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Publication numberCN100360301 C
Publication typeGrant
Application numberCN 200380103888
PCT numberPCT/US2003/033232
Publication date9 Jan 2008
Filing date21 Oct 2003
Priority date27 Nov 2002
Also published asCA2503824A1, CN1713977A, EP1572436A1, EP1572436B1, EP2441566A2, EP2441566A3, US6936209, US7153123, US20040099993, US20050153012, US20070098829, WO2004050332A1
Publication number200380103888.1, CN 100360301 C, CN 100360301C, CN 200380103888, CN-C-100360301, CN100360301 C, CN100360301C, CN200380103888, CN200380103888.1, PCT/2003/33232, PCT/US/2003/033232, PCT/US/2003/33232, PCT/US/3/033232, PCT/US/3/33232, PCT/US2003/033232, PCT/US2003/33232, PCT/US2003033232, PCT/US200333232, PCT/US3/033232, PCT/US3/33232, PCT/US3033232, PCT/US333232
InventorsAT拉夫, DL汤普森, JN杰克逊, WW梅里尔
Applicant3M创新有限公司
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: SIPO, Espacenet
Methods and devices for processing polymer films
CN 100360301 C
Abstract  translated from Chinese
能够将延伸的聚合物薄膜用于各种各样的应用场合,包括光学应用场合。 Extending the polymer film can be used for various applications including optical applications. 在延伸设备内的延伸条件和延伸轨道(64)的形状能够决定或影响薄膜的性能。 In the shape of the extension and extension rail extension conditions within the device (64) can determine or affect the performance of the film. 可以使用移出系统(140,140',141,141')在延伸之后接受薄膜。 Can be used out of the system (140, 140 ', 141, 141') extends accepted after film. 至少在某些情况下移出系统的结构能够影响最终的薄膜性能。 Out of the system at least in some cases the structure can affect the final film properties.
Claims(33)  translated from Chinese
1.一种用于加工薄膜的设备,该设备包括: 传送器,它被构造和设置成在设备内、沿着机器方向传送薄膜,传送器包括被构造和布置成夹持薄膜的相对边部分的夹持件,传送器的一部分被构造和设置成提供扩张路径,该夹持件沿着该路径运动以延伸薄膜;以及单独的移出系统,在延伸薄膜之后该移出系统从传送器接受薄膜,移出系统包括相对的轨道和夹持件,夹持件被构造和布置成在所需数量的延伸之后夹持薄膜的相对的移出区和沿着相对的轨道传送薄膜的相对的移出区,其中相对的轨道形成其中相对的轨道的至少一部分相互倾斜的一区域。 1. An apparatus for processing a thin film, the apparatus comprising: a conveyor, which is constructed and arranged within the apparatus, the transfer film along the machine direction, the conveyor including opposing side portions are constructed and arranged to clamp the film the holding member, a part of the conveyor is configured and arranged to provide the expansion path, the clamping member so as to extend along the movement path film; and separate removal systems, after the stretched film is removed from the conveyor system to accept the film, out of the system includes opposing tracks and gripping member, the clamping member is constructed and arranged to extend after the desired number of opposing and sandwiching the film out of the transfer zone relative to the track along the opposing film removed area in which the relative At least a portion of a region of mutually inclined track is formed wherein the relative track.
2. 如权利要求l所述的设备,其特征在于:沿着相对的轨道的整个长度, 相对的轨道相互倾斜。 L 2. The apparatus according to claim, wherein: along the entire length of the opposite track, are inclined relative to the track.
3. 如权利要求1所述的设备,其特征在于:相对的轨道的各轨道包括至少一第一轨道段和一第二轨道段,其中相对的轨道的第一轨道段是相互倾斜的。 3. The apparatus according to claim, wherein: each track comprises opposing track at least one first rail section and a second rail section, wherein the first rail section are mutually opposite inclined track.
4. 如权利要求1所述的设备,其特征在于:相对的轨道的各轨道包括至少一第一轨道段和一第二轨道段,其中相对的轨道的第二轨道段是相互倾斜的。 4. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein: each track comprises opposing track at least one first rail section and a second rail section, wherein the opposing second track segments are mutually inclined track.
5. 如权利要求1所述的设备,其特征在于:相对轨道的诸部分相对于沿着其传送薄膜的方向各自相互倾斜不大于3。 5. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein: the relative part of the track with respect to such a direction along its respective mutually inclined transport membrane not greater than 3. 的角度。 Angle.
6. 如权利要求l所述的设备,其特征在于:移出系统被设置成相对于薄膜沿着其传送的方向倾斜一角度。 6. The apparatus according to claim l, wherein: out of the system is arranged inclined at an angle with respect to the film along the direction of transmission.
7. —种加工薄膜的方法,该方法包括: 利用夹持件夹持薄膜的相对边部分;在用于延伸薄膜的延伸设备的延伸区内、沿着扩张的路径和按机器方向传送薄膜;在延伸之后、在单独的移出系统内、通过使用移出系统的相对的夹持件夹持薄膜的相对的移出区接受薄膜;以及传送薄膜通过其中相对的夹持件是相互倾斜的移出系统的一部分。 7. - Species film processing, the method comprising: holding member holding opposing edge portion of the film; in the region for the stretched film extending apparatus extending along the expansion path and conveying the film by the machine direction; and transmitting a portion of the film through which the opposing gripping members are inclined to each other out of the system; after extending out in a separate system, out of the system by using the opposite holding member sandwiching the film out of the region opposed to accept film .
8. 如权利要求7所述的方法,其特征在于:相对的夹持件沿着移出系统的整个长度是相互倾斜的。 8. The method of claim 7, wherein: the opposing clamping members along the entire length out of the system are mutually inclined.
9. 如权利要求7所述的方法,其特征在于:移出系统包括至少一第一组相对的夹持件和一第二组相对的夹持件,其中第一组相对的夹持件相互倾斜。 9. The method according to claim 7, characterized in that: out of the system comprising at least a first set of opposing gripping members and a second set of opposing gripping members, wherein the first set of mutually opposite inclined clamping member .
