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Publication numberCN101141388 A
Publication typeApplication
Application numberCN 200710053022
Publication date12 Mar 2008
Filing date23 Aug 2007
Priority date23 Aug 2007
Also published asCN101141388B
Publication number200710053022.4, CN 101141388 A, CN 101141388A, CN 200710053022, CN-A-101141388, CN101141388 A, CN101141388A, CN200710053022, CN200710053022.4
Inventors李腊元, 博 王, 辉 郑, 郑四海
Applicant武汉理工大学
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: SIPO, Espacenet
Method for implementing optimization energy consumption in Ad hoc network
CN 101141388 A
Abstract
The present invention relates to a method for realizing optimized energy consumption in the Ad hoc network. The present invention proposes an energy model with cross-layer design based on the analyzing the characteristics of the Ad hoc network and by combining the condition of the energy consumption on each layer, the model firstly considers the energy consumption of the physical layer, the data link layer and the network layer of the node, thereby to establish the energy model to each node by utilizing the optimized theory, meanwhile, because the communication of the data information in the Ad hoc network is forwarded by multi-hop among the nodes, when a source node operates the forwarding to a target node for the best path, not only the energy consumption of each node on the path is required to be considered, but also the energy consumption of the complete path is required to be considered, finally the optimal path energy model is established according to the principle of least hop and the least energy consumption on the complete one path, thereby, to avoid the network fault and the impact on the rate of the data information transmission caused by the excessive energy consumption.
Claims(3)  translated from Chinese
1、一种Ad hoc网络中实现优化能量消耗的方法,所采用的步骤是: 第一步骤:源节点S在要发送的数据包RREQ中添加一个数据项cost来保存能量消耗E(S); 第二步骤:当邻居节点i收到数据包RREQ时,取出数据项cost的内容设为costold,并结合该节点的能量消耗E(i),更新数据项cost的内容为costnew=costold+E(i),记录前项节点为S,并依次向i的下一个邻居节点转发数据包RREQ,并向源节点S发送数据包RREP来建立通向源节点的反向路径; 第三步骤:依次执行步骤2,当中间节点j接收到从不同三个邻居节点k,l,m节点发送的数据包RREQ时,分别取出对应的数据项为costk,costl,costm,并且这三个值各不相同,首先进行判断这三个值,得到最小的设为数据项costmin,如果数据项costk=costl=costm选取其中之一作为j的上游节点m,记录前项节点m,同时转发数据包RREQ给下一个节点,并向上游节点m发送数据包RREP来建立通向上游节点的路径; 第四步骤:依次执行步骤3,当目的节点D接收到邻居节点n发送的数据包RREQ,数据项cost里的数据内容就是从源节点S到目的节点的前项节点的整个一条路径所消耗是总能量之和数据项costD-1,更新数据项cost=costD-1+E(D),记录前项节点n,并向上游节点发送数据包RREP来建立通向上游节点的路径,整个过程结束,同时节点S到节点D的路径建立成功。 1. An Ad hoc network to achieve optimization of energy consumption, the procedure used is: a first step: the source node S to add a data item cost RREQ packet to be sent to save energy consumption E (S); Second step: energy When the neighbor node i receives the packet RREQ, remove the contents of the data item cost to costold, combined with the consumption of nodes E (i), updates the data item cost is costnew = costold + E ( i), recorded in the preceding paragraph node S, and in turn forwards the packet RREQ to the next neighbor node i, and to the source node S sending a packet RREP to establish a reverse path to the source node; a third step: Perform Step 2, when the intermediate node j receives from three different neighboring nodes k, l, the data packet transmitted RREQ m nodes, respectively corresponding to the data item is removed costk, costl, costm, and the three different values, First judge these three values to give a minimum set of data items costmin, if the data item costk = costl = costm select one as the upstream node j m, recording node m in the preceding paragraph, while forwarding packets to the next RREQ node to the upstream node sends the packet RREP m to build a path leading to the upstream node; a fourth step: Perform Step 3, when the destination node D receives the packet RREQ neighbor node n transmitted data in the data entry cost S content is from the source node to the entire path of the destination node before terms of the total energy consumed by the sum of items costD-1, update the data item cost = costD-1 + E (D), recorded in the preceding paragraph node n, the upstream node to send packets to establish RREP path leading to the upstream node, the entire process is completed, while the node S to node D of the path established.
