Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberCN101647238 B
Publication typeGrant
Application numberCN 200780051004
PCT numberPCT/US2007/003304
Publication date8 May 2013
Filing date7 Feb 2007
Priority date7 Feb 2007
Also published asCN101647238A, EP2115961A1, EP2115961B1, US8432820, US20100074194, WO2008097221A1
Publication number200780051004.0, CN 101647238 B, CN 101647238B, CN 200780051004, CN-B-101647238, CN101647238 B, CN101647238B, CN200780051004, CN200780051004.0, PCT/2007/3304, PCT/US/2007/003304, PCT/US/2007/03304, PCT/US/7/003304, PCT/US/7/03304, PCT/US2007/003304, PCT/US2007/03304, PCT/US2007003304, PCT/US200703304, PCT/US7/003304, PCT/US7/03304, PCT/US7003304, PCT/US703304
Inventors刘航, 罗琳
Applicant汤姆逊许可公司
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: SIPO, Espacenet
A radio and bandwidth aware routing metric for multi-radio multi-channel multi-hop wireless networks
CN 101647238 B
Abstract  translated from Chinese
一种用于建立数据遍历无线网络所用的双向端对端路由的方法和系统,包括:计算链路度量函数;使用所述计算出的链路度量函数计算量化链路度量函数;确定第一信道变化加权函数;确定第二信道变化加权函数;使用所述第一信道变化加权函数和所述第二信道变化加权函数计算数据遍历所述无线网络所用的多个端对端路由中的每一条路由的量化度量;和基于所述多个端对端路由中的每一条路由的所述量化度量,选择数据遍历所述无线网络所用的所述双向端对端路由。 A method and system for establishing data traversing the wireless network with two-way end to end routes include: calculation of link metric function; using the calculated link metric function calculates the quantization link metric function; determining a first channel changes in weighting function; determining a second channel change weighting function; using the first channel change the weighting function and the second channel change function to calculate the weighted-end routing data traversing the plurality of wireless networks used in each route quantitative measure; and based on the plurality of the quantization-end route metrics for each route, select the data to traverse the wireless network used by the bidirectional-end routing. 同时描述了在无线网络中被配置用于参与建立数据遍历所述无线网络所用的双向端对端路由的一个节点。 At the same time he describes the wireless network is configured to participate in the establishment of a node data traversing the wireless network used two-way end to end routes.
Claims(32)  translated from Chinese
1.一种用于建立数据遍历无线网络所用的端对端路由的方法,所述方法包括: 计算链路代价函数,其中所述链路代价函数在链路代价函数计算中使用介质访问控制和物理层上的协议开销和数据尺寸; 使用所计算的链路代价函数计算量化的链路代价函数; 确定第一信道变化加权函数,所述第一信道变化加权函数取决于被分配给沿所述端对端路由的两个连续链路的信道; 确定第二信道变化加权函数,所述第二信道变化加权函数取决于被分配给沿所述端对端路由的两个连续链路的信道; 通过将所述第一信道变化加权函数和所述第二信道变化加权函数应用到量化后的链路代价函数来计算数据遍历所述无线网络所用的多个端对端路由中的每一条路由的量化度量,其中所述多个端对端路由包括所述无线网络中同一组节点之间的路由;和基于所述多个端对端路由中的每一条路由的量化度量,选择数据遍历所述无线网络所用的多个端对端路由中的一条路由。 1. A method for establishing a data traversing-end routing wireless network using the method, the method comprising: calculating link cost function, wherein the link cost function using the MAC in the calculation of the link cost function and protocol overhead and the data size of the physical layer; link cost function is calculated using the calculated quantized link cost function; determining a first channel change the weighting function, the first channel change depending on the weighting function is assigned to the direction of the Two successive link-end routing channel; determining a second channel change the weighting function, the second channel change the weighting function depends on two is assigned to a continuous route along the end-link channel; By the first channel change the weighting function and the second channel change the weighting function is applied to the quantized link cost function to compute a plurality of end to end routing data traversing the wireless network used in each route quantification measure, wherein the plurality of end to end routes include routes between the wireless network, the same set of nodes; and based on the quantification of the plurality of end-to-measure for each route of a route, select the data traversing the a plurality of end to end routing wireless network used in a route.
2.根据权利要求1的方法,其中所述无线网络是一个无线网状网络。 2. A method according to claim 1, wherein the wireless network is a wireless mesh network.
3.根据权利要求1的方法,其中所述多个端对端路由在所述无线网络中不同信道上的同一组节点之间,并且包括多个无线接口,此外其中所述多个端对端路由中的每一条路由都是双向的。 3. The method of the same group between nodes on different channels wherein the plurality of end to end routing in the wireless network, and includes a plurality of wireless interfaces claim, further wherein said plurality of end- routing of each route are bidirectional.
4.根据权利要求1的方法,进一步包括: 确定介质访问控制和物理层上的协议开销; 确定数据量; 定期确定链路数据速率; 定期确定数据包差错率; 确定信道利用率的加权函数;和确定所述数据包差错率的加权函数。 4. The method according to claim 1, further comprising: determining a MAC and physical layer protocol overhead; determining the amount of data; periodic determination of link data rate; periodically determine packet error rate; determining a channel weighting function utilization; and determining the weighting function of the data packet error rate.
5.根据权利要求4的方法,进一步包括定期地估算信道利用率。 5. The method according to claim 4, further comprising estimating channel utilization periodically.
6.根据权利要求5的方法,进一步包括: 确定信道测量周期;和定期地确定信道占用时间。 6. The method according to claim 5, further comprising: determining channel measurement period; and periodically determining channel occupancy time.
7.根据权利要求1的方法,进一步包括: 确定量化等级数;和确定量化因子。 7. The method according to claim 1, further comprising: determining the number of quantization levels; and determining the quantization factor.
8.根据权利要求2的方法,其中所述无线网状网络是一个先验网络。 8. The method according to claim 2, wherein said wireless mesh network is a network priori.
9.根据权利要求8的方法,进一步包括: 发布所述计算出的链路代价函数的结果作为控制消息中的状态信息;和使用所述计算出的链路代价函数来产生和维护路由表。 9. The method of claim 8, further comprising: publish the results of the calculated link cost function as a control message status information; and using the calculated link cost function to generate and maintain routing tables.
10.根据权利要求9的方法,进一步包括如果所述计算出的链路代价函数的所述结果大于预先确定的阈值,则立即发布所述结果作为控制消息中的状态信息。 10. The method of claim 9, further comprising the result if the calculated link cost function is greater than a predetermined threshold value, then immediately release the results as a control message status information.
11.根据权利要求2的方法,其中所述无线网状网络是一个按需网络。 11. The method according to claim 2, wherein said wireless mesh network is an on-demand network.
12.根据权利要求11的方法, 进一步包括:发起路由发现;和使用所述计算出的链路代价函数来产生和维护路由表。 12. The method according to claim 11, further comprising: initiating a route discovery; and using the calculated link cost function to generate and maintain routing tables.
13.根据权利要求2的方法,其中所述无线网状网络是一个混合网状网络。 13. The method according to claim 2, wherein said wireless mesh network is a hybrid mesh network.
14.根据权利要求2的方法,其中所述无线网状网络是基于树状拓扑。 14. The method according to claim 2, wherein said wireless mesh network is based on a tree topology.
15.根据权利要求14的方法,进一步包括: 执行发送一个根节点声明和发起路由发现其中的一种,包括初始化的度量字段和序号字段; 更新所述度量字段; 更新所述序号字段; 更新一个路由表;和建立所述双向端对端路由。 15. The method according to claim 14, further comprising: performing a root node sends a statement and initiate route discovery one of them, including the initialization of the metric field and number field; updating the metric field; updating the Sequence Number field; updating a routing table; and the establishment of a bi-end route.
16.一种用于建立数据遍历无线网络所用的端对端路由的系统,所述系统包括: 用于计算链路代价函数的装置,其中所述计算链路代价函数的装置在链路代价函数计算中使用介质访问控制和物理层上的协议开销和数据尺寸; 用于使用所计算的链路代价函数计算量化的链路代价函数的装置; 用于确定第一信道变化加权函数的装置,所述第一信道变化加权函数取决于被分配给沿所述端对端路由的两个连续链路的信道; 用于确定第二信道变化加权函数的装置,所述第二信道变化加权函数取决于被分配给沿所述端对端路由的两个连续链路的信道; 用于通过将所述第一信道变化加权函数和所述第二信道变化加权函数应用到量化后的链路代价函数来计算数据遍历所述无线网络所用的多个端对端路由中的每一条路由的量化度量的装置,其中所述多个端对端路由包括所述无线网络中同一组节点之间的路由;以及用于基于所述多个端对端路由中的每一条路由的量化度量,选择数据遍历所述无线网络所用的多个双向端对端路由中的一条路由的装置。 16. A method for establishing a data to traverse a wireless network used by end to end routing system, the system comprising: means for calculating a link cost function, the cost function wherein the link means of said calculated link cost function used in the calculation protocol overhead and data size MAC and physical layer; for link cost function computing device using the calculated quantized link cost function; determining a first channel change the weighting function device for the said first channel variation depends on two weighting functions are assigned to the route along the end-to-continuous link channel; the second channel change means for determining the weighting function, the second channel change depending on the weighting function is assigned to the end-routed along two consecutive link channel; for by the first channel change change weighting function and the second channel weighting function to the quantized link cost function computing a plurality of end to end routing data traversing the wireless networks used in each route quantitative measure apparatus, wherein the plurality of end to end routes include routes between the wireless network, the same set of nodes; and Based Quantitative metrics for the plurality of end-routing of each route, and selecting data traversing the plurality of bi-end routing wireless network used in the device of a route.
17.根据权利要求16的系统,其中所述无线网络是一个无线网状网络。 17. The system of claim 16, wherein the wireless network is a wireless mesh network.
18.根据权利要求16的系统,其中所述多个端对端路由在所述无线网络中不同信道上的同一组节点之间,并且包括多个无线接口,此外其中所述多个端对端路由中的每一条路由都是双向的。 18. The system of claim 16, the same set of nodes between different channels wherein the plurality of to-end routing in the wireless network, and includes a plurality of wireless interfaces, and further wherein the plurality of end- routing of each route are bidirectional.
19.根据权利要求16的系统,进一步包括: 用于确定介质访问控制和物理层上的协议开销的装置; 用于确定数据量的装置; 用于定期确定链路数据速率的装置; 用于定期确定数据包差错率的装置; 用于确定信道利用率的加权函数的装置;和用于确定所述数据包差错率的加权函数的装置。 19. The system of claim 16, further comprising: means for determining the protocol overhead of MAC and physical layer device; determining an amount of data; means for periodically determining link data rate; means for periodically determine the packet error rate; means for determining a channel utilization weighting function; and a means for determining the packet error rate of the weighting function.
20.根据权利要求19的系统,进一步包括用于定期地估算信道利用率的装置。 20. The system of claim 19, further comprising means for periodically estimating the channel utilization.
21.根据权利要求20的系统,进一步包括: 用于确定信道测量周期的装置;和用于定期地确定信道占用时间的装置。 21. The system of claim 20, further comprising: means for determining channel measurement period; and means for periodically determining channel occupancy time means.
22.根据权利要求16的系统,进一步包括: 用于确定量化等级数的装置;和用于确定量化因子的装置。 22. The system of claim 16, further comprising: means for determining the number of quantization levels; and means for determining the quantizing factors apparatus.
23.根据权利要求17的系统,其中所述无线网状网络是一个先验网络。 23. The system of claim 17, wherein said wireless mesh network is a network priori.
24.根据权利要求23的系统,进一步包括: 用于发布所述计算出的链路代价函数的结果作为控制消息中的状态信息的装置;和使用所述计算出的链路代价函数来产生和维护路由表的装置。 And using the calculated link cost function to generate and; for publishing the calculated link cost function as a result of device control message status information: 24. The system of claim 23, further comprising maintenance device routing table.
25.根据权利要求24的系统,进一步包括如果所述计算出的链路代价函数的所述结果大于预先确定的阈值,立即发布所述结果作为控制消息中的状态信息的装置。 25. The system of claim 24, further comprising the result if the calculated link cost function is greater than a predetermined threshold value, immediately publish the result means as a control message status information.
26.根据权利要求17的系统,其中所述无线网状网络是一个按需网络。 26. The system of claim 17, wherein said wireless mesh network is an on-demand network.
27.根据权利要求26的系统,进一步包括: 用于发起路由发现的装置;和使用所述计算出的链路代价函数来产生和维护路由表的装置。 27. The system of claim 26, further comprising: means for initiating the route discovery; and using the calculated link cost function to generate and maintain the device routing table.
28.根据权利要求17的系统,其中所述无线网状网络是一个混合网状网络。 28. A system according to claim 17, wherein said wireless mesh network is a hybrid mesh network.
29.根据权利要求17的系统,其中所述无线网状网络是基于树状拓扑的。 29. The system of claim 17, wherein said wireless mesh network is based on a tree topology.
30.根据权利要求29的系统,进一步包括: 用于执行发送一个根节点声明和发起路由发现中的一种,包括初始化度量字段和序号字段的装置; 用于更新所述度量字段的装置; 用于更新所述序号字段的装置;和用于更新一个路由表的装置。 30. The system of claim 29, further comprising: means for performing a root node sends a statement and initiate a route discovery, including device initialization metrics field and the serial number field; means for updating the metric field; use means for updating the number field; and a means for updating a routing table.
31.无线网络中被配置用于参与建立数据遍历所述无线网络的双向端对端路由的一个节点,包括: 用于定期地测量所述节点的每个信道的质量和利用率的装置,每个节点具有多个信道; 使用所述测量出的所述每个信道的质量和利用率来定期计算链路代价函数的装置,其中所述计算链路代价函数的装置在链路代价函数计算中使用介质访问控制和物理层上的协议开销和数据尺寸; 用于使用所计算的链路代价函数计算量化的链路代价函数的装置; 用于确定第一信道变化加权函数的装置,所述第一信道变化加权函数取决于被分配给沿所述端对端路由的两个连续链路的信道; 用于确定第二信道变化加权函数的装置,所述第二信道变化加权函数取决于被分配给沿所述端对端路由的两个连续链路的信道; 用于通过将所述第一信道变化加权函数和所述第二信道变化加权函数应用到量化后的链路代价函数来计算数据遍历所述无线网络所用的多个端对端路由中的每一条路由的量化度量的装置,其中所述多个端对端路由包括所述无线网络中同一组节点之间的路由;通过所述计算出的路由度量定期地更新路由表的装置;以及基于所述路由表,选择数据遍历所述无线网络所用的双向端对端路由的装置。 31. The wireless network is configured to create a node involved in data traversing the wireless network bidirectional end-routing, comprising: means the quality and the utilization of each channel of the node periodically measured for each a node having a plurality of channels; means for the link cost function of the quality and efficiency of the use of the measure is calculated for each channel periodically, wherein the means for calculating link cost function in the link cost function calculation using the protocol overhead and data size MAC and physical layer; for link cost function calculation quantized link cost function calculated using an apparatus; means for determining a change in the weighting function first channel, said first a channel variation depends on two weighting functions are assigned to the route along the end-to-continuous link channel; the second channel change means for determining the weighting function, the second channel change depending on the weighting function is assigned for two consecutive links along the end-to-channel route; for by changes in the first channel weighting function and the second channel change the weighting function is applied to the quantized link cost function to calculate the data traversing the wireless network used by more than one-end routing of each route quantitative measure apparatus, wherein the plurality of end to end routes include routes between the wireless network, the same set of nodes; by the The routing metric is calculated periodically update the routing table; and means based on the routing table, select the data to traverse the wireless network used by two-way end to end routing apparatus.
32.根据权利要求31的节点,其中所述节点具有至少一个无线接口。 32. The node according to claim 31, wherein said at least one node having a radio interface.
Description  translated from Chinese