10. 如权利要求7所述的方法,其特征在于:移出系统包括至少一第一组相对的夹持件和一第二组相对的夹持件,其中第二组相对的夹持件相互倾斜。 10. The method according to claim 7, characterized in that: out of the system comprising at least a first set of opposing gripping members and a second set of opposing gripping members, wherein the second set of opposed mutually inclined clamping member .
11. 如权利要求7所述的方法,其特征在于:相对的夹持件的部分相对于薄膜沿着其传送的方向相互倾斜不大于3。 11. The method of claim 7, wherein: part of the holding member opposed to each other is inclined with respect to the film is not more than 3 in the direction of its transmission. 的一角度。 Of an angle.
12. —种用于加工薄膜的设备,该设备包括:传送器,它包括夹持薄膜的相对边部分和在驱动件的作用下在设备内沿着机器方向传送薄膜的夹持件,其中传送器的一部分被构造和设置成提供夹持件沿着其运动以延伸薄膜的扩张路径;以及单独的移出系统,在延伸薄膜之后它从传送器接受薄膜,移出系统包括一第一组相对的轨道; 一第二组相对的轨道,许多第一夹持件,其被构造和设置成在所需数量的延伸之后夹持薄膜的相对的第一移出区,并沿着第一组相对轨道传送薄膜,以及许多第二夹持件,其被构造和设置成夹持薄膜的相对的第二移出区,并沿着第二组相对轨道传送薄膜,其中第二移出区比第一移出区较靠近薄膜的中央。 12. - species for film processing equipment, the apparatus comprising: a transmitter, which includes opposed side portions sandwiching the film holding member and the transfer film in the machine direction of the driving member in the device, wherein the transmission the portion is constructed and arranged to provide a gripping member along its path of movement to expand the stretched film; and a separate removal systems, the stretched film after it receives the film from the conveyor, out of the system comprising a first set of opposed track ; a second set of opposing tracks, a plurality of first holding member, which is constructed and arranged to extend after the desired number of sandwiching the film opposite to a first region out, and send a first set of opposing tracks along the film , and a plurality of second holding member, which is constructed and arranged to clamp an opposite second film removed area, and transmitting a second set of opposing tracks along the film, wherein the second region is removed out of the region closer than the first film Central.
13. 如权利要求12所述的设备,其特征在于:第二夹持件被构造和设置成从一第一位置和一第二位置运动,该第一位置至少部分地被设置在第一夹持件之间, 在该第二位置中第二夹持件设有部分地被设置第一夹持件之间 13. The apparatus of claim 12, wherein: the second holding member is constructed and arranged from a first position and a second position, the first position at least partially disposed in a first clip between the holding member, and a second position in the second holding member is provided in part by the first holding member disposed between the
14. 如权利要求12所述的设备,其特征在于:第一夹持件相互倾斜。 14. The apparatus of claim 12, wherein: the first holding member is inclined to each other.
15. 如权利要求12所述的设备,其特征在于:第二夹持件相互倾斜。 15. The apparatus of claim 12, wherein: the second holding member is inclined to each other.
16. —种用于加工薄膜的设备,该设备包括:传送器,它包括夹持薄膜的相对边部分和在驱动件的作用下在设备内沿着机器方向传送薄膜的夹持件,其中传送器的一部分被构造和设置成提供夹持件沿着其运动以延伸薄膜的扩张路径;以及单独的移出系统,在延伸薄膜之后它从传送器接受薄膜,移出系统包括相对的轨道和许多夹持件,这些夹持件被构造和设置成在所需数量的延伸之后夹持薄膜的相对的移出区,并沿着相对的轨道传送薄膜的相对的移出区,其中相对的轨道被设置成相对于机器方向倾斜至少1。 16. - species for film processing equipment, the apparatus comprising: a transmitter, which includes opposed side portions sandwiching the film holding member and the transfer film in the machine direction of the driving member in the device, wherein the transmission the portion is constructed and arranged to provide a gripping member along its path of movement to expand the stretched film; and a separate removal systems, the stretched film after it receives the film from the conveyor, out of the system includes opposing tracks and a number of gripping member, the holding member is constructed and arranged to extend after the desired number of sandwiching the film out of the opposing area, and transfer the film along the opposing tracks opposing out area, wherein the track is arranged opposite with respect to machine direction inclined at least 1. 的一角度。 Of an angle.
17. 如权利要求16所述的设备,其特征在于:移出系统的相对轨道的至少一部分相互倾斜。 17. The apparatus of claim 16, wherein: at least a portion inclined relative to each other out of the system track.
18. 如权利要求16所述的设备,其特征在于:相对于机器方向以不同的角度设置相对的轨道。 18. The apparatus of claim 16, wherein: with respect to the machine direction at different angles relative to the track set.
19. 如权利要求16所述的设备,其特征在于:移出系统的相对的轨道被构造和设置成,在其中薄膜的相对的移出区具有相同的横向牵拉比的位置处夹持薄膜的相对的移出区。 19. The apparatus according to claim 16, characterized in that: out of the system relative to the track is constructed and arranged to, out of the region in which the opposing film has the same position as the transverse stretch ratio of the film holder relative The removal area.
20. 如权利要求16所述的设备,其特征在于:移出系统的相对的轨道被构造和设置成,在其中薄膜的相对的移出区具有不同的横向牵拉比的位置处夹持薄膜的相对的移出区。 20. The apparatus of claim 16, wherein: the relative track removal systems are constructed and arranged to, out of the region in which the opposing film has different lateral positions sandwiching the film stretch ratio of the relative The removal area.
21. 如权利要求16所述的设备,其特征在于:扩张的路径被构造和设置成延伸薄膜,以致在延伸薄膜之前薄膜的中心线相对于传送器的机器方向倾斜。 21. The apparatus of claim 16, wherein: the expansion of the path is constructed and arranged to extend the film so that the center line of the stretched film before the film relative to the machine direction of the inclined conveyor.