2、 如权利要求1所述的一种Ad hoc网络中实现优化能量消耗的方法,其特征在于:第3步骤中,如果数据项costk,cost,,,cosL都不相等, 则进行下面的过程: 第一步:当数据项cost^等于数据项costk时,节点j更新数据包RREQ中的数据项cost = costk+E(j),并记录前项节点k,同时转发数据包RREQ给下一个节点,并向上游节点k发送数据包RREP来建立通向上游节点的路径;第二步:当数据项cosUu等于数据项cost,时,节点j更新数据包RREQ中的数据项cost = cost,+E(j),并记录前项节点l,同时转发RREQ 数据包RREQ给下一个节点,并向上游节点1发送数据包RREP来建立通向上游节点的路径;第三步:当数据项cosUn等于数据项cosU时,节点j更新数据包■Q中的数据项cost = cost,E(j),并记录前项节点m,同时转发RREQ 数据包RREQ给下一个节点,并向上游节点m发送数据包RREP来建立通向上游节点的路径。 2. A Ad hoc network according to achieve optimization of energy consumption claim, wherein: the third step, if the data item costk, cost ,,, cosL not equal, then perform the following procedure : The first step: When the data item cost ^ equals items costk, node j update packet RREQ data entry cost = costk + E (j), and record the node k in the preceding paragraph, while forwarding packets to the next RREQ node, and to transmit data path upstream node k RREP packet to establish connections to the upstream node; Step two: when the data item cosUu equal to the data item cost, time, node j update packet RREQ data entry cost = cost, + E (j), and recorded in the preceding paragraph node l, while forwarding RREQ RREQ packet to the next node, and to send a packet RREP to build a path leading to the upstream node upstream node; the third step: When the data item is equal cosUn When data entry cosU, node j update packet ■ Q data items cost = cost, E (j), and record the node m in the preceding paragraph, and forward the RREQ RREQ packet to the next node, and to send data upstream node m package RREP to build a path leading to the upstream node.
3、、如权利要求1所述的一种Ad hoc网络中实现优化能量消耗的方法,其特征在于:能量消耗<formula>formula see original document page 3</formula>其中:凡,(^,/?„为节点1的发送功率,天线增益和高度,^为节点i与邻居节点j的距离,p,, G, h,为邻居节点J的发送功率,天线增益和高度;0<dys D, lsfc^n。 3 ,, an Ad hoc network claim 1, wherein the method is implemented to optimize energy consumption, characterized in that: the energy consumption of <formula> formula see original document page 3 </ formula> Where: Where, (^, / ? "is a node of the transmission power, antenna gain and height, the distance between node i ^ neighboring node j, p ,, G, h, J neighbor nodes transmit power, antenna gain and height; 0 <dys D, lsfc ^ n.
Description  translated from Chinese

一种Ad hoc网络中实现优化能量消耗的方法技术领域本发明属于无线网络领域,特别是一种Ad hoc网络中实现优化能量消耗的方法。 TECHNICAL FIELD method Ad hoc networks to optimize energy consumption of the present invention belongs to the field of wireless networks, especially in an Ad hoc network optimization method to achieve energy consumption. 背景技术在Ad hoc网络中,针对某一节点S的功率传输情况,在S的传输范围之内主要受在受邻居节点的信号传输的影响比较大,因此节点S的功率传输分布情况如图1所示。 BACKGROUND In Ad hoc network, a node S for power transfer case, within the transmission range of S is mainly affected by the influence of neighboring nodes in the signal transmission is relatively large, and therefore the distribution of power transmission node S in Figure 1 FIG. Ad Hoc网络的特点是各节点地位平等,能自由移动,并且通过无线信道进行通信。 Features Ad Hoc network each node is equal in status, can move freely, and communicates through a wireless channel. 由于移动终端本身由电池供电, 因此,人们一般希望移动终端(如笔记本电脑等)在不充电的情况下能连续工作4-6个小时。 Since the mobile terminal itself powered by a battery, therefore, it is generally desirable to mobile terminals (such as notebook computers, etc.) without charging work for 4-6 hours. 目前,要达到这个目标还存在一定的困难,这主要是由于电池的容量有限的缘故。 At present, to achieve this goal there are still some difficulties, mainly due to the limited capacity of the battery's sake. 过去30年间,电池制造4支术一直没有取得突破性的进展。 Over the past 30 years, four cell manufacturing technique has been no breakthrough progress. 由于受制造技术的限制,单位重量的电池容量很难有大幅度提高。 Due to limitations in manufacturing technology by the basis weight of the battery capacity is difficult to have greatly improved. 