用于多无线收发装置多信道多跳无线网络的无线收发装置和带宽感知路由度量 Multi-radio devices for multi-channel multi-hop wireless network radio device and bandwidth aware routing metrics

技术领域 Technical Field

[0001] 本发明涉及用于无线网络的无线收发装置和流量感知路由度量,特别是涉及一种用于选择数据遍历无线网状网络的路由或路线的方法和装置,其中一个或多个节点具有多个无线收发装置,每个无线收发装置在一个或多个不同的信道上运行,或者其中一个或多个节点具有在一个或多个信道上运行的单个无线收发装置。 [0001] The present invention relates to a wireless network radio devices and traffic-aware routing metrics, particularly to a method and apparatus for selecting data to traverse a wireless mesh network route or routes, which have one or more nodes a plurality of wireless transmitters and receivers, each radio transceiver device in one or more different channels running, or in which one or more nodes have a single radio device running one or more channels.

技术背景 BACKGROUND

[0002] 目前,大多数的网状路由协议(mesh routing protocol)使用最小跳跃数作为度量(metric)来决定选择哪条路线(path)/路由(route)。 [0002] Currently, most of the mesh routing protocol (mesh routing protocol) using the minimum number of hops as a metric (metric) to decide which route (path) / route (route). 这里使用的“/”表示相同或相似成分的可替换的名称。 "/" Denote the same or similar components of alternative names used herein. 使用这种方式,不考虑无线链路(radio link)的质量、链路的流量负载和有效带宽。 This way, the traffic load is not considered a wireless link (radio link) quality, and the effective bandwidth of the link. 选择具有最小跳跃数的路由来转发数据包或帧形式的数据。 Route with the least number of hops to forward packets or frames in the form of data. 然而,由于最小跳跃数路由总是会包括远程节点之间的无线链路,并且路由上的链路质量不好,因此最小跳跃数路由可能具有不良的性能。 However, since the minimum hop count routing always includes a wireless link between the remote node and link quality is not good on the route, thereby minimizing the number of hops routes may have poor performance. 具有长物理跨度的无线链路会产生数据的丢失,导致大量重发和低的物理层数据速率。 Wireless link with long span will produce physical data loss, resulting in a large number of retransmissions and lower physical layer data rate. 许多无线收发装置(radio)传输系统,例如IEEE802.11和IEEE 802.16无线收发装置,根据链路质量来调节物理层的数据速率。 Many wireless transceiver (radio) transmission systems, such as IEEE802.11 and IEEE 802.16 radio devices, link quality is adjusted according to the physical layer data rate. 与选择具有较多跳跃但链路质量更好的路由相比,这样实际上导致吞吐量不良并且降低了网络的利用效率。 And select the link with more jump but better quality compared to the route, which in fact leads to poor throughput and reduced network efficiency.

