以及其中,所述第一节点和第二节点能够对要传送至无线网状网的任何其他节点的消息进行路由。 A wireless mesh network, comprising: a plurality of first nodes, each node comprising a first field device and a radio communication device having a range; and a second node, including on-site equipment, and having a second communication range radio device, wherein the second communication range than the first communication range; wherein said first and second nodes can communicate directly with any other node in the wireless mesh within their communication range, and wherein, said first node and the second node capable of any messages to be transmitted to other nodes in the wireless mesh routing.
2.根据权利要求1所述的无线网状网,还包括:散布在多个第一节点之间的多个第二节点。 According to claim 1, wherein the wireless mesh network, further comprising: a plurality of interspersed between the first node of the plurality of second nodes.
3.根据权利要求1所述的无线网状网,其中,第一节点的无线电装置具有全向天线。 According to claim 1, wherein the wireless mesh network, wherein the radio node having omnidirectional antennas.
4.根据权利要求1所述的无线网状网,其中,第二节点的无线电装置包括定向天线。 According to claim 1 wherein the wireless mesh network, wherein the radio apparatus comprises a directional antenna of the second node.
5.根据权利要求1所述的无线网状网,其中,与第一节点的无线电装置相比,第二节点的无线电装置具有更高功率的发射机和更灵敏的接收机。 According to claim 1, wherein the wireless mesh network, which, compared with the radio node, the radio node apparatus has a higher power transmitters and more sensitive receivers.
6.根据权利要求1所述的无线网状网,还包括:控制室,能够与第一节点和第二节点中的至少一个通信。 According to one of the wireless mesh network claim, further comprising: a control room, able to communicate with at least a first node and the second node.
7.根据权利要求1所述的无线网状网,其中,第一节点和第二节点中的至少一个包括多个现场设备。 According to claim 1, wherein the wireless mesh network, wherein the first node and the second node comprises at least one of the plurality of field devices.
8.根据权利要求1所述的无线网状网,其中,第二节点的无线电装置使用ΜΙΜΟ技术。 According to claim 1, wherein the wireless mesh network, wherein the radio node using ΜΙΜΟ technology.
9.根据权利要求8所述的无线网状网,其中,第二节点的无线电装置包括两个收发机。 According to claim 8, wherein the wireless mesh network, wherein the radio node comprises two transceivers.
10.根据权利要求8所述的无线网状网,其中,所述ΜΙΜΟ技术使用不同数目的发射机和接收机。 According to claim 8, wherein the wireless mesh network, wherein the ΜΙΜΟ technique using a different number of transmitters and receivers.
11.一种无线网状网,包括: 第一节点簇,其中每个节点包括现场设备以及具有能够与第一簇中的其他节点通信的链路预算的无线电装置,并且至少一个较高链路预算的节点包括具有较高链路预算无线装置的无线装置,所述较高链路预算无线装置能够与不属于第一簇中的节点通信;以及第二节点簇,其中每个节点包括现场设备以及具有能够与第二簇中的其他节点通信的链路预算的无线电装置; 其中,第一簇的较高链路预算的节点能够与第二节点簇中的至少一个节点形成直接无线链路, 其中,所述第一节点和第二节点能够在它们的通信范围内与无线网状网的任何其他节点直接通信,以及其中,所述第一节点和第二节点能够对要传送至无线网状网的任何其他节点的消息进行路由。 11. A wireless mesh network, comprising: a first node cluster, where each node includes field devices and capable of the first cluster of radio link budget communicate with other nodes, and at least one higher link the budget includes a wireless node apparatus having a high link budget of the wireless device, the wireless device higher link budget are not capable of communication in the first cluster node; and a second node clusters, wherein each node includes a field device and a radio device has a second cluster of communication with other nodes of the link budget; wherein the higher link budget of the first cluster node is capable of forming at least one node in the cluster node direct wireless link, wherein said first and second nodes can communicate directly with any other node in the wireless mesh within their communication range, and wherein said first and second nodes able to be transferred to the wireless mesh any messages from other nodes in the network routing.
12.根据权利要求11所述的无线网状网,其中,所述第二节点簇包括至少一个较高链路预算的节点,所述至少一个较高链路预算的节点包括具有较高链路预算无线装置的无线装置,所述较高链路预算无线装置能够与不属于第二簇中的节点通信,并且第二簇的较高链路预算的节点能够在第一簇和第二簇间形成无线链路。 According to claim 11 wherein the wireless mesh network, wherein the node cluster including at least a link budget higher node, said at least one high link budget includes a higher node link budget wireless device a wireless device, the wireless device can be a higher link budget with the communication node does not belong in the second cluster, and the high link budget of the second cluster node can be the first cluster and the second cluster between forming a wireless link.
13.根据权利要求11所述的无线网状网,其中,所述较高链路预算的无线电装置使用以下至少一项通頂0技术、高增益天线、定向天线、或者高功率发射机和高灵敏度接收机。 According to claim 11, wherein the wireless mesh network, wherein the radio using a higher link budget through at least one of the top 0 technology, high-gain antenna, directional antenna, or a high-power transmitters and high the receiver sensitivity.
14.根据权利要求11所述的无线网状网,其中,所述第一簇包括多个节点,所述多个节点包括较高链路预算的无线电装置。 According to claim 11 wherein the wireless mesh network, wherein the first cluster comprises a plurality of nodes, said plurality of nodes comprising radio link budget higher.
15.根据权利要求11所述的无线网状网,其中,所述第二簇包括多个节点,所述多个节点包括较高链路预算的无线电装置。 According to claim 11 wherein the wireless mesh network, wherein the second cluster comprises a plurality of nodes, said plurality of nodes comprising radio link budget higher.
16.根据权利要求11所述的无线网状网,其中,至少一个现场设备被安装在固定位置。 According to claim 11, wherein the wireless mesh network, wherein at least one field device is mounted in a fixed position.
17.根据权利要求11所述的无线网状网,其中,所述无线网状网还包括:控制室,能够与第一簇和第二簇通信。 According to claim 11 wherein the wireless mesh network, wherein the wireless mesh network further comprising: a control chamber, capable of communicating with the first cluster and a second cluster.
18.根据权利要求11所述的无线网状网,其中,至少一个节点包括多个现场设备。 18. The wireless mesh network according to claim 11, wherein the at least one node comprises a plurality of field devices.
19.一种无线网状网,包括多个节点簇,其中,每个节点与现场设备和具有能够向该节点的簇中的其他节点发送的链路预算的无线电装置相关联,并且每个簇包括至少一个节点,所述至少一个节点包括具有较高链路预算的无线电装置,所述较高链路预算能够建立至另一簇中的节点的直接链路,从而使簇互连,其中,所述另一簇中的所述节点具有只能向其簇中的其他节点发送的链路预算,以及其中,所述至少一个节点和每个簇中的其他节点能够对要传送至无线网状网的任何其他节点的消息进行路由。 19. A wireless mesh network comprising a plurality of clusters of nodes, where each node with the field devices and radio link budget can be associated with a cluster node to the other nodes in the transmission, and each cluster comprising at least one node, said at least one node comprising radio apparatus having a high link budget, the high link budget can be established to another cluster nodes direct links, so that the cluster interconnect, wherein, the other cluster node with the link budget can only be sent to its other nodes in the cluster, and wherein said at least one node and each other node in the cluster to be able to be transmitted to the wireless mesh any messages from other nodes in the network routing.
20.根据权利要求19所述的无线网状网,其中,所述具有能够向该节点的簇中的其他节点发送的链路预算的无线电装置包括:全向无线电装置;具有能够建立至另一簇中的节点的直接链路的较高链路预算的无线电装置包括通頂0技术无线电装置、高增益天线无线电装置或采用高功率发射机和高灵敏度接收机的无线电装置的组合。 20. The radio device 19 of the wireless mesh claim, wherein the link budget can have a cluster node to the other nodes send include: omnidirectional radio apparatus; another has to be able to build higher radio link budget of cluster nodes include a direct link through the top 0 radio technology, high-gain antenna for radio device or using a combination of high-power radio transmitter and high sensitivity receiver.
Description  translated from Chinese
无线网状网中的全异无线电装置 Wireless mesh disparate radio