同时,随着移动终端性能的提升和功能的加强,对电能的需求不断提高,因此在Ad Hoc网络中采用各种节能机制成为延长其工作时间的一种主要手段。 Meanwhile, with the strengthening of the mobile terminal performance improvements and functionality, the demand for electricity continues to increase, so the use of the Ad Hoc network various energy-saving mechanism to become a major means to extend their working hours. 从Ad hoc网络层次结构上来分析,整个网络中的能量消耗主要集中在物理层、数据链路层和网络层。 Ad hoc network hierarchy from up analysis, the entire network energy consumption is mainly concentrated in the physical layer, data link layer and the network layer. 物理层主要是各个节点接收到邻居节点发送信号时的接收功率和本身节点的一些硬件器件(CPU, LCD等)的消耗。 The physical layer mainly is each node receives power and own node receives the neighbor nodes send signals some of the hardware components (CPU, LCD, etc.) consumption. 数据链路层主要是基于MAC层的IEEE 802. 11 的DCF(Distributed Coordination Function)在独立的网络配置下共享无线信道的基本接入方式的基础之上。 The data link layer is mainly based on the basis of IEEE MAC layer DCF (Distributed Coordination Function) 802. 11 in the independent network configuration shared radio channel on the basic access method. 当某个节点(处于Sleep状态) 将要正常工作时,先要监听无线共享信道是否被占用,如果被占用则要继续监听等待若干个随机时间片段,以此来为占用信道发送数据包做准 When a node (in the Sleep state) will be working properly, first monitor whether the wireless shared channel is occupied, and if occupied will have to continue to listen to wait a few random time segments, in order to send a packet to make quasi-busy channel

备;或者当节点处于Active状态,节点正常发送数据包。 Equipment; or when the node is in the Active state, the node sends a normal packet. 因此,在这一层中节点的能量消耗主要是由节点处于Active状态还是Sleep状态决定的。 Therefore, the energy consumption of nodes in this layer is mainly composed of nodes in the Active state or Sleep state decisions. 网络层的能量消耗主要集中在多跳转发的一条路径,包括建立路径和维护路径过程。 The energy consumption of the network layer focused on multi-hop path, including the establishment and maintenance of path process path. 发明内容本发明的目的是在分析Ad hoc网络特点和网络各个层次结构消耗能量的基础上,结合无线网络中的无线信号传输模型,来综合考虑建立一种新的Ad hoc网络中跨层次能量模型,而提供一种Ad hoc网络中实现最优的能量消耗方法。 Object of the present invention is based on the analysis Ad hoc network characteristics and network structure at all levels of energy consumption, combined with wireless network wireless signal transmission model, to consider establishing a new Ad hoc networks across hierarchical energy model while providing a Ad hoc network to achieve optimal energy consumption methods. 为了实现上述目的,本发明所采用的步骤是:第一步骤:源节点S在要发送的数据包RREQ中添加一个数据项cost 来保存能量消耗E(S);第二步骤:当邻居节点i收到数据包RREQ时,取出数据项cost的内容设为cost。 To achieve the above purpose, the steps of the present invention is used: a first step: the source node S to add a data item cost RREQ packet to be sent to save energy consumption E (S); the second step: When the neighbor node i When the packet is received RREQ, remove the contents of the data item cost to cost. ld,并结合该节点的能量消耗E(i),更新数据项cost的内容为costnew(costnew=cost。ld+E(i)) , ^己录前项节点为S,并依次向i的下一个邻居节点转发数据包RREQ,并向源节点S发送数据包RREP来建立通向源节点的反向路径;第三步骤:依次执行步骤2,当中间节点j接收到从不同三个邻居节点k, l,m节点发送的数据包RREQ时,分别取出对应的数据项cost (设对应的内容为cosU, cosh, costm,并且这三个值各不相同),首先进行判断这三个值,得到最小的设为数据项costmin,如果数据项costk= cost产cosU选取其中之一作为j的上游节点m,记录前项节点m,同时转发数据包RREQ给下一个节点,并向上游节点m发送数据包RREP来建立通向上游节点的路径; ld, and combined energy consumption of the node E (i), updates the data item cost is costnew (costnew = cost.ld + E (i)), ^ has recorded in the preceding paragraph node S, and in turn to the next i a neighbor node forwards the packet RREQ, to the source node S sending a packet RREP to establish a reverse path to the source node; a third step: Perform Step 2, when the intermediate node j receives from three different neighboring node k , l, when the node sends a packet RREQ m respectively corresponding data items taken cost (provided corresponding content cosU, cosh, costm, and these three values vary), first determine three values give The minimum set of data items costmin, if the data item costk = cost production cosU select one as the upstream node j m, recording node m in the preceding paragraph, while RREQ forwarding packets to the next node, and to send data upstream node m package RREP to build a path leading to the upstream node;