[0003] 在先有技术中,已经使用命名为“期望传输次数”(ETX)的度量作为路由度量。 [0003] In the prior art, it has used the name "desired transmission frequency" (ETX) metric as a routing metric. ETX估算经由无线链路成功发送数据包所需的MAC层传输的期望次数。 ETX estimate the expected number of packets needed for MAC layer transmission via radio link was successfully sent. 选择沿着路线的所有链路的ETX估算之和最小的路由(ETX代价最小的路线)。 Select estimate of all links along the route and the shortest route ETX (ETX least cost route). ETX会捕捉到链路丢包率的影响,但不考虑链路的传输速率差异和有效带宽。 ETX captures the impact of link loss rate, but does not consider the different rates and the effective bandwidth of the link.

[0004] 据另一个报导的先有技术方案,已经提出命名为“期望传输时间”(ETT)的度量,通过考虑到链路传输速率的差异来改善ETX。 [0004] According to another reported prior art scheme, it has been proposed the name "a desired transmission time" (ETT) metric, by taking into account the differences in transmission rate to improve the link ETX. 链路的ETT被定义为成功地在链路上发送数据包所需的期望的MAC层持续时间。 ETT link is defined as successfully send packets required expectations on the link MAC layer duration. 路由的代价是沿着路由的所有链路的ETT之总和。 ETT is the sum of the cost of routing all links along the route. ETT考虑到链路传输速率的差异的影响。 Taking into account the impact of ETT link transmission rate difference. 然而,它不能完全捕捉到链路的流量负载和有效带宽以及网络中由于共享介质产生的串扰的影响。 However, it does not fully capture the impact of crosstalk link traffic load and the available bandwidth and network generated due to shared media. 在路由中可能选择了重负载链路,使得这些重负载链路的负载更多而发生拥塞。 In the route may choose to link the heavy load, so that the load these heavy loads of more links and congestion occurs.

[0005] 在先前的相关申请中,描述了加权的无线收发装置和流量负载感知(weightedradio and traffic load aware (WRALA))路由度量。 [0005] In a previous related application, describes a radio transceiver and a weighted traffic load sensing (weightedradio and traffic load aware (WRALA)) routing metric. 所述度量捕捉到网状网络中无线链路各个方面的影响,包括链路的无线传输速率、丢包率、流量负载和有效宽带以及由于网络中共享介质产生的串扰的影响。 It captures the impact of various aspects of a wireless mesh network links, including links affected by the wireless transmission rate, the packet loss rate, traffic load and efficient broadband network and the crosstalk due to the generation of the shared medium metrics.

[0006] 然而,上述任何一种路由度量都没有考虑到多无线收发装置(mult1-radio)多信道(mult1-channel)对路由性能的影响。 [0006] However, any of the above routing metrics do not consider the impact of multi-radio devices (mult1-radio) multi-channel (mult1-channel) routing performance. 在网状网络中,一个节点/网点可以配置有多个无线收发装置,并且每个无线收发装置都能够在不同的信道/频率上运行,从而提高网络容量。 In a mesh network, a node / network can be configured with a plurality of radio transmitters and receivers, and each radio devices are capable of running on a different channel / frequency, thereby increasing network capacity. 与具有单个无线收发装置的节点不同,多无线收发装置多信道节点能够在一个信道上接收数据包的同时,在另一个信道上发送数据包。 And the node having a single radio device different from the multi-channel simultaneous multi-node wireless transceiver apparatus capable of receiving a packet in one channel, transmitting data packets on another channel. 因此,优选的是选择一个具有多无线收发装置的中继节点,其中每个无线收发装置在不同的信道上运行。 Therefore, it is preferable to select a relay node with multiple radio apparatus, wherein each wireless transceiver devices operating on different channels. 此外,即使一个节点具有单个无线收发装置,具有一个能够在多信道上运行的无线收发装置的节点可以在一个信道上接收数据,然后切换到另一个信道上转发/中继/发送该数据。 In addition, even if a node having a single radio device having a node capable of running on a multichannel radio device can receive data on one channel, then switch to another channel to forward / relay / transmit the data.

[0007] 有利的是有一个用于选择数据遍历网状网络的路由的系统,该系统使用的度量不但感知流量和带宽,而且捕捉到具有多个无线收发装置的一个或多个节点的影响,其中每个无线收发装置在不同的信道上运行,或其中一个或多个节点具有在多个信道上运行的单个无线收发装置。 [0007] Advantageously there is one for selecting the data to traverse the mesh network routing system, the system uses only measure perceived traffic and bandwidth, but also to capture the impact of one or more nodes having multiple radio devices, wherein each wireless transceiver devices operating on different channels, or wherein one or more nodes have a single radio operating on multiple channels means.

发明内容 DISCLOSURE

[0008] 在多无线收发装置多信道无线网状网络中,需要选择单跳跃或多跳跃路线以数据包或帧的形式来转发从源节点/网点的数据到目的节点/网点。 [0008] In the multi-radio multi-channel wireless mesh network device, you need to select a single jump or jump the route in the form of data packets or frames to forward the source node / network from the data to the destination node / outlets. 该路线/路由选择是基于一种度量。 The Route / routing is based on a metric. 这种路由度量对于优化网状网络中的路由和转发机制的设计是很重要的。 This routing metric for optimizing the design of the mesh network routing and forwarding mechanism is very important. 本发明描述了捕捉到多无线收发装置多信道对路由性能影响的无线收发装置和带宽感知度量,以及使用所述度量来选择数据遍历网状网络的路由的装置和方法。 The present invention describes a device to capture the multi-radio multi-channel routing performance impact on the perception of radio devices and bandwidth metrics and use the metrics to select a device and method for data to traverse the mesh network routes. 尽管使用无线网状网络作为一个例子来解释本发明,应当指出本发明中的度量不限于无线网状网络。 Although the use of wireless mesh networks as an example to explain the present invention, it should be noted that the present invention is not limited to wireless mesh network metrics. 本发明还能够用于其他网络拓扑,例如,用于选择树型多跳跃无线网络中节点和树的根节点之间的路由。 The present invention can also be used for other network topologies, for example, it is used to select the root node of the tree multihop routing wireless network nodes and between trees.

[0009] 由于链路质量和流量负载是动态的,路由度量的值会经常改变,这会导致路由的不稳定。 [0009] Since the link quality and traffic loads are dynamic routing metric values change frequently, which can lead to instability route. 即使面对迅速改变的链路质量和负载变化,确保具有优良路由性能的路由稳定性是很重要的。 Even if the face of rapidly changing link quality and load changes, ensuring excellent stability routing routing performance is very important. 因此本发明还描述了通过量化路由度量来快速响应链路状态和网络拓扑变化,同时保持路由稳定性的方法。 Therefore, the present invention also describes routing metrics by quantifying the rapid response link status and network topology changes, while maintaining the stability of the routing method.

[0010] 描述了用于建立数据遍历无线网络的端对端路由的方法和系统,包括计算链路代价函数;使用计算出的链路代价函数计算量化链路代价函数;计算数据遍历无线网络的多个端对端路由中的每一条路由的量化代价,其中多个端对端路由包括无线网络中不同信道上同一组节点之间的路由,其中数据遍历无线网络所用的多个端对端路由中的每一条路由的量化代价是通过使用量化链路代价函数来执行的;以及基于数据遍历所述无线网络的多个端对端路由中的每一条路由的量化代价,从所述多个端到端路由中选择一条路由。 [0010] describes a method and system for establishing data traversing wireless networks end to end route, including the calculation of the link cost function; using the calculated link cost function calculation quantized link cost function; calculating data traversing the wireless network a plurality of end-to-quantify costs of each route in the route, wherein the plurality of end to end routes include routes between the different channels of the same set of nodes in a wireless network, wherein the plurality of end to end routing of data traversing the wireless network used quantization cost of each route is through the use of quantitative link cost function to be executed; and based on multiple end-to-quantify costs of routing data traversing the wireless network in each route from the plurality of terminals to the end of the route, select a route. 同时描述了在无线网络中被配置用于参与建立数据遍历所述无线网络所用的双向端对端路由的一个节点,包括用于测量所述节点的每个信道的质量和利用率的装置,每个节点具有多个信道;使用所述测量出的所述每个信道的质量和利用率来计算路由度量的装置;通过所述计算出的路由度量更新路由表的装置;基于路由表,选择数据遍历无线网络所用的双向端对端路由的装置。 At the same time he describes the wireless network is configured to participate in the establishment of a node data traversing the wireless network used two-way end to end routes, including means for measuring the quality and availability of the node for each channel, each a node having a plurality of channels; means quality and efficiency of the use of the measured to calculate each channel routing metric; calculated by the routing metric updated routing table means; data-based routing table, select traversing the wireless network with two-way end to end routing devices. 同时还描述了用于建立数据遍历无线网络所用的端对端路由的方法和系统,包括计算链路代价函数;计算数据遍历该无线网络所用的多个端对端路由中的每一条路由的代价,其中多个端对端路由包括所述无线网络中不同信道上同一组节点之间的路由,其中数据遍历所述无线网络所用的多个端对端路由中的每一条路由的代价是通过使用链路代价函数来执行的;以及基于数据遍历无线网络的所述多个端对端路由中的每一条路由的代价,从所述多个端对端路由中选择一条路由。 It also describes a method and system for establishing data to traverse the wireless network with end to end routes, including the calculation of the link cost function; calculate the cost of multiple-end routing of data traversing the wireless network used in each route wherein the plurality of end to end routes include the wireless network routing between different channels of the same set of nodes where the cost of multiple end-routing data traversing the wireless network used in each route is through the use link cost function to be executed; and the cost of the data traversing the wireless network in a multiple-end routing based on each route, from the plurality of end-to-route a route. 附图说明 Brief Description

[0011] 结合附图,通过下文详细的描述能够更好地理解本发明。 [0011] with the accompanying drawings, through the following detailed description of the present invention can be better understood. 附图包括下文附图标记的简要概述: Reference numeral including a brief overview below:

[0012] 图1是根据本发明原理建立双向端对端路由的方法流程图。 [0012] FIG. 1 is a flowchart of a method of two-way end to end route in accordance with established principles of the present invention.