22. —种用于加工薄膜的设备,该设备包括:传送器,它包括夹持薄膜的相对边部分和在驱动件的作用下在设备内沿着机器方向传送薄膜的夹持件,其中传送器的一部分被构造和设置成提供夹持件沿着其运动以延伸薄膜的扩张路径;以及单独的移出系统,在延伸薄膜之后它从传送器接受薄膜,移出系统包括相对的轨道和许多夹持件,夹持件被构造和设置成在所需数量的延伸之后夹持薄膜的相对的移出区,并沿着相对的轨道传送薄膜的相对的移出区,其中设备被构造和设置成允许相对于传送器的位置改变单独的移出系统的位置,以选择薄膜的最终的横向牵拉比。 22. - species for film processing equipment, the apparatus comprising: a transmitter, which includes opposed side portions sandwiching the film holding member and the transfer film in the machine direction of the driving member in the device, wherein the transmission the portion is constructed and arranged to provide a gripping member along its path of movement to expand the stretched film; and a separate removal systems, the stretched film after it receives the film from the conveyor, out of the system includes opposing tracks and a number of gripping member, the clamping member is constructed and arranged to extend after the desired number of sandwiching the film out of the opposing area, and transfer the film along the opposing tracks opposing out area, wherein the apparatus is constructed and arranged to allow relative conveyor position change of the position of the individual out of the system, to select the final transverse stretch film ratio.
23. —种用于加工薄膜的设备,该设备包括:传送器,它被构造和设置成在设备内沿着机器方向传送薄膜,传送器包括被构造和设置成夹持薄膜的相对的边部分的夹持件,传送器的一部分被构造和设置成提供夹持件沿着其运动以延伸薄膜的扩张的路径;以及单独的移出系统,在延伸薄膜之后它从传送器接受薄膜,移出系统包括相对的轨道和夹持件,夹持件被构造和设置成在所需数量的延伸之后夹持薄膜的相对的移出区,并沿着相对的轨道传送薄膜的相对的移出区,其中相对的轨道形成其中相对的轨道的至少一部分相互倾斜的一区域。 23. - species for film processing equipment, the apparatus comprising: a conveyor, which is constructed and arranged to transfer the film along a machine direction within the apparatus, comprising a conveyor constructed and arranged to clamp opposite side portions of the film the holding member, a part of the conveyor is configured and arranged to provide a gripping member along its path of movement to expand the stretched film; and a separate removal systems, the stretched film after it receives the film from the conveyor, removal systems comprising relative orbital and the clamping member, the clamping member is constructed and arranged to extend after the desired number of sandwiching the film out of the opposing area, and transfer the film along the opposing tracks opposing out area, wherein the relative track forming at least a portion of one region relative to each other inclined track.
24. 如权利要求23所述的设备,其特征在于:相对的轨道沿着相对的轨道的整个长度相互倾斜分开。 23 24. The apparatus according to claim, characterized in that: the opposing track rail along the entire length of the opposing inclined to separate from each other.
25. 如权利要求23所述的设备,其特征在于:各相对的轨道包括至少一第一轨道段和一第二轨道段,其中相对的轨道的第一轨道段相互倾斜分开。 25. The apparatus of claim 23, wherein: each of the opposing tracks comprises at least one first rail section and a second track segments, separated from each other is inclined relative to the first rail section in which the track.
26. 如权利要求23所述的设备,其特征在于:各相对的轨道包括至少一第一轨道段和一第二轨道段,其中相对的轨道的第二轨道段相互倾斜分开。 26. The apparatus of claim 23, wherein: each of the opposing tracks comprises at least one first rail section and a second track segments, separated from each other inclined track segments wherein the second opposing tracks.
27. 如权利要求23所述的设备,其特征在于:相对的轨道的部分相对于薄膜沿着其传送的方向以不大于3的一角度各自相互倾斜分开。 27. The apparatus of claim 23, wherein: the opposing part of the track with respect to the direction along the film transfer it at an angle of not more than 3 inclination of each, separately.
28. —种用于加工薄膜的设备,该设备包括:传送器,它被构造和设置成沿着机器方向传送薄膜,传送器包括被构造和设置成夹持薄膜的相对边部分的夹持件;延伸区,其中夹持件被构造和设置成沿着扩张路径运行,用于延伸薄膜;以及单独的移出系统,包括后处理区,该后处理区设置在延伸区之后,并包括其中夹持件被构造和设置成沿着会聚路径运行的至少一区域。 28. - species for film processing apparatus, the apparatus comprising: a conveyor, which is constructed and arranged to transfer the film along the machine direction, the conveyor includes a clamping member is constructed and arranged to clamp opposite side portions of the film ; extension region, wherein the clamping member is constructed and arranged to run along the expansion path for the stretched film; and a separate removal systems, including post-treatment zone, the post-treatment zone set after stretching zone, and wherein said holding comprises member is constructed and arranged to at least one area running along convergent paths.
29. 如权利要求28所述的设备,其特征在于:后处理区包括至少一第一区和一第二区,其中夹持件被构造和设置成在第一区内沿着以一第一角度会聚的路径和在第二区内沿着以一第二角度会聚的路径运行,其中第一和第二角度是明显不同的。 29. The apparatus of claim 28, wherein: at least one post-treatment zone comprising a first region and a second region, wherein the clamping member is constructed and arranged in a first region along with a first angle along converging paths and converging at a second angle in a second area running path, wherein the first and second angles are distinct.
30. 如权利要求29所述的设备,其特征在于:第一角度不大于约3。 29 30. The apparatus according to claim, characterized in that: the first angle is not greater than about 3. ,第二角度是至少约15。 , The second angle is at least about 15 .
31. 如权利要求28所述的设备,其特征在于:在后处理区域的至少一个区内的会聚路径以不大于3。 28 31. The apparatus according to claim, characterized in that: in the collection path at least one post-treatment zone to zone is not more than 3. 的一角度会聚。 Converging at an angle.
32. 如权利要求28所述的设备,其特征在于:在后处理区域的至少一个区内的会聚路径以至少15。 28 32. The apparatus according to claim, characterized in that: in the collection path at least one post-treatment zone to zone of at least 15. 的一角度会聚。 Converging at an angle.
33. 如权利要求28所述的设备,其特征在于,在后处理区域的至少一个区内的会聚路径以20。 28 33. The apparatus according to claim, characterized in that, in the collection path at least one post-treatment zone to zone 20. 至30。 30. 的范围内的一角度会聚。 An angle within the range of convergence.
Description  translated from Chinese

