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Publication numberCN100406922 C
Publication typeGrant
Application numberCN 200480006052
PCT numberPCT/US2004/005672
Publication date30 Jul 2008
Filing date26 Feb 2004
Priority date6 Mar 2003
Also published asCA2776416A1, CA2776416C, CA2862074A1, CN1756971A, US7152983, US7156527, US7261426, US7329012, US7422334, US7556386, US7722197, US8016435, US8251525, US8262237, US8419197, US8573789, US8708504, US8714757, US8851686, US8998428, US9188715, US9470822, US20040174601, US20040174603, US20070014010, US20070014012, US20070268582, US20080049327, US20090257124, US20100232019, US20110317265, US20120019910, US20120176678, US20120182616, US20140029100, US20140133029, US20140198386, US20150022890, US20150185374, US20160041315, US20170010395
Publication number200480006052.4, CN 100406922 C, CN 100406922C, CN 200480006052, CN-C-100406922, CN100406922 C, CN100406922C, CN200480006052, CN200480006052.4, PCT/2004/5672, PCT/US/2004/005672, PCT/US/2004/05672, PCT/US/4/005672, PCT/US/4/05672, PCT/US2004/005672, PCT/US2004/05672, PCT/US2004005672, PCT/US200405672, PCT/US4/005672, PCT/US4/05672, PCT/US4005672, PCT/US405672
Inventors肯尼思L史密斯
Applicant3M创新有限公司
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: SIPO, Espacenet
包括立体角单元的薄片及逆向反射片 Including sheet and retroreflective sheet unit solid angle translated from Chinese
CN 100406922 C
Abstract  translated from Chinese
本发明涉及包括立体角单元的单层薄片或多层薄片、包括薄片组件的工具及其复制品。 The present invention relates to a solid angle cell monolayer sheet or a multilayer sheet, including tools and their replicas wafer assembly. 本发明还涉及逆向反射片,其中该逆向反射片包括由优选的几何立体角单元组成的列,所述立体角单元具有由侧凹槽组限定的面,其中,在所述组中至少两个凹槽不平行,该不平行的程度在从大于名义上平行至1的范围内。 The present invention also relates to a retroreflective sheet, wherein the retroreflective sheet preferably comprises a column by the geometry of the cube-corner units, the unit having a solid angle defined by the side surface groove sets, wherein at least two of the group the grooves are not parallel, the extent to which non-parallel to parallel the range of from greater than the nominal of 1 . 本发明的逆向反射片的光学性能得到了提高,而且其加工效率也得到了提高。 The optical properties of the retroreflective sheet of the present invention has been improved, and the processing efficiency is also improved.
Claims(11)  translated from Chinese
1. 一种逆向反射片,该逆向反射片包括由优选的几何立体角单元组成的列,所述立体角单元具有由侧凹槽组限定的面,其中,在所述组中至少两个凹槽不平行,该不平行的程度在从大于名义上平行至r的范围内。 A retroreflective sheet, the retroreflective sheet preferably comprises a column by the geometry of the cube-corner units, the unit having a solid angle defined by the side surface groove sets, wherein, in the group of at least two recesses grooves are not parallel, the non-parallel degree from greater than nominally parallel to within range of r.
2. 根据权利要求i所述的逆向反射片,其中,所述立体角单元具有小于0.020英寸的側向尺寸。 The retroreflective sheet according to claim i, wherein the cube corner element having a lateral dimension of less than 0.020 inches.
3. 根据权利要求1所述的逆向反射片,其中,所述立体角单元具有小于0.010英寸的侧向尺寸。 3. The retroreflective sheet according to claim 1, wherein said cube corner elements have a lateral dimension of less than 0.010 inches.
4. 根据权利要求l所述的逆向反射片,其中,所述凹槽具有偏角。 4. The retroreflective sheet according to claim l, wherein said groove has a declination.
5. 根据权利要求1所述的逆向反射片,其中,第一凹槽具有正偏角,第二凹槽具有负偏角。 5. The retroreflective sheet according to claim 1, wherein a first groove having a positive angle, the second recess having a negative angle.
6. 根据权利要求1所述的逆向反射片,其中,第一凹槽的偏角与第二凹槽的偏角在数值上不同。 6. The retroreflective sheet according to claim 1, wherein the angle of the first angle and the second recess grooves different in magnitude.
7. 根据权利要求1所述的逆向反射片,其中,所述凹槽具有倾角。 7. The retroreflective sheet according to claim 1, wherein said groove has an inclination.
8. 根据权利要求1所述的逆向反射片,其中,第一凹槽具有正倾角,第二凹槽具有负倾角。 8. The retroreflective sheet according to claim 1, wherein the first groove has a positive rake angle, the second recess having a negative rake angle.
9. 根据权利要求l所述的逆向反射片,其中,第一凹槽的倾角与第二凹槽的倾角在数值上不同。 9. The retroreflective sheet according to claim l, wherein the inclination of the first inclined groove and the second groove is different in magnitude.
10. 根据权利要求1所述的逆向反射片,其中,所述侧凹槽具有偏角和倾角。 10. The retroreflective sheet according to claim 1, wherein said side groove has a declination and inclination.
11. 根据权利要求1所述的逆向反射片,其中,所述立体角单元每个都具有第一面,并且所述第一面限定主凹槽面。 11. The retroreflective sheet according to claim 1, wherein the cube corner elements each having a first surface, said first surface and defining a main surface of the recess.
Description  translated from Chinese
包括立体角单元的薄片及逆向反射片 Including sheet and retroreflective sheet unit solid angle

技术领域 Technical Field

本发明涉及包括立体角单元的薄片、包括薄片组件的工具及其复制品,特别是包括逆向反射片的所述工具的复制品。 The present invention relates to a sheet comprising cube corner elements, including copies of the sheet components and tools, in particular, retroreflective sheet comprising reproductions of the tool. 背景技术逆向反射材料的特征在于它能够使入射到材料上的光朝其起始光源返回。 Retroreflective material is characterized in that it enables BACKGROUND incident on the light source toward the starting material is returned. 这种性质已经导致逆向反射片广泛地应用于各种交通和个人安全方面。 This property has led to a retroreflective sheet is widely used in all kinds of traffic and personal safety. 逆向反射片通常应用于各种制品中,例如路标、路障、 执照牌、路面标志、斑马胶带以及用于车辆和衣服的逆向反射胶带。 Retroreflective sheet is usually applied to a variety of products, such as road signs, barricades, license plate, road signs, zebra retroreflective tape and tape for vehicles and clothes. 两种己知类型的逆向反射片是微球型片材和立体角片材。 Two kinds of known types of retroreflective sheet microspheres type sheet and cube corner sheeting. 基于微球的片材有时称为"珠状的"片材,其采用大量的微球体,所述的微球体通常至少部分嵌入粘合剂层中,并且具有相关的镜面反射或漫反射材料(例如颜料颗粒、金属小薄片或蒸镀层等),从而使入射光发生逆向反射。 Microsphere-based sheet is sometimes referred to as "beaded" sheet, which employs a large number of microspheres, the microspheres typically at least partially embedded in the adhesive layer, and having associated specular or diffuse reflecting materials ( For example pigment particles, metal flakes or vapor coating, etc.), so that the incident occurred retroreflective. 由于珠状逆向反射器的对称性几何结构,所以不管什么取向,即当绕与所述片材的表面垂直的轴旋转时,基于微球的片材都表现出相同的全光返回现象。 Since beaded retro-reflector geometry symmetry, so no matter what the orientation, that is, when the rotatable about an axis perpendicular to the surface of the sheet, the sheet-based microspheres exhibit the same full light return phenomenon. 因此,这种基于微球的片材对片材放置于表面上的取向具有比较低的敏感性。 Thus, the microsphere-based sheet placed on the sheet surface orientation has a relatively low sensitivity. 然而, 一般而言,这种片材的逆向反射率低于立体角片材的逆向反射率。 Generally, however, the reverse of this sheet reflectance is lower than the rate of retroreflective cube corner sheet. 立体角片材通常包括薄的透明层,所述的透明层具有基本平坦的前表面和包括多个几何结构的后结构表面,一些或所有的几何结构包括构成一个立体角单元的三个反射面。 Cube corner sheeting typically comprises a thin transparent layer, the transparent layer having a substantially planar front surface and rear surface of the structure including a plurality of geometric structures, some or all of the geometric structure comprises three reflecting surfaces constituting a three-dimensional corner elements . 通常,通过首先制造具有结构表面的标准模具来制造立体角逆向反射片,所述结构表面对应于成型的片材中所需的立体角部分或者其阴(反向)模复制品,这取决于成型的片材要具有立体角锥体还是具有立体角腔(或者二者都具有)。 Typically, by first producing a standard mold having a structured surface to produce cube-corner retroreflective sheet, the surface structure of the solid angle corresponding to the desired portion of the molding of the sheet or a female (reverse) mode copies, depending on the sheet molded to have a three-dimensional pyramid or cube corner cavities (or both have). 然后,使用任何适合的技术例如传统的镍电铸来复制模具,以通过如压花、挤压或浇铸和固化等工艺来产生形成立体角逆向反射片的工具。 Then, using any suitable technique such as conventional nickel electroforming to replicate mold, by tools such as embossing, extrusion or casting and curing process to produce the formed cube-corner retroreflective sheet. 对于形成用于制造立体角逆向反射片的工具的方法,美国专利第5,156,863号(Pricone等人)给出了示例性的概述。 The method for forming tool manufacturing cube-corner retroreflective sheet is used, the United States Patent No. 5,156,863 (Pricone et al) shows an exemplary overview. 用于制造标准模具的已知的方法包括针形元件束(pin-bundling)技术、直接机加工技术和层压技术。 Known methods for producing standard mold member comprises a needle beam (pin-bundling) techniques, direct machining techniques, and laminate techniques. 在针形元件束技术中,将多个小模块组合在一起,以形成母模, 所述多个小模块中的每一个在其一端上都具有几何形状例如立体角单元。 In the needle-shaped element beam technology, a combination of a plurality of small modules together to form a master mold, the plurality of small modules each having at one end thereof e.g. cube corner element geometry. 美国专利第1,591,572号(Stimson)和第3,926,402号(Heenan) 给出了示例性例子。 U.S. Patent No. 1,591,572 (Stimson) and No. 3,926,402 (Heenan) gives illustrative examples. 因为每个小模块是独立地加工的,所以针形元件束技术使得在单一一个模具中能够制造许多种立体角几何结构。 Since each small block is processed independently, so the needle-shaped member so that in a single-beam technology can be manufactured in a wide variety of mold cube corner geometries. 然而,因为大量的小模块需要精确地加工,并且这些小模块的尺寸也要逐渐縮小,然后又要将它们按捆排列以形成模具,所以对于制造小的立体角单元(例如那些立方体高度低于大约1毫米的立体角单元),这种技术是不能实施的。 However, because a large number of small modules requires precise machining, and the size of these small modules have gradually reduced, then again they are arranged to form a mold according to the bundle, so for the manufacture of small solid angle unit (such as those cube height of less than about 1 millimeter unit solid angle), this technique can not be implemented. 在直接机加工技术中, 一系列凹槽形成在平坦的基底(例如金属板)的表面上,以形成包括截角的立体角单元的母模。 In direct machining techniques, a series of grooves formed on a flat substrate (e.g. metal plate) surface, to form a unit comprising truncated corner cube corner master mold. 在一项众所周知的技术中,三组平行的凹槽以60度的夹角彼此相交形成立体角单元的阵列,每个立体角单元具有等边三角形底面(参见美国专利第3,712,706号(Stamm))。 In a well-known technique, three sets of parallel grooves 60 degree angle to intersect each other to form an array of cube corner elements, each cube corner element having an equilateral triangular bottom surface (see U.S. Patent No. 3,712,706 (Stamm)) . 在另一项技术中,两组凹槽以大于60度的角彼此相交,第三组凹槽以小于60度的角与其它两组中的每一组相交,从而形成斜置的立体角单元配对的阵列(参见美国专利第4,588,258号(Hoopman))。 In another technique, two sets of grooves with an angle greater than 60 degrees intersect each other, the third set of grooves with an angle less than 60 degrees with the other two groups each group intersect to form cube corner elements canted array (see U.S. Patent No. 4,588,258 (Hoopman)) pair. 在直接机加工中,大量的独立面通常沿同一凹槽形成,所述的凹槽通过切削刀具的连续运动而形成。 In direct machining, a large number of individual faces are typically formed in the same groove, said groove by continuously moving the cutting tool is formed. 因此,这样的独立面在模具制造的整个过程中保持它们的排列。 Therefore, such a separate preserving their arrangement in the process of manufacturing the mold. 由此,直接机加工技术使得能够精确地加工非常小的立体角单元。 Thus, the direct machining technology enables precise machining of very small solid angle unit. 然而,直接机加工的缺点在于,可制造的立体角几何形状类型中的设计灵活性已经降低了,相应地,这种灵活性的降低又影响全光返回。 However, direct machining drawback is that the solid angle geometry type design flexibility can be produced has been reduced, and accordingly, this reduction will affect the flexibility of all-optical return. 在层压技术中,将被称为薄片的多个片材(即板材)组合在一起, 以形成标准模具,所述薄片具有在一个纵向边上形成的几何形状。 In the lamination technique, it will be referred to a plurality of thin sheets (i.e. plates) are combined to form a standard mold, the sheet having a geometric shape formed at one longitudinal edge. 因为在层压技术中独立地加工较少的部件,所以它通常比针形元件束技术耗费的劳动量少。 Because the processing of fewer components independently in lamination technology, so it is usually less labor-beam technology cost than needle-shaped element. 例如,每个小模块仅有一个立体角单元,与之相比, 一个薄片通常包括400-1000个独立的立体角单元。 For example, each module has only one small unit solid angle, compared with a sheet generally comprises 400-1000 independent cube corner elements. 然而与针形元件束技术可达到的设计灵活性相比,层压技术的设计灵活性较低。 However, compared with the design flexibility of the needle-like element Beam technology can achieve, design flexibility, lower lamination technology. 在下列文献中可找到层压技术的示例性例子:EP 0 844 056 Al (Mimura等人);美国专利第6,015,214号(Heeman等人);美国专利第5,981,032号(Smith);以及美国专利第6,257,860号(Luttrell)。 Laminating techniques can be found in the following illustrative examples in the literature: EP 0 844 056 Al (Mimura et al.); U.S. Pat. No. 6,015,214 (Heeman et al.); U.S. Pat. No. 5,981,032 (Smith); and U.S. Patent No. 6,257,860 No. (Luttrell). 通常,截角的立体角阵列的相邻立体角单元的底边是共面的。 Typically, the bottom edge of the adjacent truncated cube corner unit solid angle arrays are coplanar. 其它被描述为"全立方体"或"优选几何(PG)立体角单元"的立体角单元结构通常包括至少两个非共面的非二面边。 The other was described as a "full cube" or "preferred geometry (PG) solid angle unit" solid angle cell structure typically includes at least two non-coplanar non dihedral edge. 与截角的立体角单元相比,这样的结构通常表现出较高的全光返回。 Compared with the solid angle unit cut corners, such structures often exhibit a high total light return. 某些PG立体角单元可通过对一系列基底进行直接机加工来制造,如WO 00/60385中所述。 Some PG cube corner through a series of base units can be directly machined to produce, as described in WO 00/60385. 然而,在该多步骤的制造工艺中,很难保持几何精确度。 However, in the multi-step manufacturing process, it is difficult to maintain the geometric accuracy. 在得到的PG立体角单元和/或这些立体角单元的排列中,还可能显然存在设计限制。 In the PG obtained solid angle unit and / or arrange the solid angle unit, it is also clear that there may be a design limitation. 相反,针形元件束技术和层压技术允许形成各种形状和排列的PG立体角单元。 On the contrary, needle-shaped element beam technology and lamination techniques allow the formation of various shapes and PG cube corner element array. 然而,与针形元件束技术不同,层压技术还有这样的优点,能够形成相对较小的PG立体角单元。 However, the needle-shaped member with different beam technology, there is the advantage that lamination technology, capable of forming a relatively small PG cube corner elements. 立体角的对称轴是将结构分成三等份并与所有的三个立方体面成相等的角的矢量。 The symmetry axis of the structure of the solid angle is divided into three equal parts and with all three cube face into equal vector angle. 在上述的Stamm发明的截角的立方体中,对称轴与等边三角形底面垂直,从而这些立方体被认为是没有斜面或斜坡。 In Stamm invention described above truncated cube, the symmetry axis perpendicular to the bottom with the equilateral triangle, so that these cubes are considered no ramps or slopes. 在立体角领域中己经使用术语"向前倾斜"或"正倾斜"来描述按一定的方式倾斜的截角的立体角单元,即用来描述仅一个底面三角形夹角相对于60。 In the solid angle areas have used the term "lean forward" or "positive inclination" to describe the three-dimensional corner unit truncated by a certain inclined, that is used to describe only one triangle angle with respect to the bottom surface 60. 增大的情形。 Increasing case. 相反,在立体角领域中已经使用术语"向后倾斜"或"负倾斜"来描述按一定的方式倾斜的截角的立体角单元,即用来描述底面三角形的两个夹角相对于60。 In contrast, in the field of solid angle has been using the term "receding" or "negative slant" to describe the three-dimensional corner unit truncated by a certain inclined, that is used to describe both the angle with respect to the bottom surface of the triangle 60. 增大的情形。 Increasing case. 参见美国专利第5,565,151号(Nilsen)和美国专利第4,588,258号(Hoopman)。 See U.S. Patent No. 5,565,151 (Nilsen) and US Patent No. 4,588,258 (Hoopman). 在美国专利第6,015,214号(Heenan等人)中描述了PG 立体角单元的倾斜。 It describes a three-dimensional tilt angle unit PG U.S. Patent No. 6,015,214 (Heenan et al.). 倾斜的立体角向后或向前地增强入射的倾斜度(angularity)。 Solid angle of tilt backward or forward to enhance incident inclination (angularity). 对于给定的倾斜量,全立体角单元比截角的立体角单元具有更高的全光返回,但是,在较高的入射角,全立方体的全光返回消逝得更快。 For a given amount of tilt, full cube corner unit than truncated cube corner unit has a higher all-optical return, but at a higher angle of incidence, the return of all-optical whole cube disappear faster. 全立体角单元的一个好处是,在低入射角,具有较高的全光返回,并且在较高的入射角,其性能没有很大的损失。 One benefit of full cube corner elements is at a low angle of incidence, having a high total light return, and high incident angle, there is no significant performance loss. 用于提高某一方向的全光返回(TLR)的均匀性的通用方法是砌瓦(tiling),即将多个小的工具部分沿一个以上的方向放置在最终制品上,例如美国专利第4,243,618号(Van Arnam)、美国专利第4,202,600 号和美国专利第5,936,770号(Nestegard等人)所述。 Full light in one direction for increasing the return (TLR) general uniformity of the puzzle is to watts (tiling), a plurality of small tools is about more than one direction along part is placed on the final product, e.g., U.S. Patent No. 4,243,618 (Van Arnam), United States Patent No. 4,202,600 and U.S. Patent No. 5,936,770 (Nestegard et al.). 砌瓦可能在视觉上令人不愉快。 Tile puzzle may be visually unpleasant. 而且,该砌瓦法使制作用于所述逆向反射片制造的工具的加工步骤增多。 Moreover, the puzzle so that the processing step Wafa reflective sheet manufacturing production for tools increased the reverse. 除了与TLR有关外,逆向反射片的性能还与该片的发散外形(divergence profile)或观察倾斜度有关。 In addition to TLR related, retroreflective sheet and film performance also diverging shape (divergence profile) or observation concerning the inclination. 这与相对于光源即通常的车头灯的逆向反射的光的展宽有关。 This is relative to the light source which is usually the reverse headlights reflected light show wide related. 从立体角逆向反射的光的展宽主要由包括衍射、偏振和非正交性在内的这些因素决定。 From the perspective of the exhibition corner retroreflective light width is mainly determined by these factors include diffraction, polarization and including non-orthogonal. 为此,通常引入角误差,例如美国专利第5,138,488号(Szczech)的第5栏中的表1所述。 To this end, typically introduced angle error, such as tables U.S. Patent No. 5,138,488 (Szczech) in column 5 of the 1. 同样,EP 0 844 056 Al(Mimura)中的例1描述了快速切削过程, 其中,用金刚石切削刀具形成的V形凹槽的底角按规则的次序稍微发生变化,在与所述片材的主表面垂直的方向上,以141.4"m的重复间距连续重复地切削深度为70.6 um、 70.7 um禾卩70.9 um的三类对称的V形凹槽。因此,在片材的一个边缘上以重复模式形成具有三种不同垂直角89.9、 90.0和91.0。的一系列连续屋顶形的投影。虽然本领域描述了各种逆向反射设计及测量出的或计算出的逆向反射性能,但是工业上将寻找具有新立体角光学设计的逆向反射片及其制造方法的有利条件,尤其是那些有助于改善性能和/或提高制造效率的特征。发明内容在一个实施例中,本发明公开了一种包括立体角单元的薄片, 所述立体角单元具有由凹槽形成的面,其中,相邻的凹槽在从名义上平行到小于r的不平行的范围内。所述相邻的凹槽具有相差至少2的夹角。 一方面,所述凹槽的夹角按重复的模式设置。另一方面, 所述立体角单元的面相交于共峰顶点。又一方面,所述凹槽具有在从名义上相互平行到小于1的不平行的范围内的二等分平面。在另一实施例中,本发明公开了一种包括优选的几何立体角单元的薄片,其中,至少一部分立体角单元倾斜,并且具有从在45。和135之间的校正角、在225和315之间的校正角及其组合中选择的校正角。优选地,第一立体角单元倾斜,并且具有在60和120之间的校正角,第二相邻立方体倾斜,并且具有在240和300之间的校正角。此外,优选地,所述第一立方体的校正角与0。或180的差值与所述第二立方体的校正角与0或180的差值基本上相同。在这些实施例的每个中,优选地,所述立体角单元包括由交替成对的侧凹槽形成的面。每对侧凹槽的夹角优选地具有基本上180 的总和。此外,第一凹槽的夹角优选地比90。大至少大约5。(例如大约10至大约20),第二相邻凹槽的夹角优选地比90。小大约相同的量。在另一实施例中,本发明公开了一种具有包括立体角单元的微结构表面的薄片,所述立体角单元具有由侧凹槽组形成的面,其中, 在所述组中至少两个凹槽不平行,该不平行的程度在从大于名义上平行至约1的范围内。所述立体角单元优选地包括二面角误差,所述二面角误差的数值在1弧分和60弧分之间。所述二面角误差优选地按重复的模式设置。所述凹槽具有偏角(skew)和/或倾角(inclination), 所述偏角和/或倾角在数值和符号方面可以变化。 Similarly, EP 0 844 056 Al (Mimura) described in Example 1 in the free-cutting process, wherein the bottom corner with a diamond cutting tool formed of V-shaped grooves in the order of the rules is changed slightly, with the sheet on the main surface perpendicular direction to 141.4 "repeated continuously repeated spacing m depth of cut 70.6 um, 70.7 um Jie Wo 70.9 um of three symmetrical V-shaped groove. Thus, on one edge of the sheet to repeat pattern formation with three different vertical projection angle 89.9 , 90.0 and 91.0. The series of successive roof-shaped. While the art describes various retroreflective design and measured or calculated retroreflective performance, but industrial Looking retroreflective sheet and the favorable conditions for the manufacturing process with a new cube-corner optical design, especially those that help to improve the performance and / or improve manufacturing efficiency characteristics. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In one embodiment, the present invention discloses a species including a sheet of cube corner elements, the cube corner element having a surface formed by the recess, wherein adjacent grooves. The adjacent nominally parallel to within less than r from the scope of the non-parallel grooves having a difference of at least 2 angle. On the one hand, according to the angle of the groove pattern repeat setting. On the other hand, the surface of the cube corner elements intersect at a total of the peak point. yet another aspect, the recess having nominally parallel to non-parallel second within a range of less than 1 of the sub-plane. In another embodiment, the present invention discloses a sheet comprising a preferred geometry cube corner elements, wherein at least a portion tilt unit solid angle, and has from between 45. and 135 correction angle, the correction angle and combinations between 225 and 315 correction angle selected. Preferably, the first three-dimensional tilt angle unit, and has between 60 and 120 of correction angle, a second adjacent inclined cube, and has between 240 and 300 of correction angle. In addition, preferably, the first correction angle with the cube 0 . or a difference of 180 with the correction angle and the second cube difference of 0 or 180 is substantially the same. In each of these, the preferred embodiment, the unit comprises a cube corner consists of alternating side surface of the recess is formed. angle of each pair of side grooves preferably have substantially the sum of 180 . In addition, the angle between the first groove is at least 90. The ratio is preferably about 5. (e.g., about 10 to about 20 ), about the same amount of less than 90. The angle of the second groove is preferably adjacent. In another embodiment, the present invention discloses a surface comprising microstructured cube corner elements sheet, the cube corner element having a surface formed by the lateral recess group, wherein the at least two non-parallel grooves in said group, the non-parallel degree is in the range of from greater than about 1 nominally parallel to the inner . The solid angle unit preferably comprises a dihedral angle error, the error value of the dihedral angle between 1 arc minute and 60 arc minutes. The dihedral angle error is preferably a repeating pattern setting. The concave groove has declination (skew) and / or inclination (inclination), the angle and / or tilt in numeric and symbolic aspects may vary. 在所有公开的实施例中,所述相邻的凹槽优选地是侧凹槽。 In all the disclosed embodiments, the groove of the adjacent lateral grooves preferably. 此外,所述立体角单元优选地每个都具有在公共平面内限定主凹槽面的面。 Further, the cube corner elements preferably each having a groove defining a main surface side in a common plane. 另外,所述立体角单元是优选的几何立体角单元。 In addition, the solid angle unit is preferred geometric solid angle unit. 在其它的实施例中,本发明公开了一种包括多个薄片的标准工具。 In other embodiments, the present invention discloses a tool comprising a plurality of standard sheets. 所述多个薄片是所述薄片中的任何一种或组合。 The plurality of sheets of the sheet is any one or a combination. 优选地,将所述薄片组合使得相邻的薄片的立体角单元取向相反。 Preferably, the composition of the sheet so that the sheet adjacent cube-corner elements opposite orientation. 优选地,所述立体角单元在平面图中具有从梯形、矩形、平行四边形、五边形和六边形中选择的形状。 Preferably, the cube corner elements have a shape selected from a trapezoid, a rectangle, parallelogram, pentagon and hexagon in plan view. 在其它的实施例中,本发明公开了一种标准工具的复制品,所述复制品包括多代加工工具或逆向反射片。 In other embodiments, the present invention discloses a replica of a standard tool, comprising multiple copies of the processing tool or retroreflective sheet. 所述逆向反射片可从薄片得到,或者具有与薄片有关的所述光学特征相同的光学特征。 The retroreflective sheet can be obtained from a sheet, or the sheet having the optical characteristic associated with the same optical characteristics. 逆向反射片可具有立体角单元、立体角腔或其组合。 Retroreflective sheet may have a solid angle unit solid angle chamber or a combination thereof.

