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Publication numberCN101647238 A
Publication typeApplication
Application numberCN 200780051004
PCT numberPCT/US2007/003304
Publication date10 Feb 2010
Filing date7 Feb 2007
Priority date7 Feb 2007
Also published asCN101647238B, EP2115961A1, EP2115961B1, US8432820, US20100074194, WO2008097221A1
Publication number200780051004.0, CN 101647238 A, CN 101647238A, CN 200780051004, CN-A-101647238, CN101647238 A, CN101647238A, CN200780051004, CN200780051004.0, PCT/2007/3304, PCT/US/2007/003304, PCT/US/2007/03304, PCT/US/7/003304, PCT/US/7/03304, PCT/US2007/003304, PCT/US2007/03304, PCT/US2007003304, PCT/US200703304, PCT/US7/003304, PCT/US7/03304, PCT/US7003304, PCT/US703304
Inventors航 刘, 琳 罗
Applicant汤姆逊许可公司
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: SIPO, Espacenet
A radio and bandwidth aware routing metric for multi-radio multi-channel multi-hop wireless networks
CN 101647238 A
Abstract
A method and system are described for establishing a bidireciton end-to-end route for data to traverse a wireless network, including calculating a link cost function, calculating a quantized link cost function using the calculated link cost function, determining a first channel change weight function; determining a second channel change weight function; by using the first channel change weight function and the second channel change weight function, calculating a quantized cost of each of a plurality, of end-to-end routes for data to traverse the wireless network, and selecting one of the plurality of end-to-end routes, for data to traverse the wireless network based on the quantized cost of each of the plurality of the bidireciton end- to-end routes. Also described is a node in a wireless network configured to participate in the establishment of. a bi-directional end-to-end route for data to traverse the wireless network.
Claims(36)  translated from Chinese
1、一种用于建立数据遍历无线网络所用的端对端路由的方法,所述方法包括: 计算链路代价函数; 使用所述计算出的链路代价函数计算量化链路代价函数; 计算数据遍历所述无线网络所用的多个端对端路由中的每一条路由的量化代价,其中所述多个端对端路由包括所述无线网络中同一组节点之间的路由,其中数据遍历所述无线网络所用的所述多个端对端路由中的每一条路由的量化代价是通过使用所述量化链路代价函数来执行的;和基于数据遍历所述无线网络所用的所述多个端对端路由中的每一条路由的所述量化代价,从所述多个端对端路由中选择一条路由。 1. A method for establishing a data traversing-end routing wireless network using the method, the method comprising: calculating link cost function; using the calculated link cost function calculation quantized link cost function; calculation data traversing the plurality of end to end routing wireless network used to quantify the cost of each route, wherein the plurality of end to end routes include routes between the wireless network, the same set of nodes, where data traversing the the plurality of end-to-quantify costs of each route in a route used by the wireless network by using the quantized link cost function to be executed; and a plurality of terminals based on data traversing the wireless network used for The end of the route in the route to quantify the cost of each, choose a route from the plurality of end to end routes.
2、 根据权利要求l的方法,其中所述无线网络是一个无线网状网络。 2. The method of claim l, wherein said wireless network is a wireless mesh network.
3、 根据权利要求l的方法,其中所述无线网络中不同信道上的同一组节点之间的所述多个端对端路由包括多个无线接口,此外其中所述多个端对端路由中的每一条路由都是双向的。 3. The method of claim l, wherein said plurality of end to end route between the same set of nodes in a wireless network comprising a plurality of different channels of wireless interfaces, wherein the plurality of addition-end routes of each route they are bidirectional.
4、 根据权利要求1的方法,进一步包括:确定介质访问控制和物理层上的协议开销;确定数据量;定期确定链路数据速率;定期确定数据包差错率;确定信道利用率的加权函数;和确定所述数据包差错率的加权函数。 4. The method according to claim 1, further comprising: determining a MAC and physical layer protocol overhead; determining the amount of data; periodic determination of link data rate; periodically determine packet error rate; determining a channel weighting function utilization; and determining the weighting function of the data packet error rate.
5、 根据权利要求4的方法,进一步包括定期地估算信道利用率。 5. The method of claim 4, further comprising estimating channel utilization periodically.
6、 根据权利要求5的方法,进一步包括:确定信道测量周期;禾口定期地确定信道占用时间。 6. The method according to claim 5, further comprising: determining a channel measurement period; Hekou periodically determining channel occupancy time.
7、 根据权利要求1的方法,进一步包括:确定量化等级数;和确定量化因子。 7. A method according to claim 1, further comprising: determining the number of quantization levels; and determining the quantization factor.
8、 根据权利要求1的方法,进一步包括:确定第一信道变化加权函数;和确定第二信道变化加权函数。 8. A method according to claim 1, further comprising: determining a first channel change weight function; and determining a second channel change weight function.
9、 根据权利要求2的方法,其中所述无线网状网络是一个先验网络。 9. A method according to claim 2, wherein said wireless mesh network is a network priori.
10、 根据权利要求9的方法,进一步包括:发布所述计算出的链路代价函数的结果作为控制消息中的状态信息;和使用所述计算出的链路代价函数来产生和维护路由表。 10. The method according to claim 9, further comprising: publish the results of the calculated link cost function as a control message status information; and using the calculated link cost function to generate and maintain routing tables.
11、 根据权利要求10的方法,进一步包括如果所述计算出的链路代价函数的所述结果大于预先确定的阈值,则立即发布所述结果作为控制消息中的状态信息。 11. A method according to claim 10, further comprising the result if the calculated link cost function is greater than a predetermined threshold value, then immediately release the results as a control message status information.
12、 根据权利要求2的方法,其中所述无线网状网络是一个按需网络。 12. A method according to claim 2, wherein said wireless mesh network is an on-demand network.
13、 根据权利要求12的方法,进一步包括:发起路由发现;和使用所述计算出的链路代价函数来产生和维护路由表。 13. The method according to claim 12, further comprising: initiating the route discovery; and the use of the calculated link cost function to generate and maintain routing tables.
14、 根据权利要求2的方法,其中所述无线网状网络是一个混合网状网络。 14. A method according to claim 2, wherein said wireless mesh network is a hybrid mesh network.
15、 根据权利要求2的方法,其中所述无线网状网络是基于树状拓扑。 15. A method according to claim 2, wherein said wireless mesh network is based on a tree topology.
16、 根据权利要求15的方法,进一步包括:执行发送一个根节点声明和发起路由发现其中的一种,包括初始化的度量字段和序号字段;更新所述度量字段;更新所述序号字段;更新一个路由表;和建立所述双向端对端路由。 16. The method according to claim 15, further comprising: performing a root node sends a statement and initiate route discovery one of them, including the initialization of the metric field and number field; updating the metric field; updating the Sequence Number field; updating a routing table; and the establishment of a bi-end route.
17、 一种用于建立数据遍历无线网络所用的端对端路由的系统,所述系统包括:用于计算链路代价函数的装置;使用所述计算出的链路代价函数计算量化链路代价函数的装置;用于计算数据遍历所述无线网络的多个端对端路由中的每一条路由的量化代价的装置,其中所述多个端对端路由包括所述无线网络中同一组节点之间的路由,其中数据遍历所述无线网络所用的所述多个端对端路由中的每一条路由的量化代价是通过使用所述量化链路代价函数来执行的;和基于数据遍历所述无线网络所用的所述多个端对端路由中的每一条路由的所述量化代价,从所述多个端对端路由中选择一条路由的装置。 17, a method for establishing end to end routing data traversing the wireless network used by the system, the system comprising: means for calculating link cost function; using the calculated link cost function calculation quantized link cost device function; means for computing a plurality of end to end routing data traversing the wireless network in the cost of each route for quantization, wherein the plurality of end to end routes include the wireless network node of the same group route between, wherein said plurality of end to end routing data to traverse the wireless network used to quantify the cost of each route is the quantized link cost function to be executed by using; and based on the wireless data traversing the plurality of end-routing network used in the quantification of the cost of each route, select a route from the plurality of means-end route.
18、 根据权利要求17的系统,其中所述无线网络是一个无线网状网络。 18. The system of claim 17, wherein the wireless network is a wireless mesh network.
19、 根据权利要求17的系统,其中所述无线网络中不同信道上的同一组节点之间的所述多个端对端路由包括多个无线接口,此外其中所述多个端对端路由中的每一条路由都是双向的。 19. The system of claim 17, wherein said plurality of end to end route between the same set of nodes in a wireless network comprising a plurality of different channels of wireless interfaces, wherein the plurality of addition-end routes of each route they are bidirectional.
20、 根据权利要求17的系统,进一步包括:用于确定介质访问控制和物理层上的协议开销的装置;用于确定数据量的装置;用于定期确定链路数据速率的装置;用于定期确定数据包差错率的装置;用于确定信道利用率的加权函数的装置;和用于确定所述数据包差错率的加权函数的装置。 20. The system of claim 17, further comprising: means for determining the protocol overhead of MAC and physical layer device; determining an amount of data; means for periodically determining link data rate; means for periodically determine the packet error rate; means for determining a channel utilization weighting function; and a means for determining the packet error rate of the weighting function.
21、 根据权利要求20的系统,进一步包括用于定期地估算信道利用率的装置。 21. The system of claim 20, further comprising means for periodically estimating the channel utilization.
22、 根据权利要求21的系统,进一步包括-用于确定信道测量周期的装置;和用于定期地确定信道占用时间的装置。 22. The system of claim 21, further comprising - means for determining a channel measurement period; and means for periodically determining channel occupancy time device.
23、 根据权利要求17的系统,进一步包括:用于确定量化等级数的装置;和用于确定量化因子的装置。 23. The system of claim 17, further comprising: means for determining the number of quantization levels; means for determining a quantization factor and a device.
24、 根据权利要求17的系统,进一步包括:用于确定第一信道变化加权函数的装置;和用于确定第二信道变化加权函数的装置。 24. The system of claim 17, further comprising: means for determining a first channel change weight function; and a second channel means changes the weighting function is determined.
25、 根据权利要求18的系统,其中所述无线网状网络是一个先验网络。 25. The system of claim 18, wherein said wireless mesh network is a network priori.
26、 根据权利要求25的系统,进一步包括:用于发布所述计算出的链路代价函数的结果作为控制消息中的状态信息的装置;禾口使用所述计算出的链路代价函数来产生和维护路由表的装置。 26. The system of claim 25, further comprising: means for publishing the results of the calculated link cost function as a device control message status information; Hekou using the calculated link cost function to generate and maintenance device routing table.
27、 根据权利要求26的系统,进一步包括如果所述计算出的链路代价函数的所述结果大于预先确定的阈值,立即发布所述结果作为控制消息中的状态信息的装置。 27. The system of claim 26, further comprising the result if the calculated link cost function is greater than a predetermined threshold value, immediately publish the result means as a control message status information.
28、 根据权利要求18的系统,其中所述无线网状网络是一个按需网络。 28. The system of claim 18, wherein said wireless mesh network is an on-demand network.
29、 根据权利要求28的系统,进一步包括-用于发起路由发现的装置;和使用所述计算出的链路代价函数来产生和维护路由表的装置。 29. The system of claim 28, further comprising - means for initiating a route discovery; and using the calculated link cost function to generate and maintain the device routing table.
30、 根据权利要求18的系统,其中所述无线网状网络是一个混合网状网络。 30. The system of claim 18, wherein said wireless mesh network is a hybrid mesh network.
31、 根据权利要求18的系统,其中所述无线网状网络是基于树状拓扑的。 31. The system of claim 18, wherein said wireless mesh network is based on a tree topology.
32、 根据权利要求31的系统,进一步包括:用于执行发送一个根节点声明和发起路由发现中的一种,包括初始化度量字段和序号字段的装置;用于更新所述度量字段的装置;用于更新所述序号字段的装置;和用于更新一个路由表的装置。 32. The system of claim 31, further comprising: means for performing a root node sends a statement and initiate a route discovery, including device initialization metrics field and the serial number field; means for updating the metric field devices; using means for updating the number field; and a means for updating a routing table.
33、 在无线网络中被配置用于参与建立数据遍历所述无线网络的双向端对端路由的一个节点,包括:用于定期地测量所述节点的每个信道的质量和利用率的装置,每个节点具有多个信道;使用所述测量出的所述每个信道的质量和利用率来定期计算路由度量的装置;通过所述计算出的路由度量定期地更新路由表的装置;基于所述路由表,选择数据遍历所述无线网络所用的双向端对端路由的装置。 33, in a wireless network is configured to participate in the establishment of a node data traversing the wireless network route two-way end to end, comprising: means the quality and utility of each channel periodically for measuring the nodes, Each node has a plurality of channels; means for measuring the quality and efficiency of the use of the said each channel to calculate the route regularly measure; by the calculated routing metrics regularly updated device routing table; based on said routing table, select the data traversing the wireless network used by the bi-end routing devices.
34、 根据权利要求33的节点,其中所述节点具有至少一个无线接口。 34, a node according to claim 33, wherein said at least one node having a radio interface.
35、 一种用于建立数据遍历无线网络的端对端路由的方法,所述方法包括:计算链路代价函数;计算数据遍历所述无线网络所用的多个端对端路由中的每一条路由的代价,其中所述多个端对端路由包括所述无线网络中不同信道上的同一组节点之间的路由,其中数据遍历所述无线网络所用的所述多个端对端路由中的每一条路由的所述代价是通过使用所述链路代价函数来执行的;和基于数据遍历所述无线网络所用的所述多个端对端路由中的每一条路由的所述代价,从所述多个端对端路由中选择一条路由。 35. A method for establishing a data traversing-end routing of wireless networks, the method comprising: calculating a link cost function; a plurality of end-to-route calculation data traversing the wireless network used in each route price, wherein the plurality of end to end routes include routes between the wireless network, the same set of nodes on different channels, wherein the plurality of end to end routing data traversing the wireless network used by each The cost of a route by using the link cost function to be executed; and a plurality of end-to-cost-based routing data traversing the wireless network used in each route from the a plurality of end to end routing select a route.
36、 一种用于建立数据遍历无线网络的端对端路由的系统,所述系统包括-用于计算链路代价函数的装置;用于计算数据遍历所述无线网络所用的多个端对端路由中的每一条路由的代价的装置,其中所述多个端对端路由包括所述无线网络中不同信道上的同一组节点之间的路由,其中数据遍历所述无线网络所用的所述多个端对端路由中的每一条路由的所述代价是通过使用所述链路代价函数来执行的;禾口基于数据遍历所述无线网络所用的所述多个端对端路由中的每一条路由的所述代价,从多个端对端路由中选择一条路由的装置。 36. A method for data to traverse a wireless network to establish end-routing system, the system comprising - means for calculating a link cost function; means for calculating a plurality of end to end data traversing the wireless network used The cost of the routing means each route, wherein the plurality of end to end routes include routes between the same set of nodes in the wireless network on different channels, wherein the data traversing the wireless network used by more than The cost of one-end routing of each route is through the use of the link cost function to perform; and the plurality of end-Hekou routes traversing the wireless network based on the data used in each The cost of the route, the device selects a route from a plurality of end to end routes.
Description  translated from Chinese