第四步骤:依次执行步骤3,当目的节点D接收到邻居节点n发送的数据包RREQ,数据项cost里的数据内容就是从源节点S到目的节点的前项节点的整个一条路径所消耗是总能量之和数据项costw,更新数据项cost = costw + E(D),记录前项节点n,并向上游节点发送数据包RREP 来建立通向上游节点的路径,整个过程结束,同时节点S到节点D的路径建立成功。 Fourth step: Perform Step 3, when the destination node D receives the packet RREQ neighbor node n transmitted data item cost in the data content is from the source node S to the entire path of the destination node before the entry node is consumed and the total energy of the data items costw, updated data item cost = costw + E (D), recorded in the preceding paragraph node n, to the upstream node sends RREP packet to establish a path leading to the upstream node, the end of the process, while the node S the path to the node D successfully established. 上述第3步骤中,如果数据项cosU, costt,,cosU都不相等,则进行下面的过程:第一步:当数据项cost^等于数据项costk时,节点j更新数据包RREQ中的数据项cost = costk+E(j),并记录前项节点k,同时转发数据包RREQ给下一个节点,并向上游节点k发送数据包RREP来建立通向上游节点的路径;第二步:当数据项cost^等于数据项costi时,节点j更新数据包RREQ中的数据项cost = cost!+E(j),并记录前项节点l,同时转发RREQ 数据包RREQ给下一个节点,并向上游节点1发送数据包RREP来建立通向上游节点的路径;第三步:当数据项cost^等于数据项cos"时,节点j更新数据包RREQ中的数据项cost = cosU+E(j),并记录前项节点m,同时转发RREQ数据包RREQ给下一个节点,并向上游节点m发送数据包RREP来建立通向上游节点的路径。本发明是为网络中从源节点到目的节点能够正常发送数据包之前,要保证能够建立一条最优的路径,该路径满足的约束条件就是该路径上节点的能量消耗尽量较少,以及路径的整体能量消耗最少,但是并不一定要求路径上的跳数最少,因此,本发明与以往的路径建立方法(跳数最少,不考虑能量)有所区别,本发明主要是基于在网络中从源节点向目的节点发送的路由请求包RREQ,该RREQ包中包含一个字革殳cost,以此来记录整个路径上的能量消耗,当中间节点将要转发该RREQ包时,逐次比较从上游节点(与该中间节点相邻)接收到RREQ包的字段cost,选择最小的能量消耗来更新该RREQ包,同时建立到所选上游节点的路径,此过程以此类推,直到目的节点,以达到最优的能量消耗。附图说明图1为Ad hoc网络功率传输;f莫型拓朴图。具体实施方式下面结合附图对本发明作进一步的详细描述。本发明包括两部分:第一部分对各个节点建立能量模型,第二部分是在第一部分的基础之上,建立一种从源节点到目的节点满足能量消耗最小和路径的跳数较小(同时满足能量消耗最小和路径的跳数最小是一个NP问题)的最优能量消耗模型。上述模型的建立首先设定以下条件:(1) 网络中的每个节点的初始能量都相等。(2) 每个节点本身的硬件结构和器件相同,从而认为所消耗的能量是相同的(设为P)。(3) 每个节点在整个网络的拓朴结构的情况下,处于两种状态:活动状态(active)(正常工作状态)和睡眠状态(sleep)。 The third step, if the data item cosU, costt ,, cosU not equal, then perform the following procedure: The first step: When the data item cost ^ equal to the data item costk, the data item node j in the update packet RREQ cost = costk + E (j), and record the node k in the preceding paragraph, while RREQ forwarding packets to the next node, and sends the packet upstream node k RREP to build a path leading to the upstream node; Step 2: After data term cost ^ equals items costi, node j update packet RREQ data entry cost = cost! + E (j), and recorded in the preceding paragraph node l, while forwarding RREQ RREQ packet to the next node, and extends upstream Node 1 sends RREP packet to establish a path leading to the upstream node; The third step: When the data item is equal to the data item cost ^ cos ", node j in the update packet RREQ items cost = cosU + E (j), and record node m in the preceding paragraph, while forwarding RREQ packet RREQ to the next node, and to transmit data packets upstream node m RREP to build a path leading to the upstream node. The present invention is in the network from the source node to the destination node can be normal Before sending a packet, can be established to ensure an optimal path, the path to meet the constraints is the energy consumption of the nodes on the path less as possible, and the overall energy consumption of the least path, but does not necessarily require hop path the minimum number, therefore, the present invention and the conventional method of establishing a path (hops at least, do not consider energy) differ, the