因此,在其它的实施例中,本发明公开了一种包括由优选的几何立体角单元组成的列的逆向反射片,所述立体角单元具有由凹槽限定的面,其中,相邻的侧凹槽在从名义上平行到小于1。 Thus, in other embodiments, the present invention discloses a method comprising the column by a preferred geometry cube corner element retroreflective sheet consisting of a cube corner element having a recess defined by a surface, wherein adjacent side In parallel to the groove nominally less than 1. 的不平行的范围内,并且具有相差至少2。 Within the scope of non-parallel, and having a difference of at least 2. 的夹角。 Angle. 在其它的实施例中,所述逆向反射片包括立体角单元列,其中,第一立体角单元倾斜,并且具有在45。 In other embodiments, the retroreflective sheet comprising cube corner cell columns, wherein the first unit solid angle is inclined, and has a 45. 和135。 And 135. 之间的校正角,第二相邻立方体倾斜,并且具有在225 和315之间的校正角。 Correction angle between adjacent cube second tilt, and has between 225 and 315 of correction angle. 在其它的实施例中,所述逆向反射片包括由优选的几何立体角单元组成的列,所述立体角单元具有由侧凹槽组限定的面,其中,所述组中至少两个凹槽不平行,所述不平行的程度在从大于名义上平行至大约r的范围内。 In other embodiments, the retroreflective sheet preferably comprises a column by the geometry of the cube-corner units, the unit having a solid angle defined by the side surface groove sets, wherein the set of at least two grooves not parallel, the non-parallel degree from greater than nominally parallel to within about r range. 在这些实施例的每个中,所述逆向反射片优选地还包括与单层薄片或多层薄片有关的所述特征。 In each of these examples in the retroreflective sheet preferably further comprises a single sheet or the characteristics of the multilayer sheet related. 另一方面,本发明公开了一种包括由优选的几何立体角单元组成的列构成的相邻列对的逆向反射片,其中,列中的相邻立体角单元具有至少一个二面边,所述至少一个二面边在从名义上平行到小于1的不平行的范围内,其中,所述列对包括至少两种类型的配对。 On the other hand, the present invention discloses a retroreflective sheet comprising adjacent column consisting of preferred geometrical solid angle units to the column in which the column adjacent cube corner unit has at least a two-face side, the said at least one side in the second plane nominally parallel to non-parallel to the range of less than 1 , wherein said column comprises at least two types of pairing. 在优选的实施例中,公开的所述逆向反射片具有改善的特性。 In a preferred embodiment, the disclosed retroreflective sheet having improved properties. 在一个实施例中,所述逆向反射片表现出至少为1的均匀指数。 In one embodiment, the retroreflective sheet exhibits a uniform index of at least 1. 可获得这种均匀性,而无需在一个以上的方向上砌瓦。 Such uniformity can be obtained without having one or more directions tile puzzle. 所述均匀指数优选地至少为3,更优选地至少为5。 The Uniformity Index is preferably at least 3, more preferably at least 5. 在其它的优选实施例中,所述逆向反射片包括由优选的几何立体角单元组成的列,根据ASTM D4596-la,对于-4的入射角和0.5的观测角,所述立体角单元在0 和90的取向所表现出的平均亮度至少为375堪德拉/勒克斯/m2。 In other preferred embodiments, the retroreflective sheet preferably comprises a column by the geometry of cube-corner units, according to ASTM D4596-la, the incident angle of -4 and an observation angle of 0.5 , the cube-corner elements at 0 and 90 orientation exhibited by the average brightness of at least 375 candelas / lux / m2. 优选地,所述逆向反射片在其它的观察角也表现出较高的亮度。 Preferably, the retroreflective sheet to other observation angles also showed higher luminance. 本发明还公开了这里所述特征的任何组合。 The present invention also discloses any combination of features described herein.

附图说明 Brief Description

图1是立体角单元形成之前的示例性单层薄片的透视图。 1 is a perspective view of an exemplary single sheet before forming unit solid angle. 图2是第一凹槽组形成之后示例性单层薄片的端视图。 Figure 2 is an end view after the formation of the first groove set an exemplary single sheet. 图3是第一凹槽组形成之后示例性单层薄片的侧视图。 Figure 3 is a side view after forming a first groove set an exemplary single sheet.

图4是第一凹槽组和第二凹槽组形成之后示例性单层薄片的顶视图。 Figure 4 is a top view of the groove after the first and second groove sets form an exemplary single sheet.

图5是第一凹槽组和主凹槽面形成之后示例性单层薄片的顶视图。 Figure 5 is a top view of the group after the first groove and the main groove surface forming an exemplary single sheet.

图6是包括第一凹槽组和第三主凹槽的四层薄片的示例性组件的顶平面图,其中,立体角是侧向倾斜的。 Figure 6 is a first groove set and exemplary components of the third main grooves of the top four layers of sheet plan, where the solid angle is tilted sideways.

图7是示出在薄片上一对相邻的侧向倾斜的立方体的对称轴的侧视图。 Figure 7 shows a side view of a pair of adjacent lateral tilt of the axis of symmetry of the cube on the sheet.

图8是四层薄片的透视图,其中,立体角是侧向倾斜的。 Figure 8 is a perspective view of a four-layer sheet, wherein the solid angle is tilted sideways. 图9是四层薄片的透视图,其中,立体角是侧向倾斜的,这些薄片是按相反取向组合的。 Figure 9 is a perspective view of a four-layer sheet, wherein the solid angle is tilted sideways, these sheets are combined in reverse orientation.

图10a表示向后倾斜的立体角单元。 Figure 10a shows a perspective view of the corner section is inclined rearwardly. 图10b表示侧向倾斜的立体角单元。 Figure 10b is a perspective lateral tilt angle unit. 图10c表示向前倾斜的立体角单元。 Figure 10c shows a perspective view of the corner unit is tilted forward.

图11是薄片组件的顶平面图,其中,在与薄片的边缘垂直的平面上立体角是向前倾斜的。 Figure 11 is a top plan view of the wafer assembly, wherein the edge of the sheet in a plane perpendicular to the solid angle is tilted forward.

图12是薄片组件的顶平面图,其中,在与薄片的边缘垂直的平面上立体角是向后倾斜的。 Figure 12 is a top plan view of the wafer assembly, wherein the edge of the sheet in a plane perpendicular to the solid angle is receding.

图13是显示配对的立体角单元的预测光返回曲线的等强度曲线图,所述立体角单元包含聚碳酸酯,并且向前倾斜9.74。 Figure 13 is a graph showing predicted paired light returned unit solid angle equal intensity curve graph, the cube corner elements comprising a polycarbonate and forwardly inclined 9.74 .

图14是显示配对的立体角单元的预测光返回曲线的等强度曲线图,所述立体角单元包含聚碳酸酯,并且向后倾斜7.74。 FIG 14 is a graph showing predicted paired light returned unit solid angle equal intensity curve graph, the cube corner elements comprising a polycarbonate, and is inclined rearwardly 7.74. .

图15是显示两个反向薄片的预测光返回曲线的等强度曲线图, 所述薄片包括侧向倾斜4.4r的聚碳酸酯立方体。 Figure 15 is a graph showing predicted two oppositely sheets returned light intensity curve of a graph or the like, the sheet comprises a lateral inclined 4.4r polycarbonate cube.

图16是显示两个反向薄片的预测光返回曲线的等强度曲线图, 所述薄片包括侧向倾斜5.23。 Figure 16 is a graph showing predicted two oppositely sheets returned light intensity curve of a graph or the like, the sheet comprises a lateral tilting 5.23. 的聚碳酸酯立方体。 Polycarbonate cubes.

图17是显示两个反向薄片的预测光返回曲线的等强度曲线图, 所述薄片包括側向倾斜6.03。 Figure 17 is a graph showing predicted two oppositely sheets returned light intensity curve of a graph or the like, the sheet comprises a lateral tilting 6.03. 的聚碳酸酯立方体。 Polycarbonate cubes.

图18是显示两个反向薄片的预测光返回曲线的等强度曲线图,所述薄片包括侧向倾斜7.33。 Figure 18 is a graph showing predicted two oppositely sheets returned light intensity curve of a graph or the like, the sheet comprises a lateral tilting 7.33. 的聚碳酸酯立方体。 Polycarbonate cubes.

图19是显示两个反向薄片的预测光返回曲线的等强度曲线图, 19 is predicted to return two opposing sheets of light intensity curve curves, etc.,

所述薄片包括侧向倾斜9.74。 The sheet includes a lateral inclined 9.74. 的聚碳酸酯立方体。 Polycarbonate cubes. 图20是校正角与均匀指数的曲线图。 FIG. 20 is a graph of correction angle and uniformity index. 图21是具有偏角的侧凹槽的薄片的顶平面图。 Figure 21 is a top plan view of a sheet having a side angle of groove.

图22示出代表性立体角单元的每个二面角。 22 shows a perspective representation of each dihedral corner elements. 图23是显示薄片的立体角单元的侧视图,显示了正的倾角和负的倾角。 Figure 23 is a side view showing a sheet of solid angle unit, showing the positive and negative inclination angle.

图24是立方体的点列图,该立方体向后倾斜7.47度,主凹槽的角误差在2至IO弧分的范围内。 Figure 24 is a spot diagram cube, the cube 7.47 degrees backward tilt within a range of angle error in the main grooves 2 to IO minutes of arc.