用于多无线收发装置多信道多跳无线网络的无线收发装置和带宽感知路由 Multi-radio devices for multi-channel multi-hop wireless network radio device and bandwidth aware routing

度量 Measure

駄令臓駄 make 臓

本发明涉及用于无线网络的无线收发装置和流量感知路由度量,特别是涉及一种用于选择数据遍历无线网状网络的路由或路线的方法和装置, 其中一个或多个节点具有多个无线收发装置,每个无线收发装置在一个或多个不同的信道上运行,或者其中一个或多个节点具有在一个或多个信道上运行的单个无线收发装置。 The present invention relates to a wireless network radio devices and traffic-aware routing metrics, particularly to a method and apparatus for selecting data to traverse a wireless mesh network route or routes, one or more nodes having multiple radio transceiver means, each radio transceiver device in one or more different channels running, or in which one or more nodes have a single radio device running one or more channels.

技术背景 BACKGROUND

目前,大多数的网状路由协议(mesh routing protocol)使用最小跳跃数作为度量(metric)来决定选择哪条路线(path) /路由(route)。 Currently, most of the mesh routing protocol (mesh routing protocol) using the minimum number of hops as a metric (metric) to decide which route (path) / route (route). 这里使用的"/"表示相同或相似成分的可替换的名称。 "/" Denote the same or similar components of alternative names used herein. 使用这种方式,不考虑无线链路(radio link)的质量、链路的流量负载和有效带宽。 This way, the traffic load is not considered a wireless link (radio link) quality, and the effective bandwidth of the link. 选择具有最小跳跃数的路由来转发数据包或帧形式的数据。 Route with the least number of hops to forward packets or frames in the form of data. 然而,由于最小跳跃数路由总是会包括远程节点之间的无线链路,并且路由上的链路质量不好, 因此最小跳跃数路由可能具有不良的性能。 However, since the minimum hop count routing always includes a wireless link between the remote node and link quality is not good on the route, thereby minimizing the number of hops routes may have poor performance. 具有长物理跨度的无线链路会产生数据的丢失,导致大量重发和低的物理层数据速率。 Wireless link with long span will produce physical data loss, resulting in a large number of retransmissions and lower physical layer data rate. 许多无线收发装置(radio)传输系统,例如IEEE 802. 11和IEEE 802. 16无线收发装置, 根据链路质量来调节物理层的数据速率。 Many wireless transceiver (radio) transmission systems, such as IEEE 802. 11 and IEEE 802. 16 wireless transceiver apparatus, according to the link quality to adjust the data rate of the physical layer. 与选择具有较多跳跃但链路质量更好的路由相比,这样实际上导致吞吐量不良并且降低了网络的利用效率。 And select the link with more jump but better quality compared to the route, which in fact leads to poor throughput and reduced network efficiency.