[0013] 图2是本发明计算链路代价函数过程的流程图。 [0013] FIG. 2 is a flow diagram of the present invention, the process for calculating link cost function.

[0014] 图3是本发明使用的确定信道加权函数的流程图。 [0014] FIG. 3 is a flow chart to determine the channel weighting function in the present invention.

[0015] 图4是本发明信道估算的流程图。 [0015] FIG. 4 is a flow channel of the present invention estimates.

[0016] 图5是本发明计算量化链路代价函数的流程图。 [0016] FIG. 5 is a flowchart of the present invention to calculate the quantized link cost function.

[0017] 图6是本发明计算路由量化代价的流程图。 [0017] FIG. 6 is a flowchart of the present invention to quantify the cost of the route calculation.

[0018] 图7是无线网状网络的示意图。 [0018] FIG. 7 is a schematic view of a wireless mesh network.

[0019] 图8是具有根据本发明原理操作的模块的无线网状网络的节点的方框图。 [0019] FIG. 8 is a block diagram according to the principles of the present invention has a modular operating a wireless mesh network nodes.

具体实施方式 DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0020] 假设表示介质访问控制(MAC)和物理层上的协议开销(protocoloverhead)的参数。 [0020] The hypothesis indicates MAC (MAC) and protocol overhead (protocoloverhead) physical layer parameters. 假设S表示测试帧/数据包的大小。 Suppose S represents the size of the test frame / packet. 如果指定IEEE802.1la无线传输系统,例如,Ttjh可以是185ys。 If IEEE802.1la wireless transmission systems, for example, Ttjh be 185ys. 为简单起见,Ta也可以设置为O。 For simplicity, Ta may be set to O. 测试数据包的大小S可以是一个预先确定和预先设定的常数,例如,8224比特。 Test data packet size S may be a pre-determined and pre-set constant, for example, 8224 bits. 还可以选择测试帧/数据包的大小作为通过一个节点传输的数据包的平均量或最大量。 You can also choose the size of the test frame / packet as a node by the average amount of data transmitted packets or maximum amount. 此外,假设R表示在当前信道条件下,所述节点传输标准量S的数据包或帧形式的数据用的链路数据速率。 Further, assume that R represents a link data rate in the current channel conditions, the node S transmission standard amount of data in the form of data packets or frames used. 该链路数据速率取决于本地设备适应的链路速率。 The link data rate depends on the link rate adaptation to local devices. 假设民表示所述节点以传输速率R传输标准量S的数据包/帧(数据)时的数据包/帧差错率。 Suppose the people representing the node data packet transmission rate R S transmission standard amount of data packets / frames (data) is / frame error rate. 数据是由比特信息组成。 Bit information data is composed. 为了便于传输,数据由数据包或帧组成。 To facilitate transfer, the data packets or frames. 民能够由网状网络中的一个节点在本地来测量和/或估算。 People can be made of a mesh network node local to measure and / or estimate. P表示与信道有效带宽有关的链路信道的负载/利用率。 P represents an effective channel bandwidths associated load / utilization link channel. 本发明的路由度量是加权无线收发装置和带宽感知(RadioandBandwidth Aware (RABA))链路代价函数。 Routing is a weighted measure of the present invention and bandwidth wireless transceiver perception (RadioandBandwidth Aware (RABA)) link cost function. 无线链路L的RABA代价函数能够根据下述式子计算出来: RABA radio link L of the cost function can be calculated according to the following formula:

[0021 ] [0021]

Figure CN101647238BD00081

[0022] 其中W1 ( P )和W2 (Er)分别是信道利用率P和数据包/帧差错率Er的两个加权函数。 [0022] where W1 (P) and W2 (Er) are the two weighting functions P channel utilization and packet / frame error rate of Er. W1(P)的一些可能的形式是: W1 (P) is the number of possible forms:

[0023] (B)W1(P)=I [0023] (B) W1 (P) = I

[0024] 在这种条件下,所有链路在信道利用率方面的加权相等。 [0024] In this condition, all the links in the channel utilization weighting equal terms.

[0025] [0025]

Figure CN101647238BD00082

[0026] 在这种条件下,随着信道负载/利用率的增加而增加给予链路的加权。 [0026] Under these conditions, with the increase in channel load / utilization and increase the weight given link.

[0027] [0027]

Figure CN101647238BD00083

[0028] 在这种条件下,信道负载/利用率小于P ^的链路加权相等。 [0028] In this condition, the channel load / utilization less than P ^ is equal to the weighted link. 信道负载/利用率在Pt^p Pmax之间的链路被给予的加权随着它们的信道负载/利用率增加而增加。 Weighted channel load / utilization of the link between the Pt ^ p Pmax is given along with their channel load / utilization increases. 在选择路线时,不考虑信道利用率大于Pmax的链路,因为它们的代价是无穷大的。 When choosing the route, irrespective of channel utilization is greater than Pmax link, because they cost is infinite. 通常,系统设计者能够根据一些目标网络收入和应用软件需求选择适当值的Pmax和Po。 Typically, the system designer to select appropriate values Pmax and Po net income, according to some objective and application software requirements.

[0029] 类似的,W2 (Er)的一些可能的形式是: [0029] similar, W2 (Er) of some of the possible forms are:

[0030] (a) W2 (Er) = I ; [0030] (a) W2 (Er) = I;

[0031] 在这种条件下,所有链路在数据包误码率方面的加权相等。 [0031] In this condition, all of the weighted link packet error rate equal.

[0032] [0032]

Figure CN101647238BD00091

[0033] 在这种条件下,随着链路的数据包误码率增加而增加给与它们的加权。 [0033] In this condition, with the increase in the data link packet error rate increases to give them weight.

Figure CN101647238BD00092

[0035] 在这种条件下,数据包/帧差错率小于Etl的链路加权相等。 [0035] In this condition, the packet / frame error rate is less than the equal weighting Etl link. 数据包/帧差错率在E0和Emax之间的链路被给予的加权随着它们的数据包/帧差错率增加而增加。 Packet / frame error rate in the weighted link between E0 and Emax are given with their packet / frame error rate increases. 链路选择中不考虑数据包误码率大于Emax的链路,因为它们的代价是无穷大的。 Link selection is not considered packet error rate is greater than Emax link, since they cost is infinite. 通常,系统设计者能够根据一些目标网络收入和应用软件需求选择适当的Etl和Emax值。 Typically, the system designer can select the appropriate Etl and Emax values according to some target network revenue and application software requirements.

[0036] 应当指出加权函数W1 (P)和W2(E)不限于上述形式,它们也能够以其他形式。 [0036] It should be noted that the weighting function W1 (P) and W2 (E) is not limited to the above-described form, it can be in other forms.

[0037] RABA链路代价函数表示一种复合路由度量,其捕捉到在具体链路上发送数据数据包/巾贞所消耗的无线资源(Radio Resource)的总量以及链路的负载和可用带宽。 [0037] RABA link cost routing function represents a composite measure that captures load and available bandwidth to transmit the radio resource data packet / towel Zhen consumed (Radio Resource) on a total and specific link link . RABA链路代价函数考虑到共享无线介质中的数据流之间的串扰(inter-flow interference)。 RABA link cost function taking into account shared crosstalk (inter-flow interference) wireless media data streams. 在选择路线/路由时,倾向于选择具有更高链路数据速率、更高有效带宽和较低数据包误码率的路线/路由。 When choosing the route / routes tend to choose a higher data rate link, route / route higher effective bandwidth and low packet error rate.