技术领域 TECHNICAL FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及无线网状网系统。 [0001] The present invention relates to a wireless mesh network systems. 特别地,本发明涉及通过使用具有不同通信特征的所选节点而具有改进性能的无线网状网系统。 In particular, the present invention relates to a wireless mesh network system by using the selected nodes having different communication characteristics and with improved performance.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 在许多工业环境下,控制系统被用于监控库存、过程等。 [0002] In many industrial environments, the control system is used to monitor inventory processes. 通常,这样的控制系统具有集中控制室,该集中控制室具有与现场设备通信的主机计算机,所述现场设备与控制室分开或在地理上远离控制室。 Typically, such a control system having a centralized control room, which has a centralized control room and the field device communication host computer, separate from the control room and the field devices or geographically remote from the control room.

[0003] 一般地,每个现场设备包括传感器,该传感器可以基于物理输入产生输出信号,或基于输入信号产生物理输出。 [0003] Typically, each field device includes a sensor which can generate an output signal based on a physical input or produce physical output based on the input signal. 现场设备中所使用的多种类型的传感器包括:各种分析设备、压力传感器、热敏电阻、热电偶、应变仪、流传感器、远程位置调节器、制动器、螺线管、指示器等。 Many types of sensors used in the field devices include: various analytical equipment, pressure sensors, thermistors, thermocouples, strain gauges, flow sensors, positioners, actuators, solenoids, and indicators. 传统上,已通过双线双绞线电流环路将模拟现场设备连接至过程子系统和控制室,每个设备通过单个双线双绞线环路连接控制室。 Traditionally, analog field devices have been connected to the process subsystem and the control room by two-wire twisted pair current loops, each device connected to the control room by a single two-wire twisted pair loop. 典型地,双线间保持大约20至25伏的电压差,并且4到20毫安(mA)的电流流经环路。 Typically, the voltage between the wire holding about 20-25 volts, and 4-20 milliamperes (mA) of current flows through the loop. 模拟现场设备通过将流经电流环路的电流调制为与所感测的过程变量成比例的电流,向控制室发送信号。 Analog field devices by the current flowing through the loop current modulation of the sensed process variable current proportional to send a signal to the control room. 在控制室的控制下执行动作的模拟现场设备受通过环路的电流的幅度的控制,过程子系统的端口在控制器的控制下调制所述幅度。 In the control room under the control of the analog field devices to perform an action by the magnitude of the current through the loop control, port process subsystem under the control of the amplitude modulation of the controller.