在先有技术中,已经使用命名为"期望传输次数"(ETX)的度量作为路由度量。 In the prior art, it has been named as the use of "expected number of transmissions" (ETX) metric as a routing metric. ETX估算经由无线链路成功发送数据包所需的MAC层传输的期望次数。 ETX estimate the expected number of packets needed for MAC layer transmission via radio link was successfully sent. 选择沿着路线的所有链路的ETX估算之和最小的路由(ETX代价最小的路线)。 Select estimate of all links along the route and the shortest route ETX (ETX least cost route). ETX会捕捉到链路丢包率的影响,但不考虑链路的传输速率差异和有效带宽。 ETX captures the impact of link loss rate, but does not consider the different rates and the effective bandwidth of the link.

据另一个报导的先有技术方案,已经提出命名为"期望传输时间"(ETT)的度量,通过考虑到链路传输速率的差异来改善ETX。 According to another reported prior art scheme, it has been proposed the name "a desired transmission time" (ETT) metric, by taking into account the differences in transmission rate to improve the link ETX. 链路的ETT被定义为成功地在链路上发送数据包所需的期望的MAC层持续时间。 ETT link is defined as successfully send packets required expectations on the link MAC layer duration. 路由的代价是沿着路由的所有链路的ETT之总和。 ETT is the sum of the cost of routing all links along the route. ETT考虑到链路传输速率的差异的影响。 Taking into account the impact of ETT link transmission rate difference. 然而,它不能完全捕捉到链路的流量负载和有效带宽以及网络中由于共享介质产生的串扰的影响。 However, it does not fully capture the impact of crosstalk link traffic load and the available bandwidth and network generated due to shared media. 在路由中可能选择了重负载链路,使得这些重负载链路的负载更多而发生拥塞。 In the route may choose to link the heavy load, so that the load these heavy loads of more links and congestion occurs.

在先前的相关申请中,描述了加权的无线收发装置和流量负载感知(weighted radio and traffic load aware (W亂A))路由度量。 In a previous related application, describes a radio transceiver and a weighted traffic load sensing (weighted radio and traffic load aware (W chaos A)) routing metric. 所述度量捕捉到网状网络中无线链路各个方面的影响,包括链路的无线传输速率、丢包率、流量负载和有效宽带以及由于网络中共享介质产生的串扰的影响。 It captures the impact of various aspects of a wireless mesh network links, including links affected by the wireless transmission rate, the packet loss rate, traffic load and efficient broadband network and the crosstalk due to the generation of the shared medium metrics.

然而,上述任何一种路由度量都没有考虑到多无线收发装置(multi-radio)多信道(multi-channel)对路由性能的影响。 However, any of the above routing metrics do not consider the impact of multi-channel (multi-channel) for routing performance multi-radio devices (multi-radio). 在网状网络中, 一个节点/网点可以配置有多个无线收发装置,并且每个无线收发装置都能够在不同的信道/频率上运行,从而提高网络容量。 In a mesh network, a node / network can be configured with a plurality of radio transmitters and receivers, and each radio devices are capable of running on a different channel / frequency, thereby increasing network capacity. 与具有单个无线收发装置的节点不同,多无线收发装置多信道节点能够在一个信道上接收数据包的同时,在另一个信道上发送数据包。 And the node having a single radio device different from the multi-channel simultaneous multi-node wireless transceiver apparatus capable of receiving a packet in one channel, transmitting data packets on another channel. 因此,优选的是选择一个具有多无线收发装置的中继节点,其中每个无线收发装置在不同的信道上运行。 Therefore, it is preferable to select a relay node with multiple radio apparatus, wherein each wireless transceiver devices operating on different channels. 此外,即使一个节点具有单个无线收发装置,具有一个能够在多信道上运行的无线收发装置的节点可以在一个信道上接收数据,然后切换到另一个信道上转发/中继/发送该数据。 In addition, even if a node having a single radio device having a node capable of running on a multichannel radio device can receive data on one channel, then switch to another channel to forward / relay / transmit the data.

有利的是有一个用于选择数据遍历网状网络的路由的系统,该系统使用的度量不但感知流量和带宽,而且捕捉到具有多个无线收发装置的一个或多个节点的影响,其中每个无线收发装置在不同的信道上运行,或其中一个或多个节点具有在多个信道上运行的单个无线收发装置。 Advantageously there is used to select the data to traverse a mesh network routing system, the measurement system uses not only traffic and bandwidth aware but also captures the impact of one or more nodes having multiple radio devices, wherein each of radio apparatus operating on different channels, or wherein one or more nodes have a single radio operating on multiple channels means. 发明内容 DISCLOSURE

在多无线收发装置多信道无线网状网络中,需要选择单跳跃或多跳跃路线以数据包或帧的形式来转发从源节点/网点的数据到目的节点/网点。 In the multi-radio multi-channel wireless mesh network device, you need to select a single jump or skip route in the form of data packets or frames to forward data from the source node / network to the destination node / outlets. 该路线/路由选择是基于一种度量。 The Route / routing is based on a metric. 这种路由度量对于优化网状网络中的路由和转发机制的设计是很重要的。 This routing metric for optimizing the design of the mesh network routing and forwarding mechanism is very important. 本发明描述了捕捉到多无线收发装置多信道对路由性能影响的无线收发装置和带宽感知度量,以及使用所述度量来选择数据遍历网状网络的路由的装置和方法。 The present invention describes a device to capture the multi-radio multi-channel routing performance impact on the perception of radio devices and bandwidth metrics and use the metrics to select a device and method for data to traverse the mesh network routes. 尽管使用无线网状网络作为一个例子来解释本发明,应当指出本发明中的度量不限于无线网状网络。 Although the use of wireless mesh networks as an example to explain the present invention, it should be noted that the present invention is not limited to wireless mesh network metrics. 本发明还能够用于其他网络拓扑,例如,用于选择树型多跳跃无线网络中节点和树的根节点之间的路由。 The present invention can also be used for other network topologies, for example, it is used to select the root node of the tree multihop routing wireless network nodes and between trees.

由于链路质量和流量负载是动态的,路由度量的值会经常改变,这会导致路由的不稳定。 Because of the link quality and traffic load is dynamic, the value of routing metrics will often change, which can lead to unstable routes. 即使面对迅速改变的链路质量和负载变化,确保具有优良路由性能的路由稳定性是很重要的。 Even if the face of rapidly changing link quality and load changes, ensuring excellent stability routing routing performance is very important. 因此本发明还描述了通过量化路由度量来快速响应链路状态和网络拓扑变化,同时保持路由稳定性的方法。 Therefore, the present invention also describes routing metrics by quantifying the rapid response link status and network topology changes, while maintaining the stability of the routing method.

描述了用于建立数据遍历无线网络的端对端路由的方法和系统,包括 It describes a method and system for establishing data traversing wireless networks end to end route, including

计算链路代价函数;使用计算出的链路代价函数计算量化链路代价函数;计算数据遍历无线网络的多个端对端路由中的每一条路由的量化代价,其中多个端对端路由包括无线网络中不同信道上同一组节点之间的路由,其中数据遍历无线网络所用的多个端对端路由中的每一条路由的量化代价是通过使用量化链路代价函数来执行的;以及基于数据遍历所述无线网络的多个端对端路由中的每一条路由的量化代价,从所述多个端到端路由中选择一条路由。 Calculating link cost function; using the calculated link cost function calculation to quantify the link cost function; a plurality of end-to-quantify costs of route calculation data traversing the wireless network in each route, wherein the plurality of end to end routes include route between wireless networks on different channels of the same set of nodes, wherein the plurality of end to end routing data to traverse the wireless network used to quantify the cost of each route is through the use of quantitative link cost function to perform; and data is based on traversing the plurality of end-routing in wireless networks quantify the cost of each route and choose a route from the plurality of end to end routes. 同时描述了在无线网络中被配置用于参与建立数据遍历所述无线网络所用的双向端对端路由的一个节点,包括用于测量所述节点的每个信道的质量和利用率的装置,每个节点具有多个信道;使用所述测量出的所述每个信道的质量和利用率来计算路由度量的装置;通过所述计算出的路由度量更新路由表的装置;基于路由表,选择数据遍历无线网络所用的双向端对端路由的装置。 At the same time he describes the wireless network is configured to participate in the establishment of a node data traversing the wireless network used two-way end to end routes, including means for measuring the quality and availability of the node for each channel, each a node having a plurality of channels; means quality and efficiency of the use of the measured to calculate each channel routing metric; calculated by the routing metric updated routing table means; data-based routing table, select traversing the wireless network with two-way end to end routing devices. 同时还描述了用于建立数据遍历无线网络所用的端对端路由的方法和系统,包括计算链路代价函数;计算数据遍历该无线网络所用的多个端对端路由中的每一条路由的代价,其中多个端对端路由包括所述无线网络中不同信道上同一组节点之间的路由,其中数据遍历所述无线网络所用的多个端对端路由中的每一条路由的代价是通过使用链 It also describes a method and system for establishing data to traverse the wireless network with end to end routes, including the calculation of the link cost function; calculate the cost of multiple-end routing of data traversing the wireless network used in each route wherein the plurality of end to end routes include the wireless network routing between different channels of the same set of nodes where the cost of multiple end-routing data traversing the wireless network used in each route is through the use chain

路代价函数来执行的;以及基于数据遍历无线网络的所述多个端对端路由中的每一条路由的代价,从所述多个端对端路由中选择一条路由。 Road cost function to be executed; and based on the cost of the data traversing the wireless network in a multiple-end routing each route and choose a route from the plurality of end to end routes.