present invention is mainly based on the network from the source node sends the route to the destination node request packet RREQ, the RREQ packet It contains a word leather Shu cost, in order to record the energy consumption of the entire path, when the intermediate node will be forwarded to the RREQ packet, successive comparison received from the upstream node (adjacent to the intermediate node) to field cost RREQ packet, select the smallest power consumption update the RREQ packet, while establishing a path to the selected upstream node, and so this process until the destination node, in order to achieve optimal energy consumption. FIG. 1 is a power transmission Ad hoc network .; f Mo type topography DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The present invention is further described in detail for the present invention consists of two parts: the first part of the establishment of the energy model for each node, and the second part is based on the first part of the above. the establishment of a node from the source node to the destination path to meet the minimal energy consumption and a smaller number of hops (hops meet minimum energy consumption and minimum path is an NP problem) optimal energy consumption model. establishing such a model is first set set the following conditions: (1) the initial energy of each network node are equal (2) the same hardware configuration of each node and the device itself, so that the energy consumed is the same (to P) (3.. ) Each node in the case of topology of the entire network in one of two states: an active state (active) (normal operation) and sleep (sleep). (4) 当节点处于sleep状态时,继续监听共享的信道,以此来主动地占用信道发送数据包可能会涉及到能量的消耗,从而认为这些能量也是相同的为Q。 (4) When a node is in sleep state, continue to monitor the shared channel, in order to take the initiative to hold the channel to send data packets may be related to the energy consumption, and thus believe that energy is the same as Q. (5) 每个节点在物理层发送数据包的长度戸dte加&,信道的带宽bandwidth和发送功率p,都是相同的。 (5) Each node send packets at the physical layer length plus & Kobe dte, channel bandwidth bandwidth and transmission power p, are the same.

(6)为了保证节点与节点之间通信传输的效率,相邻两节点之间的距离不得超过D,如果超过D,则认为接收节点获取不到发送节点传送的数据包。 (6) In order to ensure the efficiency of the communication transmission between nodes and nodes adjacent to the distance between two nodes must not exceed D, if more than D, the receiving node that the packet can not obtain the sending node transfer. 模型构造:无线信号传输模型在当前Ad hoc网络中无线信号传输模型主要分为三类:Free Space 模型,Two Ray Ground Reflection模型和基于以上两种模型优点的混合模型。 Model structure: Wireless signal transmission model in the current Ad hoc wireless network signal transmission model is mainly divided into three categories: Free Space model, Two Ray Ground Reflection model and hybrid model based on the two models above advantages. 1、 Free Space模型这个模型的假设条件是:接收节点和发送节点都在对应的传输范围之内。 1. Free Space model assumptions of this model are: the receiving node and send nodes within the corresponding transmission range. 该模型基本代表了发送节点的传输范围为一个圆形。 The model basically represents the transmission range of the transmitting node is a circle. 如果接收节点在这个范围之内,发送节点就接收所有的数据包,否则丢弃所有的数据包。 If the receiving node within this range, the sending node to receive all packets, all packets will be dropped. ........................................................................(1)(4;r)2d .丄其中Pt:发送节点的发送功率,Gt::发送节点的天线增益,Gr:接收节点的天线增益,;i:无线传输介质的波长,d:发送节点和接收节点之间的距离。 .................................................. . ...................... (1) (4; r) 2d Shang where Pt: transmit power of the transmitting nodes, the antenna gain Gt :: sending node , Gr: antenna gain of the receiving node,; i: wavelength, d wireless transmission medium: between sending and receiving nodes of the distance. 