关于加工聚合物薄膜的方法和设备 Method and apparatus for processing of polymer films on

技术领域 FIELD

总体上,本发明涉及关于延伸聚合物薄膜的方法和装置以及由该方法和设备所得到的薄膜。 Generally, the present invention relates to a method and apparatus for extending the polymer film and on the film by the method and apparatus are obtained. 本发明还涉及关于使用在延伸之后接纳聚合物薄膜的移出系统的延伸聚合物薄膜的方法和设备。 The present invention also relates to a polymeric film extending on the use of the method and apparatus, after receiving a polymeric film extending out of the system.

发明背景 Background of the Invention

存在有关于延伸聚合物薄膜的许多原因。 There are many reasons for the presence of the polymer film extends. 该延伸能够提高或产生所需的机械 This can be improved or extended to produce the desired mechanical

的、光学的和其它薄膜性能。 , Optical, and other film properties. 例如,能够延伸薄膜以提供在光学性能方面的单轴向 For example, it is possible to provide a stretched film in the optical performance of uniaxially

或接近轴向取向的所需程度。 Or close to the desired degree of axial orientation. 通常,双折射的聚合物的完全单轴向取向产生其中在 Typically, a uniaxial birefringent polymer produced entirely in the orientation wherein

两个或三个正交方向中的折射指数相同(例如,薄膜的宽度(W)和厚度(T)方向,如 Two or three orthogonal directions in the same refractive index (e.g., a thin film of the width (W) and thickness (T) direction, e.g.

图4所示)的薄膜(或一薄膜的多层)。 Film shown in FIG. 4) (or a multi-layer film). 在第三方向的折射指数(例如,沿着薄膜的长 Refractive index in the third direction (e.g., along the length of the film

度(U方向)与其它两方向的折射指数不同。 Degree (U direction) and a refractive index different from the other two directions. 通常,不要求完全的单轴向取向和根据 Typically, not require full uniaxially oriented and based on

包括聚合物薄膜的最终使用者的应用的各种因素能够允许某种程度的偏离最佳状太 Application of a variety of factors including the polymeric film to allow the end user to some extent from the optimum shape too