附图说明 Brief Description

结合附图,通过下文详细的描述能够更好地理解本发明。 Conjunction with the drawings, the detailed description below, the present invention can be better understood. 附图包括下文附图标记的简要概述- The drawings include the following reference numerals brief overview -

图1是根据本发明原理建立双向端对端路由的方法流程图。 1 is to establish a two-way end to end route in accordance with the principles of the present invention in FIG flowchart of a method.

图2是本发明计算链路代价函数过程的流程图。 Figure 2 is a flow chart of the present invention, the process for calculating link cost function.

图3是本发明使用的确定信道加权函数的流程图。 Figure 3 is a flow chart to determine the channel weighting function in the present invention.

图4是本发明信道估算的流程图。 Figure 4 is a flow channel of the present invention estimates.

图5是本发明计算量化链路代价函数的流程图。 5 is a flowchart of the present invention to calculate the quantized link cost function.

图6是本发明计算路由量化代价的流程图。 6 is a flowchart of the present invention to quantify the cost of the route calculation.

图7是无线网状网络的示意图。 Figure 7 is a schematic diagram of a wireless mesh network.

图8是具有根据本发明原理操作的模块的无线网状网络的节点的方框图。 Figure 8 is a block diagram according to the principles of the present invention has a modular operation of the wireless mesh network nodes.

具体实施方式 DETAILED DESCRIPTION

假设乙表示介质访问控制(MAC)和物理层上的协议开销(protocoloverhead)的参数。 Assuming that Bob represents MAC (MAC) and protocol overhead (protocoloverhead) physical layer parameters. 假设6"表示测试帧/数据包的大小。如果指定IEEE802. lla无线传输系统,例如,乙可以是185傳。为简单起见,乙也可以设置为0。测试数据包的大小S可以是一个预先确定和预先设定的常数,例如,8224比特。还可以选择测试帧/数据包的大小作为通过一个节点传输的数据包的平均量或最大量。此外,假设y?表示在当前信道条件下,所述节点传输标准量S的数据包或帧形式的数据用的链路数据速率。该链路数据 Hypothesis 6 "represents the size of the test frame / packet. If IEEE802. Lla wireless transmission systems, for example, 185 B can be spread. For simplicity, B can also be set to 0. The test packet size can be a pre-S Identify and preset constant, for example, 8224 bits. You can also choose the size of the test frame / packet as the average amount of data packets through a node transmission or maximum amount. In addition, it is assumed y? indicates the current channel conditions, the node-link data transmission rate of a standard amount of S in the form of data packets or frames of data. The data link

速率取决于本地设备适应的链路速率。 Rate depends on the link rate adaptation to local devices. 假设^;表示所述节点以传输速率 Suppose ^; represents transmission rate to said node

传输标准量6"的数据包/帧(数据)时的数据包/帧差错率。数据是由比特信息组成。为了便于传输,数据由数据包或帧组成。&能够由网状网络中的一个节点在本地来测量和/或估算。P表示与信道有效带宽有关的链路信道 The amount of packet transmission standard 6 "packet / frame (data) of the / frame error rate data is composed of bits of information. In order to facilitate transfer, the data packets or frames. & Mesh network can be made in a In the local node to measure and / or estimate .P represent an effective channel bandwidths associated link channel

的负载/利用率。 The load / utilization. 本发明的路由度量是加权无线收发装置和带宽感知(Radioand Bandwidth Aware (RABA))链路代价函数。 Routing is a weighted measure of the present invention and bandwidth wireless transceiver perception (Radioand Bandwidth Aware (RABA)) link cost function. 无线链路Z的RABA代价函数能够根据下述式子计算出来: The radio link Z RABA cost function can be calculated according to the following equation:

婦单)=(r0/! + 4), (p) x『2 ) (1) Single women) = (r0 /! + 4), (p) x "2) (1)

其中巧Ga)和『2(&)分别是信道利用率P和数据包/帧差错率^r的两个加权函数。 Where clever Ga) and "2 (&) are P channel utilization and packet / frame error rate ^ r two weighting functions. ^G^的一些可能的形式是: ^ G ^ Some possible forms are:

(a) 『,(")=1 (A) ", (") = 1

在这种条件下,所有链路在信道利用率方面的加权相等。 In this condition, all links weighting in terms of channel utilization is equal.

(b) ,)= 一 (B),) = a

在这种条件下,随着信道负载/利用率的增加而增加给予链路的加权。 Under such conditions, with increasing channel load / utilization and increase the weight given link. l P《Po l P "Po

(C)『"p)=- (C) "" p) = -

L p0 < p《/7咖x L p0 <p "/ 7 coffee x

1-p 1-p

00 P > Pmax 00 P> Pmax

在这种条件下,信道负载/利用率小于^。 Under these conditions, the channel load / utilization is less than ^. 的链路加权相等。 Link weighted equally. 信道负载/利用 Channel load / utilization

率在A)和Pmax之间的链路被给予的加权随着它们的信道负载/利用率增加而增加。 Rate weighted Link A) and Pmax is given as between their channel load / utilization increases. 在选择路线时,不考虑信道利用率大于A^的链路,因为它们的代价 When choosing the route, irrespective of the channel utilization is greater than A ^ link, because they cost

是无穷大的。 It is infinite. 通常,系统设计者能够根据一些目标网络收入和应用软件需 Typically, the system designer can be based on some of the target network revenue and application software

求选择适当值的A^和^。 Select the appropriate value of seeking and ^ A ^. 类似的,^(^)的一些可能的形式是:(a) Ff2(>)=l; Similarly, ^ (^) are some of the possible forms: (a) Ff2 (>) = l;

在这种条件下,所有链路在数据包误码率方面的加权相等。 In this condition, all links in the packet weighted error rate equal. (b)『2(&)=7^ (B) "2 (&) = 7 ^

在这种条件下,随着链路的数据包误码率增加而增加给与它们的加权' Under these conditions, with the increase in the data link packet error rate increases to give their weighting '

' 1 五"五o '1 Five-Year "five o

(C) )F2 (>)=' (C)) F2 (>) = '

4 0<^"Sn 4 0 <^ "S n

在这种条件下,数据包/帧差错率小于f。 In this condition, the packet / frame error rate is smaller than f. 的链路加权相等。 Link weighted equally. 数据包/帧差错率在^和^之间的链路被给予的加权随着它们的数据包/帧差错率增加而增加。 Packet / frame error rate in the weighted link between ^ ^ and as they are given a packet / frame error rate increases. 链路选择中不考虑数据包误码率大于^^的链路,因为它们的代价是无穷大的。 Link selection is not considered ^^ packet error rate is greater than the link, since they cost is infinite. 通常,系统设计者能够根据一些目标网络收入和应用软件需求选择适当的^和^^值。 Typically, the system designer can select the appropriate ^ ^ ^ values and income, according to some target network and application software requirements.

应当指出加权函数W(^)和『2(A)不限于上述形式,它们也能够以其他形式。 It should be noted that the weighting function W (^) and the "2 (A) is not limited to the above-described form, it can be in other forms.

RABA链路代价函数表示一种复合路由度量,其捕捉到在具体链路上发送数据数据包/帧所消耗的无线资源(Radio Resource)的总量以及链路的负载和可用带宽。 RABA link cost function represents a composite routing metric which captures the radio resource (Radio Resource) sending data packets / frames on a particular link is consumed and the total amount of the load and the available bandwidth of the link. RABA链路代价函数考虑到共享无线介质中的数据流之间的串扰(inter-flow interference^在选择路线/路由时,倾向于选择具有更高链路数据速率、更高有效带宽和较低数据包误码率的路线/路由。 RABA link cost function taking into account crosstalk (inter-flow interference shared wireless medium flow of data between ^ when selecting the route / routes tend to choose a higher link data rates, higher effective bandwidth and lower data packet error rate of route / routes.