[0038] 由于链路/信道质量和负载的变化,RABA的值频繁地改变。 [0038] Since the change link / channel quality and load value RABA change frequently. 如果直接使用RABA作为路由度量,该路由会频繁地改变,从而导致路由的不稳定。 If the direct use RABA as the routing metric, the route will be changed frequently, causing unstable routes. 本发明还包括不但实现快速响应链路状态和网络拓扑变化而且保持路由稳定性的方法。 The present invention also includes not only rapid response link status and network topology changes and to maintain the stability of the routing method. 为了提高路由稳定性,使用量化的RABA作为链路代价函数。 To improve the routing stability, as quantified RABA link cost function. 链路L的量化RABA (QRABA)可以用公式表示为: Link L quantization RABA (QRABA) may be formulated as follows:

[0039] QRABA(L) = Ceiling (MX RABA (L)/Q) (2) [0039] QRABA (L) = Ceiling (MX RABA (L) / Q) (2)

[0040] 或者 [0040] or

Figure CN101647238BD00093

[0044] 其中M是量化等级数而Q是量化因子。 [0044] where M is the number of quantization levels and Q is the quantization factor. 通常,系统设计者能够根据路由稳定性和链路状态的网络响应时间的一些指标权衡以及拓扑变化选择适当值的M和Q。 Typically, system designers to respond to weigh a number of indicators and topology change M to select the appropriate value based on the stability and link state routing network and Q. 例如,期望的量化等级M可以是16,而Q可以是最大值或在RABA(L)范围内。 For example, the desired quantization level M may be 16, and Q may be the maximum or the RABA (L) range. 为了使用有限的比特位(固定长度的字段)来表示QRABA的值,如果QRABA的值大于M+l,QRABA的值可以取到M+1。 In order to use the limited bits (fixed-length field) to represent the value of QRABA, if the value is greater than the QRABA M l, the value of + QRABA can be taken to M + 1.

[0045] 节点能够估算其通往相邻节点的链路所使用的信道的负载/利用率。 [0045] access to the adjacent node can estimate the load / utilization link nodes used channel. 估算信道负载/利用率的一种可行方法是使用信道占用时间(channel busytime)。 One possible method to estimate the channel load / utilization is to use the channel occupancy time (channel busytime). 由于无线信道的共享属性,当串扰范围内的任何一个节点执行传输时该信道被占用。 Since the wireless channel shared property, when any one node performs transmission within the scope of crosstalk when the channel is occupied. 当一个节点使用信道以帧或数据包的形式在一个信道上传输数据时,则这个信道被占用。 When a node using the channel in the form of frames or packets of data at a transmission channel, then the channel is occupied. 串扰范围内的其他节点不能够同时以相同频率传输,否则会发生冲突并且所传输的帧/数据包(数据)会发生错误。 Other nodes within the scope of crosstalk can not be transmitted simultaneously at the same frequency, it will be a conflict and transmitted frames / packets (data) an error occurs. 此外,一个节点可以接收来自其他节点的控制消息,其中该节点保留该信道一段时间。 In addition, a node may receive control messages from another node, wherein the node reserves the channel for some time. 如果一个节点处于下述状态之一,则该信道被占用。 If a node is in one of the following states, then the channel is occupied. 第一种状态,该节点正在使用这个信道/频率发送或接收数据。 A first state, the node is using the channel frequency to send or receive data /. 第二种状态,该节点收到来自其他节点的控制/管理消息,要保留该信道一段时间。 The second state, the node receives control / management message from other nodes, to keep the channel for some time. 第三种状态,该节点检测到这个信道/频率上有信号强度大于阈值的占用载波(busycarrier)。 A third state, the node has a signal strength greater than a threshold carrier occupies this channel / frequency detector to (busycarrier). 在测量周期Tp期间,如果估算的信道占用时间为Tbusy,则信道负载是P = Tbusy/Tp。 During the measurement period Tp, if the estimated channel occupancy time Tbusy, the channel load is P = Tbusy / Tp.

[0046] —个从源节点到目的节点的路线包括多个链路Li和中间节点Ni。 [0046] - one from the source node to the destination node route includes a plurality of links Li and intermediate node Ni. Li表示沿着该路由/路线,节点Ni和它的前一个跳跃N1-1之间的链路。 Li expressed along the route / routes, nodes Ni and its first N1-1 a link between the jumps. 路线P的RABA代价可以由如下式子计算得出: RABA cost of route P can be calculated by the following equation:

[0047] [0047]

Figure CN101647238BD00101

[0048] 如果使用量化来提高路由的稳定性,路线P的QRABA代价可以由如下式子计算得出: [0048] If the quantization to improve the stability, QRABA the cost routing path P can be calculated by the following equation:

[0049] [0049]

Figure CN101647238BD00102

[0050] 其中链路Li+1是沿着路线P紧跟着链路Li的下一个链路,fLi和fu+1表示分别指定给链路Li和Li+Ι的信道/频率。 [0050] wherein the link Li + 1 is followed by the link to the next link Li along the route P, fLi and fu + 1 are assigned to the link represents Li and Li + Ι channel / frequency. Ci1 (fLi, fLi+1)和a 2 (fLi,fLi+1)是两个信道变化加权(CCW)函数,取决于指定给沿着所述路线的两个连续链路的信道/频率。 Ci1 (fLi, fLi + 1) and a 2 (fLi, fLi + 1) is a two-channel change weight (CCW) function, depending on the assigned to the route along two continuous link channel / frequency. a 的一些可行形式是: a number of possible forms are:

[0051] (a) a ^fu, fLi+1) = I [0051] (a) a ^ fu, fLi + 1) = I

[0052] 在这种条件下,所有链路在被分配的用于传输的信道方面的加权相等。 [0052] In this condition, all links are equal in weight terms for transmission channel is allocated.

Figure CN101647238BD00103

[0054] 在这种条件下,对于沿着路线的LastLink,也就是,目的节点在其上接收数据包/帧(数据)的链路,CCW函数a Jfu, fLi+1)等于&1。 [0054] In this condition, the route along LastLink, i.e., at the destination node receives the packet / frame (data) links, CCW function a Jfu, fLi + 1) is equal to & 1. 应当指出目的节点不会再次转发数据。 It should be noted that the destination node does not forward the data again. 如果沿着路线的两个连续链路Li和Li+Ι使用相同的信道/频率,也就是,中间节点Ni接收来自具有信道/频率fu的链路Li的数据,并且在具有信道/频率fu+1 = fLi的链路Li+Ι上转发/发送数据,CCW函数a 等于Iv如果沿着路线的两个连续链路Li和Li+Ι使用不同的信道/频率,但是具有相同的无线收发装置,也就是,中间节点Ni使用一个无线接口(radio interface)接收来自具有信道/频率fu的链路Li的数据,并且使用相同的无线接口在具有信道/频率fu+1幸fLi的链路Li+1上转发/发送数据,CCff函数 If continuous link Li and Li + Ι using the same channel / frequency along two routes, that is, an intermediate node Ni receives data from link Li with a channel / frequency fu, and having a channel / frequency fu + 1 = fLi link Li + on Ι forwarding / sending data, CCW function equal to Iv If a continuous link along two routes of Li and Li + Ι use different channel / frequency, but with the same radio equipment, That is, the intermediate node Ni using a radio interface (radio interface) receives data from link Li with a channel / frequency fu, and use the same wireless interface with a channel / frequency fu + 1 lucky fLi link Li + 1 forwarding / sending data, CCff function

等于Cl。 Equal to Cl. 如果沿着路线的两个连续链路Li和Li+1使用不同的信道/频率和不同的无线收发装置,也就是,中间节点Ni使用一个无线接口接收来自具有信道/频率fu的链路Li的数据,并且使用不同的无线接口在具有信道/频率fLi+1 ≠ fLi的链路Li+1上转发/发送数据,CCW函数a JfmfuJ等于屯d1。 If two consecutive links along the route of Li and Li + 1 to use different channels / frequencies and different wireless transceiver that is, the use of an intermediate node Ni receives a radio interface with a channel / frequency link Li-fu data, and uses a different radio interface having a channel / frequency fLi + 1 ≠ fLi link Li + 1 forwarding / sending data, CCW function a JfmfuJ equal Tuen d1. a1、b1、c1和d1是能够由系统设计者预先确定的设计参数。 a1, b1, c1 and d1 are design parameters can be pre-determined by the system designer. 例如,a1 = 1, b1 = 2, c1 = 1.5和(d1 = 1。在连续链路上使用相同信道/频率和相同无线收发装置的路线被给予的加权/代价高于在连续链路上使用不同信道/频率和不同无线收发装置的路由被赋予的加权/代价。 For example, a1 = 1, b1 = 2, c1 = 1.5 and (d1 = 1. weighted route the same channel / frequency and the same radio means is administered on a continuous link / cost of higher continuous use on the link routing different channels / frequencies and different wireless transmitters and receivers is given a weighting / price.