在光学应用中,单轴向取向的薄膜能够提供有用的光学性能,例如跨越许多不同视角的较均匀的性能。 In optical applications, uniaxially oriented film can provide useful optical properties, such as relatively uniform properties across many different perspectives. 许多应用情况还能从聚合物薄膜的单轴向或接近单轴向取向得到好处。 Many applications can benefit from the orientation of the polymer film uniaxial or near uniaxial. 例如,沿着取向方向较容易使单轴向取向的薄膜原纤化 For example, along the alignment direction of the film is easier to make uniaxially oriented fibrillated

(fibrillated)或撕开。 (Fibrillated) or tear. 发明内容 SUMMARY

总体上,本发明涉及关于加工聚合物薄膜的方法和设备。 Generally, the present invention relates to a method and apparatus for machining the polymer film. 一实施例是用于延伸薄膜的设备。 One embodiment is a device for the stretched film. 该设备包括传送器和单独的移出系统。 The apparatus comprises a conveyor and separate out of the system. 传送器被构造和设置成在该设备内沿着机器方向传送薄膜。 The transmitter is configured and arranged to transmit the film along the machine direction within the apparatus. 传送器包括被构造和设置成夹持薄膜的相对边部分的夹持件。 Conveyor constructed and arranged to comprise sandwiching the film opposite side portions of the holding member. 传送器的一部分被构造和设置成提供夹持件沿着其运动以延伸薄膜的扩张路径。 A portion of the conveyor is configured and arranged to provide a gripping member along its path of movement to expand the stretched film. 在延伸薄膜之后单独的移出系统从传送器接受薄膜。 After the extension of the film out of the system from a single transmitter to accept the film. 移出系统包括相对的轨道和夹持件,夹持件被构造和设置成在所需数量的延伸之后夹持薄膜的相对的移出区和沿着相对的轨道传送薄膜的相对的移出区。 Out of the system includes opposing tracks and gripping member, the clamping member is constructed and arranged to extend after the desired amount of clamping the film out of the opposing area and transfer the film along the opposing tracks opposite out area. 相对的轨道形成其中相对的轨道 Relative orbital formation where the relative orbit

的至少一部分相互倾斜的一区域。 At least a portion of a region are inclined.

另一实施例是加工薄膜的方法。 Another embodiment is a method of processing the film. 该方法包括利用夹持件夹持薄膜的相对的边部分。 The method includes holding member holding the opposing edge portions of the film. 然后在延伸薄膜的延伸设备的延伸区内、沿着扩张路径和机器方向传送薄膜。 Then the stretched film extending region extending apparatus, conveying the film along the expansion path and machine directions. 然后在延伸之后通过使用移出系统的相对的夹持件夹持薄膜的相对的移出区,在单独的移出系统内接受薄膜。 Then, after extending out of the clamping region opposing film removal systems by using the opposite holding member, to accept the film in a separate removal systems. 在移出系统内,将薄膜传送通过其中相对的夹持件相互倾斜的移出系统的一部分。 In the out of the system, the part of the opposing holding members are inclined out of the system through the transfer film.

再一实施例是关于加工薄膜的设备。 A further embodiment is a device about the processing of the film. 该设备包括传送器和单独的移出系统。 The apparatus comprises a conveyor and separate out of the system. 传送器具有夹持薄膜的相对的边部分和在驱动件的作用下在设备内沿着机器方向 Conveyor having opposed side portions sandwiching the film and in the driving member in the device in the machine direction

传送薄膜的夹持件。 Conveying the film holding member. 传送器的一部分被构造和设置成提供夹持件沿着其运动以延伸薄膜的扩张路径。 A portion of the conveyor is configured and arranged to provide a gripping member along its path of movement to expand the stretched film. 在延伸薄膜之后单独的移出系统从传送器接受薄膜。 After the extension of the film out of the system from a single transmitter to accept the film. 移出系统包括一第一组相对的轨道、一第二组相对的轨道、许多第一夹持件和许多第二夹持件, 第一夹持件被构造和设置成在所需数量的延伸之后夹持薄膜的相对的第一移出区和沿着第一组相对的轨道传送薄膜,第二夹持件被构造和设置成夹持薄膜的相对的第二移出区和沿着第二组相对的轨道传送薄膜。 Out of the system includes a first set of opposing tracks, a second set of opposing tracks, a plurality of first clamping member and a plurality of second clamping member, the first holding member is constructed and arranged to extend after the desired number of a first region and relatively shifted along the first set of opposed rail transport membrane, the second clamping member is configured and arranged to clamp the film opposite the second region is removed along a second set of opposing and sandwiching the film rail transport membrane. 第二移出区设置在比第一移出区较靠近薄膜的中央。 Set in the middle of the second out of the area than the first out of the area closer to the film.

又一实施例是关于加工薄膜的设备。 Another embodiment is a device about the processing of the film. 该设备包括传送器和单独的移出系统。 The apparatus comprises a conveyor and separate out of the system. 传送器具有夹持薄膜的相对的边部分和在驱动件的作用下在设备内沿着机器方向传送薄膜的夹持件。 Conveyor having opposed side portions sandwiching the film and transport the film along a machine direction in the driving member in the device of the holding member. 传送器的一部分被构造和设置成提供夹持件沿着其运动以延伸薄膜的扩张路径。 A portion of the conveyor is configured and arranged to provide a gripping member along its path of movement to expand the stretched film. 在延伸薄膜之后单独的移出系统从传送器接受薄膜。 After the extension of the film out of the system from a single transmitter to accept the film. 移出系统具有相对的轨道和许多夹持件,夹持件被构造和设置成在所需数量的延伸之后夹持薄膜的相对的移出区和沿着相对的轨道传送薄膜的相对的移出区。 Out of the system has opposing tracks and a number of clamping members, the clamping member is constructed and arranged to extend after the desired number of sandwiching the film out of the opposing area and conveyed along the track of the film opposite the opposing out area. 将相对的轨道设置成相对于机器方向以至少1。 The opposing rails disposed relative to the machine direction of at least 1. 的角度倾斜。 Inclined at an angle.