图25是立方体的点列图,该立方体向后倾斜7.47度,主凹槽的角误差在0至-20弧分的范围内。 FIG. 25 is a spot diagram cube, the cube 7.47 degrees backward tilt, angle error in the main grooves in the range of 0 to -20 minutes of arc.

图26是立方体的点列图,在主凹槽和侧凹槽角误差的结合下, 该立方体向后倾斜7.47度。 FIG. 26 is a spot diagram cube in the main grooves and lateral grooves combine angle error of 7.47 degrees backward tilt of the cube.

图27是立方体的点列图,该立方体向后倾斜7.47度,其中,侧凹槽包括7弧分的恒定偏角、+1.5弧分的侧凹槽角误差和在每四个凹槽上以重复模式变化的倾角。 Figure 27 is a spot diagram cube, the cube is inclined 7.47 degrees backward, which comprises a constant angle lateral grooves 7 arcmin, + side groove angle error of 1.5 arcmin and four grooves on each order Repeat mode changes inclination.

图28显示的是与图29的几何结构相同的立方体的点列图,不同之处在于所述侧凹槽的偏角为-7弧分而不是+7弧分。 Figure 28 shows the geometry of FIG. 29 with the cube of the same spot diagram, except that the angle of the side groove is arc-minutes rather than +7 -7 arc minutes.

图29示出的是图27和图28的组合的点列图。 Figure 29 shows a combination of 27 and 28 in FIG spot diagram.

图30包括与图29相同的角误差、偏角和倾角,除了立方体向前倾斜7.47度外。 Figure 30 and Figure 29 include the same angle error, declination and inclination, in addition to 7.47 cubic tilted forward givers.

图31是立方体的点列图,该立方体侧向倾斜6.02度,并且具有各种不同的偏角和倾角。 FIG 31 is a spot diagram cube, the cube lateral inclination 6.02 degrees and having various declination and inclination.

附图尤其薄片是解释性的,因而不必非得代表实际的尺寸。 In particular, the sheet of the drawings are illustrative, and thus do not have to represent actual dimensions. 例如,附图可能是放大的薄片或者薄片的放大部分。 For example, the drawings may be enlarged partially enlarged sheet or sheets.

具体实施方式 DETAILED DESCRIPTION

本发明涉及包括立体角单元的单层薄片和多层薄片以及包括薄片和复制品的组件的工具。 The present invention relates to a solid angle cell monolayer sheet and a multilayer sheet and tools include sheets and copies of the component. 本发明还涉及逆向反射片。 The present invention also relates to a retroreflective sheet. 优选地,用通过层压技术而制造的标准模具来制备逆向反射片。 Preferably, standard mold fabricated by lamination techniques to prepare retroreflective sheet. 因此,薄片和逆向反射片的至少一部分并且优选基本上所有的立体角单元是未被截去顶端的全立方体。 Thus, at least a portion of and preferably the sheet and the retroreflective sheet substantially all of the cube corner elements is not a truncated full cube. 一方面,在平面图中全立方体单元的底面不是三角形。 On the one hand, in a plan view of the bottom surface of the whole unit, not triangular cube. 另一方面,全立方体单元的非二面边的特征是并不都在同一平面上(即不共面)。 On the other hand, it features two side edges of the non-full cube units are not all on the same plane (ie non-coplanar). 这些立体角单元优选地是"优选几何(PG)立体角单元"。 The solid angle unit is preferably a "preferred geometry (PG) solid angle unit."

PG立体角单元可限定在沿参比平面延伸的立体角单元的结构面的环境中。 PG cube corner elements may be defined in unit solid angle along the reference plane extending structure than the surface environment. 为了本申请的目的,PG立体角单元指的是具有至少一个非二面边的立体角单元,所述非二面边:(l)与参比平面不平行;(2) 与邻近的立体角单元的相邻非二面边基本上平行。 For purposes of this application, PG cube corner element refers to having at least one side of the three-dimensional non-dihedral angle unit, the non-dihedral edge: (l) ratio is not parallel with the reference plane; (2) the solid angle adjacent non-adjacent cells is substantially parallel second side edges. 三个反射面包括矩形(包括正方形)、梯形或五角形的立体角单元是PG立体角单元的例子。 Three reflecting surface includes a rectangular (including square), trapezoidal or solid angle unit pentagon is an example of PG cube corner unit. 关于定义PG立体角单元的"参比平面"指的是一平面或其它表面,该平面或表面接近一组相邻的立体角单元或其它几何结构的一个平面,所述立体角单元或几何结构沿该平面设置。 About the definition of PG cube corner element "Reference plane" means a plane or other surface, the planar surface or a plane close to a group of adjacent cube corner elements or other geometric structures, the cube corner element geometry or Set along the plane. 在单层薄片中, 相邻的立体角单元组由单一一列或由列构成的列对组成。 In single sheets, the adjacent unit solid angle by a single group or a list of columns by the column constituted pairs. 在组合起来的薄片中,相邻的立体角单元组包括单层薄片和相邻的接触薄片的立体角单元。 Combining the sheet, adjacent cube corner element group comprises a single layer sheet and the adjacent contact sheet unit solid angle. 在片材中,相邻的立体角单元通常包括人眼可见的区域(例如,优选地,至少lmm2),优选地,包括片材的整个尺寸。 In the sheet, adjacent cube corner element typically comprises a region visible to the human eye (e.g., preferably, at least lmm2), preferably, comprise the entire size of the sheet.

"入射角"指的是参比轴(即逆向反射样品的法向矢量)和入射光的轴之间的角。 "Incidence angle" refers to the reference axis (ie retroreflective sample of normal vector) diagonal axis between the incident light and.

"取向"指的是样品从基准点的起始零度方向起可绕参比轴旋转通过的角。 "Orientation" refers to a sample from the initial zero direction from the reference point is rotatable about the axis of rotation by the reference angle.

薄片指的是至少两个薄片层。 It means at least two thin foil layer. "薄片层"指的是长度和高度至少为厚度的大约10倍(优选地至少为厚度的100、 200、 300、 400、 500倍)的薄板。 "Thin layer" refers to the length and height of at least about 10 times the thickness (preferably at least the thickness 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 times) of the sheet. 本发明不局限于任何特定尺寸的薄片。 The present invention is not limited to any particular size sheet. 关于旨在用于逆向反射片的制造中的薄片,可通过最终设计(例如立体角结构) 的光学要求来限制最佳尺寸。 About intended for the manufacture of retroreflective sheet in a sheet, can (for example, the structure of solid angle) optical requirements to limit the optimal size through the final design. 薄片的厚度通常小于0.25英寸(6.35 mm),优选地小于0.125英寸(3.175 mm)。 Thickness of the sheet is generally less than 0.25 inches (6.35 mm), preferably less than 0.125 inches (3.175 mm). 薄片的厚度优选地小于大约0.020英寸(0.508 mm),更优选地小于大约0.010英寸(0.254 mm)。 Thickness of the sheet is preferably less than about 0.020 inches (0.508 mm), more preferably less than about 0.010 inches (0.254 mm). 通常,薄片的厚度小于大约0.001英寸(0.0254 mm),更优选地小于大约0.003英寸(0.0762 mm)。 Typically, the thickness of the sheet is less than about 0.001 inches (0.0254 mm), more preferably less than about 0.003 inches (0.0762 mm). 薄片的长度范围为大约1 英寸(25.4 mm)至大约20英寸(50.8 cm),通常小于6英寸(15.24 cm)。 Length of the sheet is about 1 inch (25.4 mm) to about 20 inches (50.8 cm), typically less than six inches (15.24 cm). 薄片的高度范围通常为大约0.5英寸(12.7mm)至大约3英寸(7.62cm),更优选地小于大约2英寸(5.08cm)。 Height range of the sheet is typically about 0.5 inches (12.7mm) to about 3 inches (7.62cm), more preferably less than about 2 inches (5.08cm).

参照图l-8,薄片IO包括第一主表面12和相对的第二主表面14。 Referring to FIG. L-8, comprising a first major surface of the sheet IO 12 and an opposed second major surface 14. 薄片10还包括工作面16和在第一主表面12和第二主表面14 之间延伸的相对底面18。 Sheet 10 further includes a working surface 16 and a bottom surface 12 opposite the first major surface 14 and extending between the second major surface 18. 薄片10还包括第一端面20和相对的第二端面22。 Sheet 10 further includes a first end 20 and an opposite second end 22. 在优选实施例中,薄片10是直角矩形多面体(right rectangular polyhedron),其中,相对面基本上平行。 In a preferred embodiment, the sheet 10 is rectangular rectangular polyhedron (right rectangular polyhedron), wherein the opposing surfaces are substantially parallel. 然而,应该明白,薄片10 的相对面不必非得平行。 However, it should be understood that the opposing surface of sheet 10 do not have to parallel.

通过将笛卡尔坐标系重叠到薄片IO的结构上,薄片IO可用三维空间来描述。 By overlapping the Cartesian coordinate system onto the sheet structure of IO, IO sheet available to describe the three-dimensional space. 第一参比平面24居中位于主表面12和14之间。 The first reference plane 24 centrally located between 12 and 14 major surface. 称为xz平面的第一参比平面24以y轴作为其法向矢量。 Called xz plane of the first reference plane 24 to the y-axis as its normal vector. 称为xy平面的第二参比平面26与薄片10的工作面16基本上共平面地延伸, 并且以z轴作为其法向矢量。 The second parameter called the xy plane 16 extends substantially coplanar with the working surface 26 than the flat sheet 10, and the z-axis as its normal vector. 称为yz平面的第三参比平面28居中位于第一端面20和第二端面22之间,并且以x轴作为其法向矢量。 Yz plane called a third reference plane 28 centrally located between the first end surface 20 and the second end face 22, and the x-axis as its normal vector. 为了清楚起见,本发明的各种几何结构属性将参照在此阐述的笛卡尔参比平面来描述。 For clarity, various geometric structural properties of the present invention will be set forth herein with reference to the Cartesian reference plane is described. 然而,应该明白,这些几何结构属性可使用其它的坐标系或参照薄片的结构来进行描述。 However, it should be understood that the geometry of these properties can be used other coordinate systems or with reference to the structure of the sheet will be described.

本发明的薄片优选地包括立体角单元,所述立体角单元具有用第一凹槽组、可任选的第二凹槽组及优选的第三凹槽组(例如主凹槽组)形成的面,因而本发明的薄片包括所述的第一凹槽组、可任选的第二凹槽组及优选的第三凹槽组(例如主凹槽组)。 Preferably, the sheet of the present invention comprises a unit solid angle, the solid angle element having a first groove set, an optional second groove set, and preferably a third groove set (e.g., primary groove set) is formed surface, so that the sheet of the present invention comprises a first groove set, an optional second groove set, and preferably a third groove set (e.g., primary groove set).