[0055] 类似的,a 2(fu,fLi+1)的一些可行形式是: [0055] Similar, a 2 (fu, fLi + 1) in the form of some possible:

[0056] (a) a 2(fLi, fLi+1) = 0 [0056] (a) a 2 (fLi, fLi + 1) = 0

[0057] 在这种条件下,所有链路在指定的用于传输的信道方面加权相等。 [0057] In this condition, all links are equal weighting in terms of the designated channel for transmission. [0058] (b) [0058] (b)

Figure CN101647238BD00111

[0059] 在这种条件下,对于沿着路线的LastLink,也就是,目的节点在其上接收数据的链路,CCW函数ai(fu,fLi+1)等于α2。 [0059] In this condition, the route along LastLink, i.e., the destination node receives its data on the link, CCW function ai (fu, fLi + 1) is equal to α2. 应当指出,目的节点不会再次转发数据。 It should be noted that the destination node does not forward the data again. 如果沿着路线的两个连续链路Li和Li+Ι使用相同的信道/频率,也就是,中间节点Ni接收来自具有信道/频率fu的链路Li的数据,并且在具有信道/频率fu+1 = fLi的链路Li+Ι上转发/发送数据,CCW函数a2(fu,fLi+1)等于b2。 If continuous link Li and Li + Ι using the same channel / frequency along two routes, that is, an intermediate node Ni receives data from link Li with a channel / frequency fu, and having a channel / frequency fu + 1 = fLi link Li + on Ι forwarding / sending data, CCW function a2 (fu, fLi + 1) is equal to b2. 如果沿着路线的两个连续链路Li和Li+1使用不同的信道/频率,但是具有相同的无线收发装置,也就是,中间节点Ni使用一个无线接口接收来自具有信道/频率fu的链路Li的数据,并且使用相同的无线接口在具有信道/频率fu+1幸fLi的链路Li+Ι上转发/发送数据,CCff函数a 2 (fLi, fLi+1)等于C2。 If continuous link Li and Li + 1 to use a different channel / frequency along two routes, but has the same radio equipment, that is, the use of an intermediate node Ni receives a link from a radio interface with a channel / frequency fu Li's data, and use the same radio interface having a channel / frequency fu + 1 lucky fLi link Li + on Ι forwarding / sending data, CCff function a 2 (fLi, fLi + 1) is equal to C2. 如果沿着路线的两个连续链路Li和Li+Ι使用不同的信道/频率和不同的无线收发装置,也就是,中间节点Ni使用一个无线接口接收来自具有信道/频率的链路Li的数据,并且使用不同的无线接口在具有信道/频率fu+1幸fLi的链路Li+Ι上转发/发送数据,CCff函数a 2(fu,fLi+i)等于d2。 If continuous link Li and Li + Ι use different channels / frequencies and different wireless transceiver device along two routes, that is, the intermediate node Ni using a wireless interface to receive data from link Li with a channel / frequency and use a different radio interface having a channel / frequency fu + 1 lucky fLi link Li + on Ι forwarding / sending data, CCff function a 2 (fu, fLi + i) equals d2. a2、b2、C2和d2是能够由系统设计者预先确定的设计参数。 a2, b2, C2 and d2 are design parameters can be pre-determined by the system designer. 例如,a2 = O, b2=5, C1 = 3,Cl1 = O。 For example, a2 = O, b2 = 5, C1 = 3, Cl1 = O. 在连续链路上使用相同信道/频率和相同无线收发装置的路线/路由被赋予的加权/代价高于在连续链路上使用不同信道/频率和不同无线收发装置的路线/路由被赋予的加权/代价。 Weighted using the same channel / frequency and the same radio means on a continuous link route / routes are given / the price is higher than the route using different channels / frequencies and different wireless transceiver on a continuous link / route weighted been given / price.

[0060] 应当指出CCW函数a I (fLi, fLi+1)和a 2 (fLi, fLi+1)不限于上述形式,它们也能够是其他形式。 [0060] It should be noted CCW function a I (fLi, fLi + 1) and a 2 (fLi, fLi + 1) is not limited to the above form, they can also be other forms.

[0061] 路线/路由度量中的CCW函数a Jfu, fLi+1)和a 2(fu,fLi+1)捕捉到到多无线收发装置多信道和数据流之间及之内的串扰对网络容量的影响。 [0061] Route / routing metric of CCW function a Jfu, fLi + 1) and a 2 (fu, fLi + 1) to capture cross-talk between multi-channel and multi-radio devices and data flow within the network capacity impact. 本发明路线/路由选择方案中优先选择的是使用不同信道和多个无线收发装置的路线/路由。 Route of the invention / routing scheme in preference is to use a different channel and a plurality of wireless transmitters and receivers route / routes. 应当指出单个无线收发装置和单个信道是本发明多无线收发装置多信道的特殊例子。 It should be noted that a single wireless transceiver and a single channel of the present invention is a multi-channel multi-radio device specific examples.

[0062] 图1是根据本发明原理建立双向端对端路由的方法流程图。 [0062] FIG. 1 is a flowchart of a method of two-way end to end route in accordance with established principles of the present invention. 在105计算出如上所述的链路代价函数。 105 calculates the link cost function as described above. 在110计算的结果用于计算量化链路代价函数。 110 calculation results are used to calculate the quantized link cost function. 在115使用量化链路代价计算量化路由代价。 In 115 calculates the cost of using the quantization quantization route link cost. 在120基于所计算的路由代价选择最佳的用于数据遍历无线网络的双向端对端路由。 120 choose the best route for data to traverse the cost calculated based bidirectional wireless network-end route.

[0063] 图2是本发明计算链路代价函数过程的流程图。 [0063] FIG. 2 is a flow diagram of the present invention, the process for calculating link cost function. 在205确定介质访问控制和物理层上的协议开销(overhead)。 OK MAC and protocol overhead (overhead) physical layer 205. 在210确定数据包/帧(数据)量。 Determining packet / frame (data) the amount of 210. 在215定期地确定链路数据速率。 Link data rate is determined periodically at 215. 在220定期地确定数据包/帧差错率。 Periodically determines the packet / frame error rate at 220. 在225确定信道利用率的加权函数。 In determining the weighting function 225 channel utilization. SP,从多个有效加权函数中选择有效的加权函数,并且确定要用于计算具体链路的链路代价函数的加权。 SP, select a valid function from a plurality of weighting weighting function effectively and to determine the weighted link cost function to be used to calculate the specific link. 然后在230确定数据包/帧差错率的加权函数。 Then determining the weighting function data packet / frame error rate at 230. 再一次,从多个有效加权函数中选择有效的加权函数,并且确定要用于计算具体链路的链路代价函数的加权。 Again, the choice of weighting function effectively from a plurality of weighting functions effectively, and to determine the weighted link cost function to be used to calculate the specific link.

[0064] 图3是本发明使用的确定信道利用率的加权函数的流程图。 [0064] FIG. 3 is a flow diagram of the present invention is used to determine the weighting function channel utilization. 在305定期地估算信道利用率。 Estimation of channel utilization at 305 regularly.

[0065] 图4是本发明信道估算的流程图。 [0065] FIG. 4 is a flow channel of the present invention estimates. 在405确定信道测量周期,然后在410定期地确定信道占用时间。 Determining a channel measurement period in 405, and then periodically determining channel occupancy time 410. 这两个确定结果被用于定期地估算信道利用率。 These two results are used to determine periodically estimate the channel utilization.

[0066] 图5是本发明计算量化链路代价函数的流程图。 [0066] FIG. 5 is a flowchart of the present invention to calculate the quantized link cost function. 在505确定量化等级数并且在510确定量化因子。 In determining quantization levels 505 and 510 determines the number of quantization factor. 在515这两个值被用于计算量化链路代价函数。 In 515 of these two values is used to calculate the quantized link cost function.

[0067] 图6是本发明计算路由代价的流程图。 [0067] FIG. 6 is a flowchart of the present invention to calculate the cost of the route. 在605确定第一信道变化加权函数,并且在610确定第二信道变化加权函数。 In determining a first channel 605 changes the weighting function, and determining a second channel change the weighting function 610. 这两个值被用于计算路由代价。 These two values are used to calculate the cost routing.

[0068] 本发明的QRABA路线/路由度量能够被应用于选择无线网状网络中的路线/路由。 [0068] QRABA route of the present invention / routing metric can be applied to select a wireless mesh network route / routes. QRABA路由度量能够被并入路由协议/算法的设计中,包括用于选择路线/路由的按需(on-demand)、先验(proactive)和混合路由协议。 QRABA routing metric can be incorporated into the routing protocol / algorithm design, comprising means for selecting the route / routes of demand (on-demand), a priori (proactive) and hybrid routing protocols. 选择源节点/网点和目的节点/网点之间QRABA值最小的路线/路由。 Select the source node / nodes and the minimum value of the destination node QRABA route / routes between / outlets. 如果存在多个具有同样最小的QRABA值的路线/路由,则选择具有最小跳跃数的路线。 If there are multiple routes / route QRABA have the same minimum value, choose the route with the smallest number of jumps.

[0069] 参考图7,示出了有助于理解本发明的一个网状网络的例子。 [0069] Referring to Figure 7, shows a mesh network that facilitates understanding of the present invention is an example. 例如,从节点A到节点C的路线由链路AB、BC和中间节点B组成。 For example, from node A to node C's line by the link AB, BC and intermediate node B components.