[0004] 虽然过去现场设备仅仅能够执行一个功能,然而最近已在分布式控制系统中使用将数字数据叠加在电流环路上的混合系统。 [0004] While in the past the field devices can perform only one function, but recently has been used digital data superimposed on the current loop mixing system in a distributed control system. 高速可寻址远程传感器(HART)协议将数字载波信号叠加在电路环路信号上。 Highway Addressable Remote Transducer (HART) protocol digital carrier signal is superimposed on the signal loop circuit. 数字载波信号可用于发送辅助和诊断信息。 Digital carrier signal can be used to send secondary and diagnostic information. 通过载波信号提供的信息的示例包括主和辅过程变量、诊断信息(如,传感器诊断、设备诊断、布线诊断、过程诊断等)、操作温度、传感器温度、校准数据、设备ID号、配置信息等。 Examples of the information provided by the carrier signal comprises primary and secondary process variables, diagnostic information (such as sensor diagnostics, device diagnostics, wiring diagnostics, process diagnostics, etc.), operating temperature, temperature sensor, calibration data, device ID numbers, configuration information, etc. . 相应地,单个现场设备可以具有各种输入和输出变量,并且可以实现各种功能。 Accordingly, a single field device may have a variety of input and output variables and may implement a variety of functions.

[0005] 另一方式使用数字通信总线将多个现场设备连接至控制室中的主机。 [0005] Another way to use digital communication bus to connect multiple field devices to the control room of the host. 与连接至数字总线的现场设备一起使用的数字通信协议的示例包括-Foundat1n Fieldbus、Profibus、Modbus和DeviceNet。 Example bus connected to the digital field devices for use with digital communications protocols include -Foundat1n Fieldbus, Profibus, Modbus and DeviceNet. 可以通过向现场设备供电的相同的双线路径提供消息在主机计算机和多个现场设备之间的双向数字通信。 By the same two-wire path to the field device power supply provides two-way digital communication between a host computer and a plurality of field devices messages.

[0006] 典型地,通过从控制室到远程应用铺设极长的干线电缆,向控制系统添加了远程应用。 [0006] Typically, by laying down a very long trunk cable from the control room to the remote application, the control system adds remote application. 如果远程应用例如在半英里以外,那么铺设这样的长电缆所涉及的成本可能很高。 If the remote applications such as half a mile away, the cost of laying such a long cable involved may be high. 如果必须向远程应用铺设多条干线电缆,成本将变得甚至更高。 If multiple trunk cable must be laid to a remote application, the cost will be even higher. 无线通信提供了令人满意的替代方案,并且已提出无线网状网,用于工业过程控制系统。 Wireless communications to provide a satisfactory alternative, and wireless mesh networks have been proposed for use in industrial process control systems. 然而,为了使成本最小化,还希望维持现有的控制系统和通信协议,以降低与改变现有系统以适应无线通信相关联的成本。 However, in order to minimize costs, it is desirable to maintain the existing control system and communication protocols in order to reduce the costs of adaptation to changing existing systems associated with wireless communications.

[0007] 在针对基于低功率传感器/制动器的应用设计的无线网状网系统中,必须用长效电池或低功率能量净化电源为网络中的多个设备供电。 [0007] In the wireless mesh network based system for low power sensor / brake application design must be purged with long-lasting batteries or low power energy power supply for multiple devices in the network. 典型地,功率出口(如120VAC功用)不位于附近,或者可以不被允许进入仪器(传感器/制动器)必须位于的危险位置,不招致昂贵的安装费用。 Typically, the power outlet (eg 120VAC function) is not near, or may be allowed to enter the danger area and instrument (sensor / actuator) must be located, without incurring expensive installation costs. 低安装成本的经济需要驱动了电池供电的设备作为无线网状网的一部分通信的需求。 Low installation cost economies need to drive the demand for battery-powered devices as part of a wireless communications mesh network. 对于正常工作的无线设备,对有限电源(如,不能再充电的原电池)的有效利用是至关重要的。 For wireless device is working properly, the effective use of the limited power supply (eg, primary batteries can not be recharged) is critical. 期望电池持续5年,并且优选地,能够和产品的寿命一样长。 We expect the battery lasts five years and preferably as long as possible, and product life.