图2-9示出了在薄片10的工作面16上包括多个立体角单元的结构面。 Figure 2-9 shows the structure of the working surface 16 on the sheet surface 10 includes a plurality of cube corner elements. 一般而言,包括至少两个(优选多个)凹槽30a、 30b、 30c 等(集体称为30)的第一凹槽组在薄片10的工作面16上形成。 In general, comprising at least two (preferably multiple) grooves 30a, 30b, 30c, etc. of the first groove set (collectively referred to as 30) in working surface 16 on the sheet 10 is formed. 形成凹槽30使得各个凹槽顶点33和各个第一参比边36沿与薄片10 的第一主表面12和工作面16相交的轴延伸。 Forming a groove 30 such that the respective groove vertices 33 and the respective first reference edges 36 along with the first main surface 12 of the sheet 10 and the working surface 16 intersects the axis. 虽然薄片10的工作面16可包括未发生改变的(即未被做出结构的)部分,但是优选的是, 工作面16基本上没有未被做出结构的表面部分。 Although the working face 16 of sheet 10 may include not changed (i.e., the structure is not made) portion, but preferably, the working surface 16 is substantially not made part of the structure of the surface. 用凹槽顶点排成一行的矢量来定义具体凹槽的方向。 Apex aligned with the grooves to define the direction of the vector specific grooves. 凹槽方向矢量可通过其x、 y和z方向上的分量来定义,x轴垂直于参比平面28, y轴垂直于参比平面24。 The recess may be defined by a direction vector which x, y and z components on the direction, x-axis is perpendicular to the reference plane 28, y-axis is perpendicular to the reference plane 24. 例如,用凹槽顶点33b排成一行的矢量来定义凹槽30b的凹槽方向。 For example, the groove vertices 33b are aligned with the vector direction of the recess to define a recess 30b. 注意,重要的是,即使凹槽不平行(即不同的z方向分量),凹槽顶点在顶视图中也可能看起来相互平行。 Note that it is important, even if the grooves are not parallel (i.e., z-direction component different), it may seem a groove vertex parallel to each other in the top view. 本文中所用的术语"凹槽组"指的是形成在薄片IO的工作面16 上并在从与凹槽组中的相邻凹槽名义上平行到与凹槽组中的相邻凹槽不平行的r角的范围内的凹槽。 The term "notch group" as used herein refers to the formation of the working surface on the sheet IO 16 from the groove sets in adjacent grooves nominally parallel to the recess groups not adjacent grooves r parallel grooves in the range of angles. 作为对此的一种选择或者补充,凹槽组的凹槽可以是在从与具体参比平面名义上平行到与具体参比平面不平行的r角的范围内,随后将会对所述的参比平面进行描述。 As an alternative or supplement to this in the groove grooves group can be from specific reference plane nominally parallel to and within a specific reference plane is not parallel to the angle of the range r, then the will of the the reference plane will be described. 因此,应该知道,关于单一一个凹槽和/或凹槽组中的凹槽的每个特性(例如垂线、角度等)都具有相同程度的潜在偏差。 Therefore, it is understood, a recess on a single and / or grooves characteristic of each recess group (e.g. vertical, angle, etc.) have the same degree of potential bias. 名义上平行的凹槽是其中在起槽机的精确度中尚未引入有意变化(purposeful variation)的凹槽。 Nominally parallel grooves in which accuracy is from slot machines has not been introduced purposely change (purposeful variation) of the groove. 为了引入多重非正交性(MNO)(multiple non-orthogonality),凹槽组的凹槽还可包括小的有意变化,例如夹角误差和/或偏角和/或倾角,随后将会对此进行更加详细地描述。 In order to introduce multiple non-orthogonal (MNO) (multiple non-orthogonality), recess groove set may also include a small intentional changes, such as the angle error and / or angle and / or angle, then this will It is described in greater detail. 参照图3-9,第一凹槽组包括凹槽30a、 30b、 30c等(集体用标记30表示),所述凹槽30a、 30b、 30c等限定相交于凹槽顶点33b、 33c、 33d等(集体称为33)的第一凹槽表面32a、 32b、 32c等(集体称为32)和第二凹槽表面34b、 34c、 34d等(集体称为34)。 Referring to Figure 3-9, a first groove set comprises grooves 30a, 30b, 30c, etc. (collectively indicated by numeral 30), the groove 30a, 30b, 30c, etc. intersect at groove vertices defining 33b, 33c, 33d, etc. a first groove surface (collectively referred to as 33) 32a, 32b, 32c, etc. (collectively referred to as 32) and the second groove surfaces 34b, 34c, 34d, etc. (collectively referred to as 34). 在薄片的边缘,起槽操作可形成单一一个凹槽表面32a。 At the edge of the sheet, since the operation can be a single groove surface 32a is formed a recess. 在图4所示的另一实施例中,薄片10还可任选地包括第二凹槽组(集体称为38),该第二凹槽组包括至少两个(优选地多个)相邻的凹槽,并且也形成在薄片10的工作面16上。 Adjacent another embodiment shown in Figure 4, the sheet 10 may optionally include a second groove set (collectively referred to as 38), the second groove set comprising at least two (preferably a plurality) grooves, and is also formed on the working surface 16 of the sheet 10. 在本实施例中,第一凹槽组和第二凹槽组近似沿第一参比平面24相交,以形成包括多个交替的峰和V形谷的结构面。 In this embodiment, the first groove and second groove sets in a first approximation of the reference plane 24 intersect to form comprises a plurality of alternating peaks and valleys of the V-shaped structure surface. 或者,峰和V形谷可以彼此相对偏移(off-set)。 Alternatively, the V-shaped peaks and valleys can be relatively offset from each other (off-set). 凹槽38限定相交于凹槽顶点41b、 41c等(集体称为41) 的第三凹槽表面40a、 40b等(集体称为40)和第四凹槽表面42b、 42c等(集体称为42),如图所示。 Recess 38 defines a third groove surface intersects (collectively referred to as 41) of the groove vertices 41b, 41c, etc. (collectively referred to as 40) and fourth groove surfaces 40a, 40b, etc. 42b, 42c, etc. (collectively referred to as 42 ), as shown in FIG. 在薄片的边缘上,起槽操作可形成单——个凹槽表面40a。 On the edge of the sheet, may be formed from a single slot operation - a recessed surface 40a. 在本文中这些第一凹槽组和第二凹槽组还都可称为"侧凹槽"。 In this article the first recess and second groove sets also can be referred to as "side notch." 本文所用的侧凹槽指的是其中凹槽在其相应的方向矢量上从与侧凹槽组中的相邻侧凹槽名义上平行到与侧凹槽组中的相邻侧凹槽不平行的1。 As used herein, side groove refers to a groove which is nominally parallel to the adjacent side of the recess group is not parallel to the lateral side of the recess groove sets in adjacent side grooves on its respective direction vector 1. 角内的范围内的凹槽组。 Groove set within the range of angles. 作为对此的一种选择或者补充,侧凹槽指的是在从与参比平面28名义上平行到与参比平面28不平行的r角的范围内的凹槽。 As this is an alternative or supplement, the side groove refers to the 28 from the reference plane nominally parallel to the groove and the reference plane within a range of 28 non-parallel angle of r. 在平面图中,侧凹槽通常以该相同的偏差度与参比平面24垂直。 In plan view, the side grooves generally the same degree of deviation from the reference plane 24 vertical ratio. 根据侧凹槽是名义上平行还是r内的不平行,当用显微镜观看平面图或者用干涉仪测量侧凹槽的二面角或平行度时, 复制、组合起来的母模的各个立体角单元通常具有梯形、矩形、平行四边形、五边形和六边形的形状。 According side pit is nominally parallel or non-parallel within r, when viewed with a microscope or a plan view of the groove side with interferometer measurement of dihedral or parallelism, copying, combining the respective cube corner master mold unit generally having a trapezoidal, rectangular, parallelogram, pentagonal and hexagonal shape. 随后将描述适合的干涉仪。 It will be described later for the interferometer. 虽然立体角单元的第三面包括工作面12或14,例如EP 0 844 056 Al (Mimura等人)所述,但是薄片优选地包括基本上在薄片的整个长度上延伸的主凹槽面50。 Although the third cube corner surface unit 14 includes a working face 12 or, for example, EP 0 844 056 Al (Mimura et al.), But the sheet preferably includes a main groove surface substantially over the whole length of the sheet 50 extends. 不管第三面是薄片的工作面(即12 或14)还是主凹槽面, 一列中的每个立体角单元的第三面优选地共享共用平面。 Whether the third surface is a sheet of Faces (i.e., 12 or 14) or the main groove surface, a third surface preferably each column of the cube corner elements share a common plane. 参照图5-6和图8-9,主凹槽面50为从与面32、 34、 40和42名义上垂直到与面32、 34、 40和42不垂直的T内的范围。 Referring to Figure 5-6 and Figure 8-9, the main groove surface 50 from the 32, 34, 32, 34, 42 and 40 with non-vertical face 40 and T within 42 nominally perpendicular to the surface and. 主凹槽面50的形成产生结构面,所述结构面包括在薄片上的单一一个立体角单元,这些立体角单元具有三个垂直或近似垂直的光学面。 Forming the main groove surface 50 to produce structural surface, the structure on the sheet surface comprises a single unit solid angle, these three-dimensional corner unit has three vertical or near-vertical optical surface. 单层薄片可包括单一一个主凹槽面、在相对侧上的一对凹槽面和/或沿工作面16和参比平面24的相交线的主凹槽,所述主凹槽同时提供一对主凹槽面(例如图4)。 A single-layer sheet may comprise a single main groove surface, on opposite sides of a pair of recesses face and / or working surface 16 and the reference plane of the main groove intersecting lines 24, along the main groove while providing a the main groove surface (for example Figure 4). 该主凹槽优选地是从与参比平面26平行到r内。 The primary groove preferably from the reference plane 26 parallel to the inner r. 通常将一对具有相反取向的单层薄片(优选地具有相反取向的多层薄片)组合成标准工具,使得它们的相应主凹槽面形成主凹槽。 Typically one pair of single sheet having opposite orientation (preferably a multilayer sheet having opposite orientation) into a standard tool, such that their respective primary groove faces form a main groove. 例如,如图6和图8-9所示,四个薄片(即薄片IOO、 200、 300和400)优选地组合在一起,从而薄片的每隔一对按相反的取向定位(即薄片100的立体角单元与薄片200的立体角单元具有相反的取向,薄片300的立体角单元与薄片400的立体角单元具有相反的取向)。 For example, as shown in Figures 6 and 8-9, four sheets (i.e. sheets IOO, 200, 300 and 400) are preferably combined so that the sheet every one pair positioned opposite orientation (i.e., 100 sheets cube corner elements and cube corner elements of the sheet 200 have opposite orientation, a sheet and the sheet unit solid angle 300 of cube corner element 400 has the opposite orientation). 此外,对具有相反取向的成对的薄片进行定位,使得它们的相应主凹槽面50形成主凹槽52。 In addition, a sheet having a pair of opposite orientation are positioned so that their respective main grooves 50 are formed faces the main groove 52. 优选地,按一定的构造定位相反的薄片,从而使垂直壁的形成最小化。 Preferably, according to a certain structure positioned opposite to the sheet, thereby forming a vertical wall is minimized. 在形成凹槽组之后,对工作面16进行微结构化。 After forming a groove group of Face 16 micro-structured. 本文所用的"微结构"是指包括侧向尺寸(例如立体角结构的凹槽顶点之间的距离) 小于0.25英寸(6.35 mm)的结构的片材的至少一个主表面,优选地, 所述侧向尺寸小于0.125英寸(3.175mm),更优选地,所述侧向尺寸小于0.04英寸(l mm)。 "Microstructure" as used herein refers to a sheet comprises a lateral dimension (groove distance between the vertex of the cube corner structure, for example) is less than 0.25 inches (6.35 mm) of at least one major surface of the structure, preferably, the lateral dimension of less than 0.125 inches (3.175mm), more preferably, the lateral dimension of less than 0.04 inches (l mm). 立体角单元的侧向尺寸优选地小于0.020英寸(0.508 mm),更优选地小于0.007英寸(0.1778 mm)。 Cube corner element is preferably less than the lateral dimensions 0.020 inches (0.508 mm), more preferably less than 0.007 inches (0.1778 mm). 因此,除了由于非平行的凹槽而产生的小变化外,各个凹槽顶点33和41在整个凹槽中优选地间隔该相同的距离。 Thus, in addition to small variations due to non-parallel grooves produced, each groove vertices 33 and 41 in the whole of the recess is preferably spaced the same distance. 微结构的平均高度范围为大约0.001英寸(0.0254 mm)至0.010英寸(0.254 mm),最通常的高度是小于0.004 英寸(0.1016 mm)。 The average height of the microstructure of the range of about 0.001 inches (0.0254 mm) to 0.010 inches (0.254 mm), most typically less than 0.004 inches in height (0.1016 mm). 此外,立体角微结构的侧向尺寸通常至少为0.0005 英寸(0.0127 mm)。 In addition, the lateral size of the cube corner microstructures generally at least 0.0005 inches (0.0127 mm). 立体角微结构可包括立体角腔或优选地包括具有峰的立体角单元。 Cube corner microstructures may comprise a solid angle chamber or preferably comprises cube corner unit has a peak. 在一个实施例中,如图3-9所示,本发明涉及包括侧凹槽组的单层薄片和多层薄片,在所述的侧凹槽组中相邻的凹槽包括不同的夹角。 In one embodiment, shown in Figure 3-9, the present invention relates to a single side of the sheet and a groove group multilayer sheet adjacent to the side of the recess groove sets comprise different angle . "夹角"指的是相交于凹槽顶点的V形凹槽的两个面之间形成的角。 "Angle" refers to the angle formed between the grooves intersect at the vertex of the V-shaped groove of the two faces. 夹角通常是金刚石切削刀具的几何结构及其相对于切削方向的位置的函数。 Usually a function of the angle of the diamond cutting tool geometry and its position with respect to the cutting direction. 因此,通常,对于每个不同的夹角,使用不同的金刚石刀具。 Thus, in general, different for each angle, using different diamond tools. 或者,更费时间的是,可通过在同一凹槽中进行多次切削来形成不同的夹角。 Or, more time-consuming is available through multiple cutting in the same groove to form a different angle. 第一凹槽(例如侧凹槽)的夹角与相邻的凹槽(例如第二侧凹槽)相差至少2 (例如3、 4、 5、 6、 7、 8、 9),优选地相差至少10 (例如11、 12、 13、 14),更优选地相差至少15 (例如16、 17、 18、 19、 20)。 A first recess (e.g., recess side) of the angle between adjacent grooves (e.g., the second side groove) differ by at least 2 (e.g., 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 ), preferably by at least 10 (for example 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 ), more preferably by at least 15 (for example 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 ) . 因此,夹角差基本上大于由于为了非正交性而引入的有意角误差所引起的夹角差。 Therefore, the angle difference is substantially larger than the angle difference due to non-orthogonal angle error introduced intentionally caused. 此外,夹角差通常小于70 (例如65、 60、 50),优选地小于55,更优选地小于50,甚至更优选地小于40。 In addition, the difference is usually less than the angle 70 (e.g. 65 , 60 , 50 ), preferably less than 55 , more preferably less than 50 , even more preferably less than 40 . 一方面,按重复的模式设置不同的夹角(例如相邻侧凹槽的不同夹角),以使所需的不同金刚石切削刀具的数目最小化。 On the one hand, according to the different repeat mode setting angle (e.g., different adjacent side groove angle), so that the required number of different diamond cutting tool is minimized. 在这种实施例中,相邻的侧凹槽角之和为大约180。 In this embodiment, the adjacent side of the groove angle and is about 180 . 在优选的实施例中,薄片包括夹角大于90的侧凹槽的第一子集,所述第一子集与夹角小于卯的侧凹槽的第二子集交替。 In a preferred embodiment, the sheet comprises a first subset of the included angle greater than 90 groove side of the first subset and a second subset of the angle of less than d groove side alternately. 