又一实施例是关于加工薄膜的设备。 Another embodiment is a device about the processing of the film. 该设备包括传送器和单独的移出系统。 The apparatus comprises a conveyor and separate out of the system. 传送器具有夹持薄膜的相对的边部分和在驱动件的作用下在设备内沿着机器方向传送薄膜的夹持件。 Conveyor having opposed side portions sandwiching the film and transport the film along a machine direction in the driving member in the device of the holding member. 传送器的一部分被构造和设置成提供夹持件沿着其运动以延伸薄膜的扩张路径。 A portion of the conveyor is configured and arranged to provide a gripping member along its path of movement to expand the stretched film. 在延伸薄膜之后单独的移出系统从传送器接受薄膜。 After the extension of the film out of the system from a single transmitter to accept the film. 移出系统有相对的轨道和许多夹持件,夹持件被构造和设置成在所需数量的延伸之后夹持薄膜的相对的移出区和沿着相对的轨道传送薄膜的相对的移出区。 Out of the system has relatively many tracks and the clamping member, the clamping member is constructed and arranged to extend after the desired number of sandwiching the film out of the opposing area and conveyed along the track of the film opposite the opposing out area. 该设备被构造和设置成允许通过相对于传送器的位置改变单独的移出系统的位置选择薄膜的最终的横向牵拉比。 The device is constructed and arranged to allow the position relative to the conveyor system to change the position of the individual out of the final selection of the film transverse stretch ratio.

又一实施例是关于延伸薄膜的设备。 Another embodiment is a device about the extension of the film. 该设备包括传送器和单独的移出系统。 The apparatus comprises a conveyor and separate out of the system.

传送器被构造和设置成在设备内沿着机器方向传送薄膜。 The transmitter is configured and arranged to transmit the film along the machine direction within the apparatus. 传送器包括被构造和设置成夹持薄膜的相对的边部分的夹持件。 Conveyor constructed and arranged to comprise sandwiching the film holding member of the opposing side portions. 传送器的一部分被构造和设置成提供夹持件沿着其运动以延伸薄膜的扩张路径。 A portion of the conveyor is configured and arranged to provide a gripping member along its path of movement to expand the stretched film. 在延伸薄膜之后单独的移出系统从传送器接受薄膜。 After the extension of the film out of the system from a single transmitter to accept the film. 移出系统包括相对的轨道和夹持件,夹持件被构造和设置成在所需数量的延伸之后夹持薄膜的相对的移出区和沿着相对的轨道传送薄膜的相对的移出区。 Out of the system includes opposing tracks and gripping member, the clamping member is constructed and arranged to extend after the desired amount of clamping the film out of the opposing area and transfer the film along the opposing tracks opposite out area. 该相对的轨道形成其中相对的轨道的至少一部分相互倾斜的一区域。 At least a portion of a region of the mutually opposed inclined track is formed wherein the relative track.

又一实施例是关于加工薄膜的设备。 Another embodiment is a device about the processing of the film. 该设备包括传送器、延伸区域和后处理区域。 The apparatus comprises a conveyor, extending region and the second processing area. 传送器被构造和设置成沿着机器方向传送薄膜。 The transmitter is configured and arranged to transmit the film along the machine direction. 传送器具有被构造和设置成夹持薄膜的相对的边部分的夹持件。 Having a conveyor constructed and arranged to clamp the film holding member opposed side portions of the. 在延伸区域内,夹持件被构造和设置成沿着扩张路径运行以延伸薄膜。 In the extended area, the clamping member is constructed and arranged to run along the expansion path to a stretched film. 后处理区域设置在延伸区域之后和包括其中夹持件被构造和后置成沿着会聚路径运动的至少一区。 After post-processing locale extending region and including at least one area in which the clamping member is constructed and set into motion after along convergent paths.

又一实施例包括利用以上所述设备的任一设备加工薄膜的方法。 A further embodiment includes the use of the above described device according to any one method of a thin film processing equipment. 本发明的以上概述不是用于叙述本发明的各个所揭示的实施例或各装置。 The above summary of the present invention are not described for the respective embodiments or respective apparatus disclosed in the present invention. 以下的附图和详细叙述尤其举例说明了这些实施例。 The following drawings and detailed description particularly exemplify these embodiments.