[0008] 在真实的无线网状网中,每个设备必须能够为自身以及网状网中的其他设备路由消息(所谓网至边缘)。 [0008] In a real wireless mesh network, each device must be able to own and mesh routing messages to other devices (so-called network to the edge). 由于可以使用低功率无线电装置并且网状网可以跨越极大的物理区域将消息从一端传递至另一端,消息通过网络从无线电装置跳至无线电装置的概念是有益的。 Because you can use low-power radio devices and mesh network can span great physical area to deliver the message from one end to the other end, the concept of message skip to the radio through the network from the radio device is beneficial. 无需点到点系统中所需的大功率无线电装置,所述点到点系统采用直接与远处的集中式基站通话的远程设备。 High power radios without the desired point to point systems, point to point system is the direct distance and the centralized base station calls the remote device.

[0009] 网状网允许在设备间以及设备和数据收集器或桥或网关间形成用于消息收发的可替换路径,所述数据收集器或桥或网关连接至较高电平较高速度的数据总线。 [0009] Mesh allowed between devices and between devices and data collector or bridge or gateway forming an alternative path for the messaging, the data collector or a bridge or gateway to connect to a higher level of high speed data bus. 通过即使由于环境影响或干扰导致另一路径阻塞或恶化,也确保存在至少一条路径供消息使用,消息具有可替换的冗余路径增强了数据可靠性。 Even by the environmental impact or interference caused another path blocking or deterioration, but also to ensure that there is at least one path for the message using the message has redundant paths alternative enhanced data reliability.

[0010] —些网状网协议是确定性路由的,从而每个节点具有所分配的父节点和至少一个可替换的父节点。 [0010] - some mesh deterministic routing protocol so that each node has an assigned parent and at least one alternative parent. 在网状网层级中,和在人类的家庭中几乎一样,父母有孩子,孩子有孙子,等等。 In a mesh network hierarchy, and almost the same in the human family, parents with children, the children have grandchildren, and so on. 每个节点通过网络将其后代的消息中继至某一最终目的地,如网关。 Each node in the network to relay messages to the offspring of a final destination, such as a gateway. 父节点可以是电池供电或有限能量供电的设备。 Parent node can be battery powered or limited-energy powered devices. 节点具有的后代越多,其必须路由的业务就越多,进而直接增加了自身的功率消耗并缩短了电池寿命。 The more nodes having offspring, the more it must route traffic, and thus directly increase their own power consumption and shorten battery life.

[0011] 常规地,网状网中的所有节点采用相同质量的无线电装置(RF收发机),每个无线电装置具有相同的链路预算(发射功率-接收灵敏度)。 [0011] Conventionally, all nodes in the mesh of the same quality radio (RF transceiver), each having the same radio link budget (transmit power - receiving sensitivity). 为了跨越较长的距离,有时需要许多节点来中继消息。 For over longer distances, sometimes many nodes to relay messages. 在工业环境下,在特定位置安装无线电装置以形成这些链路在物理上是不可能的或者在环境上是禁止的。 In industrial environments, installed radio device in a particular position to form these links is physically impossible, or on the environment is prohibited. 需要一种在工业环境中使用无线网状网的改进的方法。 A need for an improved use of wireless mesh networks in an industrial environment method.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0012] —种无线网状网,包括:第一多个节点,包括具有第一通信范围的无线电装置;以及第二多个节点,包括具有不同的第二通信范围的无线电装置。 [0012] - kind of wireless mesh network, comprising: a first plurality of nodes, including a radio device having a first communication range; and a second plurality of nodes, comprising a radio communication apparatus having a second different range. 第一和第二多个节点能够与其通信范围内的任何其他节点通信。 Any other communication nodes within the communication range of the first and second plurality of nodes can therewith.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0013] 图1是示出了具有两个节点簇的传统网状网。 [0013] FIG. 1 is a diagram illustrating a conventional mesh network with two nodes in the cluster.

[0014] 图2是示出了无线网状网的图,其中,两个节点簇由具有无线电装置的节点互联,所述无线电装置利用较高增益的八木(Yagi)天线。 [0014] FIG. 2 is a diagram showing a wireless mesh network diagram, where nodes are interconnected by a two-node cluster with a radio device, the wireless device uses a high gain Yagi (Yagi) antenna.

[0015] 图3是示出了无线网状网的图,其中,两个节点簇由具有无线电装置的节点互联,所述无线电装置利用较高增益的八木天线。 [0015] FIG. 3 is a diagram illustrating a wireless mesh network diagram, where nodes are interconnected by a two-node cluster with a radio device, the wireless device uses a high-gain Yagi antenna.

[0016] 图3A是无线网状网的图,所述无线网状网与图3的网络相似,还包括位于两个簇之间的节点。 [0016] FIG. 3A is a diagram of a wireless mesh network, the wireless mesh network and is similar to FIG. 3, further comprising a node between the two clusters.

[0017] 图4是示出了无线网状网的图,其中,具有无线电装置的节点将三个节点簇冗余地连接在一起,所述无线电装置利用较高增益的八木天线。 [0017] FIG. 4 shows a wireless mesh network diagram, where nodes have radios will be three clusters of nodes connected together redundantly, the radio device utilizes a high gain Yagi antenna.