在这样操作过程中,第一凹槽的夹角通常比90。 During this operation, the angle of the first groove 90 than normally. 至少大大约5,优选地比90大大约10至大约20;然而相邻的凹槽的夹角比90。 Is at least about 5 , preferably more than 90 about 10 to about Great 20 ; however, the angle between adjacent grooves than 90. 小大约相同的数量。 Little about the same amount. 虽然薄片还可包括两个以上的子集和/或夹角名义上为90的侧凹槽,但是优选地,薄片基本上没有夹角名义上为90的侧凹槽。 Although the sheet may include more than two subsets and / or side groove angle nominally of 90 , but preferably, the sheet is nominally substantially no side groove angle of 90 . 在优选的实施例中,薄片包括交替成对的侧凹槽(例如75.226。和104.774),从而只能必须使用两个不同的金刚石以形成所有的侧凹槽。 In a preferred embodiment, a pair of side sheets comprises alternating grooves (e.g., 75.226. And 104.774 ), so that only the diamond must use two different sides to form all of the recesses. 因此,参照图6-9,每隔一个的侧凹槽即30a、 30c、 30e等具有75.226。 Thus, referring to Figure 6-9, namely every side recesses 30a, 30c, 30e and so has 75.226. 的夹角,与夹角为104.774。 Angle, and the angle of 104.774. 的其它侧凹槽即30b、30d等交替。 That is the other side of the groove 30b, 30d and so alternately. 随后将会进一步详细描述,以这种方式采用不同的夹角会提高均匀指数。 Then it will be described in further detail, in such a manner different angle Uniformity Index increases. 另一方面,作为一种选择,或者结合以重复模式设置的不同夹角(例如相邻的侧凹槽的不同夹角),所得到的立体角单元具有相交于公共峰顶点的面,这说明立方体峰(例如36)在同一平面的3-4 微米内。 On the other hand, as an alternative, or in combination with different repeat mode setting angle (e.g., different adjacent groove side angle), the resulting unit solid angle having peak apex intersecting the common plane, indicating that Cube peaks (e.g., 36) in the same plane 3-4 microns. 据推测,当通过均匀地分布负荷来对工具或片材进行处理时, 公共峰顶点有助于提高耐久性。 Presumably, when the come to the right tool or sheet treated by uniformly distributed load, Public peak point helps improve durability. 作为一种选择或者对此的一种结合,薄片包括侧向倾斜的立体角单元。 As an option, or a combination of this, the sheet comprises a lateral tilt unit solid angle. 对于仅向前倾斜或仅向后倾斜的立体角单元,对称轴在与参比平面28平行的倾斜平面上倾斜或歪斜。 For only tilt forward or backward tilt only solid angle unit in the reference axis of symmetry than the inclined plane inclined plane 28 parallel or skew. 立体角单元的倾斜平面是不但与参比平面26垂直而且包括立方体的对称轴的平面。 Unit solid angle of the inclined plane is not only with the reference plane 26 and includes a symmetry axis perpendicular to the plane of the cube. 因此,对于仅向前倾斜或向后倾斜的立体角单元,定义倾斜平面的法向矢量具有近似为零的y分量。 Thus, only the forwardly inclined or rearwardly inclined unit solid angle, the inclined plane defined normal vector having a y component of approximately zero. 对于仅侧向倾斜的立体角单元,立方体的对称轴在与参比平面24基本上平行的平面上倾斜,因此,定义倾斜平面的法向矢量具有近似为零的x分量。 For only inclined lateral cube corner elements, the cube axis of symmetry than at the reference inclined plane substantially parallel to the plane 24, therefore, defines the inclined plane having a normal vector approximately zero x component. 或者,对称轴在xy平面上的投影可用来描述倾斜的方向。 Alternatively, the symmetry axis of the projection on the xy plane can be used to describe the direction of the inclination. 对称轴被定义为将三个立体角面分成三等份并且与这三个面中的每个面成相同的角的矢量。 Is defined as the axis of symmetry of the three cube corner faces and is divided into three equal parts and each of the three faces of the same angle to the surface of the vector. 图10a-10c示出了在平面图中分别仅向后倾斜、 仅侧向倾斜或仅向前倾斜的三个不同的立体角几何结构。 Figure 10a-10c illustrate only rearwardly inclined in plan view, respectively, a lateral inclination or only three different cube corner geometry only forwardly inclined. 在这些图中,立方体峰朝页面外延伸,并且对称轴(从立方体峰向页面里延伸) 在xy平面上的投影用箭头示出。 In these figures, the outer cube peak extending towards the page, and the symmetry axis (extending to a page in the cube peak) onto the xy plane shown by arrows. 在该图中,从二面边ll (例如二面角2-3)起逆时针地测量校正角,所述二面边11与平面图中的立方体的侧面基本上垂直。 In the figure, since the measurement from the second side edge ll (e.g. dihedral 2-3) counterclockwise correction angle, and the second side edge 11 side plan view of the cube substantially vertical. 在没有侧向倾斜的向后倾斜的情况下,校正角是0度,然而在没有侧向倾斜的向前倾斜的情况下,校正角是180 度。 In the absence of a rearwardly inclined tilted sideways, the correction angle is 0 degrees, but in the absence of a lateral inclined forwardly inclined correction angle is 180 degrees. 对于没有向前倾斜或向后倾斜而巳侧向倾斜的立方体,校正角是卯 (如图10b所示)或270。 For not tilt forward or backward tilt Ersi cube tilted sideways correction angle is d (shown in Figure 10b) or 270 . 当对称轴点朝右边投影时,校正角是90,当对称轴点朝左边投影时,校正角是270。 When the symmetry axis points toward the right side of the projector, the correction angle is 90 , when the symmetry axis projection point to the left, the correction angle is 270 . 或者,立方体可倾斜成使得倾斜平面法向矢量既包括x分量又包括y分量(即x分量和y分量都不等于零)。 Alternatively, the cube can be tilted so that the inclined surface normal vector component of both x and y components include (ie, x and y components are not equal to zero). 当校正角在0和45 之间或者在0和315之间时,向后倾斜分量是主要的,并且当校正角为45或315时,向后倾斜分量等于侧向倾斜分量。 Or when the correction angle is between 0 and 315 , backward tilt between 0 and 45 component is a major, and when the correction angle is 45 or 315 , the backward tilt component equal to the lateral tilt components. 此外,当校正角在135和225之间时,向前倾斜分量是主要的,并且当校正角为135或225时,向前倾斜分量等于侧向倾斜分量。 In addition, when the correction angle between 135 and 225 , tilted forward is a major component, and when the correction angle is 135 or 225 , the forward tilt component equal to the lateral tilt components. 因此,当校正角在45和135之间或者在225和315之间时,倾斜平面包括主要的侧向倾斜分量。 Therefore, when the correction angle between 45 and 135 or between 225 and 315 , the inclined plane including the major component of lateral tilt. 所以,当倾斜平面法向矢量的y分量的绝对值大于倾斜平面法向矢量的x分量的绝对值时,立体角单元主要是侧向倾斜。 So, when the inclined plane normal to the absolute value of y component of the vector is greater than the absolute value of the inclined plane normal to the x component of the vector, the solid angle unit mainly sideways tilt. 关于其中根据具有不同夹角的立方体的交替成对的侧凹槽来形成侧向倾斜的立方体的实施例,其中,倾斜平面平行于参比平面24, 在给定的薄片中相邻的立方体在同一或平行的平面内倾斜。 According to an embodiment wherein alternately on the pair of side recesses having a different angle to form a cube of the cube lateral inclination, wherein the inclined plane is parallel to the reference, the adjacent plane 24 than a given sheet of cube tilt in the same or parallel planes. 然而,一般而言,如果倾斜平面法向矢量有x分量,那么具体薄片中的相邻的立方体不会在同一平面内倾斜。 However, in general, if there is an inclined plane normal vector x component, then the specific sheet adjacent cube does not tilt in the same plane. 相反,立体角配对在同一或平行平面(即a-ci'或e-e')内倾斜。 On the contrary, solid angle in the same or parallel planes pairing (i.e., a-ci 'or e-e') within the tilt. 优选地,任何给定的薄片的立体角单元仅有两个不同的校正角,例如从包括不同的夹角的相邻的侧凹槽中得到的。 Preferably, any given unit solid angle sheet only two different correction angles, for example, derived from a different angle including the adjacent side groove. 图10b中的侧向倾斜的例子的校正角是卯。 Correction angle tilt sideways Figure 10b is an example of Mao. ,对应于图6 中的P-0 '立方体。 Corresponding to the 6 P-0 'cube map. 类似地,图6中的a-ci '侧向倾斜的立方体的校正角是270。 Similarly, Figure 6 a-ci 'lateral inclination correction angle is 270 cube. (未示出)。 (Not shown). 图11示出其中立方体是向前倾斜的薄片;然而图12示出其中立方体是向后倾斜的薄片。 Figure 11 shows a cube in which the sheet is forwardly inclined; however, Fig. 12 shows a cube which is rearwardly inclined sheet. 以这种方式倾斜的立方体设计导致单一一种类型的相配的相反立方体对。 In this manner resulting in a single inclined cube design of opposite mating type cube right. 具有面64a和62b的图11的立方体54a与具有面64b和62c的立方体54b相同,具有面64b和62c的立方体54b与具有面64c和62d的立方体54c相同等等。 Cube and cube with a side 64a 54a 62b in FIG. 11 and having surface 54b 64b, and 62c is the same as having a surface 64b and cube 54b 62c and 64c and 62d have the same face of the cube 54c and so on. 因此,在同一列中的所有立方体是相同的,并且列与参比平面24平行。 Therefore, all cubes in the same column are the same, and the column 24 is parallel to the reference plane. 立方体54a 与具有面66e和68d的立方体56a是相配的相反立方体对。 Cube cube has a face 54a and 56a of 66e and 68d is matched opposite cube right. 此外,立方体54b与立方体56b是相配的相反立方体对。 In addition, the cube 54b and 56b are matched opposite cube cube right. 同样,立方体54c 与立方体56c是相配的相反立方体对。 Similarly, the cube 54c and 56c is matched opposite cube cube right. 类似地,图12的立方体57 与立方体58是相配的相反立方体对。 Similarly, Figure 57 cubic cube 12 cube 58 is opposite mating pairs. 当第一立方体绕与结构面的平面垂直的轴旋转180。 When the axis of the first surface of the cube around with the structure perpendicular to the plane of rotation 180. 得到可重叠到第二立方体上的立方体时,结果产生相配的对。 When the cubes get overlap on the second cube, resulting in matching pairs. 相配的对不必非得是立体角单元组中直接相邻的或接触的。 You do not have to be matched to the solid angle unit group directly adjacent to or in contact. 通常,相配的对提供了相对于相反取向的入射角的正或负变化而对称的逆向反射性质。 Typically, matching properties to provide retroreflective positive or negative with respect to the change of angle of incidence oppositely oriented symmetrical. 相反,侧向倾斜会导致在同一列中包括两个不同的立方体取向并因而由同一侧凹槽组产生的立方体设计。 Instead, the lateral tilt will cause two distinct cube orientation in the same column and thus the same side of the groove set cube design generated. 对于包括第一组侧凹槽和第二组侧凹槽的单层薄片或一对按相反取向组合的相邻薄片,薄片包括四个明显不同的立方体和两个不同的配对,如图6,8-9所示。 For a single layer sheet comprising a first set of lateral grooves and a second set of lateral grooves or a combination of a pair of opposite orientation adjacent the sheet, the sheet includes four distinct pairs and two different cubes, 6, Figure 8-9. 这四个明显不同的立方体表示为具有面32b和34c的立方体a 、具有面32c和34d的立方体e 、具有面40c和42d的立方体a '和具有面40b 和42c的立方体f 。 These four distinct cube is shown with surface 32b and 34c of the cube a, 32c, and 34d has a face of the cube e, it has a face 40c and 42d of the cube a 'and having a face 40b and 42c of the cube f. 当立方体(a, a')旋转180使得立方体面平行时,立方体(a, a ')是具有相同几何结构的配对,当立方体(e, e ') 旋转180使得立方体面平行时,立方体(e, P ')同样是具有相同几何结构的配对。 When the cube (a, a ') by 180 parallel to the surface so that the cube, the cube (a, a') is a pair of identical geometry, when the cube (e, e ') by 180 parallel to the surface so that the cube, the cube (e, P ') also having a pair of identical geometry. 此外,相邻薄片上的立方体(例如100、 200)按相反取向设置。 In addition, the cube on an adjacent sheet (for example, 100, 200) in reverse orientation settings. 虽然立方体的对称轴是侧向倾斜,但是侧凹槽的二分平面(即将凹槽分成二等分的平面)优选地在从与相邻的侧凹槽的二分平面名义上平行到与相邻的侧凹槽的二分平面不平行的r的范围内。 Although the axis of symmetry of the cube is tilted sideways, but half of the flat side of the recess (groove coming into bisecting plane) and preferably from two points adjacent side plane nominally parallel to the grooves adjacent in the range of half the flat side of the recess r of the non-parallel. 此外,每个二分平面在从与参比平面28名义上平行到与参比平面28不平行的r的范围内。 In addition, each two points from the reference plane to the reference plane within 28 are not parallel to the plane 28 r range than nominally parallel. 图13-14是示出由折射率为1.59的材料制成的逆向反射立体角单元配对的预测的全光返回随入射角和取向角而变化的等亮曲线图。 Figure 13-14 shows a full cube corner element retroreflective light by the refractive index 1.59 of the material paired with the predicted return orientation angle and the angle of incidence varies and so light curve. 在图13中,配对向前倾斜9.74 (例如图11的立体角单元54、 56)。 In Figure 13, the forward mating inclined 9.74 (e.g., cube corner elements 11 of FIG. 54, 56). 在图14中,配对向后倾斜7.47 (例如图12的立体角单元57、 58)。 In Figure 14, the pairing rearwardly inclined 7.47 (e.g., cube corner elements 12 of FIG. 57, 58). 图15-19是示出由折射率为1.59的材料制成的逆向反射立体角单元配对的预测的全光返回随入射角和取向角而变化的等亮曲线图,其中对于校正角为90和270,立体角单元分别侧向倾斜4.41、 5.23、 6.03、 7.33和9.74。 Figure 15-19 shows is made of a material having a refractive index of 1.59 retroreflective cube corner unit paired predicted total light return with incidence angle and orientation angle varies and so bright a graph in which the correction angle is 90 and 270 , respectively lateral tilt unit solid angle 4.41 , 5.23 , 6.03 , 7.33 and 9.74 . 对于图17,使用交替成对的侧凹槽(即75.226 和104.774)以产生侧向倾斜6.03。 For Figure 17, the use of alternating pairs of lateral grooves (ie 75.226 and 104.774 ) to produce a lateral tilt 6.03. 的立体角单元。 The solid angle unit. 侧向倾斜阵列包括两种类型的配对,如图6中所示的eP '和ci-ci '。 Lateral tilt array includes two types of matching, as shown in FIG eP 6 'and ci-ci'. 这些配对分别具有90和270的校正角。 These were paired with a 90 angle and correction of 270 . 在图15-19中的每个中,等亮曲线图是针对如图6、 ll和12中所示的具有相同(即垂直)取向的薄片而言的。 In each of Figures 15-19, and other light curve for the sheet 6 is shown having the same (i.e., vertical) orientation of ll and 12 terms. 可根据百分比有效面积和光线强度来计算立体角配对的预测全光返回。 According to the percentage of effective area and solid angle of the light intensity to calculate predicted pair of all-optical return. 全光返回定义为百分比有效面积和光线强度的乘积。 Full light return is defined as the percentage of effective area and the light intensity of the product. Stamm 的美国专利第3,712,706号描述了直接机加工的立体角阵列的全光返回。 U.S. Patent No. 3,712,706 Stamm describes the all-optical return directly machined cube corner arrays. 对于起初归一的光线强度,损失来自于两次通过片材的前表面的透过率和在三个立方体表面中的每个上的反射损失。 For the first normalized light intensity, transmission loss from the two through the front surface of the sheet and each of the reflection losses on the three cube surfaces. 对于折射率为大约1.59的片材并近似直角入射,前表面透射损失为大约0.10 (大约0.90的透过率)。 For a refractive index of about 1.59 and a sheet approximately at right angles to the incident, the front surface of the transmission loss of about 0.10 (about 0.90 transmittance). 被反射式涂覆的立方体的反射损失取决于例如涂层的类型和相对于立方体面的法线的入射角。 