由于链路/信道质量和负载的变化,RABA的值频繁地改变。 Due to changes in link / channel quality and load value RABA change frequently. 如果直接使用RABA作为路由度量,该路由会频繁地改变,从而导致路由的不稳定。 If the direct use RABA as the routing metric, the route will be changed frequently, causing unstable routes. 本发明还包括不但实现快速响应链路状态和网络拓扑变化而且保持路由稳定性的方法。 The present invention also includes not only rapid response link status and network topology changes and to maintain the stability of the routing method. 为了提高路由稳定性,使用量化的RABA作为链路代价函数。 To improve the routing stability, as quantified RABA link cost function. 链路Z的量化RABA (QRABA)可以用公式表示为:,頭丄)=C函g(M x WA4(丄)/0 (2)或者 Link Z quantization RABA (QRABA) can be formulated as: head Shang) = C letter g (M x WA4 (Shang) / 0 (2) or

或者 Or

13,A4(i)-im + i Ce!7Z"g(Mx/L4a4CL)/g)>M 13, A4 (i) -im + i Ce! 7Z "g (Mx / L4a4CL) / g)> M

其中J/是量化等级数而C是量化因子。 Where J / is the number of quantization levels and C is the quantization factor. 通常,系统设计者能够根据路由稳定性和链路状态的网络响应时间的一些指标权衡以及拓扑变化选择适当值 Typically, system designers to respond to weigh a number of indicators and topology changes over time to select the appropriate value based on the stability and link state routing network

的#和P。 The # and P. 例如,期望的量化等级#可以是16,而Q可以是最大值或在RABA(L)范围内。 For example, the desired quantization level may be 16 #, and Q may be the maximum value or the RABA (L) range. 为了使用有限的比特位(固定长度的字段)来表示QRABA的值,如果QRABA的值大于M+1, QRABA的值可以取到M+1。 In order to use the limited bits (fixed-length field) to represent the value of QRABA, the value of QRABA if greater than M + 1, the value of QRABA can be taken to M + 1.

节点能够估算其通往相邻节点的链路所使用的信道的负载/利用率。 Leading to an adjacent node can estimate the load / utilization link nodes used channel. 估算信道负载/利用率的一种可行方法是使用信道占用时间(channel busytime)。 One possible method to estimate the channel load / utilization is to use the channel occupancy time (channel busytime). 由于无线信道的共享属性,当串扰范围内的任何一个节点执行传输时该信道被占用。 Since the wireless channel shared property, when any one node performs transmission within the scope of crosstalk when the channel is occupied. 当一个节点使用信道以帧或数据包的形式在一个信道上传输数据时,则这个信道被占用。 When a node using the channel in the form of frames or packets of data at a transmission channel, then the channel is occupied. 串扰范围内的其他节点不能够同时以相同频率传输,否则会发生冲突并且所传输的帧/数据包(数据)会发生错误。 Other nodes within the scope of crosstalk can not be transmitted simultaneously at the same frequency, it will be a conflict and transmitted frames / packets (data) an error occurs. 此外, 一个节点可以接收来自其他节点的控制消息,其中该节点保留该信道一段时间。 In addition, a node may receive control messages from another node, wherein the node reserves the channel for some time. 如果一个节点处于下述状态之一,则该信道被占用。 If a node is in one of the following states, then the channel is occupied. 第一种状态,该节点正在使用这个信道/频率发送或接收数据。 A first state, the node is using the channel frequency to send or receive data /. 第二种状态,该节点收到来自其他节点的控制/管理消息,要保留该信道一段时间。 The second state, the node receives control / management message from other nodes, to keep the channel for some time. 第三种状态,该节点检测到这个信道/频率上有信号强度大于阈值的占用载波(busycairier)。 A third state, the node has a signal strength greater than a threshold carrier occupies this channel / frequency detector to (busycairier). 在测量周期7;期间,如果估算的信道占用时间为则信道负 7 measurement period; period, if the estimated channel occupancy time of the channel negative

一个从源节点到目的节点的路线包括多个链路"和中间节点M 。"表 A route from the source node to the destination node comprises a plurality of links "and intermediate node M." Table

示沿着该路由/路线,节点M和它的前一个跳跃M-!之间的链路。 Link shows along the route / routes, nodes M and its previous jump M-! Between. 路线P的RABA代价可以由如下式子计算得出: RABA cost of route P can be calculated by the following equation:

WA4(尸)=J] [a,(几.,几+1) x iMA4(丄!.) + 2 (几.,)] (5) WA4 (corpse) = J] [a, (a few., Several +1) x iMA4 (Shang!.) + 2 (a few,)] (5)

"e尸 "E corpse

如果使用量化来提高路由的稳定性,路线P的QRABA代价可以由如下式子计算得出:gwa4(尸)=J] [, (A,,) x 2wm(")+2 (化,)] (6) If you use quantization to improve stability, QRABA the cost routing path P can be calculated by the following formula: gwa4 (corpse) = J] [, (A ,,) x 2wm (") + 2 (of, )] (6)

其中链路"+l是沿着路线p紧跟着链路"的下一个链路,&和几.+1表示分别指定给链路"和"+l的信道/频率。 Wherein the link "+ l is followed by the link along the path p" to the next link, & and a few. + 1 are assigned to the links "and" + l channel / frequency. ",(A,,/^)和"2(/w,/w+1)是两个信道 ", (A ,, / ^) and" 2 (/ w, / w + 1) is a two-channel

变化加权(ccw)函数,取决于指定给沿着所述路线的两个连续链路的信道 Changes in weighting (ccw) function, depending on the assigned to the route along two continuous link channel

/频率。 / Frequency. "1(几.,/^)的一些可行形式是: "1 (. A few, / ^) are some of the possible forms:

(a) = l (A) = l

在这种条件下,所有链路在被分配的用于传输的信道方面的加权相等。 In this condition, all links are equal in weight terms for transmission channel is allocated.

(b) (B)

6】 =力'+i 6] = Force '+ i

在这种条件下,对于沿着路线的Z^"iT^,也就是,目的节点在其上接收 Under these conditions, along the route of the Z ^ "^, that is, the destination node receives thereon

数据包/帧(数据)的链路,CCW函数^(/^,几.+,)等于",。应当指出目的节点 Packet / frame (data) links, CCW function ^ (/ ^, few. +,) Is equal to ". It should be noted that the destination node

不会再次转发数据。 It does not forward the data again. 如果沿着路线的两个连续链路"和"+l使用相同的信道 If two consecutive links along the route, "and" + l using the same channel

/频率,也就是,中间节点M接收来自具有信道/频率几.的链路h的数据, / Frequency, i.e., the intermediate node M receives data from a channel having a / several frequencies. H of links,

并且在具有信道/频率/,,.+1=/,,.的链路"+ 1上转发/发送数据,ccw函数 Link and having a channel / frequency /,,.+ 1 = / ,,. The "+ 1 forwarding / sending data, ccw function

等于h。 Equal to h. 如果沿着路线的两个连续链路h和h"使用不同的信道 If two consecutive links along the route h and h "to use a different channel

/频率,但是具有相同的无线收发装置,也就是,中间节点M使用一个无线 / Frequencies but with the same radio device, i.e., the intermediate node using a wireless M

接口(radio interface)接收来自具有信道/频率几.的链路"的数据,并且使用相同的无线接口在具有信道/频率厶,.+1 #厶,.的链路"+i上转发/发送数据,CCW函数A^,/,^)等于q。 "The data link, and use the same radio interface having a channel / frequency Si, Si + 1 #," Interface (radio interface) to receive from having a channel / frequency a few. The link + on i forwarding / sending data, CCW function A ^, /, ^) is equal to q. 如果沿着路线的两个连续链路"和丄,+ i使用不同的信道/频率和不同的无线收发装置,也就是,中间节点M使用一个无线接口接收来自具有信道/频率&的链路"的数据,并且使用不同的无线接口在具有信道/频率/^+^A,的链路"+ i上转发/发送数据,CCW函数"K/",/h.+0等于4。 ",、 &、 c,和",是能够由系统设计者预先确定的设计参数。例如,1=1, 61=2, c1=1.5禾B 4=1。在连续链路上使用相同信道/频率和相同无线收发装置的路线被给予的加权/代价高于在连续链路上使用不同信道/频率和不同无线收发装置的路由被赋予的加权/代价。 类似的,^仏',^^的一些可行形式是: If continuous link "and Shang, + i use a different channel / frequency and different radio devices, that is, the intermediate node M using a wireless interface to receive links from having a channel / frequency & the" along two routes data, and use different radio interface having a channel / frequency / ^ + ^ A, the link '+ forwarded on i / transmit data, CCW function "K /", / h. + 0 equals 4. ",, &, c, and "is predetermined by the system designer can design parameters. For example, 1 = 1, 61 = 2, c1 = 1.5 Wo B 4 = 1. using the same channel / frequency and the same on a continuous link Weighted / expense line radio device is given higher weighting / The cost of using different channels / frequencies and different wireless transmitters and receivers on a continuous link routes are given. Similarly, ^ Fo '^^ some viable form They are:

(a) "2(/",/"+i) = o 在这种条件下,所有链路在指定的用于传输的信道方面加权相等。 (A) "2 (/", / "+ i) = o In this condition, all links are equal weighting in terms of the designated channel for transmission.