[0018] 图5是示出了无线网状网的图,所述无线网状网包括具有较大范围的无线电装置的节点。 [0018] FIG. 5 shows a wireless mesh network diagram, the wireless mesh network node comprises a radio device having a large range.

[0019] 图6是示出了无线网状网的图,所述无线网状网包括较长距离的链路,所述链路由在一端包括一对收发机在另一端包括单个收发机的节点构成。 [0019] FIG. 6 shows a wireless mesh network diagram, the wireless mesh network include long distance link, the link is made at one end includes a pair of transceivers at the other end comprises a single transceiver nodes.

具体实施方式 detailed description

[0020] 本发明提供了一种构建现场设备的网状网的方法,对于这种网状网,在传统技术可能需要附加节点或者可能无法呈现出网状网操作所需连接。 [0020] The present invention provides a method of constructing a field device mesh, for this mesh, in the conventional techniques may require additional nodes or may not exhibit mesh connection required for operation. 节点包括至少一个无线电装置和一个现场设备,尽管还可以具有多个无线电装置和现场设备。 Comprising at least one radio node apparatus and a field device, although this may have a plurality of radio devices and field devices. 许多节点安装在固定位置,节点的对应现场设备被设计为在所述固定位置操作。 The corresponding field device mounted in a fixed position of a number of nodes, the nodes are designed to operate at the fixed position. 当存在适于与现场设备一起操作的控制室时,控制室能够与至少一个节点通信,使得其能够通过网状网进行操作。 When the presence of the field device is adapted to operate in conjunction with the control room, the control room can be in communication with the at least one node, such that it can be operated by the mesh.

[0021] 为了使网状网正常工作,需要至所有节点的完全连接,使得数据能够去往/来自所有现场设备。 [0021] In order to mesh properly, it requires full connectivity to all nodes, so that data can be to / from all field devices. 不总是能够在工业环境中安装附加节点以中继来自远程节点的通信,因为这可能是不可行的或者在环境上禁止在工业环境中安置附加节点。 It is not always possible to install additional nodes in an industrial environment to relay communication from the remote node, because it may not be feasible or prohibit placement of additional nodes in an industrial environment in the environment. 通过引入具有增加的通信范围或专门的天线的较高级的节点,克服可能妨碍连接的障碍。 Higher node having a communication range by introducing additional or special antennas to overcome obstacles may prevent the connection.

[0022] 在以下层级中使用具有大功率的无线电节点的先前设计:本地节点向大功率无线电节点发送,大功率无线电节点接着与另一大功率无线电节点通信,该另一大功率无线电节点最终将消息传递至另一本地节点。 [0022] The use of high power radio node has the following hierarchy in the previous design: the local node sends high-power radio nodes, high-power radio node then end up with another high-power radio communication node, the node will be another high-power radio messaging to another local node. 典型地,大功率无线电节点使用不同的协议,或者甚至不同的通信介质。 Typically, high-power radio nodes using different protocols, or even different communication media. 该多层网络需要更多跳来发送消息,这是由于消息必须从较低等级发送至较高等级,跨越较高等级,然后从较高等级向下返回较低等级。 The multi-layer network hops required to send the message further, this is because the message must be sent from a lower level to a higher level, a higher level crossing, and then returns downwardly from the lower rank higher level. 在平坦网络中,不存在层,不需要层级。 In the flat network layer, there is no need not level. 每个节点能够与其无线电装置的范围内的任意其他节点直接通信。 Any node can be within range of each of its other radio nodes communicate directly. 由于存在较少的跳,导致较低的延迟、较高的可靠性和较低的功耗,因此性能更好。 Because there are fewer hops, resulting in lower latency, higher reliability and lower power consumption, better performance.

[0023] 传统上,所谓平坦网络仅使用具有相同链路预算的节点。 [0023] Traditionally, the so-called flat network using only the nodes have the same link budget. 为了跨越某一距离,可以安置多个节点对消息进行中继。 For over a certain distance, to accommodate multiple nodes relay the message. 另一可选方案是:在多层层级系统中使用所选的较高功率的无线电节点。 Another alternative is: the use of a higher power level selected in the multilayer system of radio nodes. 本发明允许大功率无线电节点与范围内的其他任意其他节点通信。 The present invention allows power to any other node within radio range communicate with other nodes. 得到的网络是平坦的,并且包括在工业环境中提供完全网络连接所需的较高级的无线电节点。 The resulting network is flat, and includes providing full network connection required for more advanced radio node in an industrial environment.