Is reflected by the reflective coated cube loss depends on the type of coating, for example with respect to the cube surface normal angle of incidence. 对于反射性式涂铝的立方体面,在每个立方体面上通常反射系数是大约0.85至0.9。 For the cube surface aluminized reflective type, in each cube face is usually the reflection coefficient is approximately from 0.85 to 0.9. 对于依赖全内反射的立方体,反射损失基本上是零(基本上100%反射)。 For total internal reflection in the cube-dependent, reflection loss is substantially zero (substantially 100% reflective). 然而,如果光线相对于立方体面法线的入射角小于临界角,那么全内反射可能会中止,并且大量的光可通过立方体面。 However, if the light relative to the cube surface normal angle of incidence less than the critical angle, then total internal reflection may be suspended, and a lot of light through the cube surface. 临界角是立方体材料的折射率和立方体背后材料(通常空气)的折射率的函数。 The critical angle is the refractive index of the material behind the cube and cube material (usually air) is a function of the refractive index. 标准光学课本,例如1978年Addison Wesley出版的由Hecht编写的第2版"Optics",解释了前表面透射损失和全内反射。 Standard optical textbooks, for example in 1978, published by Addison Wesley Hecht prepared a second edition "Optics", explains the front surface transmission losses and total internal reflection. 单一一个或独立的立体角单元的有效面积可取决于并等于这三个立体角面在与折射的入射光线垂直的平面上的投影与第三反射的像面在同一平面上的投影的拓扑交集(topological intersection)。 The effective area of a single or separate unit solid angle can depend on and is equal to the three-dimensional angular and refraction of the incident on a plane perpendicular to the image plane projection and third projection of the intersection of reflection topologies on the same plane (topological intersection). 例如,Eckhardt, Applied Optics, v.lO, n.7, July 1971, pg. 1559-1566讨论了一种用于确定有效孔径的方法。 For example, Eckhardt, Applied Optics, v.lO, n.7, July 1971, pg. 1559-1566 discusses a method for determining the effective aperture. Straubel的美国专利第835.648号也讨论了有效面积或孔径的概念。 U.S. Patent No. 835.648 Straubel also discusses the concept of effective area or aperture. 于是,单一一个立体角单元的百分比有效面积定义为有效面积除以立体角面的投影的总面积。 Thus, the percentage of the active area of a single unit of a solid angle is defined as the total area of the effective surface area divided by the solid angle of projection. 可使用光学领域的普通技术人员知道的光学模型技术来计算百分比有效面积,或者可使用传统的光线跟踪技术来定量地确定。 You can use ordinary skill in the field of optics known optical modeling techniques to calculate the percentage of the effective area, or you can use a conventional ray tracing techniques to determine quantitatively. 立体角配对阵列的百分比有效面积可通过对该配对中两个独立的立体角单元的百分比有效面积取平均来计算。 The percentage of effective area cube corner matched pair array by the two separate unit solid angle percentage to calculate the effective area averaging. 或者,百分比有效孔径等于逆向反射光的立体角阵列的面积除以阵列的总面积。 Area or percentage of effective aperture is equal to the cube corner retroreflective array of light divided by the total area of the array. 例如立方体几何结构、折射率、入射角和片材取向影响百分比有效面积。 For example cube geometry, refractive index, angle of incidence and the sheet orientation on the percentage of effective area. 参照图13,矢量V,表示与参比平面26垂直并包括图11中的立体角单元54、 56的对称轴的平面。 Referring to FIG. 13, a vector V, represents the reference plane 26 perpendicular to and including 11 in FIG cube corner element symmetry axes 54, 56 of the plane. 例如,V,位于与由主凹槽面50 的相交而形成的主凹槽顶点51基本上垂直的平面上。 For example, V, located at the intersection of the main recess apex 51 by the surface 50 of the main groove is formed substantially vertical plane. 同心的等亮曲线表示在入射角和取向角的各种组合下立体角单元54、 56的阵列的预测全光返回。 Concentric arrays and other light curve shows the predicted solid angle unit 54, 56 all-optical return under various combinations of incident angle and orientation angle. 从图的中心起的径向运动表示提高入射角,然而圆周运动表示相对于光源改变立体角单元的取向。 From the center of the radial movement of the figure shows the increase from the angle of incidence, however, represented a circular motion to change the perspective angle with respect to the light source unit orientation. 最里面的等亮曲线是划分立体角单元54、 56的配对表现出70%全光返回的入射角集的分界线。 Innermost and other light curve is divided solid angle unit pairing 54, 56, 70 percent showed a dividing line angle of incidence of all-optical return set. 连续远离中心的等亮曲线用连续下降的百分比来划分入射角和取向角的分界线。 And other continuous light curve away from the center of a continuous decline in the percentage of incidence and orientation angle divided by the dividing line. 单一一个向前或向后倾斜的立方体配对通常具有两个宽入射倾斜度的平面(即V,和V》,所述两个平面基本上相互垂直。向前倾斜会导致入射倾斜度的主平面水平或垂直,如图13所示。在较高入射角的光返回量随着取向明显地变化,并且在最佳入射倾斜度的平面之间尤其低。类似地,向后倾斜会导致入射倾斜度的主平面(即V3 和V》的取向与薄片的边缘成大约45,如图14所示。同样,在较高入射角的光返回量随着取向明显地变化,并且在最佳入射倾斜度的平面之间尤其低。依赖于倾斜的度数,可产生两个以上或是两个以下的宽入射倾斜度的平面。图15-19示出一对具有侧向倾斜立方体的相反薄片的预测全光返回(TLR)等强曲线。与图13和图14的向前和向后倾斜的立方体的等强曲线图相比,该光返回更加均匀,如图区近圆形的形状所示。图15-19示出了在图13和14中明显低的光返回的位置上基本上较高的光返回。因此,预测在较高入射角(高达至少45。的入射)上保持好的TLR。该改善的取向性质对标记产品是有用的,因为标签通常以0 、 45和90的取向进行定位。在本发明之前,提高相对于取向的全光返回的均匀性的常见方法是砌瓦,即将多个小的工具部分放置在一个以上的方向上,例如美国专利第5,936,770号中所述。侧向倾斜的立体角阵列可提高全光返回的均匀性,并无需砌瓦,所以,该阵列在一个以上的方向上基本上没有砌瓦。为了比较各种光学设计的全光返回(TLR)的均匀性,在固定的入射角下,可将取向为0、 45C和90Q的平均TLR除以取向为'0C、 45和90的TLR的范围,即在这些角的最大TLR和最小TLR之间的差。入射角优选地至少为30或更大,更优选地为40。或更大。优选的设计表现出平均TLR相对于TLR范围的最大比值。分别对图13 和14的向前和向后倾斜的立方体以及对图15-19的各种倾斜度的侧向倾斜的立方体,针对4(T的入射角来计算该比值即"均匀指数(UI)"。 关于表1,侧凹槽的间距等于薄片的厚度(即纵横比-l)。计算的均匀指数总结于如下的表1中。表1 <table>table see original document page 22</table>0、 45和卯的平均TLR均匀指数(UI)- -0、 45和卯。的范围当均匀指数大于1时就会产生改善的取向均匀性。优选地,均匀指数大于3 (例如4),更优选地,大于5 (例如6、 7、 8)。 A single inclined forward or backward pairing cubes typically have two wide entrance plane inclination (i.e. V, and V ", the two planes substantially perpendicular to each other. Forward inclination will lead to the main plane of inclination of the incident horizontal or vertical, shown in Figure 13. At higher angles of incidence the amount of light returned as the orientation changes significantly, and particularly preferred between low incidence plane inclination. Similarly, the inclined rearwardly inclined incident cause of the main plane (i.e., the edge V3 and V "orientation and a sheet about 45 , as shown in Fig. Similarly, the angle of incidence of the light returned at a higher amount as the orientation changes significantly, and is incident on the best In particular, between the lower inclination plane depends on the degree of tilt, the inclination can produce a wide incident plane or two or less than two. Figure 15-19 shows a cube having the side opposite to the inclined sheet prediction of all-optical return (TLR) and other strong curve. forward and backward tilt of the cube and other strong plot compared with FIG. 13 and 14, which returned more uniform light, near-circular shape as shown in area Figure 15-19 shows a substantially higher light returns in Figures 13 and 14 are significantly lower on the position of the light returned. Thus, to maintain a good prediction at a high angle of incidence (up to at least 45. The incident) on TLR. orientation properties of the marked improvement in the product is useful because labels usually orientation 0 , 45 and 90 for positioning. Prior to the present invention, a common way to improve the uniformity of orientation with respect to the return of all-optical is a puzzle tile, will more than a small part of the tool is placed on more than one direction, for example, US Patent No. 5,936,770 in the stereoscopic array lateral tilt angle can be increased by returning all-optical uniformity, and no need to build tile, Therefore, the array in one or more directions substantially puzzle watts. To compare the all-optical optical design of return (TLR) uniformity, at a fixed angle of incidence can be oriented at 0 , 45C and 90Q divided by the average TLR oriented 'TLR range 0C, 45 and 90 , i.e. the difference between the maximum and minimum TLR TLR angle of incidence angle is preferably at least 30 or more, more preferably 40. A preferred design is more or. showed an average ratio relative to the maximum TLR TLR range. side respectively forwardly and rearwardly inclined cubes 13 and 14 as well as to various inclination 15-19 of FIG. to the tilt of the cube, for 4 (T to calculate the ratio of the angle of incidence that is, "Uniformity Index (UI)". on Table 1, the groove is equal to the pitch side sheet thickness (ie aspect ratio -l). Uniformity Index Calculation are summarized in the following Table 1. Table 1 <table> table see original document page 22 </ table> 0 , 45 and d TLR average Uniformity Index (UI) -.. -0 , 45 and sockets of Uniformity Index is generated when the range is greater than 1:00 to improve the uniformity of orientation. Preferably, a uniform index greater than 3 (e.g. 4), more preferably, greater than 5 (e.g., 6, 7, 8). 均匀指数根据如立方体几何结构(例如倾斜的类型及其量、立方体类型。 平面图中的立方体形状、孔径内立方体峰的位置、立方体尺寸)、入射角和折射率等之类的变量的函数而变化。 According to such a uniform index cubic geometry (e.g., the type and amount of inclination, cube type. Cubic shape in plan view, the position of the aperture of the cube peaks, cube size) function, incident angle and the like of the variable refractive index varies . 图20示出随着倾斜量的变化及立体角阵列的倾斜平面法向矢量的x和y分量的变化均匀指数相对于倾斜立体角阵列的校正角的曲线图。 Figure 20 shows the amount of tilt with the inclined plane method changes and the solid angle of the array vector of x and y components of the index relative to the change in a uniform three-dimensional graph showing the inclination angle correction angle of the array. 虽然这些阵列具有两种类型的配对,类似于图6中所示的eP ' 和a-a',但是这些立方体和/或配对可能不会彼此相邻。 Although these two types of paired arrays, similar to shown in FIG eP 6 'and a-a', but these cubes and / or adjacent to each other may not be paired. 每个配对中的立方体基本上具有相同的校正角。 Cubes in each pair has substantially the same correction angle. 该两种类型的配对的校正角与0或180。 The two types of correction angle paired with a 0 or 180. 相差相同的量。 A difference of the same amount. 例如,如果第一立方体或第一配对的校正角为100 (与180相差80),第二(例如相邻的)立方体或第二配对就会具有260。 For example, if the first correction angle cube or a first pair of 100 (and 180 phase difference 80 ), a second (e.g., adjacent) second pair will have a cube or 260. 的校正角(也与180相差80。)。 The correction angle (also with 180 phase difference 80.). 图20表明了聚碳酸酯(其折射率为1.59)的平均TLR和均匀指数对于具有主要侧向倾斜分量的立方体几何结构是最大的,即该范围的中心大约在90和270的校正角附近。 Figure 20 shows the polycarbonate (refractive index 1.59) and average Uniformity Index TLR major lateral inclined with respect to components of cube geometry is the largest, i.e., the center of the correction angle in the range of approximately 90 and 270 of nearby. 注意,在图20的X或水平轴上从左向右表示0。 Note that in the X or horizontal axis from left to right in FIG. 20 is 0. 和180之间的校正角。 Correction angle and 180 between. 从右向左图示出从180上升到360的校正角。 From right to left illustrates rose 180 to 360 correction angle. 优选地,校正角大于5(T (例如51、 52、 53、 54),优选地大于55 (例如56、 57、 58、 59),甚至更优选地大于60。此外, 校正角优选地小于130 (例如129、 128、 127、 126),更优选地小于125 (例如124、 123、 122、 121),甚至更优选地小于120。。 类似地,校正角优选地大于230。(例如23T、 232、 233、 234), 更优选地大于235。(例如236、 237、 238、 239),甚至更优选地大于240。此外,校正角优选地小于310。(例如309、 308、 307、 306),更优选地小于305。(例如304、 303、 302、 301),甚至更优选地小于300。立方体对称轴相对于与立方体平面垂直的矢量的倾斜量至少为2,优选地大于3。此外,倾斜量优选地小于9。因此,优选倾斜量在从大约3.5到大约8.5。的范围内,包括具有从3.6、3.7、3.8、 3.9、 4.0、 4.1、 4.2、 4.3、 4.4 和4.5 中选择的端点以及结合从7.5。、 7.6。、 7.7。、 7.8。、 7.9。、 8.00、 8.1 0、 8.2。、 8.3。和8.4。中选择的端点的任何间隔。可用来产生这些不同量的侧向倾斜的几何结构总结于表2中。对于每种倾斜量,校正角可以是90。或270。。表2<table>table see original document page 24</table>虽然相对于在一定入射角的范围内改变取向角,仅不同的夹角或者不同的夹角与上述的侧向倾斜的结合提高了TLR的亮度均匀性,但是优选地是,改善了片材的观察倾斜度或发散外形。这与提高相对于光源(通常车头灯)的逆向反射光的展宽有关。如上所述,由于如衍射(由立方体尺寸控制)、偏振(在没有涂覆镜面反射器的立方体中是重要的)和非正交性(立体角二面角与90的偏差量小于1 )等之类的效应,从立体角逆向反射的光扩展开。由于非正交性而引起的光的展宽在使用薄片产生的立方体(例如PG)中是尤其重要, 因为需要相对薄的薄片来制造其中返回光主要由于衍射而扩展的立方体。这种薄的薄片在制造过程中尤其难以处理。作为一种选择,或者对上述特征的补充,在另一实施例中,本发明涉及独立的薄片、包括组合薄片的标准工具以及其复制品,所述复制品包括逆向反射的复制品,其包含侧凹槽,其中,侧凹槽包括"偏角"和/或"倾角"。 Preferably, the correction angle is greater than 5 (T (for example 51 , 52 , 53 , 54 ), preferably greater than 55 (for example 56 , 57 , 58 , 59 ), and even more preferably greater than 60 . In addition, the correction angle is preferably less than 130 (e.g. 129 , 128 , 127 , 126 ), more preferably less than 125 (e.g. 124 , 123 , 122 , 121 ), and even more preferably less than 120 .. Similarly, the correction angle is preferably greater than 230. (e.g., 23T, 232 , 233 , 234 ), more preferably greater than 235. (e.g., 236 , 237 , 238 , 239 ), even more preferably greater than 240 . Further, preferably less than 310. The correction angle (e.g., 309 , 308 , 307 , 306 ), more preferably less than 305. (e.g., 304 , 303 , 302 , 301 ), and even more preferably less than 300 . inclination amount vector of cubic symmetry axis with respect to the plane perpendicular to the cube of at least 2 , preferably greater than 3 . In addition, the amount of tilt is preferably less than 9 . Thus, preferably inclined amount in the range from about 3.5 to about 8.5. The range includes a endpoint from 3.6 , 3.7 , 3.8 , 3.9 , 4.0 , 4.1 , 4.2 , 4.3 , 4.4 and 4.5 selected and a combination from 7.5., 7.6., 7.7., 7.8., 7.9., 8.00, 8.10, 8.2, 8.3 and 8.4 in any interval. selected endpoint. may be used to produce these different amounts of lateral tilt geometries are summarized in Table 2. For each amount of tilt angle can be corrected or 270 .. 