2、 Two Ray Reflect ion模型传输模型中也很少使用的情况就是两个节点之点就在对方的传输范围之内。 2, the case of Two Ray Reflect ion model transmission models are rarely used is the point on two nodes in each other's transmission range. Two Ray Reflection模型考虑了直接的传输路径和地面反射的路径两种情况。 Two Ray Reflection model takes into account the direct path of the transmission path and the ground reflected both cases. 使用这种模型能够在节点之间很长距离的情况下要比Free Space模型能很准确的预测出接收节点的接收功率。 Using this model can can very accurately predict the received power of the receiving node than the Free Space model in the case of long distance between nodes. .....................................................................(2) .................................................. ................... (2)

公式中的参数意义如(1)式。 Meaning of the parameters in the equation (1) below. 其中&, ^分别为接收节点和发送节点的天线高度。 Where &, ^ are receiving node and a transmitting node antenna height. 3、混合模型综合考虑在的功率消耗方面,Two Ray Reflection模型比Free Space 模型淆惑比较快。 3, the hybrid model considering in terms of power consumption, Two Ray Reflection models faster than Free Space model confusion and confusion. 但是Two Ray Reflection模型由于在接收接点和发送节点的天线的相互影响,在节点之间距离较短的范围内达不到很好的效果。 Two Ray Reflection model but because of the mutual influence and contacts in the receiving antenna sending node between nodes reach good results within a short distance range. 相反在这种情况下Free Space模型表现出很好的性能。 In contrast, in this case Free Space model showed good performance. 因此我们设置一个交叉距离de来表示距离的过渡值,从而得到一个混合模型。 So we set up a cross to represent the transition from the de value of the distance, resulting in a hybrid model. (1) d < d。 (1) d <d. 时,用(1)公式,把公式中的d换成dc。 When, with (1) formula, the formula d into dc. (2) d > dc时,用(2)公式(3) d = de= ("hthr) /2时,可以用(l), (2)公式得到相同的值。 模型的建立:第一部分:节点的能量消耗^漠型假设某一节点为i,该节点的能量消耗为E(i),通过对Ad hoc网络各个层次来分析,每个节点能量的消耗主要集中在三个层次。物理层邻居节点发送信号的接收功率,数据链路层主要涉及节点的两种状态sleep 和active。当节点的状态为sleep时,节点要监听共享信道,占用信道来为acitve状态过渡到active (正常工作)准备,从而消耗了能量;当节点的状态为acitve时,节点转发数据包正常工作也要消耗能量。网络层在进行则寻找路径(建立路径和维护路径)进行转发数据包。因it匕,E(i) = aEactive + Esleep其中Eaetive= Pt. time + P" time + P, EslMP= Q, or为赏罚系数。 (2) d> when dc, with (2) Equation (3) d = de = ("hthr) / 2, can be used (l), (2) the same value equation model: The first part: ^ energy consumption of nodes desert type assume a node i, the energy consumption of the node E (i), by all levels of analysis Ad hoc networks, each node energy consumption is mainly concentrated in three levels. The physical layer neighbor node sends the received power signal, the data link layer is mainly involved in two states sleep and active nodes. When the state of the node to sleep, the node to monitor a shared channel, channel occupancy as acitve state transition to active (work) preparation, consuming energy; when the state is acitve node, the node forwards the packet to work also consume energy network layer during the search path (path establishment and maintenance path) forward data packets because it dagger, E.. (i) = aEactive + Esleep where Eaetive = Pt. time + P "time + P, EslMP = Q, or as a punishment factor. 分三种情况来综合分析各个层次该节点的能量消耗情况:(1)当"=1表示该节点的能量主要消耗在网络层的路由建立过程,维护过程和物理层无线信号传输模型的接收功率。(2 )当"=0表示该节点的能量的主要消耗在数据链路层中节点处于sle印状态时要监听物理共享信道的繁忙程度。 Three cases to a comprehensive analysis of energy consumption at all levels of the node: (1) When the "= 1 represents the energy consumed in the process of establishing a major node in the network layer routing, maintenance procedures and physical layer wireless signal transmission model received power (2) When the "= 0 means to monitor physical shared channel when busy primary energy consumption of the nodes in the data link layer node is sle Indian state. (3)当1〉"〉0时表示节点的能量消耗在此时该节点现在处于active 状态,即将过渡到sleep状态时,也就是物理层,数据链路层和网络层三个层次的总能量的消耗。