[0024] 图1示出了可以安装在设备或进行环境读取的位置附近成簇的工业环境中的节点。 [0024] FIG. 1 shows the location of the device can be installed in or near the cluster environment read industrial environments node. 簇10具有全向无线电节点12、14、16和18,全向无线电节点12、14、16和18分别具有范围R12, R14, R16和R 18o类似地,簇20具有全向无线电节点22、24、26和28,具有范围R22'R24、R26和R2S。 Cluster 10 having omnidirectional radio nodes 12, 14 and 18, respectively to the full radio nodes 14, 16 and 18 range R12, R14, R16 and R 18o Similarly, cluster 20 having omnidirectional radio nodes 22, 24 26 and 28, with a range R22'R24, R26 and R2S. 节点可以完成向其范围内任何其他节点的传输。 Node can complete the transfer of any other node within its range. 节点12可以向节点16和18发送传输;节点14可以向节点16和18发送,等等。 Node 12 to node 16 and 18 may send transmissions; node 14 can send to the node 16 and 18, and so on. 节点12和14间不存在直接链路。 Nodes 12 and 14 there is no direct link. 通过其他节点路由在这些节点间发送的消息。 Message routing through other nodes among these nodes send. 例如,从节点12到节点14的消息可以首先从节点12到达节点16然后到达节点14,或者可以从节点12到达节点18再到达节点14。 For example, a message from node 12 to node 14 may first node from the node 12 to the node 16 and then to 14, or can be reached from the node 12 to the node 18 node 14. 每当消息通过另一节点中继时,发生跳转。 Whenever a message through another relay node, jump occurred. 延迟与完成传输所需的跳数直接关联。 Transmission delay and complete the required number of hops directly related. 该网络具有以下问题:由于网络间不存在中继消息的节点,无法在簇10和20之间发送消息。 The network has the following problems: Since there is no network to relay messages between the node can not send messages between the clusters 10 and 20. 在工业环境中,可能无法在中间位置安装节点。 In industrial environments, it may not be installed in the middle node. 这种情况可能是多种原因引起的。 This may be a variety of causes. 可能在物理上无法在中间位置安置工作的无线电装置;中间位置可能是敏感/危险区域,安装许可节点的成本高昂;或者系统的所有者可能不具有位置间的土地所有权,等。 Radio may not be physically placed in jobs in the middle; an intermediate position may be sensitive / dangerous area, the high cost of installing the license node; the owner or the system may not have land ownership between positions, and the like.

[0025] 图2示出了包括全向无线电节点32、34、36和38的簇30以及全向无线电节点52、54、56和58的簇50的无线网状网,其中,与图1的网络相类似地配置簇30和50。 [0025] FIG. 2 shows a cluster including omnidirectional radio nodes 32, 34, 38 and 30 as well as to the whole cluster node 52,54,56 and 58 radio wireless mesh 50, wherein FIG. 1 networks similarly configured clusters 30 and 50. 附加地,该网状网包括簇30中的节点42和簇50中的节点62,节点42和62采用具有八木天线的无线电装置,所述八木天线分别具有覆盖区域R42和R62。 Additionally, the mesh network includes 42 and 50 nodes in the cluster nodes in the cluster 30 62, 42 and 62 using radio node apparatus having Yagi antenna, the Yagi antennas have coverage R42 and R62. 长4.5”直径为3.5”的小型的2.4GHz八木天线能够提供1dBi的前向增益,而对于标准偶极天线(360度全向)天线,55度波束宽度对应仅仅2.1dBi的增益。 Long 4.5 "diameter 3.5" of small 2.4GHz Yagi antenna can provide forward gain 1dBi, and for the standard dipole antenna (360-degree omni-directional) antenna beam width corresponding to 55 degrees just 2.1dBi gain.

[0026] 图3示出了该网络,并示意了全部范围。 [0026] FIG. 3 illustrates the network, and motioned for the entire range. 针对每一必要传输,天线选择和节点布置允许至少一条路径。 Necessary for each transmission antenna selector and node arrangement allows at least one path. 例如,通过从节点72跳至节点82跳至节点102跳至节点98,消息可以从节点72被发送至节点98。 For example, from node 72 through node 82 Skip Skip Skip node 102 node 98, message may be sent from node 72 to node 98. 应答消息的返回路径可以遵循该相同的反向路径。 The reply message can follow the same path to return to the reverse path. 如果两个节点能够在一个方向上通信,根据互易原理它们能够在相反方向上通信。 If two nodes can communicate, according to the reciprocity principle they can communicate in the opposite direction in a direction.

[0027] 如果使用不同的返回路径来实现双向通信,网络也能够工作。 [0027] If a different path to return to two-way communication network can operate. 例如,通过从节点98跳至节点94跳至节点102跳至节点82跳至节点72,消息可以从节点98被发送至节点72。 E.g., by 72, a message can be sent from node 98 node 94 Skip Skip Skip node 102 jumps to node 82 from node 98 to node 72 node.

[0028] 这些高增益天线的策略性布置和使用提高了针对所述节点的链路预算,并允许它们实现较长范围的连接而不必在簇70和簇90之间安置若干附加节点。 [0028] strategic arrangement and the use of these high-gain antennas to improve the link budget for the node, and allow them to achieve longer range connections between clusters without cluster 70 and 90 placed a number of additional nodes. 基于安装网状网的物理环境,可以使用多种不同类型的天线。 Based on the physical environment to install the mesh, you can use a variety of different types of antennas. 当位置妨碍附加节点的安装时,该布置是特别有用的。 When the position prejudice to install additional nodes, this arrangement is particularly useful.