90. Table 2 <table> table see original document page 24 </ table> Although compared to within a certain range of incident angles change orientation angle, only a different angle or a different angle between said inclined lateral binding TLR improved luminance uniformity, but preferably, the improved observation of the inclination of the sheet or diverging shape. This is to increase the relative a light source (usually headlights) retroreflective light broadening related. As described above, such as diffraction (by the cube size control), polarization (which is important in not coated mirror reflector cube) and non-orthogonal Effect (solid angle dihedral angles of 90 and the amount of deviation is less than 1 ) and the like, from the cube-corner retroreflective light spread out. Since the development of light caused by the non-orthogonality of the wide use of the sheet produced in cube ( e.g. PG) is especially important, because of the need to produce a relatively thin sheet which is mainly due to the return light diffraction expanded cube. This thin sheet during the manufacturing process, especially difficult to handle. As an option, or the above-mentioned features added, in another embodiment, the present invention relates to a separate sheet, a sheet comprising a combination of standard tools and its replica, the replica comprises retroreflective replicas comprising lateral grooves, wherein lateral grooves comprise "declination" and / or "dip." 偏角和/或倾角提供了具有各种受控的二面角误差或多重非正交性(MNO)的立方体,从而改善了成型产品的发散外形。 Angle and / or tilt provides dihedral angle errors having various controlled or multiple non-orthogonal (MNO) cubes, thereby improving the diverging shape of the molded product. 本文所用的"偏角"指的是偏离参比平面28的平行面的角度。 As used herein, "angle" refers to the deviation from the reference plane parallel to the surface 28 of the angle. 图21示出了在单个薄片和一列包括偏角的凹槽的立体角单元的平面图中的放大例子。 Figure 21 shows an enlarged plan view of a single example of a sheet and a list including the angle of the groove in the unit solid angle. 将侧凹槽80a和80b切削成具有正的偏角,凹槽80c和80e没有偏角,凹槽80d具有负的偏角。 The side grooves 80a and 80b cut to have a positive angle, no angle grooves 80c and 80e, the groove 80d has a negative angle. 为了清楚起见,侧凹槽80的通道在图21中延伸。 For clarity, the lateral grooves 80 extending in the channel 21 in FIG. 假如侧凹槽80a、 80c和80e具有相同的夹角(例如75,第一凹槽子集),则可用同一切削刀具或金刚石来形成所有这些凹槽。 If the side grooves 80a, 80c and 80e have the same angle (for example 75 , the first recess subset), you can use the same cutting tool or diamond to form all of these grooves. 此外,如果交替的凹槽即80b和80d具有相同的夹角(例如105,第二凹槽子集),则可用第二金刚石切削80b 和80d。 In addition, if the alternate recesses namely 80b and 80d have the same angle (for example 105 , the second groove subset), you can use the second diamond cutting 80b and 80d. 如果对于第一或第二子集而言,主凹槽半角十分接近侧凹槽半角,则也可用这些金刚石中的一个来切削主凹槽面50。 If the first or second subset, the main groove groove half-width half-angle is very close to the side, you can also use these to cut a diamond in the primary groove surface 50. 可任选地, 为了达到正确的主凹槽半角,在主凹槽面的切削过程中,可旋转切削刀具中的一个。 Optionally, in order to achieve the correct half-width main groove in the primary groove face cutting process, the rotatable cutting tool in one. 主凹槽面优选地与薄片的侧面对准。 Primary groove surface is preferably aligned with the side sheets. 因此,可仅使用两个金刚石来切削整个薄片,以产生MNO。 Thus, only two may be used to cut across the sheet of diamond to produce MNO. 在用以产生一定范围内的二面角的加工过程中,可容易地改变每个凹槽组中的偏角。 In the process for producing a dihedral angle within a certain range, the recess can be easily changed for each group of declination. 一般而言,由于三个立方体面的相交,立体角具有三个二面角。 In general, due to the intersection of the three surfaces of the cube, cube corner has three dihedral angle. 这些角与90。 These angles and 90. 的偏差通常称为二面角误差,可用二面角1-2、 二面角1-3和二面角2-3来表示。 The deviation is usually called dihedral angle error, available dihedral 1-2, 1-3 and dihedral dihedral 2-3 to represent. 按照一种命名法则,如图22所示,通过凹槽表面82 和主凹槽面50的相交来形成立方体二面角1-3,通过凹槽表面84和主凹槽面50的相交来形成立方体二面角1-2,通过凹槽表面84和凹槽表面82的相交来形成立方体二面角2-3。 According to a nomenclature, 22, and 82 through the recessed surface intersecting the main surface of the recess 50 to form a cube dihedral 1-3, is formed by a groove surface intersecting the main grooves 84 and the surface 50 of the 1-2 cube dihedral angle by intersecting recessed surface 84 and recessed surface 82 to form a cube dihedral 2-3. 或者,当其中第三面是工作面12或14而不是主凹槽面时,可釆用相同的命名法则。 Alternatively, when one side is the face in the third rather than the main groove surface, it may preclude the 12 or 14 with the same nomenclature. 对于给定的凹槽,正偏角(80a,80b)导致二面角1-3减小、二面角1-2增大, 然而负偏角导致二面角1-3增大、二面角1-2减小。 For a given groove, positive declination (80a, 80b) leading to reduced dihedral 1-3, 1-2 dihedral angle is increased, however, result in a negative dihedral angle increases 1-3, two face angle decreases 1-2. 例如,参照图21,形成四个不同的立方体。 For example, referring to FIG. 21, the formation of four different cubes. 第一立方体86a具有凹槽表面(即正面)82a和84b,第二立方体86b具有凹槽表面82b 和84c,第三立方体86b具有凹槽表面82c和84d,第四立方体86d 具有凹槽表面82d和84e。 The first cube 86a having a grooved surface (ie positive) 82a and 84b, the second cube surface 82b and 86b having a groove 84c, the third cube 86b has a groove surface 82c and 84d, a fourth cube 82d and 86d having a grooved surface 84e. 凹槽表面82a、 82b和84d与凹槽面50的相交小于90。 Groove surfaces 82a, 82b and 84d intersect with the groove surface 50 is less than 90. ,然而凹槽表面84b和82d与凹槽面50的相交大于90。 However, surface intersecting grooves 84b and 82d and the groove surface 50 is greater than 90 . 因为凹槽80c和80e没有偏角,所以凹槽表面82c、 84c和84e与凹槽面50的相交是卯。 Because the grooves 80c and 80e no angle, so intersecting grooved surface 82c, 84c and 84e and the groove surface 50 is d . 上述的讨论假定了图21中所有的侧凹槽的倾角是相同的并且等于零。 The above discussion assumes that the inclination angle of all of FIG. 21 is the same side of the groove and is equal to zero. 在加工过程中使用偏角的凹槽的结果是,在平面图中(例如PG)立体角单元是梯形或平行四边形。 The results of using the angle of the groove in the process is in the plan view (e.g., PG) cube corner element is a trapezoid or parallelogram. 作为对上述特征的一种选择或补充,恻凹槽可具有正倾角或负倾角。 As an alternative or complement to the above features, sorrowful groove may have a positive or negative inclination angle. "倾角"指的是在参比平面28上具体侧凹槽的斜坡度偏离名义直角斜坡度(即与主凹槽面垂直的矢量的斜坡度)的角度。 "Dip" refers to the slope of the Senate on behalf of the right angle (ie the slope of the vector perpendicular to the plane of the main groove) than the slope angle of 28 degrees on the plane deviated from the specific side of the groove. 用所述凹槽的顶点排成一行的矢量来定义侧凹槽的方向。 Vector aligned with the apex of the recess to define the direction of the side grooves. 直角斜坡度定义为这样的斜坡度,即其中偏角等于零,凹槽的顶点90平行于凹槽面50 的法向矢量(与凹槽面50垂直)。 Right angle is defined as the slope of this ramp, i.e., wherein the angle is equal to zero, the vertex parallel grooves 90 in the surface 50 of the recess Method (perpendicular to the recess surface 50) vector. 按照一种可行的命名法则,对于给定的侧凹槽,正倾角92导致二面角l-3和二面角l-2都减小,然而负倾角94导致二面角1-3和二面角1-2都增大。 According to a viable nomenclature, for a given side of the groove, resulting in a positive dihedral angle 92 l-3 are reduced and dihedral l-2, however, lead to a negative dihedral angle 94 and the second 1-3 dihedral angles 1-2 are increased. 在加工过程中偏角和倾角的结合提供了在给定的薄片上改变立体角单元的二面角误差的显著的灵活性。 In the process combined with the inclination angle and provides significant flexibility to change the unit solid angle on a given sheet dihedral angle errors. 由此,在未倾斜的立方体、 向前倾斜的立方体、向后倾斜的立方体以及侧向倾斜的立方体中可采用偏角和/或倾角。 Thus, not tilted cube, cube tilted forward, backward tilt of the cube and the cube can be tilted sideways angle and / or inclination. 偏角和/或倾角的使用提供了明显的好处,即在独立薄片的加工过程中可将它们引入,而无需改变用以切削侧凹槽的刀具(例如金刚石)。 Angle and / or tilt use provides significant benefit, namely the sheet in a separate process can be introduced into them, without changing the side grooves for cutting tools (such as diamond). 这可显著地减少了加工时间,因为通常在刀具更换之后需要花费数个小时来正确地设置角。 This can significantly reduce the processing time, because usually after a tool change will take several hours to set the angle correctly. 此外,使用偏角和/或倾角可相对地改变二面角l-2和二面角1-3。 In addition, the use of angle and / or inclination to alter relative dihedral dihedral l-2 and 1-3. 本文所用的"相对地改变" 或"相对的改变"定义为在薄片上给定的立体角中有意地设置不同的数值和/或符号的二面角1-2和1-3误差(与90的差)。 As used herein, "relative change" or "relative change" is defined as a sheet on a given solid angle intentionally setting different values and / or symbols 1-2 and 1-3 dihedral angle error (with 90 difference). 数值的差通常至少为l/4弧分,更优选地至少为1/2弧分,最优选地至少为l弧分。 The difference value is typically at least l / 4 arc minutes, more preferably at least 1/2 arc minutes, most preferably at least l arc minutes. 因此,凹槽不平行的程度为比名义上平行大的量。 Thus, the degree of non-parallel grooves parallel larger than the nominal amount. 此外,偏角和/或倾角是这样,使得该数值只是大约1 (即60弧分)。 In addition, angle and / or angle is such that the value is only about 1 (that is 60 arc minutes). 此外,沿单一一个薄片,凹槽(例如侧凹槽)可包括各种不同分量的偏角和/ 或倾角。 In addition, a single sheet along the grooves (e.g., groove side) may include a variety of different components of declination and / or inclination. 还可通过在加工过程中改变主或侧凹槽的半角来改变二面角误差。 By changing the primary or half-side groove in the process to change the dihedral angle errors. 侧凹槽的半角定义为由凹槽面和包括凹槽顶点并与参比平面26 垂直的平面形成的锐角。 Half-side of the groove defined by groove surface and comprises a recess apex and acute angle than perpendicular to the reference plane 26 plane formation. 主凹槽或凹槽面的半角定义为由凹槽面和参比平面24形成的锐角。 Half-groove or grooves defined main face of acute groove surface and the reference plane 24 formed on the grounds. 改变主凹槽的半角会导致凹槽面50的斜坡度按照绕x轴旋转的方式变化。 Change the half-width of the main groove slope degree will lead to changes in accordance with the surface 50 of the groove around the x-axis rotation of the way. 改变侧凹槽的半角可通过改变凹槽的夹角(由相对的凹槽面例如82c和84c形成的角)或将凹槽绕其轴旋转来实现。 Changed side groove half-angle by changing the angle of the grooves (e.g., by opposed groove surfaces 82c and 84c are formed of angle) or grooves about its axis of rotation to achieve. 例如,改变主凹槽面50的角会增大或减小沿给定的薄片的所有二面角l-2和二面角1-3误差。 For example, changing the primary groove face angle 50 will increase or decrease in a given slice of all dihedral l-2 and 1-3 dihedral angle error. 这和改变倾角的情况形成对照, 其中,在沿给定的薄片的每个凹槽中,可不同地改变二面角l-2和二面角l-3误差。 This is in contrast to the case of changing the inclination, wherein, in each of the recesses in a given sheet, the dihedral angle may be variously changed and l-2 l-3 dihedral errors. 类似地,可改变侧凹槽的半角,从而导致二面角2-3 的相应改变。 Similarly, to change the half-width of the groove side, causing a corresponding change in the dihedral 2-3.注意,由于侧凹槽与主凹槽面正交或近似正交(在大约1内),所以二面角l-2和二面角l-3对侧凹槽半角的改变非常不敏感。结果,在加工过程中改变主或侧凹槽的半角不会使得在给定的立体角中相对地改变二面角l-2和二面角1-3。可将加工过程中改变主或侧凹槽的半角结合偏角和/或倾角来一起使用,以在刀具更换数目最小的情况下对立体角二面角误差提供尽可能的最大幅度的控制。虽然半角误差、偏角或倾角中任一个的数值可高达大约1,但是总体来说,对于任一给定的立方体,所得到的二面角误差只是大约1。在制造过程中,为了简便起见,优选地引入偏角和/或倾角使得二面角误差按一定式样设置。优选地,该式样包括在给定的立体角中相对地改变的二面角误差1-2和1-3。点列图是基于几何光学示出由于立体角阵列的非正交性而产生的逆向反射光的展宽的一种有用方法。已知立体角将入射光分裂成六个不同的返回光点,这六个返回光点与从三个立方体面反射的光线的六个可能的序列相关。一旦定义了三个立方体二面角误差,就可计算来自光源束的返回光点的径向展宽以及光源束周围的周边位置(例如,参见Eckhardt, "Simple Model of Cube Comer Reflection", Applied Optics, V 10, N7, July 1971)。返回光点的径向展宽与观察角有关, 然而返回光点的周边位置与显示角有关,如美国联邦测试方法标准370 ( 1977年3月1日)进一步所述的。非正交立体角可用其三个面的表面法向矢量来定义。通过当光线入射到三个立方体面中的每个面并且从该三个立方体面中的每个面反射时连续地跟踪该光线来确定返回光点位置。如果立方体材料的折射率大于1,那么还必须考虑入射到前表面立方体和从前表面立方体射出的折射。很多作者已经描述了与前表面反射和折射有关的公式(例如Hecht and Zajac, "Optics",2ndedition, Addison Wesley 1987)。注意,点列图是基于几何光学,所以忽略了衍射。因此,在点列图中不考虑立方体尺寸和形状。 +6、 +8和+ 10弧分。在本例子中侧凹槽的半角误差是零(二面角2-3=0),偏角和倾角也是零。所有侧凹槽夹角是90。 .图24中垂直轴和水平轴分别对应于参比平面28和24。注意,主凹槽面的斜坡度的改变导致返回光点主要位于沿垂直轴和水平轴的位置。在表3中示出作为主凹槽半角误差的函数的二面角误差,与此相同的误差用以产生图24。注意,二面角l-2和二面角1-3具有相同的数值和符号,从而不会相对地改变。表3<table>table see original document page 28</table>在图25中示出相同类型的向后倾斜的立方体的返回光点列图, 其中二面角2-3为-20、 -15、 -10、 -5和0弧分。在本例子中主凹槽的半角误差是零(二面角1-3=二面角1-2=0),偏角和倾角也是零。如上所述,侧凹槽的半角的变化可用来产生二面角2-3误差。二面角2-3误差导致返回光点主要位于沿水平轴的位置。图26示出对于与参照图24-25所述的相同类型的向后倾斜的立方体将主凹槽半角误差和侧凹槽的半角的变化结合在一起所产生的返回光点列图。在本例子中,主凹槽半角误差是IO弧分,然而对于在薄片上的四个不同的相邻立方体,二面角2-3误差分别是0、 2、 4 和6弧分。 +3弧分的恒定的夹角误差可用来产生这些侧凹槽,相对的半角误差如表4所示。返回光点再次主要位于沿垂直轴和水平轴的位置,由于二面角2-3的非零值而引起在水平面上的一些展宽。整个返回光点列图是局域的、非均匀的。在表4中示出作为主凹槽半角误差的函数的二面角误差,这些误差用以产生图26。注意,二面角l-2和二面角1-3具有相同的数值和符号,从而不会相对地改变(即基本上没有相对地改变)。注意, 通过两个相邻的侧凹槽以及优选地主凹槽面形成给定的立体角。图22中的上侧凹槽形成二面角1-3,然而下侧凹槽形成二面角1-2。上侧凹槽和下侧凹槽的相交形成二面角2-3。侧凹槽夹角是指形成相邻立方体的凹槽的上半角误差和下半角误差的和(例如,参照表14, 总夹角是+3弧分,通过将第一立方体的上半角加上相邻立方体的下半角而得到的)。表4立方体编 二面角1-2 二面角2-3 二面角1-3 下半角误差 上半角误差号 (弧分) (弧分) (弧分) (弧分) (弧分)1 7.1 4.0 7.1 3 12 7.1 6.0 7.1 2 43 7.1 2.0 7.1 -l 34 7.1 0.0 7.1 0 0上述的例子(即图24-26)是关于具有变化的半角误差的向后倾斜立方体。以类似的方式,向前倾斜的立方体可被示出具有类似定性的返回光点列图,即光点基本上非均匀地尤其位于沿水平轴和垂直轴的位置。向前倾斜的立方体的二面角l-2和二面角l-3也具有相同的数值和符号,从而基本上没有相对的改变。在考虑使用立体角逆向反射片时,应该明白,局域的、非均匀的点列图(例如图24-26)通常是不希望有的。片材可按各种取向放置在标志上,既作为背景颜色, 在某些情况下又作为禁令文字。此外,通常,标志可能会位于公路的右边、左边或者上面。对于为了明显起见而以逆向反射片标记的车辆, 相对于观察者而言,该车的位置是经常变化的。车的左右车头灯都照射逆向反射靶,从而相对于这些车头灯,司机的位置是非常不同的(不同的观察角和显示角)。常用的车辆例如摩托车,其中,司机直接在车头灯之上。最后,定义观察几何结构的所有相关角随着司机/观察者相对于逆向反射片或靶的距离而变化。所有这些因素明显地说明了,在逆向反射片中相对均匀展宽的返回光点是非常需要的。由于容易引入宽范围的二面角误差的灵活性,包括相对地改变的二面角1-2 和二面角1-3,所以可利用偏角和/或倾角来提供相对均匀的光点返回图。图27示出在具有与图24-26中所用的向后倾斜的立方体相同的立方体的单一一个薄片上只发生倾角变化所得到的返回光点列图。在每侧上侧凹槽的半角误差是+ 1.5弧分(二面角2-3和侧凹槽角误差为+3弧分),主凹槽误差是零。在本例子中,偏角恒定地为+7弧分。倾角以重复的模式在每隔四个凹槽上变化(即两个凹槽为+5弧分, 那么两个凹槽为-l弧分)。与图24-26相比,该光点图案在径向(观察)和周边(显示)上都更加均匀地分布。在表5中示出了倾角变化的本例子的二面角误差。以重复的模式的倾角(弧分)的加工次序是-1、 +5、 +5、 -1。例如,参照第l号立方体,第一侧凹槽的倾角为-1,第二侧凹槽的倾角为+5。注意,二面角l-2和二面角1-3以不同的数值(二面角误差的绝对值不相等) 和符号而相对地改变。