附图简述 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

研究以下结合附图的本发明的许多实施例的详细叙述,可以更完整地理解本 DRAWINGS The present invention will be described below in detail study many embodiments, can be more complete understanding of the present

发明,在附图中- Invention, in the drawings -

图1是用于延伸薄膜的现有技术的拉幅器设备的示意俯视图; Figure 1 is a schematic of the prior art stretched film tenter apparatus plan view;

图2是在延伸加工之前和之后、在图1所示的现有技术加工过程中一部分薄 Figure 2 before and after the extension processing, the processing in the prior art process shown in Figure 1 a portion of a thin

膜的立体图; Figure stereoscopic film;

图3是按照本发明的一方面的、示出加工步骤的方块流程图; Figure 3 is showing a flowchart of processing steps in accordance with one aspect of the box of the present invention;

图4是在延伸加工之前或之后、在单轴向延伸加工中一部分薄膜的立体图; Figure 4 is before or after the drawing process, the uniaxial extension perspective view of a processing portion of the membrane;

图5是按照本发明的延伸加工过程的一实施例和延伸设备的一实施例的示意 5 is a schematic of an embodiment of the device according to the Examples and extension process of extending to an embodiment of the present invention

图; Figure;

图6是按照本发明的一部分延伸的示意俯视图; 图7是图6设备的端视图; Figure 6 is a schematic part of the present invention extends plan view; FIG. 7 is an end view of the apparatus of FIG 6;

图8是按照本发明的、示出延伸设备的预处理区域的一实施例的延伸设备的一部分轨道的示意图; Figure 8 is a schematic diagram in accordance with the present invention, illustrating the pre-treatment region of the device extending an embodiment of a portion of the track of the embodiment of the extending device;

图9是按照本发明的、关于延伸设备的主延伸区的可调轨道的一实施例的示 Figure 9 is a diagram in accordance with an embodiment, on a main extension region extending apparatus of the present invention is adjustable track a

意图; Intent;

图IO是按照本发明的、关于延伸设备的移出系统的一实施例的示意图; 图11是按照本发明的、关于延伸设备的移出系统的另一实施例的示意图; 图12是按照本发明的、关于延伸设备的移出系统的一第三实施例的示意图; 图13是按照本发明的、关于延伸设备的移出系统的一第四实施例的示意图; 图14是按照本发明的、关于延伸设备的移出系统的一第五实施例的示意图; 图15是按照本发明的、关于延伸设备的主延伸区域的轨道的另一实施例的示 Figure IO is a schematic view of an embodiment of the present invention, on the device extending out of a system; Fig. 11 is a schematic diagram according to an embodiment, the other on the extension device removal systems of the present invention; Figure 12 is in accordance with the present invention. , schematic view of the device out of the system with regard to the extension of a third embodiment; FIG. 13 is a schematic view of a fourth embodiment according to the present invention, on the extension of the device out of the system; Figure 14 is in accordance with the present invention, on the extension of the device The schematic diagram of a fifth embodiment of the system removed; FIG. 15 is a diagram according to another embodiment of the present invention, on the main track extending apparatus extending region

意图; Intent;

图16是按照本发明的、关于延伸设备的轨道和轨道形状控制单元的一实施例的示意侧剖视图; Figure 16 is a schematic side sectional view of an embodiment of the present invention, on the extension of the track and the track shape of the device control units;

图17是按照本发明的、例如用在如图l所示的传统延伸设备中的移出系统的一实施例的示意图; Figure 17 is a schematic of an embodiment according to the present invention, e.g., conventional equipment used in the extension shown in Figure l in the removal systems of one;

图18是按照本发明的、关于延伸设备的主延伸区的适合的边界轨道的例子的曲线图; Figure 18 is an example of suitable boundary trajectories according to the present invention, on the extension of the device main extension region of a graph;

图19是按照本发明的、示出了使用带有不同的抛物线外形的不同延伸区的、 19 is in accordance with the present invention, illustrating the use of different extents with different parabolic shape,

关于延伸设备的主延伸区的适合的边界轨道的例子的曲线图; Examples of suitable boundary trajectories on the apparatus main extension region extending in the graph;

图20是按照本发明的、包括是接近于适合的抛物线的或基本抛物线的边界轨 Figure 20 is in accordance with the present invention, including a close fit parabolic or substantially parabolic boundary rail

道的直线的边界轨道的、关于主延伸区的适合的边界轨道的例子的曲线图; Rail track boundary straight line, on examples of suitable boundary trajectories of main extension region of a graph;

图21是图16的一实施例的一部分轨道和轨道形状控制单元的示意图;以及图22是图16的一实施例的另一部分轨道和轨道形状控制单元的示意图。 Figure 21 is a schematic diagram of a portion of the track and track shape control unit of one embodiment of FIG. 16; and FIG. 22 is a schematic diagram of another part of the track and track shape control unit of the embodiment of FIG. 16 a. 虽然本发明适合于有许多修改和许多可替换选用的形状,但己在附图中的举 Although the present invention is adapted to numerous modifications and alternative choice of many shapes, but it has been held in the drawing

例方式示出了和将详细叙述许多特别有用的内容。 Examples will be shown by way of a detailed description and a number of particularly useful content. 但是,应该理解其意图并不是用 However, it should be understood that the intention is not to use

于将本发明局限于所述的特定的实施例。 In the particular embodiments of the present invention is limited to the. 相反,意图是复盖落在本发明的原理和范 On the contrary, the intention is to cover fall within the principles and scope of the present invention

围内的所有修改、等价物和可替换选用的内容。 All modifications, equivalents, and enclosed within the alternative choice of content.