[0029] 在图3所示的示例中,存在三个范围要考虑。 [0029] In the example shown in Figure 3, there are three areas to be considered. 采用八木天线的两个节点间的八木-八木范围大于采用八木天线的节点和采用2dBi标准偶极全向天线的节点之间的八木-全向范围。 Yagi Yagi antenna using two nodes - Yagi Yagi antenna range is greater than the use of nodes and uses standard 2dBi omnidirectional dipole Yagi antennas between nodes - omnidirectional range. 继而,八木-全向范围大于采用2dBi标准偶极全向天线的两个节点间的全向-全向范围。 Then, Yagi - omnidirectional range greater than using standard dipole 2dBi omnidirectional omnidirectional antennas between two nodes - omnidirectional range.

[0030] 图3A示出了3个不同范围。 [0030] FIG. 3A shows three different ranges. 图3A所示的无线网状网与图3所示的网络类似,只不过附加了位于簇70和90中间的节点101。 Wireless mesh network shown in FIG. 3A and FIG. 3 is similar, except that an additional 70 and 90 located in the middle of the cluster node 101. 节点101是全向无线电节点,在该示例中,节点101距簇70和90足够远,以致全向-全向天线范围不够大,不允许节点101与簇70的全向节点72、74、76、78或簇90的全向节点92、94、96、98中的任一个之间的直接通信。 Node 101 is omnidirectional radio node, in this example, the node 101 from the tufts 70 and 90 far enough so that the whole - the omnidirectional antenna are not large enough, and the cluster 101 does not allow the node 70 to the node 72, 74 of the full , direct communication to any one of 78 or 90 cluster nodes 92,94,96,98 omnidirectional between.

[0031] 节点82和101的组合的八木-全向范围RS2/1Q1足以提供簇70和节点101间的链路。 [0031] 82 and the combination of node 101 Yagi - Full range sufficient to RS2 / 1Q1 provides link clusters of 70 and node 101. 类似地,节点102和101的组合的八木-全向范围R1Q2/1Q1足以提供簇90和101间的链路。 Similarly, the combination of nodes 102 and 101 of Yagi - Full range sufficient to R1Q2 / 1Q1 clusters provide a link between 90 and 101. 节点82和102的组合的八木-八木范围大于八木-全向范围,并且能够提供簇70和90间的直接链路。 A combination of 82 and 102 nodes Yagi - range greater than Yagi Yagi - omni-directional range, and can provide a direct link clusters of 70 and 90.

[0032] 图4示出了具有节点簇110、130和150的无线网状网,以装备八木天线的节点118、122、138、142、158和162将节点簇110、130和150冗余地连接在一起。 [0032] FIG. 4 shows a wireless mesh network having a node cluster 110, 130 and 150, the node equipment Yagi antenna 118,122,138,142,158 and 162 clusters of nodes 110, 130 and 150 redundantly They are connected together. 省去了全向无线电节点112、114、116、132、134、136、152、154和156的范围边线。 Eliminating the need for omnidirectional radio range of nodes and edges 112,114,116,132,134,136,152,154 156. 每个节点具有足以向其簇内的其他节点发送而无法在簇间发送的增益。 Each node has sufficient send and can not be sent between the other nodes in the cluster to its cluster within the gain. 如果干扰或噪声破坏了连接簇110和130的链路之一(例如,节点118和142间的链路),网络的完整连接仍可以保持。 If interference or noise destroys the link 110 and one (for example, 118 and 142 of the link node) 130 connected to a cluster, complete the network connection can still be maintained. 当诸如干扰等因素妨碍节点118和142间的直接链路时,可以通过从节点118跳至节点112跳至节点116跳至节点122跳至节点162跳至节点156跳至节点154跳至节点158跳至节点138跳至节点132跳至节点134跳至节点142,来发送消息。 When such interference and other factors hinder direct link between nodes 118 and 142, you can skip node 112 from node 118 node 116 Skip Skip Skip nodes 162 nodes 122 nodes 156 Skip Skip Skip Node node 154 158 Skip to node 138 node 132 Skip Skip Skip node 134 node 142 to send a message.

[0033] 八木天线具有极强的方向性,因此为了沿期望方向通信必须对它们进行定向。 [0033] Yagi antenna is highly directional, so in order to communicate desired direction they must be directed. 节点122未指向节点112,因此它们无法直接通信。 No node 122 to node 112, and therefore they can not communicate directly. 节点122和156具有中间范围,因为它们形成八木-全向链路。 Nodes 122 and 156 have an intermediate range, because they form Yagi - omni-directional link. 它们可以或者可以不与彼此直接通信。 They may or may not directly communicate with each other. 节点158未指向节点156,因此它们无法直接通信。 No node 158 to node 156, and therefore they can not communicate directly. 节点142未指向节点132,因此它们无法直接通信。 No node 142 to node 132, and therefore they can not communicate directly.