第二部分:从网络中的某一源节点到目的节点之间最优路径的能量消耗摸型,本部分是基于第一部分的能量消耗模型提出的。当整个Ad hoc网络中存在一条从某一源节点S到目的节点D之间n 跳路径r时(该路径经过1,2,…j, ...n节点时)的总能量消耗E(r)。E(r) = SE(i) ................................................................................. (3)/=1因此,当网络中存在R条从源节点S到目的节点D的路由时,根据首先考虑所有路径中能量消耗最小的路径,然后在从剩下的路径中选择路径跳数较小的原则,来选择一条最优的路径。模型的求解:对第一部分模型进行求解:一般情况下,每个节点的能量公式Energy = Power x time,即每一个节点发送或接收一个包所消耗的能量是由该节点发送或接收功率和处理包的时间决定的。根据Ad hoc网络物理层信道的特点,得出time = 8x戸cfe加'^ ,处理包的时间由发送数据包的大小和该数据包的带宽决定的。4寻出,Eactive= Pt* time + Pr* time + P = (Pt+ Pr) Xtime + P = (Pt+ Pr) X8 x戸cfe加ze+ P ...................................................................................................... (5)其中Pr和Pt可才艮据前面无线信号传输^莫型计算得出。三种传输才莫型对应三种不同计算的结果。(以下公式推导以two Ray Reflection才莫型为例) 结合Ad hoc网络的特点,每个节点只要在邻居节点的传输范围D之内, 就能够得到该邻居节点所发送信号的接收功率j殳节点i的邻居节点为j, i有t个邻居节点。从而Ea"ive公式进一步修改。 (3) When 1> "> 0 means node energy consumption when the nodes are now at this time in the active state, will transition to the sleep state, which is the physical layer, data link layer and the network layer three levels of total energy The second part of consumption: from the network between a source node to the destination node energy consumption of the optimal path to touch-type, the first part of this section is based on the energy consumption of the proposed model when the whole existence of an Ad hoc networks. The total energy is r n-hop path between the destination node D from one source node S to (the path through 1,2, ... j, ... n nodes) consumption E (r) .E (r) = SE (i) ............................................... .................................. (3) / = 1. Thus, when the network exists R bar from the source routing node S to the destination node D, according to the first consider all paths with minimal energy consumption path, and then select the path less hops from the rest of the principles in the path to select an optimal path. Solving Model : The first part of the model is solved: Under normal circumstances, the energy equation for each node Energy = Power x time, namely, the energy of each node to send or receive a packet sent or received is consumed by power and processing time by the node package determined according to the characteristics of Ad hoc network physical layer channel, obtained time = 8x Kobe cfe plus' ^ .4 time handling package is determined by the amount of bandwidth to send data packet and the packet to find out, Eactive = Pt * time + Pr * time + P = (Pt + Pr) Xtime + P = (Pt + Pr) X8 x Kobe cfe plus ze + P ...................... .................................................. .............................. (5) where Pr and Pt may only Burgundy wireless signal transmission according to the preceding calculated ^ Mo type an inner long as the neighbor node transmission range D of three transmission only Mo type corresponding to three different calculation results. (the following formula is derived in two Ray Reflection only Mo type, for example) combining the characteristics of Ad hoc networks, each node , it is possible to obtain the received power of the neighboring node j Shu node signals transmitted by neighbor node i to j, i t has neighbor nodes Thus Ea "ive Equation further modified. 对(5)式修改得出:<formula>formula see original document page 11</formula>其中A, G„, Zz,为节点1的发送功率,天线增益和高度,^y为节点i与邻居节点j的距离,p;,, G,,//力为邻居节点j的发送功率,天线增益和高度。因此得出节点i所消耗的总的能量:印)=<formula>formula see original document page 11</formula>其中0〈^^^ D, lq,sn。 