[0070] 例如,如果QRABA路线度量被并入到一个先验链路状态路由协议中,例如,最佳的链路状态路由(Optimized Link State Routing(OLSR))协议和开放式最短路线优先(OpenShortest Path first (OSPF))协议,需要估算网状网络中每个链路的QRABA链路代价。 [0070] For example, if QRABA route metrics are incorporated into a priori link-state routing protocol, for example, the best link-state routing (Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR)) protocol and Open Shortest route priority (OpenShortest Path first (OSPF)) protocol, we need to estimate the cost of the mesh network QRABA link each link. 网状网络中的节点在其本地估算它通往每个相邻节点的QRABA链路代价,并且发布其通往每个相邻节点的链路的QRABA代价和信道/频率给网络中的其他节点,作为路由控制消息中链路状态信息的一部分。 Mesh network node in its local link cost estimate which leads QRABA each adjacent node, and the cost of its leading publication QRABA each adjacent node links and channels / frequencies to other nodes in the network part of the link state information, as routing control message. 每个节点保留一个路由/转发表,其允许节点以数据包或帧的形式转发目的地为网络中的其他节点的数据。 Each node maintains a routing / forwarding, which allows nodes in the form of data packets or frames destined for forwarding other nodes in the network data. 基于每个节点产生的缓存的链路状态信息产生和更新路由/转发表。 Generating information on a per-node cache generated and updated link state routing / forwarding. 如果使用本发明的QRABA作为路线度量,节点使用公式(6)计算通往目的地的路线/路由。 If you use the present invention as a route QRABA measure node using equation (6) to calculate a route to the destination / route. 如图7所示的例子,节点A具有两条路线通往目的节点C,ABC和ADEFC。 In the example shown in Figure 7, node A has two routes leading to the destination node C, ABC and ADEFC. 链路BC的质量相当差和/或链路BC上的负载相当高和/或链路BC的有效带宽相当小和/或分配给链路AB和BC相同的信道/频率,使得路线ABC的QRABA代价高于路线ADEFC的QRABA代价。 BC's relatively poor quality of the link and / or load is quite high on the link BC and / or the effective bandwidth of the link BC is relatively small and / or assigned to the link AB and BC the same channel / frequency, making the route ABC's QRABA the price is higher than the cost of the route ADEFC of QRABA. 即使路线ABC的跳跃少于路线ADEFC,节点A会选择路线ADEFC以数据包或帧的形式转发数据到目的节点C。 Even ABC route than the route jumping ADEFC, node A will choose the route ADEFC in packets or frames forwards the data to the destination node C. 在节点A的路由表中,下一个跳跃是节点D而不是节点B到目的节点C。 A node in the routing table, the next hop is Node D Node B instead of to the destination node C.

[0071 ] 另一个例子是QRABA路线度量并入到诸如Ad-Hoc按需距离矢量(on_DemandDistance Vector (AODV))协议的按需路由协议。 [0071] Another example is QRABA route metric incorporated into on-demand routing protocols such as Ad-Hoc on-demand distance vector (on_DemandDistance Vector (AODV)) protocol. 当一个源节点希望发送数据包或巾贞形式的数据到某个目的节点时,发现、产生并保留QRABA路线代价值最小的路线。 When a source node wants to send data packets or towel Ching form of data to a destination node, they found, produce and retain QRABA route on behalf of the least valuable route. 每个节点具有确定通往其相邻节点的QRABA链路代价的机制,并且了解每个链路动态或静态所使用的信道/频率。 Each node has access to its neighboring nodes to determine the QRABA link cost of the mechanism, and understand each link channel used for dynamic or static / frequency. 当一个源节点希望发送数据到某个目的节点,并且没有有效的路由通往这个目的地时,源节点通过向网络中的所有节点泛发路由请求(RREQ)消息来发起路由发现。 When a source node wants to send data to a destination node, and no effective routes leading to the destination, the source node to all nodes in the network generalized route request (RREQ) message to initiate route discovery. 除了其他信息之外,目的地址、路由度量字段和跳跃计数字段包括在RREQ消息中。 In addition to other information, destination address, routing metric field and the hop count field is included in RREQ message. 应当指出每个节点可以接收由源节点产生的多条相同RREQ。 It should be noted that each node can receive the same number of RREQ generated by the source node. 这些RREQ中的每一个都遍历从源节点到接收节点的一条唯一路径。 Each of these RREQ to traverse a unique path from the source node to the receiving node. 接收节点可以是目的节点或是一个中间节点。 Receiving node may be the destination node or an intermediate node. 当一个中间节点Ni收到RREQ时,基于公式(6)更新其度量字段。 When an intermediate node Ni receives RREQ, based on the formula (6) to update its metric field. 特别地,中间节点Ni将它从中接收RREQ消息的节点和它自己之间的加权链路代价,a ! (fLi, fLi+1) X QRABA (Li) + α 2 (fLi, fLi+1),加到RREQ度量字段中的值上。 In particular, the intermediate node Ni receives it from the node link cost weighting RREQ message and itself between, a! (FLi, fLi + 1) X QRABA (Li) + α 2 (fLi, fLi + 1), RREQ metric is added to the value in the field. 信道变化加权函数a ! (fLi, fLi+1)和a 2(fu,fLi+1)取决于接收RREQ的链路信道/频率和无线接口以及向网络转发(再次泛发(re-flood))RREQ的无线接口。 Channel variation weighting function a! (FLi, fLi + 1) and a 2 (fu, fLi + 1) depending on the received RREQ link channel / frequency and wireless network interfaces and forwards (generalized (re-flood again)) RREQ wireless interface. 如果中间节点没有一条通往源节点的反向路由(reverse route),则该中间节点建立一条其通往源节点的反向路由,或者如果这个RREQ表示比当前通往源节点的路由更好的一条新路由,贝1J更新该中间节点通往该源节点的反向路由。 If an intermediate node has no access to the source node of the reverse route (reverse route), the intermediate node which establishes a reverse route leading to the source node, or if this RREQ represents a source node than the current route leading to better A new route, the intermediate node shell 1J update the reverse route leading source node. 中间节点转发(再次泛发(re-flood))更新后的RREQ。 Intermediate node forwards (generalized again (re-flood)) RREQ updated. 转发的(再次泛发的)RREQ中的度量字段是已更新的度量,其反映RREQ源节点和转发节点之间路由的累积度量(Cumulative metric)。 Forward the RREQ metric field (generalized again) is updated measure, which reflects the route between the source node and the RREQ forwarding node cumulative metric (Cumulative metric).

[0072] 当目的节点接收RREQ时,它基于公式(6)更新度量字段。 [0072] When the destination node receives the RREQ, it is based on the formula (6) update metric field. 如果在目的节点的路由表中不存在通往源节点的路由,则该目的节点在其路由表中产生一条通往源节点的反向路由。 If the route to the source node in the routing table does not exist in the destination node, the destination node generates a reverse route leading to the source node in its routing table. 如果所述RREQ提供一条比当前目的节点通往源节点的反向路由更好的新路由,则该目的节点更新其通往该源节点的当前反向路由。 If the RREQ provide a reverse route to the destination node than the current leading source node of a better new route, the purpose of access to the source node to update its current reverse route node. 目的节点在产生或更新其通往源节点的反向路由之后,该目的节点发送单播路由答复(RREP)消息给源节点。 After generating the destination node or update their reverse route leading to the source node, the destination node sends a unicast route reply (RREP) message to the source node. 除了其他信息,RREP消息包括载有度量信息的度量字段。 Among other information, RREP message includes metric information contained in metric field. RREP在中间节点中,最终在源节点中建立一条通往目的节点的路由。 RREP intermediate node, the eventual establishment of a route leading to the destination node in the source node. 应当指出一个节点(源节点和/或中间节点)可以接收发往同一目的节点的多个RREP。 It should be noted that a node (source node and / or intermediate nodes) can receive the same destination multiple RREP. 当中间节点接收RREP消息时,中间节点根据公式(6)更新其路由表中的度量信息。 When an intermediate node receives the RREP message, the intermediate node (6) updates its routing table metric information according to the formula. 然后如果中间节点没有通往目的节点的路由,则该中间节点建立一条通往目的节点的路由,或者如果新的RREP提供一条比中间节点通往目的节点的当前路由更好的路由,则更新该中间节点通往该目的节点的当前路由。 Then, if there is no route to the intermediate node of the destination node, the intermediate node to establish a path to the destination node routing, or if a new RREP provide an intermediate node to destination node than the current route better route, updating the intermediate node leading to the destination node of the current route. 如果产生或修改了一条路由,中间节点沿着已建立的反向路由单播转发RREP到下一个上行(朝向源节点)节点。 If you create or modify a route, intermediate nodes along the established reverse route unicast RREP to the next upstream (toward the source node) node. RREP中的度量字段是更新后的度量,其反映从转发节点到目的节点的路由的累积度量。 RREP The measure is a measure of the updated field, which reflects the cumulative metric from forwarding node to route to the destination node. 在发送RREP之后,如果目的节点接收其他具有更好度量的RREQ,则该目的节点更新其通往源节点的路由,并且沿着已更新的路由同样发送一个刷新的RREP到源节点。 After transmitting the RREP, if the destination node receives the RREQ other better metric, then the object which access the source node updates the routing node, and also transmits a refresh of the updated RREP along the route to the source node. 从而在源节点和目的节点之间建立具有最佳QRABA路线度量的双向最佳端对端度量路由。 Thereby establishing a two-way end to end with the best QRABA best route metrics between the source node and the destination node routing metrics. 在可选实施例中,具有通往目的节点的有效路由的中间节点也能够发送单播RREP消息到源节点。 In an alternative embodiment, the intermediate node having a valid route leading to the destination node can also send a unicast RREP message to the source node.