表5<table>table see original document page 30</table>图28示出的是从与图27相同的几何结构得到的返回光点列图, 与图27的不同之处在于所有的侧凹槽偏角为-7弧分而不是+7弧分。与图24-26相比,该点列图再次分布均匀,并且是对图27所示的点列图的补充。在表6中示出倾角变化的本例子的二面角误差。再次注意,二面角l-2和二面角l-3相对地改变,它们的数值和/或符号都不同。与表5相比,偏角符号的改变导致二面角l-2和二面角1-3的数值和符号的交换。表6<table>table see original document page 31</table>可将上述两个例子的正负偏角组合在一起,从而提供图29的点列图。通过加工薄片的一半使其具有+7弧分的偏角,加工另一半使其具有-7弧分的偏角,可实现该组合。或者,在每个薄片中将正负偏角组合在一起,从而在给定薄片中同时产生变化的偏角和倾角。在后种情况中,小数目的其它返回光点将来自位于正偏角部分和负偏角部分的边界上的立方体。因为该点列图是由于图27和28中的点列图的组合而产生的,所以与图24-26相比,该点列图特别均匀地分布。表5和表6中所示的二面角误差的组合与该点列图有关,并且二面角l-2和二面角l-3相对地改变,它们的数值和符号不同。图30示出除了向前倾斜7.47。的立方体外与图29相同的半角误差、偏角和倾角。虽然与图29的向后倾斜的点列图稍有不同,但是该点列图也均匀地分布。与该点列图相关的二面角误差总结于表7 中,其中二面角l-2和二面角l-3也相对地改变,包括至少一个其中二面角l-2和二面角1-3的数值和/或符号不同的立方体。表7<table>table see original document page 31</table>还可在结合侧向倾斜的立体角的情况下有利地使用相同的偏角和倾角组合,以提供均匀分布的点列图。如上所述的侧向倾斜的立方体在同一列中具有两个不同的立方体取向。优选地,为了在各种入射角和取向角组合中获得均匀的性能,应该注意地将偏角和/或倾角的组合相等地施加到给定的列中的两种类型的立方体(例如a和e)。在图31中示出使用偏角和倾角侧向倾斜6.03的立方体(图6,校正角为90。或270。)的返回光点列图。将+7和-7弧分的偏角与-l和5 弧分的倾角的相同组合相等地施加到a和P立方体。侧凹槽的半角误差在每侧上都是+1.5弧分(二面角2-3和侧凹槽角误差为+3弧分), 主凹槽误差是零。在观察和显示角上,点列图分布非常均匀。与该点列图相关的二面角误差总结于表8中,其中二面角l-2和二面角1-3也相对地改变,包括至少一个其中二面角1-2和二面角1-3的数值和/或符号不同的立方体。 <table>table see original document page 32</table>表5-8的示例性立体角单元的特征在于在一列中形成至少一个(通常多个)PG立体角单元,所述立体角单元具有三个二面角误差, 其中,二面角误差彼此不相同。另一个特征在于,二面角误差以及偏角和/或倾角在整个薄片或相邻的立体角单元的列中按重复的模式设置。此外,除了绕z轴旋转180。形成成对的薄片或成对的列外,相邻的薄片或列优选地是光学相同的。加工薄片和形成包括多个薄片的标准工具的方法是已知的,如美国专利第6,257,860号(Lutrell等人)所述。关于其中侧凹槽基本上没有偏角和/或倾角的实施例,可在多个堆积的薄片中形成侧凹槽, 如美国专利第6,257,860号(Lutrell等人)和美国专利第6,159,407 号(Krinke等人)所述。因此,这里进一步描述的是通过提供单层薄片或多层薄片并在薄片或薄片的工作面16形成V形凹槽来加工薄片的方法,其中,用上述特征中的组合或任何一个来形成凹槽。一般而言,薄片可包括适合在边缘上形成直接机加工的凹槽的任何基底。适合的基底能干净地加工并没有毛刺形成,表现出低的柔软性和低的颗粒性,并且保持凹槽形成后的尺寸精确度。可以利用各种可加工的塑料或金属。适合的塑料包括热塑性或热固性材料,例如丙烯酸树脂或其它的材料。可加工的金属包括铝、黄铜、铜、无电镀镍及其合金。优选的金属包括非铁金属。可通过例如滚压浇铸化学沉积(rolling casting chemical deposition)、电沉积或锻压来将适合的薄片材料制成片材。通常,选择优选的加工材料,以使在凹槽形成过程中对切削刀具的磨损最小化。适合使用的金刚石刀具(diamond-tooling machine)具有高质量, 例如可从K&Y Diamond (位于美国纽约的Mooers)或Chardon Tool (位于美国俄亥俄州的Chardon)购买到金刚石刀具。具体而言,适合的金刚石刀具是距顶端的lO密耳(mil)内没有划痕,这可用2000X 白光显微镜来评定。通常,金刚石的顶端具有平坦的部分,所述部分的尺寸范围为大约0.00003英寸(0.000762 mm)至大约0.00005英寸(0.001270 mm)。此外,优选地,适合的金刚石刀具的表面抛光的粗糙度平均值至少为大约3 nm,峰至谷的粗糙度至少为大约10 nm。通过在可加工的基底上形成试验切口并用微干涉仪对试验切口进行评定,可对表面抛光进行评定,例如从Veeco的分部Wyko (位于美国亚利桑那州的Tucson)可购买到所述的微干涉仪。用金刚石刀具形成V形凹槽,所述的金刚石刀具能够精细地形成每个凹槽。为此,美国康涅狄格州布里奇波特的Moore Special Tool 公司、美国新罕布什尔州基涅的Precitech和美国宾夕法尼亚州匹兹堡的Aerotech Inc.制造了适合的机器。这些机器通常包括激光干涉定位装置。适合的精密旋转工作台可从AA Gage(位于美国密歇根州斯特林高地城)购买到;然而适合的微干涉仪可从Zygo Corporation(位于美国康涅狄格州三维Middlefield)和Veeco的分部Wyko (位于美国亚利桑那州的Tucson)购买到。凹槽间距和凹槽深度的精确度(即点到点的定位)优选地至少为+/- 500 nm,更优选地至少为+/- 250 nm, 最优选地至少为+/- 100nm。在切口的整个长度(例如薄片的厚度) 上凹槽角的精确度至少为+/- 2弧分(+/- 0.033度),更优选地至少为+/- 1弧分(+/-0.017度),更加优选地至少为+/- 1/2弧分(+/- 0.0083 度),最优选地至少为十/- 1/4弧分(+/- 0.0042度)。此外,分辨率(即起槽机分辨当前轴位置的能力)通常至少为精确度的约10%。因此,对于+/- 100nm的精确度,分辨率至少为+/- 10nm。在短距离(即10个相邻的平行凹槽)内,精确度大约等于分辨率。为了在持续时间内连续地形成多个这样高精度的凹槽,工艺的温度保持在+/-0.1。 C内,优选地在+/-0.01C内。虽然相对于单一一个立体角单元,由于偏角和/或倾角而引起的单一一个立体角单元的形状的变化是小的,但是显然的是,在一堆薄片中形成偏角/或倾角的凹槽可能会有问题。因为侧凹槽与平行偏离至多1,所以可产生横跨堆积层的显著变化的立方体几何结构。随着堆积层尺寸增大,这些变化增大。经计算得出可同时加工(即在堆积层内)并不产生显著变化的立方体几何结构的最大数目的薄片是两个薄片(例如,对于1。偏角,0.020英寸(0.508 mm)厚的薄片,侧凹槽间距为0.002英寸(0.0508 mm))。由于加工具有偏角的和/或倾角的侧凹槽的堆积层的困难,所以在这些实施例的实践中,优选地,用起槽机以独立的薄片形式形成侧凹槽。在2003年3月6日提交的名称为"Method of Making Microstructured Lamina and Apparatus"的美国专利申请第10/383039号中描述了一种优选的方法,即在独立的薄片的边缘部分上形成凹槽,将薄片组合成标准工具,然后复制组合的薄片的微结构表面。美国专利申请第10/383039号与本申请要求优先权的临时专利申请第60/452464号是同时提交的。为了形成用于形成逆向反射片的适合尺寸的标准工具,通过电镀标准工具的表面以形成复制阴模,随后电镀复制阴模以形成复制阳模,再电镀复制阳模以形成第二代复制阴模等来形成多个工具(也称为瓦片)。复制阳模具有与标准工具相同的立体角单元结构,然而复制阴模是立体角腔的复制品。因此,利用复制阴模工具(例如图3) 来制造复制阳模(即立体角单元)片材,然而利用复制阳模工具来制造复制阴模(即立体角腔)片材。此外,逆向反射片可包括立体角单元和立体角腔微结构的组合。如美国专利第4,478,769号和第5,156,863号(Pricone)以及美国专利第6,159,407号(Krinke)所述,电铸技术是已知的。将这些工具砌瓦在一起,这样可组合成希望的尺寸的标准工具。在本发明中,通常按相同的取向来砌瓦这些工具。本文所用的"片材"指的是其上已经形成立体角微结构的聚合物(例如合成的)材料薄片。片材可以具有任何的宽度和长度,这样的尺寸仅受制造片材的装置(例如工具的宽度、狭缝式冲模孔的宽度等)限制。通常,逆向反射片的厚度的范围为大约0.004英寸(0.1016 mm)到大约0.10英寸(2.54 mm)。优选地,逆向反射片的厚度小于大约0.020英寸(0.508 mm),更优选地,逆向反射片的厚度小于大约0.014英寸(0.3556 mm)。关于逆向反射片,宽度通常至少为30英寸(122 cm),优选地,至少为48英寸(76 cm)。其长度高达大约50码(45.5 m)至100码(91 m)的片材通常是连续的,从而将该片材设置为方便操作的巻筒品的形式。然而,片材也可被制造成独立的薄片,而不是制造成巻筒品。在这些实施例中,片材的尺寸优选地与成型制品的尺寸一致。例如,逆向反射片可具有美国标准尺寸(例如30英寸X30英寸(76cmX76cm)),从而用以制备片材的微结构工具可具有近似相同的尺寸。较小的制品例如执照牌或反射钮扣可采用具有相应较小尺寸的片材。逆向反射片优选地制造成整体材料,即其中立体角单元在模具的整个尺寸上以连续层的形式相互连接,独立的立体角单元及它们之间的连接包含相同的材料。与微棱镜表面相对的片材表面通常是光滑的、平坦的,也被称为"地面层"。地面层的厚度(即不包括由复制的微结构形成的部分的厚度)在0.001和0.100英寸之间,优选地在0.003和0.010英寸之间。通常,通过将流态树脂组合物浇铸到工具上然后使得该组合物硬化以形成薄片来实现这种片材的制造。在2003年3月6日提交的名称为"Method of Making Retroreflective Sheeting and Slot Die Apparatus"的美国专利申请第10/382375号中描述了将流态树脂组合物浇铸到工具上的优选方法。美国专利申请第10/382375号与本申请要求优先权的临时专利申请第60/452464号是同时提交的。然而,可任选地,所述工具可用作用以形成逆向反射制品的压花工具,例如美国专利第4,601,861号(Pricone)中所述的。或者,通过PCT申请第WO 95/11464号和美国专利第3,684,348号中所教导的在预成型的薄膜上铸造立体角单元,或者通过将预成型的薄膜层压到预成型的立体角单元,可将逆向反射片制造成层状的产品。在这样操作的过程中,独立的立体角单元通过预成型的薄膜而相互连接。此外, 这些立体角单元和薄膜通常由各种不同的材料组成。在逆向反射片的制造中,优选的是,使工具的沟槽大致与工具的前进方向对齐,如2003年3月6日提交的名称为"Method of Making Retroreflective Sheeting and Articles"的美国专利申请第60/452605号进一步所述。美国专利申请第60/452605号与本申请要求优先权的临时专利申请第60/452464号是同时提交的。因此,在任何进一步的制造步骤之前,片材的主凹槽将基本上与片材巻的边缘平行。本发明者已经发现,沟槽以该沿网(downweb)的方式取向使得与主凹槽交叉网(cross web)地取向时相比复制得更快。据推测,主凹槽和其它的立方体结构组合以形成用于改善树脂流的沟槽。适合本发明的逆向反射片的树脂组合物优选地是透明材料,所述的透明材料是空间上稳定的、耐久的、耐候的,并可易于形成需要的外形。适合的材料的例子包括:丙烯酸树脂,其折射率为大约1.5, 例如罗姆和哈斯公司制造的Plexiglas品牌的树脂;聚碳酸酯,其折射率为大约1.59;活性材料,例如热固性丙烯酸酯和环氧丙烯酸酯; 聚乙烯基离聚物,例如由EI Dupont de Nemours and Co., Inc.销售的商标名为SURLYN的那些聚乙烯基离聚物;(聚)乙烯共丙烯酸(polyethylene-co-acrylic acid);聚酯;聚氨酯;乙酸丁酸纤维素。由于聚碳酸酯的韧性及相对较高的折射率,这通常有助于改善在较宽入射角范围内的逆向反射性能,所以聚碳酸酯是特别适合的。这些材料还可包括染料、着色剂、颜料、UV稳定剂或其它的添加剂。镜面反射涂层例如金属涂层可置于立体角单元的背面上。可通过已知的技术例如气相沉积或化学沉积金属比如铝、银或镍来施加金属涂层。底漆层可施加到立体角单元的背面,以提高金属涂层的粘附。除了金属涂层外,或者代替金属涂层,密封薄膜可施加到立体角单元的背面;例如,参见,美国专利第4,025,159号和第5,117,304号。密封薄膜在立方体的背面保持空气界面,从而能够在该界面上发生全内反射,并且抵制污染物例如泥土和/或湿气进入。此外,在片材的观看表面上可再利用单独的覆盖薄膜,以便提高(例如户外的)耐久性或者提供图像接受表面(image receptive surface)。这种户外耐久性表明了在较长的风化期(例如l年、3年)之后仍保持足够高的亮度,例如ASTMD49560-la中所要求的。而且,在风化之前和之后CAPY白度优选地大于30。粘结剂层也可设置在立体角单元或密封薄膜的后面,以使立体角逆向反射片固定到基底。适合的基底包括木材、铝片、镀锌钢、聚合材料例如聚甲基丙烯酸甲酯、聚酯、聚酰胺、聚氟乙烯、聚碳酸酯、 聚氯乙烯、聚氨酯以及由这些聚合材料和其它的材料制成的各种薄片。参照图6,优选地,薄片垂直地对齐。在这样的操作过程中,当复制时从每个薄片中得到一列立体角单元。然而,这些相同的光学特征也可从水平对齐的薄片中得到。对于水平对齐的薄片,列中每个立体角单元的面在大约3-4微米内共享的公共平面可稍微地变化(例如小于1)。显然的是,从薄片中得到一列立体角,虽然在垂直或水平方向上存在用例如扫描电子显微镜可观察到的细微的未对齐。不管制造逆向反射片的方法或者从薄片技术中得到标准工具还是从其它的技术中得到标准工具,本发明的逆向反射片具有某些独特的光学特征,所述的光学特性可通过用如前所述的显微镜或干涉仪观察逆向反射片来检测到。此外,逆向反射片包括前面所述的有关薄片的特征的组合或这些特征中的任何一个。一方面,逆向反射片包括立体角单元列和立体角单元阵列,其中,在一列中同时存在的第一立体角单元和第二立体角单元之间的夹角与一列中同时存在的第二立体角单元和第三立体角单元之间的夹角不同。关于逆向反射片,用立体角单元来定义列,其中,列中每个立体角单元的面共享公共的平面(例如主凹槽面,工作面12和14)。相邻立方体之间的夹角差的数值以及列或阵列中的其它优选特征(例如,以重复的模式设置,公共峰高度,从名义上相互平行到小于1 的不平行的二等分平面)与上文就薄片所述的是相同的。作为对此的一种选择,或者与此的结合,逆向反射片包括立体角单元(例如PG立体角单元)的列或阵列,其中,列或阵列中的至少一部分立体角单元主要侧向倾斜,相对于平面图中与立体角单元列基本上垂直的二面边,这些立体角单元具有45和135。之间的校正角和/或具有225和315。之间的校正角。在优选实施例中,逆向反射片包括具有这些校正角中的每个校正角的立体角单元列或立体角单元阵列。这种阵列基本上没有主要向前倾斜的或者主要向后倾斜的立体角单元。包括主要侧向倾斜的立体角单元的逆向反射片还可包括上文就薄片所述的特征中的任何一个。作为对此的一种选择,或者与此的结合,逆向反射片包括具有偏角和/或倾角的凹槽。因此,在列或阵列中的凹槽组(例如侧凹槽组)的至少两个相邻的凹槽不平行,并且优选所有的凹槽不平行,所38述不平行的程度在从大于名义上平行至大约r的范围内,所述的列或阵列还可包括就包括该特征的薄片所述的各种属性。另一方面,逆向反射片可只包括其中侧凹槽的凹槽名义上相互平行的阵列或立体角单元或列,或者还可与不同的夹角和/或侧向倾斜结合,所述阵列或立体角单元或列在与参比平面28名义上平行到与参比平面28不平行的范围内。由于逆向反射片的高逆向反射亮度,所以它可用于各种应用中, 例如交通标记、路面标记、车辆标记和个人安全制品。根据美国联邦测试方法标准370,在-4。入射角、0取向、各种观测角的条件下可测量逆向反射系数RA。所得到的逆向反射片满足在ASTMD4956-la "The Standard Specification for Retroreflective Sheeting for Traffic Control"中关于第IX类逆向反射片的所述要求的亮度。或者,在-4 入射角、0。和90。的平均取向、0显示角和各种观测角的条件下,明显超出规定的亮度最小值。在0.2。观察角的亮度优选地至少为625 堪德拉每勒克斯每平方米(CPL),更优选地至少为650 CPL,甚至更优选地至少为675 CPL,最优选地至少为700 CPL。作为对此的一种选择,或者作为对此的一种补充,在0.33观察角的亮度优选地至少为575 CPL,更优选地至少为600 CPL,甚至更优选地至少为625 CPL,最优选地至少为650 CPL。另外,或者作为对此的一种选择, 在0.5。观察角的亮度优选地至少为375 CPL,更优选地至少为400 CPL,甚至更优选地至少为425 CPL,最优选地至少为450 CPL。此外,在1.0观察角的亮度优选地至少为80CPL,更优选地至少为100 CPL,最优选地至少为120CPL。同样,在1.5。观察角的亮度优选地至少为20CPL,更优选地至少为25 CPL。逆向反射片可包括上文所述的这些亮度标准的任何组合。对于从远离客车(passenger vehicle)大约200至400英尺的距离处观察交通标记(例如应安装在右边)以及从远离大卡车的司机大约450至900英尺的距离处观察交通标记(例如应安装在右边),提高在大约0.5观察角(即0.4至0.6)的区域内的亮度是尤其重要的。通过下面的例子来进一步地说明本发明的目的和优点,但是在这些例子中所述的具体材料及其数值、其它的条件和细节不应该解释为过分地限制本发明。例1A和例IB如前面2003年3月6日提交的美国专利申请第10/383039号中所述,凹槽在独立的薄片中形成,将独立的薄片组合在一起,然后复制微结构表面。美国专利申请第10/.383039号与本申请要求优先权的临时专利申请第60/452464号是同时提交的。所有的加工薄片具有图6和图7中所示的几何结构,由于侧凹槽的偏角和倾角及半角误差的变化而导致所述的几何结构具有细微的变化。除了刚描述的这些细微变化之外,薄片厚度为0.0075英寸(0.1905 mm),侧凹槽间距是0.005625英寸(0.1428 mm)。八个立方体的重复模式依次地形成在每个薄片上。如下面表10-14所述,通过改变侧凹槽的半角误差、偏角和倾角来形成该重复模式的立方体。这些表中每列都定义在独立的侧凹槽的加工过程中所用的参数。通过与主凹槽表面相交以形成每个立方体的两个相邻侧凹槽来形成如图22所定义的立体角二面角误差。因此,在表中定义二面角误差的这些列是有偏差的,以便使它们相邻的侧凹槽更清楚。形成八个薄片,针对侧凹槽的角误差和/或偏角和/或倾角而言, 所述八个薄片各不相同,从而获得在下面表10-14中的每个表中所报告的二面角误差,但是表13与其它表不同的是其中一部分侧凹槽的偏角被修改了。薄片1和薄片2第一薄片及第二薄片的侧凹槽参数分别报告于表10和11中, 所述的第二薄片是与所述第一薄片相对的薄片。对于所有的主凹槽, 主凹槽半角误差是_8弧分。侧凹槽的名义夹角(产生正交立方体所需的角)是75.226。和104.774。对于所有的侧凹槽,夹角误差是-9.2 弧分,从而实际的侧凹槽夹角为75.073和104.621。虽然对于侧凹槽,夹角误差是恒定不变的,但是半角误差是变化的。第一薄片的半角误差在-14.8弧分至5.6弧分的范围内,如表10的列3中所示。半角误差显示为与每个侧凹槽的两个半角对应的两个值(合计为-9.2弧分)。由相邻的侧凹槽上的半角误差的组合而产生的所述二面角2-3 误差总结于第4列中。对于第一薄片,二面角2-3误差从-1.6弧分变到-16.8弧分。在表10的第五列和第六列中分别阐述偏角和倾角。对于第一薄片,偏角在-8.0弧分至15.0弧分的范围内。倾角从-6.1弧分变到10.g 弧分。由于侧凹槽的偏角和倾角而产生的二面角误差1-2和1-3示于最后两列中。注意,二面角l-2和l-3相对地改变,其中包括二面角误差1-2和l-3的薄片上的至少一个立方体具有不同的数值和/符号。第二薄片的侧凹槽总结于表11中,并且与表IO所列的薄片紧密相关。列出名义侧凹槽夹角和侧凹槽夹角误差的第一列和第二列与表IO中的是相同的。与表IO所列的结果相参照,侧凹槽参数(半角误差、偏角和倾角)及二面角误差的所有其它列都是反向的。这反映一个事实,即相反的薄片与其相对物除了绕z轴旋转180外光学上是相同的。薄片4、薄片6和薄片8为了简便起见,因为分别与第三、第五和第七薄片相对的第四、 第六和第八薄片的侧凹槽参数与上文所述的相同凹槽参数具有反向关系,所以对第四、第六和第八薄片的侧凹槽参数不再进行赘述。薄片3在表12中阐述第三薄片的侧凹槽参数。主凹槽半角误差为-8弧分。基本的几何结构(尺寸和侧凹槽的名义夹角)与第一薄片类型相同。对于所有的侧凹槽,实际的夹角误差也是-9.2弧分。关于第二薄片类型侧凹槽的半角误差在-14.8弧分至5.6弧分的范围内。二面角2-3误差在-1.6弧分至-16.8弧分之间变动。对于该薄片类型,偏角在-14.0弧分至21.3弧分的范围内,然而,倾角在-12.7弧分至16.8弧分之间变动。二面角1-2和l-3误差(示于最后两列中)相对地改变。薄片5在表13中阐述第五薄片的侧凹槽参数。主凹槽半角误差为-4弧分。基本的几何结构(尺寸和侧凹槽的名义夹角)与上述薄片相同。对于所有的侧凹槽,夹角误差是-1.6弧分,从而导致实际的夹角为75.199和104.747。关于第三薄片类型的半角误差在-5.2弧分至3.6 弧分的范围内。二面角2-3误差在-7.2弧分至4.0弧分之间变动。偏角在-7.0弧分至9.5弧分的范围内,然而,倾角在-8.2弧分至1.4弧分之间变动。二面角l-2和l-3误差(示于最后两列中)相对地改变。薄片7在表14中阐述第七薄片的侧凹槽参数。主凹槽半角误差为-4.0 弧分。基本的几何结构(尺寸和侧凹槽的名义夹角)与第一薄片类型相同。对于所有的侧凹槽,实际的夹角误差也是-1.6弧分。半角误差在-5.2弧分至3.6弧分的范围内。二面角2-3误差在-7.2弧分至4.0 弧分之间变动。对于该薄片类型,偏角在-5.3弧分至5.3弧分的范围内,然而,倾角在-2.1弧分至4.6弧分之间变动。二面角1-2和1-3 误差(示于最后两列中)相对地改变。将总共208个薄片组合,使得相对薄片的立体角单元的非二面边彼此接触到一定精度,从而该组件基本上没有垂直壁(例如在侧向尺寸上大于0.0001的壁)。将薄片组合,使得薄片1-8的顺序在整个组件中依次重复,然后通过电铸来复制该组件的结构表面,以产生立方体腔工具。在上面所述的2003年3月6日提交的美国专利申请第10/383039号中进一步描述该组件及电铸过程。美国专利申请第10/383039号与本申请要求优先权的临时专利申请第60/452464号是同时提交的。对于例1A,在压縮成型压挤工艺中使用该工具,其中在大约375F (191。C)至385F (196。C)的温度、大约1600 psi的气压的条件下进行压挤,并且停留时间为20秒。然后,将模制的聚碳酸酯冷却5 分钟以上,直到冷却为大约200。 F(100。C)。对于例2A,如2003年3月6日提交的美国专利申请第10/382375号所述,将熔融的聚碳酸酯浇铸到工具表面上。美国专利申请第10/382375号与本申请要求优先权的临时专利申请第60/452464号是同时提交的。对于例1A和例1B,在连续的密封工艺中,通过将含无定形的共聚酯的表面接触微结构化的聚碳酸酯薄膜表面来将两层密封薄膜施加到立体角单元的背面,所述两层密封薄膜包括0.7密耳的聚酯和0.85密耳的无定形的共聚酯。使该结构连续地通过具有聚四氟乙烯套筒和加热的钢辊的橡胶咬送辊。橡胶咬送辊的表面是大约165F,加热的钢辊的表面是大约405F。辊隙气压为大约70磅/每英寸长,速度为20英尺每分钟。密封后亮度保持大约70%。所得到的逆向反射片满足在ASTM D4956-la "The Standard Specification for Retroreflective Sheeting for Traffic Control"中关于第IX类逆向反射片的所述要求的亮度。或者,在-4入射角、0和90 的平均取向、0显示角和各种观测角的条件下,明显超出规定的亮度最小值,如下表所列:表9<table>table see original document page 43</table>表9表明了,与对比逆向反射片2和对比逆向反射片3相比, 本发明的逆向反射片在每个指定的观察角上具有较高的亮度。对于从远离客车大约200至400英尺的距离处观察交通标记(例如应该安装在右边)以及从远离大卡车的司机大约450至950英尺的距离处观察交通标记(例如应该安装在右边),提高在大约0.5观察角的区域内的亮度是尤其重要的。发现例1A的逆向反射片在2.0。观察内测量的全光返回均匀指数为2.04。对于本领域的技术人员来说,可在不脱离本发明的范围和精神的情况下对本发明进行的各种修改和替换是显然易见的。表10<table>table see original document page 44</table>表11名义侧凹槽夹角(度) 侧凹槽夹角误差(弧分) 侧凹槽半角误差(弧分) 二面角2-3误差(弧分) 偏角(弧分) 倾角(弧分) 二面角1-3误差(弧分) 二面角1-2误差(弧分)75.226 -9.2 -2.0 :;凝凝:蹄: ■■■■••■■■V, v,,v. 15.0 2.5 ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: -7.2 ■■"••■?■■'■■■■■■■■■■■■••■■ 104.774 -9.2 5.6 -6.7 -6.1 -14.8 -16.8 -5.8 -4.975.226 -9.2 -2.0 -1.0 2.5 -7.2 -9.2 -12.7 -7.0104.774 -9.2 -2.0 14.7 -1.2 -7.2 -1.6 3.3 1.975.226 -9.2 5.6 -7.0 -6.0 -14.8 -16.8 -4.8 -5.7104.774 -9.2 -2.0 -8.0 3.1 -7.2 -9.2 -7.0 -12.875.226 -9.2 -2.0 -7.0 10.8 -7.2 -9.2 -6.0 -16.0104.774 -9.2 -2.0 0.0 -0.4 -7.2 -9.2 -16.1 -6.075.226 -9.2 -2.0 15.0 2.5 -7.2 激 欲 ■ 、、、、'„,'•、■•♦•■■■,■■■■■■■■、、表12<table>table see original document page 46</table>述不平行的程度在从大于名义上平行至大约r的范围内,所述的列或阵列还可包括就包括该特征的薄片所述的各种属性。另一方面,逆向反射片可只包括其中侧凹槽的凹槽名义上相互平行的阵列或立体角单元或列,或者还可与不同的夹角和/或侧向倾斜结合,所述阵列或立体角单元或列在与参比平面28名义上平行到与参比平面28不平行的范围内。由于逆向反射片的高逆向反射亮度,所以它可用于各种应用中, 例如交通标记、路面标记、车辆标记和个人安全制品。根据美国联邦测试方法标准370,在-4。入射角、0取向、各种观测角的条件下可测量逆向反射系数RA。所得到的逆向反射片满足在ASTMD4956-la "The Standard Specification for Retroreflective Sheeting for Traffic Control"中关于第IX类逆向反射片的所述要求的亮度。或者,在-4 入射角、0。和90。的平均取向、0显示角和各种观测角的条件下,明显超出规定的亮度最小值。在0.2。观察角的亮度优选地至少为625 堪德拉每勒克斯每平方米(CPL),更优选地至少为650 CPL,甚至更优选地至少为675 CPL,最优选地至少为700 CPL。作为对此的一种选择,或者作为对此的一种补充,在0.33观察角的亮度优选地至少为575 CPL,更优选地至少为600 CPL,甚至更优选地至少为625 CPL,最优选地至少为650 CPL。另外,或者作为对此的一种选择, 在0.5。观察角的亮度优选地至少为375 CPL,更优选地至少为400 CPL,甚至更优选地至少为425 CPL,最优选地至少为450 CPL。此外,在1.0观察角的亮度优选地至少为80CPL,更优选地至少为100 CPL,最优选地至少为120CPL。同样,在1.5。观察角的亮度优选地至少为20CPL,更优选地至少为25 CPL。逆向反射片可包括上文所述的这些亮度标准的任何组合。对于从远离客车(passenger vehicle)大约200至400英尺的距离处观察交通标记(例如应安装在右边)以及从远离大卡车的司机大约450至900英尺的距离处观察交通标记(例如应安装在右边),提高在大约0.5观察角(即0.4至0.6)的区域内的亮度是尤其重要的。通过下面的例子来进一步地说明本发明的目的和优点,但是在表14<table>table see original document page 48</table>

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Classifications
International ClassificationB29D11/00, G02B5/124
Cooperative ClassificationB29C59/007, B29L2011/0091, Y10T428/2457, G02B1/10, Y10T156/1082, G02B1/105, B29D11/00605, G02B1/18, G02B5/124, G02B5/122
European ClassificationB29D11/00E, G02B5/124
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