对第二部分才莫型进行求解:当有一条n跳的路径r时,对应的该路径上的能量消耗E(r卜2印)<formula>formula see original document page 11</formula>为了简化上述模型,假设在Ad hoc网络中每个节点的天线高度都为h,天线的增益都为G,每个节点的发送功率都为p,,则(8)式得出的结 To (5) modify drawn: <formula> formula see original document page 11 </ formula> where A, G ", Zz, the node sends power 1, the antenna gain and height, ^ y nodes i and neighboring nodes distance j, p; ,, G ,, // neighboring node j force transmission power, antenna gain, and thus the height of the total energy consumed by node i obtained: printing) = <formula> formula see original document page . 11 </ formula> where 0 <^^^ D, lq, sn of the second part was to solve Mo type: When there is an n-hop path r, corresponding to the path of energy consumption E (r Bu 2 India) <formula> formula see original document page 11 </ formula> In order to simplify the above model, is assumed in Ad hoc network antenna height of each node is h, the gain of the antenna are G, the transmission power of each node to p ,, then (8) conclusions reached

果如下:<formula>formula see original document page 12</formula> 同时可以根据(9)式,对(4)式的结果进行转化,推导出满足路径的能量消耗最小和跳数比较少的一条最优路径,如下:<formula>formula see original document page 12</formula>................. (10)从而可以看出最优路径的求解主要由节点与节点传输距离和节点周围邻居节点的数目决定的。 Results are as follows: <formula> formula see original document page 12 </ formula> while according to (9) of (4) the results of transformation is derived to meet the minimum energy consumption route and number of hops less one of the most better path, as follows: <formula> formula see original document page 12 </ formula> ................. (10) so that it can be seen from the optimal path for solving major node transmission distance and the number of nodes around the neighbor nodes of node decision. 由于Ad hoc网络的拓朴结构变化比较频繁, 在节点与节点的传输距离邻居节点的数目都要根据实际网络的拓朴结构进行分析和计算。 Since the Ad hoc network topology changes frequently, the transit node and the node should be carried out to analyze and calculate the distance based on the number of neighboring nodes of the actual network topology. 按照此方法Free Space模型和混合模型,也能够分别得出第一部分和第二部分的能量模型。 According to this method Free Space model and hybrid model, it is possible to respectively obtain a first portion and a second portion of the energy model. 本发明在分析Ad hoc网络的特点的基础上,结合网络中各个层次上能量消耗的情况,提出了一种跨层设计的能量模型,而提供一种Ad hoc 网络中实现最优的能量消耗方法。 The present invention is based on the analysis of the characteristics of Ad hoc networks, combined with the network in all levels of energy consumption, an energy model proposed cross-layer design, while providing a Ad hoc network to achieve optimal energy consumption method . 该模型先着重考虑了节点的物理层, 数据链路层和网络层的能量消耗,从而利用最优化理论来对各个节点建立能量模型,同时由于Ad hoc网络中数据信息的通信都是由节点与节点进行多跳来进行转发的,因此在源节点向目的节点进行转发寻找最好的路径时,同时不仅要考虑路径上每个节点的能量消耗,而且也要考虑整 The model focuses on the first node considers the physical layer, data link layer and the energy consumption of the network layer to take advantage of the optimization theory to build energy model for each node, and because communication Ad hoc networks are data from the node multihop node to be forwarded, and therefore the source node forwarding looking for the best path, while the path not only to consider the energy consumption of each node to the destination node, but also consider the entire

个路径上的能量消耗,因此最终根据整个一条路径上的能量消耗最小和跳数较少的原则,来建立最优路径能量模型,从而来避免能量过多消耗所带来的网络断裂和影响传输数据信息的效率。 Paths on energy consumption, so the final consumption is minimized and less hops principles based on the energy of the entire path to establish the optimal path energy model, thus avoiding network break and affect the transmission of energy consumption arising from excessive Efficiency data information. 本说明书中未作详细描述的内容属于本领域专业技术人员公知的现有技术。 This specification is not described in detail the contents within the skill of professional techniques known in the art.

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Classifications
International ClassificationH04W84/18, H04L29/08
Cooperative ClassificationY02B60/50
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