[0073] 本申请的QRABA路线度量能够应用于基于树状拓扑在多跳无线网络中选择路线。 [0073] QRABA route metric of the present application can be applied to select the route tree topology multi-hop wireless networks. QRABA路由度量能够被并入基于树状路由协议/算法的设计中,从而建立基于根节点的拓扑树并且选择父节点和路线。 QRABA routing metric can be incorporated into the tree-based routing protocol / algorithm design, so as to establish the topology based root tree and select the parent node and routes. 一个节点选择根节点与它之间最小QRABA的父节点。 Select the root node between a node and its parent node minimum QRABA.

[0074] 根节点定期地发送根声明(Route Announcement (RANN))消息或目的节点地址为网络中所有节点的特殊的路由请求(RREQ)消息。 [0074] root node periodically transmits root statement (Route Announcement (RANN)) message or address of the destination node in the network specific routing requests to all nodes (RREQ) message. 除了其他信息之外,该RANN和RREQ包括度量字段和序号字段。 In addition to other information, including the RANN and RREQ metric field and number field. 当根节点发送一个新的RANN或RREQ时,初始化度量字段并且增加序号。 When the root node sends a new RREQ when RANN or initialized measure and increase the number field. 当网络中的任一个节点收到目的节点地址为所有节点的RANN或RREQ时,基于公式 When any network node receives a destination address for RANN or RREQ all nodes, based on the formula

(6)更新度量字段。 (6) update metric field. 如果该节点没有关于通往根节点的路由信息,则该节点产生其通往根节点的路由/转发信息。 If the node does not have access to the root of the routing information about the access to the root node generates its routing / forwarding information. 所述节点从中接收RANN或RREQ的节点为所述节点通往根节点的父节点。 The node which receives RANN or RREQ is the gateway to the root node of the parent node. 应当指出每个节点可以接收多条RANN或RREQ消息。 It should be noted that each node may receive multiple RANN or RREQ messages. 如果RANN或RREQ表示比节点通往根节点的当前路由更好的新路由,则该节点更新其通往根节点的父节点和路由/转发信息。 If RANN or RREQ represents the ratio of the root node of the current new route leading to a better route, the access to the root node to update its parent and routing / forwarding information. 例如,如果RANN或RREQ包括一个更大的序号,或者该序号和当前路由相同,而RANN或RREQ消息提供比通往根节点的当前路由的度量更好的度量,则该节点更新其通往根节点的当前父节点和路由/转发信息。 For example, if RANN or RREQ includes a larger number, or the same number and the current route, and RANN or RREQ messages with better metrics than the routes leading to the root of the current measure, the access to the root node update current parent node and routing node / forwarding information. 在节点产生或更新其通往源节点的父节点和路由/转发信息之后,节点向网络转发(再次泛发)更新后的RANN或RREQ消息。 After the parent node and routing node generates or update their leading source node / forwarding information forwarded to the network node (generalized again) RANN or RREQ message after the update. 根节点(们)出现的信息和有效根节点(们)的度量信息被传播给网络中的所有节点。 Information and effective root node of the root node (s) appear (s) metric information is propagated to all nodes in the network. 当一个节点收到目的节点地址为所有节点的RANN或RREQ消息之时,或者当一个节点具有要发送到根节点的数据并且需要通往根节点的双向路径时,该节点可以向根节点发送注册(REGS)或路由答复(RREP)消息或路由请求(RREQ)。 When a node receives the address of the destination node or all nodes RANN the RREQ message, or when a node has a two-way path to the root of the data to be transmitted to and need access to the root node, the node can send the registration to the root (REGS) or a route reply (RREP) message or a route request (RREQ). REGS或RREP或RREQ消息建立/更新从根节点通往这个节点的路由。 REGS or RREP or RREQ messages establish / update from the root node of the route leading to this.

[0075] 图8是使用本发明路由度量的节点其细节的方框图。 [0075] FIG. 8 is a block diagram of the present invention routing nodes measure the details of use. 除了其它模块以外,该节点还由路由选择模块815,链路质量和信道负载/利用率测量模块805,路由度量计算模块810,以及一个或多个无线通信接口模块820a……820η组成。 In addition to the other modules, the node also by the routing module 815, link quality and channel load / utilization measurement module 805, the routing metric calculation module 810, and one or more radio communication interface modules 820a ...... 820η composition. 链路质量和信道负载/利用率测量模块805经由无线通信接口模块820a……820η定期地测量节点通往每个相邻节点的链路/信道的质量和负载/利用率。 Link quality and channel load / utilization measurement module 805 leading to the link / channel quality and load / utilization of each adjacent node via a wireless communication interface module 820a ...... 820η periodic measurement nodes. 将测量结果提供给定期计算路由度量的路由度量计算模块。 The measurement results are provided to the periodic calculation of the route metric routing metric calculation module. 路由度量包括链路代价函数,量化链路代价函数和量化路由代价函数。 Routing metrics include link cost function, quantify the link cost function and quantify the cost routing function. 应当指出一个节点可以具有多个相邻节点、多个无线接口、多个物理/逻辑信道和链路。 It should be noted that a node may have a plurality of adjacent nodes, a plurality of wireless interfaces, multiple physical / logical channels and links. 所有这些链路的质量和负载必须定期地通过测量模块来测量。 All these links are quality and the load must be regularly measured by the measurement module. 路由选择模块执行路由协议/算法,并且确定转发数据的路由和无线接口。 Routing module performs routing protocol / algorithm, and forward the data to determine the routing and wireless interfaces. 同时通过无线通信接口模块820a……820η与网络中的其他节点交换路由控制消息。 Meanwhile 820a ...... 820η exchange routing control messages to other nodes in the network via a wireless communication interface module. 应当指出一个节点可以具有一个或多个无线通信和其他通信接口。 It should be noted that a node may have one or more wireless communication and other communication interfaces.

[0076] 在先验式路由协议(proactive routing protocols)中,为了维护路由的稳定性,同时实现相当快速地响应链路状态和拓扑变化,当且仅当这条链路RABA度量中的变化(与其最后一次声明中的值相比较)大于一个阈值时,节点会通过泛发路由控制消息来声明通往它的其中一个邻点(相邻节点)的链路的状态变化。 [0076] In a priori routing protocol (proactive routing protocols), in order to maintain the stability of the route, while achieving fairly rapid response to link state and topology changes, if and only if this link RABA measure changes in the ( its last declaration compared to the value) is greater than a threshold value, the node will be declared state changes leading to one of its adjacent points (adjacent nodes) links through generalized control message routing. 即,当且仅当(RABA(current)-RABA(last))/RABA(last) X100%> T%,该节点立即泛发路由控制消息,声明链路状态的变化。 That is, if and only if (RABA (current) -RABA (last)) / RABA (last) X100%> T%, the node immediately generalized control message routing, link status changes in a statement. 否则,在下一个周期的声明中声明该路由度量变化。 Otherwise, the next statement cycle declare the route metric changes.

[0077] 应当理解本发明可以以硬件、软件、固件、专用处理器、或其组合等各种方式来实现。 [0077] It should be understood that the present invention can be implemented in hardware, software, firmware, special purpose processors, or combinations thereof, and other ways. 优选地,本发明以硬件和软件的组合方式来实现。 Preferably, the present invention in combination of hardware and software to achieve. 而且,该软件优选地实现为有形地包括在程序存储设备中的应用程序。 Moreover, the software is preferably implemented as tangibly included in the program storage device applications. 该应用程序可以被上传给具有任何适合机制的机器并且由其来执行。 The application can be uploaded to the machine have any suitable mechanism and its execution. 优选地,该机器在具有诸如一个或多个中央处理单元(CPU)、随机存取存储器(RAM)、和输入/输出(1/0)接口的硬件的计算机平台上执行。 Preferably, the machine having such as one or more central processing units (CPU), a random access memory (RAM), and execute the input / output (1/0) interface computer hardware platforms. 该计算机平台还包括一个操作系统和微指令代码。 The computer platform also includes an operating system and microinstruction code. 这里所描述的各种处理和功能可以是微指令代码或应用软件(或它们的组合)一部分,其经由操作系统来执行。 The various processes and functions described herein may be microinstruction code or application software (or combinations thereof) part of which is performed via the operating system. 另外,各种其他外围设备可以连接到诸如附加的数据存储设备和打印设备这样的计算机平台。 In addition, various other peripheral devices may be connected to a computer such as an additional platform for data storage device and a printing device.

[0078] 应当进一步理解,由于附图中描述的一些组成系统元件和方法步骤优选地以软件来实现,系统元件(或处理步骤)之间的实际连接根据本发明进行编程的方式可以是-不同的。 [0078] It should be further understood that, since some of the constituent system components and method steps are preferably implemented in software as described in the drawings, the actual connection system components (or the process steps) according to the present invention may be programmed manner - different a. 根据这里所给出的教导,本领域的普通技术人员能够设想到本发明的这些和类似的实现方式或构造。 Given the teachings herein, one of ordinary skill in the art to be able to contemplate these and similar implementations or configurations of the present invention.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
CN1650578A28 Apr 20033 Aug 2005哈里公司Traffic policing in a mobile ad hoc network
US2006/0153081 Title not available
Classifications
International ClassificationH04W40/12
Cooperative ClassificationH04L45/124, H04W40/12, H04L45/26
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
10 Feb 2010C06Publication
14 Apr 2010C10Request of examination as to substance
8 May 2013C14Granted