<formula>formula see original document page 16</formula> <Formula> formula see original document page 16 </ formula>

在这种条件下,对于沿着路线的^WZi/7么也就是,目的节点在其上接收 Under these conditions, along the route for ^ WZi / 7 it is, the destination node receives thereon

数据的链路,CCW函数"i"",/"+0等于"2。应当指出,目的节点不会再次转 Link, CCW function data of "i" ", /" + 0 equals "2. It should be noted that the destination node does not go again

发数据。 Send data. 如果沿着路线的两个连续链路h'和"+l使用相同的信道/频率,也就是,中间节点M接收来自具有信道/频率/"的链路"的数据,并且在具有 If continuous link h 'and "+ l using the same channel / frequency, that is, the intermediate node M receives from having a channel / frequency /" data link "along the two routes, and having

信道/频率几"的链路"+1上转发/发送数据,ccw函数"2^,/"+o等于^ 。 Channel / frequency a few "link" on +1 forwarding / sending data, ccw function "2 ^, /" + o equals ^.

如果沿着路线的两个连续链路"和"+1使用不同的信道/频率,但是具有相同的无线收发装置,也就是,中间节点M使用一个无线接口接收来自具有信道/频率"的链路"的数据,并且使用相同的无线接口在具有信道/频率 If two consecutive links along the route, "and" +1 use different channel / frequency, but with the same radio equipment, that is, the intermediate node M using a wireless interface to receive links from having a channel / frequency " "data, and use the same radio interface having a channel / frequency

/"+一/"的链路"+i上转发/发送数据,ccw函数"2^',/"+o等于c2。如果沿 / "+ A /" links "+ on i forwarded / transmitted data, ccw function" 2 ^ ', / "+ o equals c2. If along

着路线的两个连续链路"和"+l使用不同的信道/频率和不同的无线收发装置,也就是,中间节点M使用一个无线接口接收来自具有信道/频率/"的 Two consecutive link the line "and" + l using different channels / frequencies and different wireless transceiver that is, the intermediate node M using a wireless interface to receive from having a channel / frequency / "of

链路"的数据,并且使用不同的无线接口在具有信道/频率力'+一^的链路 Link "data, and using different wireless interfaces having a channel / frequency power '+ a ^ link

丄'+ 1上转发/发送数据,CCW函数"2(/",/"+l)等于"2。 Shang '+ 1 forwarding / sending data, CCW function "2 (/", / "+ l) is equal to" 2. "2、 ~、 C2和心是能够由系统设计者预先确定的设计参数。例如,"2=G, &2=5, q=3, &=()。 "2, ~, C2 and heart design parameters can be determined in advance by the system designer. For example," 2 = G, & 2 = 5, q = 3, & = ().

在连续链路上使用相同信道/频率和相同无线收发装置的路线/路由被赋予的加权/代价高于在连续链路上使用不同信道/频率和不同无线收发装置的路线/路由被赋予的加权/代价。 Weighted using the same channel / frequency and the same radio means on a continuous link route / routes are given / the price is higher than the route using different channels / frequencies and different wireless transceiver on a continuous link / route weighted been given / price.

应当指出ccw函数"'仏',/"+i)和"(/",/"+i)不限于上述形式,它们也能够是其他形式。 It should be noted ccw function "'Fo', /" + i) and "(/", / "+ i) is not limited to the above form, they can also be other forms.

路线/路由度量中的ccw函数"i"",/"^和""/",/"^捕捉到到多无线收 Directions / route metric in ccw function "i" ", /" ^ and "" / ", /" ^ to capture to multiple wireless transceiver

发装置多信道和数据流之间及之内的串扰对网络容量的影响。 Crosstalk between hair means multi-channel and data flow and influence within the network capacity. 本发明路线/ 路由选择方案中优先选择的是使用不同信道和多个无线收发装置的路线/ 路由。 Route of the invention / routing scheme in preference is to use a different channel and a plurality of wireless transmitters and receivers route / routes. 应当指出单个无线收发装置和单个信道是本发明多无线收发装置多信道的特殊例子。 It should be noted that a single wireless transceiver and a single channel of the present invention is a multi-channel multi-radio device specific examples.

图1是根据本发明原理建立双向端对端路由的方法流程图。 1 is to establish a two-way end to end route in accordance with the principles of the present invention in FIG flowchart of a method. 在105计算出如上所述的链路代价函数。 105 calculates the link cost function as described above. 在110计算的结果用于计算量化链路代价函数。 110 calculation results are used to calculate the quantized link cost function. 在115使用量化链路代价计算量化路由代价。 In 115 calculates the cost of using the quantization quantization route link cost. 在120基于所计算的路由代价选择最佳的用于数据遍历无线网络的双向端对端路由。 120 choose the best route for data to traverse the cost calculated based bidirectional wireless network-end route.

图2是本发明计算链路代价函数过程的流程图。 Figure 2 is a flow chart of the present invention, the process for calculating link cost function. 在205确定介质访问控制和物理层上的协议开销(overhead)。 OK MAC and protocol overhead (overhead) physical layer 205. 在210确定数据包/帧(数据)量。 Determining packet / frame (data) the amount of 210. 在215定期地确定链路数据速率。 Link data rate is determined periodically at 215. 在220定期地确定数据包/帧差错率。 Periodically determines the packet / frame error rate at 220. 在225 确定信道利用率的加权函数。 In determining the weighting function 225 channel utilization. 即,从多个有效加权函数中选择有效的加权函数,并且确定要用于计算具体链路的链路代价函数的加权。 That is, the selection weighting function effectively from a plurality of weighting functions effectively, and to determine the weighted link cost function to be used to calculate the specific link. 然后在230确定数据包/帧差错率的加权函数。 Then determining the weighting function data packet / frame error rate at 230. 再一次,从多个有效加权函数中选择有效的加权函数,并且确定要用于计算具体链路的链路代价函数的加权。 Again, the choice of weighting function effectively from a plurality of weighting functions effectively, and to determine the weighted link cost function to be used to calculate the specific link.

图3是本发明使用的确定信道利用率的加权函数的流程图。 Figure 3 is a flow chart of the present invention is used to determine the weighting function channel utilization. 在305定期地 305 regularly

估算信道利用率。 Estimation of channel utilization.

图4是本发明信道估算的流程图。 Figure 4 is a flow channel of the present invention estimates. 在405确定信道测量周期,然后在410定期地确定信道占用时间。 Determining a channel measurement period in 405, and then periodically determining channel occupancy time 410. 这两个确定结果被用于定期地估算信道利用率。 These two results are used to determine periodically estimate the channel utilization.

图5是本发明计算量化链路代价函数的流程图。 5 is a flowchart of the present invention to calculate the quantized link cost function. 在505确定量化等级数并且在510确定量化因子。 In determining quantization levels 505 and 510 determines the number of quantization factor. 在515这两个值被用于计算量化链路代价函数。 In 515 of these two values is used to calculate the quantized link cost function.

图6是本发明计算路由代价的流程图。 6 is a flowchart of the present invention to calculate the cost of the route. 在605确定第一信道变化加权函数,并且在610确定第二信道变化加权函数。 In determining a first channel 605 changes the weighting function, and determining a second channel change the weighting function 610. 这两个值被用于计算路由代价。 These two values are used to calculate the cost routing. 本发明的QRABA路线/路由度量能够被应用于选择无线网状网络中的路线/路由。 QRABA route of the present invention / routing metric can be applied to select a wireless mesh network route / routes. QRABA路由度量能够被并入路由协议/算法的设计中,包括用于选择路线/路由的按需(on-demand)、先验(proactive)和混合路由协议。 QRABA routing metric can be incorporated into the routing protocol / algorithm design, comprising means for selecting the route / routes of demand (on-demand), a priori (proactive) and hybrid routing protocols. 选择源节点/网点和目的节点/网点之间QRABA值最小的路线/路由。 Select the source node / nodes and the minimum value of the destination node QRABA route / routes between / outlets. 如果存在多个具有同样最小的QRABA值的路线/路由,则选择具有最小跳跃数的路线。 If there are multiple routes / route QRABA have the same minimum value, choose the route with the smallest number of jumps.

参考图7,示出了有助于理解本发明的一个网状网络的例子。 Referring to Figure 7, there is shown a mesh network that facilitates understanding of the present invention is an example. 例如,从节点A到节点C的路线由链路AB、 BC和中间节点B组成。 For example, from node A to node C's line by the link AB, BC and intermediate node B components.