[0034] 图5示出了具有大范围无线电节点182和大范围无线电节点202的无线网状网,所述大范围无线电节点182在簇170中具有覆盖区R182,所述大范围无线电节点202在簇190中具有覆盖区R2Q2。 [0034] FIG. 5 shows a wireless mesh network having a large range of the radio range of the radio node 182 and node 202 is large, a large range of the radio node 182 has a coverage area R182 in the cluster 170, the node 202 in a large range of the radio cluster 190 has a coverage area R2Q2. 可以以多种方式增加节点182和202的范围。 In various ways to increase the range of the nodes 182 and 202. 一种方法是安装具有高功率发射机的无线电装置和更灵敏的接收机,以实现更高的链路预算。 One way is to install a high-power radio transmitter and receiver more sensitive to achieve higher link budget. 另一种方法是使用诸如M頂O等技术来增加范围。 Another method is to use techniques such as M Top O to increase the range. M頂O技术通过以空间分集提供增益来创造更高的链路预算。 M Top O technology by providing spatial diversity gain to create a higher link budget. 使用两个或更多个发射机同时从一个无线电装置发送相同的信号,并且对在另一无线电装置的两个或更多个单独的接收机上接收的信号进行相关。 Use two or more transmitters simultaneously transmit the same from a radio signal, and on the other two radios or more separate receiver for receiving a signal related. 真实的Mnro技术具有多个接收机和多个发射机,在链路的两端具有多个天线。 Real Mnro technology has a plurality of receivers and a plurality of transmitters, at the ends of the link having multiple antennas. 然而,为了获益,并非全部节点都需要被升级为Mnro技术。 However, in order to benefit, not all nodes need to be upgraded to Mnro technology.

[0035] 图6中所示的更简单的方法在节点210中使用多个收发机(天线222和224)并且在其他节点212中使用单个收发机(天线226),在其他节点214中使用单个收发机(天线228)。 Simpler method shown in [0035] Figure 6 using a plurality of transceivers (222 and antenna 224) in the node 210 and a single transceiver (antenna 226) at the other node 212, a single node in the other 214 transceiver (antenna 228). 这种布置极大的有益于信号强度。 This arrangement greatly beneficial to the signal strength. 当多个收发机节点210接收信号时,其使用单独天线上单独的收发机进行接收。 When 210 receives signals from a plurality transceiver node, using separate antennas on a single transceiver to receive. 由于天线彼此分开,从发送节点发送的信号到每根天线具有稍微不同的路径。 Since the antenna separated from each other, the signal transmitted from the sending node to each of the antennas have slightly different paths. 由于路径损耗的变化,节点210可以挑选哪个接收机以最佳质量接收到信号。 Due to path loss changes, a receiver node 210 may choose which to the best quality of the received signal. 当发送信号时,节点210接着可以选择使用该最佳天线,来向原发送节点发回信号,所述最佳天线此时具有最佳路径。 When transmitting a signal, node 210 may then choose to use the best antenna to the original sending node sends back a signal, the optimum antenna at this time with the best path. 实质上,改进的接收将节点212的范围从R212 i增加至R212 2,对于无线电装置214,从R214:增加至R214 2。 In essence, the improved reception range of the node 212 to increase from R212 i R212 2, the radio device 214, from R214: increased to R214 2. 由于在任意时间选择最佳路径的能力,改进还为节点210提供了更大的范围R21。 Because of the ability to choose at any time the best path, but also to improve the node 210 provides more scope for R21. . 该技术通过信号和路径选择实现了增益。 The technology and signal routing to achieve a gain.

[0036] 传统网状网由全部具有相同链路预算的相同质量的节点构成。 [0036] Traditional mesh consists of nodes all have the same quality of the same link budget. 本发明描述了网状网,其中某些节点具有较高级的无线电装置或较高级的天线。 The present invention describes a mesh network, wherein some of the nodes having a higher radio antenna or higher. 由于能够以较少的跳数发送消息,减少了延迟。 Because with fewer hops to send a message, reducing delays. 这提高了网状网的性能。 This improves performance mesh network. 使用变化的天线设计(例如,1dBi八木对2dBi偶极),使用较高功率的发射机(例如,+15dBm对OdBm),使用较高灵敏度的接收机(例如,-110dBn^t-90dBm)或者以上组合,可以实现较高的链路预算。 Using varying antenna design (e.g., 1dBi Yagi 2dBi dipole pair), the use of high power transmitters (e.g., + 15dBm of OdBm), using a high sensitivity receiver (e.g., -110dBn ^ t-90dBm) or or in combination, can achieve higher link budget. 还可以使用除八木天线之外的方向性天线,如扇区天线或抛物线天线。 You can also use except Yagi directional antenna, such as a sector antenna or parabolic antenna.

[0037] 虽然已参照优选实施例对本发明进行了描述,然而所属领域技术人员将意识到,可以在不背离本发明的精神和范围的前提下在形式和细节方面做出修改。 [0037] Although reference to preferred embodiments of the present invention has been described, however skilled in the art will appreciate that modifications may be made in form and detail without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention premise.

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Classifications
International ClassificationH04L12/28, H04W84/18
Cooperative ClassificationH04W84/18
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