例如,如果QRABA路线度量被并入到一个先验链路状态路由协议中,例如,最佳的链路状态路由(Optimized Link State Routing (0LSR))协议和开放式最短路线优先(Open Shortest Path first (0SPF))协议,需要估算网状网络中每个链路的QRABA链路代价。 For example, if QRABA route metrics are incorporated into a priori link-state routing protocol, for example, the best link-state routing (Optimized Link State Routing (0LSR)) protocol and Open Shortest route priority (Open Shortest Path first (0SPF)) protocol, we need to estimate the cost of the mesh network QRABA link each link. 网状网络中的节点在其本地估算它通往每个相邻节点的QRABA链路代价,并且发布其通往每个相邻节点的链路的QRABA代价和信道/频率给网络中的其他节点,作为路由控制消息中链路状态信息的一部分。 Mesh network node in its local link cost estimate which leads QRABA each adjacent node, and the cost of its leading publication QRABA each adjacent node links and channels / frequencies to other nodes in the network part of the link state information, as routing control message. 每个节点保留一个路由/转发表,其允许节点以数据包或帧的形式转发目的地为网络中的其他节点的数据。 Each node maintains a routing / forwarding, which allows nodes in the form of data packets or frames destined for forwarding other nodes in the network data. 基于每个节点产生的缓存的链路状态信息产生和更新路由/转发表。 Generating information on a per-node cache generated and updated link state routing / forwarding. 如果使用本发明的QRABA作为路线度量,节点使用公式(6)计算通往目的地的路线/路由。 If you use the present invention as a route QRABA measure node using equation (6) to calculate a route to the destination / route. 如图7所示的例子,节点A具有两条路线通往目的节点C, ABC和ADEFC。 In the example shown in Figure 7, node A has two routes leading to the destination node C, ABC and ADEFC. 链路BC的质量相当差和/或链路BC上的负载相当高和/或链路BC的有效带宽相当小和/或分配给链路AB和BC相同的信道/频率,使得路线ABC的QRABA 代价高于路线ADEFC的QRABA代价。 BC's relatively poor quality of the link and / or load is quite high on the link BC and / or the effective bandwidth of the link BC is relatively small and / or assigned to the link AB and BC the same channel / frequency, making the route ABC's QRABA the price is higher than the cost of the route ADEFC of QRABA. 即使路线ABC的跳跃少于路线ADEFC,节点A会选择路线ADEFC以数据包或帧的形式转发数据到目的节点C。 Even ABC route than the route jumping ADEFC, node A will choose the route ADEFC in packets or frames forwards the data to the destination node C. 在节点A的路由表中,下一个跳跃是节点D而不是节点B到目的节点C。 A node in the routing table, the next hop is Node D Node B instead of to the destination node C.

另一个例子是QRABA路线度量并入到诸如Ad-Hoc按需距离矢量(on-Demand Distance Vector (A0DV))协议的按需路由协议。 Another example is a measure incorporated into such QRABA route Ad-Hoc on-demand distance vector (on-Demand Distance Vector (A0DV)) protocol-demand routing protocols. 当一个源节点希望发送数据包或帧形式的数据到某个目的节点时,发现、产生并保 When a source node wishes to transmit data in the form of data packets or frames to a destination node, it found, produce and Paul

留QRABA路线代价值最小的路线。 Minimum stay QRABA route cost value of route. 每个节点具有确定通往其相邻节点的QRABA链路代价的机制,并且了解每个链路动态或静态所使用的信道/频率。 Each node has access to its neighboring nodes to determine the QRABA link cost of the mechanism, and understand each link channel used for dynamic or static / frequency. 当一个源节点希望发送数据到某个目的节点,并且没有有效的路由通往这个目的地时,源节点通过向网络中的所有节点泛发路由请求(RREQ)消息来发起路由发现。 When a source node wants to send data to a destination node, and no effective routes leading to the destination, the source node to all nodes in the network generalized route request (RREQ) message to initiate route discovery. 除了其他信息之外,目的地址、路由度量字段和跳跃计数字段包括在RREQ消息中。 In addition to other information, destination address, routing metric field and the hop count field is included in RREQ message. 应当指出每个节点可以接收由源节点产生的多条相同RREQ。 It should be noted that each node can receive the same number of RREQ generated by the source node. 这些RREQ中的每一个都遍历从源节点到接收节点的一条唯一路径。 Each of these RREQ to traverse a unique path from the source node to the receiving node. 接收节点可以是目的节点或是一个中间节点。 Receiving node may be the destination node or an intermediate node. 当一个中间节点M收到RREQ时,基于公式(6)更新其度量字段。 When an intermediate node M receives RREQ, based on the formula (6) to update its metric field. 特别地,中间节点M将它从中接收RREQ消息的节点和它自己之间的加权链路代价, In particular, the intermediate node from which it receives the M weighted link cost between the node and its own RREQ message,

加到RREQ度量字段中的值上。 RREQ metric is added to the value in the field. 信道变化加 Channel variation plus

权函数",(A,,/^)和"2(/^/^)取决于接收RREQ的链路信道/频率和无线接口以及向网络转发(再次泛发(re-flood)) RREQ的无线接口。 Weight function ", (A ,, / ^) and" 2 (/ ^ / ^) depending on the received RREQ link channel / frequency and wireless network interfaces and forwards (generalized again (re-flood)) RREQ Wireless interface. 如果中间节点没有一条通往源节点的反向路由(reverse route),则该中间节点建立一条其通往源节点的反向路由,或者如果这个RREQ表示比当前通往源节点的路由更好的一条新路由,则更新该中间节点通往该源节点的反向路由。 If an intermediate node has no access to the source node of the reverse route (reverse route), the intermediate node which establishes a reverse route leading to the source node, or if this RREQ represents a source node than the current route leading to better A new route is to update the reverse route leading to the intermediate node source node. 中间节点转发(再次泛发(re-flood))更新后的RREQ。 Intermediate node forwards (generalized again (re-flood)) RREQ updated. 转发的(再次泛发的)RREQ中的度量字段是己更新的度量,其反映RREQ源节点和转发节点之间路由的累积度量(Cumulative metric)。 Forwarding (generalized again) RREQ metric fields are already in the updated measure, which reflects the route between the source node and the RREQ forwarding node cumulative metric (Cumulative metric).

当目的节点接收RREQ时,它基于公式(6)更新度量字段。 When the destination node receives the RREQ, it is based on the formula (6) update metric field. 如果在目的节点的路由表中不存在通往源节点的路由,则该目的节点在其路由表中产生一条通往源节点的反向路由。 If the route to the source node in the routing table does not exist in the destination node, the destination node generates a reverse route leading to the source node in its routing table. 如果所述RREQ提供一条比当前目的节点通往源节点的反向路由更好的新路由,则该目的节点更新其通往该源节点的当前反向路由。 If the RREQ provide a reverse route to the destination node than the current leading source node of a better new route, the purpose of access to the source node to update its current reverse route node. 目的节点在产生或更新其通往源节点的反向路由之后, 该目的节点发送单播路由答复(RREP)消息给源节点。 After generating the destination node or update their reverse route leading to the source node, the destination node sends a unicast route reply (RREP) message to the source node. 除了其他信息,RREP消息包括载有度量信息的度量字段。 Among other information, RREP message includes metric information contained in metric field. RREP在中间节点中,最终在源节点中建立一条通往目的节点的路由。 RREP intermediate node, the eventual establishment of a route leading to the destination node in the source node. 应当指出一个节点(源节点和/或中间节点) It should be noted that a node (source node and / or intermediate node)

可以接收发往同一目的节点的多个RREP。 You can receive the same multiple RREP destination nodes. 当中间节点接收RREP消息时,中间节点根据公式(6)更新其路由表中的度量信息。 When an intermediate node receives the RREP message, the intermediate node (6) updates its routing table metric information according to the formula. 然后如果中间节点没有通往目的节点的路由,则该中间节点建立一条通往目的节点的路由,或者如果新的RREP提供一条比中间节点通往目的节点的当前路由更好的路由, 则更新该中间节点通往该目的节点的当前路由。 Then, if there is no route to the intermediate node of the destination node, the intermediate node to establish a path to the destination node routing, or if a new RREP provide an intermediate node to destination node than the current route better route, updating the intermediate node leading to the destination node of the current route. 如果产生或修改了一条路由,中间节点沿着已建立的反向路由单播转发RREP到下一个上行(朝向源节点)节点。 If you create or modify a route, intermediate nodes along the established reverse route unicast RREP to the next upstream (toward the source node) node. RREP中的度量字段是更新后的度量,其反映从转发节点到目的节点的路由的累积度量。 RREP The measure is a measure of the updated field, which reflects the cumulative metric from forwarding node to route to the destination node. 在发送RREP之后,如果目的节点接收其他具有更好度量的RREQ,则该目的节点更新其通往源节点的路由,并且沿着已更新的路由同样发送一个刷新的RREP到源节点。 After transmitting the RREP, if the destination node receives the RREQ other better metric, then the object which access the source node updates the routing node, and also transmits a refresh of the updated RREP along the route to the source node. 从而在源节点和目的节点之间建立具有最佳QRABA路线度量的双向最佳端对端度量路由。 Thereby establishing a two-way end to end with the best QRABA best route metrics between the source node and the destination node routing metrics. 在可选实施例中,具有通往目的节点的有效路由的中间节点也能够发送单播RREP消息到源节点。 In an alternative embodiment, the intermediate node having a valid route leading to the destination node can also send a unicast RREP message to the source node.

本申请的QRABA路线度量能够应用于基于树状拓扑在多跳无线网络中选择路线。 QRABA route metric of the present application can be applied to select the route tree topology multi-hop wireless networks. QRABA路由度量能够被并入基于树状路由协议/算法的设计中, 从而建立基于根节点的拓扑树并且选择父节点和路线。 QRABA routing metric can be incorporated into the tree-based routing protocol / algorithm design, so as to establish the topology based root tree and select the parent node and routes. 一个节点选择根节点与它之间最小QRABA的父节点。 Select the root node between a node and its parent node minimum QRABA.

根节点定期地发送根声明(Route Announcement (RANN))消息或目的节点地址为网络中所有节点的特殊的路由请求(RREQ)消息。 Root node periodically transmits root statement (Route Announcement (RANN)) message or address of the destination node in the network specific routing requests to all nodes (RREQ) message. 除了其他信息之外,该RANN和RREQ包括度量字段和序号字段。 In addition to other information, including the RANN and RREQ metric field and number field. 当根节点发送一个新的RANN或RREQ时,初始化度量字段并且增加序号。 When the root node sends a new RREQ when RANN or initialized measure and increase the number field. 当网络中的任一个节点收到目的节点地址为所有节点的RANN或RREQ时,基于公式(6)更新度量字段。 When any network node receives a destination address for RANN or RREQ all nodes, based on the formula (6) update metric field. 如果该节点没有关于通往根节点的路由信息,则该节点产生其通往根节点的路由/转发信息。 If the node does not have access to the root of the routing information about the access to the root node generates its routing / forwarding information. 所述节点从中接收RANN或RREQ的节点为所述节点通往根节点的父节点。 The node which receives RANN or RREQ is the gateway to the root node of the parent node. 应当指出每个节点可以接收多条RANN或RREQ消息。 It should be noted that each node may receive multiple RANN or RREQ messages. 如果RANN或RREQ表示比节点通往根节点的当前路由更好的新路由, 则该节点更新其通往根节点的父节点和路由/转发信息。 If RANN or RREQ represents the ratio of the root node of the current new route leading to a better route, the access to the root node to update its parent and routing / forwarding information. 例如,如果RANN 或RREQ包括一个更大的序号,或者该序号和当前路由相同,而RANN或RREQ 消息提供比通往根节点的当前路由的度量更好的度量,则该节点更新其通往根节点的当前父节点和路由/转发信息。 For example, if RANN or RREQ includes a larger number, or the same number and the current route, and RANN or RREQ messages with better metrics than the routes leading to the root of the current measure, the access to the root node update current parent node and routing node / forwarding information. 在节点产生或更新其通往源节点的父节点和路由/转发信息之后,节点向网络转发(再次泛发)更新后的RANN 或RREQ消息。 After the parent node and routing node generates or update their leading source node / forwarding information forwarded to the network node (generalized again) RANN or RREQ message after the update. 根节点(们)出现的信息和有效根节点(们)的度量信息被传播给网络中的所有节点。 Information and effective root node of the root node (s) appear (s) metric information is propagated to all nodes in the network. 当一个节点收到目的节点地址为所有节点的RANN或RREQ消息之时,或者当一个节点具有要发送到根节点的数据并且需要通往根节点的双向路径时,该节点可以向根节点发送注册(REGS)或路由答复(RREP)消息或路由请求(RREQ)。 When a node receives the address of the destination node or all nodes RANN the RREQ message, or when a node has a two-way path to the root of the data to be transmitted to and need access to the root node, the node can send the registration to the root (REGS) or a route reply (RREP) message or a route request (RREQ). REGS或RREP或RREQ消息建立/ 更新从根节点通往这个节点的路由。 REGS or RREP or RREQ messages establish / update from the root node of the route leading to this.

图8是使用本发明路由度量的节点其细节的方框图。 Figure 8 is a block diagram of the present invention node routing metric details of its use. 除了其它模块以外,该节点还由路由选择模块815,链路质量和信道负载/利用率测量模块805,路由度量计算模块810,以及一个或多个无线通信接口模块820a…… 820n组成。 In addition to the other modules, the node also by the routing module 815, link quality and channel load / utilization measurement module 805, the routing metric calculation module 810, and one or more radio communication interface modules 820a ...... 820n composition. 链路质量和信道负载/利用率测量模块805经由无线通信接口模块820a……820n定期地测量节点通往每个相邻节点的链路/信道的质量和负载/利用率。 Quality and loads link quality and channel load / utilization measurement module 805 leading to each adjacent node via a wireless communication interface module 820a ...... 820n periodically measuring node link / channel / utilization. 将测量结果提供给定期计算路由度量的路由度量计算模块。 The measurement results are provided to the periodic calculation of the route metric routing metric calculation module. 路由度量包括链路代价函数,量化链路代价函数和量化路由代价函数。 Routing metrics include link cost function, quantify the link cost function and quantify the cost routing function. 应当指出一个节点可以具有多个相邻节点、多个无线接口、多个物理/逻辑信道和链路。 It should be noted that a node may have a plurality of adjacent nodes, a plurality of wireless interfaces, multiple physical / logical channels and links. 所有这些链路的质量和负载必须定期地通过测量模块来测量。 All these links are quality and the load must be regularly measured by the measurement module. 路由选择模块执行路由协议/算法,并且确定转发数据的路由和无线接口。 Routing module performs routing protocol / algorithm, and forward the data to determine the routing and wireless interfaces. 同时通过无线通信接口模块820a……820n与网络中的其他节点交换路由控制消息。 Meanwhile 820a ...... 820n exchange routing control messages to other nodes in the network via a wireless communication interface module. 应当指出一个节点可以具有一个或多个无线通信和其他通信接口。 It should be noted that a node may have one or more wireless communication and other communication interfaces.

在先验式路由协议(proactive routing protocols)中,为了维护路由的稳定性,同时实现相当快速地响应链路状态和拓扑变化,当且仅当这条链路RABA度量中的变化(与其最后一次声明中的值相比较)大于一个阈值时,节点会通过泛发路由控制消息来声明通往它的其中一个邻点(相邻节点)的链路的状态变化。 Priori routing protocol (proactive routing protocols), in order to maintain the stability of the route, while achieving fairly rapid response to link state and topology changes, if and only if this link RABA measure the change (its last When compared to the value declaration) is greater than a threshold value, the node will be declared state changes leading to one of its adjacent points (adjacent nodes) links through generalized control message routing. 即,当且仅当(iL4A4(cw/re"0 - iL4A4(/aW)) / /L4A4(/aW) x 100% > 7T。,该节点立即泛发路由控制消息,声明链路状态的变化。否则,在下一个周期的声明中声明该路由度量变化。应当理解本发明可以以硬件、软件、固件、专用处理器、或其组合等各种方式来实现。优选地,本发明以硬件和软件的组合方式来实现。而且, 该软件优选地实现为有形地包括在程序存储设备中的应用程序。该应用程序可以被上传给具有任何适合机制的机器并且由其来执行。优选地,该机器在具有诸如一个或多个中央处理单元(CPU)、随机存取存储器(RAM)、 和输入/输出(I/O)接口的硬件的计算机平台上执行。该计算机平台还包括一个操作系统和微指令代码。这里所描述的各种处理和功能可以是微指令代码或应用软件(或它们的组合) 一部分,其经由操作系统来执行。另外,各种其他外围设备可以连接到诸如附加的数据存储设备和打印设备这样的计算机平台。应当进一步理解,由于附图中描述的一些组成系统元件和方法步骤优选地以软件来实现,系统元件(或处理步骤)之间的实际连接根据本发明进行编程的方式可以是-不同的。根据这里所给出的教导,本领域的普通技术人员能够设想到本发明的这些和类似的实现方式或构造。 That is, if and only if (iL4A4 (cw / re "0 - iL4A4 (/ aW)) / / L4A4 (/ aW) x 100%> 7T, the node immediately generalized control message routing, link status changes in a statement. Otherwise, the next cycle of the declaration stating that the route metric changes. It should be understood that the present invention may be implemented in hardware, software, firmware, special purpose processors, or combinations thereof, and other ways to achieve. Preferably, the present invention is implemented in hardware and software The combination of ways. Also, the software is preferably implemented as tangibly included in the program storage device applications. The application can be uploaded to any suitable mechanism machine and its execution. Preferably, the machine having performed such as one or more central processing units (CPU), a random access memory (RAM), and input / output (I / O) interface hardware of a computer platform. The computer platform also includes an operating system and micro instruction code. The various processes and functions described herein may be microinstruction code or application software (or combinations thereof) part of which is performed via the operating system. In addition, various other peripheral devices may be connected to such as an additional data storage apparatus and printing apparatus such computer platforms. It should be further understood that, since some of the constituent system components and method steps are preferably implemented in software as described in the drawings, the actual connection system components (or the process steps) are programmed in accordance with the present invention, The mode can be - according to different given the teachings herein, one of ordinary skill in the art of the present invention is able to contemplate these and similar implementations or configurations.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
CN102612109A *19 Jan 201125 Jul 2012黄书强Wireless Mesh network routing channel union distribution method based on topology optimization and interference reduction
CN103888968A *19 Mar 201425 Jun 2014北京航空航天大学Data integrity acceleration test method for Ad hoc network
CN103888968B *19 Mar 201412 Apr 2017北京航空航天大学一种Ad hoc网络数据完整性加速试验方法
Classifications
International ClassificationH04L12/56
Cooperative ClassificationH04L45/26, H04W40/12, H04L45/124
European ClassificationH04L45/26, H04L45/124, H04W40/12
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