具体实施方式 DETAILED DESCRIPTION

相信本发明可应用于关于延伸聚合物薄膜的方法和设备和利用该方法和设备制造的薄膜。 I believe the present invention can be applied to a method and apparatus on the extension of the polymer film and the method and apparatus using a thin film manufacturing. 此外,本发明旨在使用在延伸之后接纳聚合物薄膜的移出系统的关于延伸聚合物薄膜的方法和设备。 Further, the present invention is intended to be used after receiving the polymer film extending out of the system with regard to a method and apparatus to extend the polymer film. 使用这些方法和设备能够延伸聚合物薄膜,按需实现单轴向或接近单轴向取向。 Using these methods and apparatus capable of extending a polymer film, as needed to achieve uniaxial or near uniaxial orientation. 还能够使用这些方法和装置实现其它取向状态。 Also possible to use other methods and means to achieve the alignment state.

总体上本发明可应用于许多不同的聚合物薄膜、材料和加工过程。 The present invention is generally applicable to many different polymeric films, materials and processes. 相信本发明尤其适合于制造聚合物光学薄膜。 Believed that the present invention is particularly suitable for manufacturing an optical polymer film. 如果需要,能够使用这些方法和设备使光学薄 If desired, it is possible to use these methods and apparatus enable optical thin

膜和其它薄膜与用传统方法和设备制造的光学薄膜比较时具有从改进的光学性能、 Film and the other film with an optical film manufactured by the conventional method and apparatus, when compared to the improved optical properties,

改进的光学特性、增加的以受控方式或方向破裂或撕开的倾向、增加的尺寸稳定性、 较好的可加工性、较容易的制造能力和较低的成本中选择的一个或多个性能。 Improved optical properties, in a controlled manner to increase or rupture or tearing direction tends to increase the dimensional stability, good processability, relatively easy manufacturing and low cost in the ability to select one or more of performance.

按照本发明能够延伸或牵拉各种各样的光学薄膜。 According to the present invention is capable of extending or pulling various optical films. 该薄膜可以是单层或多层 The film may be a single layer or multi-layer

薄膜。 Film. 例如在美国专利5, 699, 188; 5, 825, 543; 5, 882, 574; 5, 965, 247和6, 096, 375 和PCT专利申请公开号W095/17330;W096/19347; W099/36812和W099/36248 (这些专利的各专利的整个内容结合在此供参考)中揭示了适合的许多薄膜。 For example, in U.S. Patent No. 5, 699, 188; 5, 825, 543; 5, 882, 574; 5, 965, 247 and 6, 096, 375 and PCT Patent Application Publication No. W095 / 17330; W096 / 19347; W099 / 36812 and W099 / 36248 (the entire contents of each of these patents are incorporated herein by patent reference) discloses a number of suitable film. 在此所述的设备和方法包括对在美国专利申请系列号10/156, 347和10/156, 348和美国临时专利申请系列号60/294, 490中所述设备和方法的改进、附加或变化,所有这些专利结合在此供参考。 Apparatus and method described herein includes at 10/156, 347 and 10/156, 348 improved apparatus and method described in U.S. Patent Application Serial No., and U.S. Provisional Patent Application Serial No. 60/294, 490, additional or changes, all of these patents is incorporated herein by reference.

按照本发明制造的薄膜可以用于的各种各样产品,例如包括偏振镜、反射偏振镜、二向色偏振镜、对齐的反射/二向色偏振镜、吸收偏振镜和延时器(包括Z 轴线延时器)。 Film of the invention according to a variety of manufactured products can be used, for example, include a polarizer, a reflective polarizer, the dichroic polarizer, the reflective alignment / dichroic polarizers, absorbing polarizer and delay (including Z axis of the delay). 该聚合物薄膜可以是整体的或多层的聚合物薄膜。 The polymeric film may be monolithic or multilayer polymeric film. 该聚合物薄膜还可以包括例如在美国专利号5,783,120; 5,825,543; 5,867,316; 6,057,961; 6, 111, 696和6, 179, 948和美国专利申请系列号09/871, 130和09/686, 460(所有这些专利都结合在此供参考)中所揭示的、形成例如扩散器或扩散反射偏振镜的光效应的多层不互溶的混合物。 The polymer film may further comprise, for example in U.S. Patent Nos. 5,783,120; 5,825,543; 5,867,316; 6,057,961; 6, 111, 696 and 6, 179, 948 and U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 09/871, 130 and 09/686, 460 (all These patents are incorporated herein by reference) disclosed in, for example, the formation of a mixture of a diffuser or diffusion reflective polarizer is a multilayer optical effect immiscible. 这些聚合物薄膜可以包括在牵拉之前或之后提供的包复的或附加的层。 The polymeric film may comprise or additional cladding layers provided before or after the stretch. 在美国专利号6, 368, 699中叙述了某些适合的复层和层的例子,该专利结合在此供参考。 6, 368, 699 are described some examples of suitable multi-layer and the layer in U.S. Patent No., which is incorporated herein by reference. 在某些实施例中,该聚合物薄膜包括附加的偏振部分,例如金属可压制的定向染料、金属丝格偏振部分等。 In certain embodiments, the polymer film comprises an additional polarizing portion, such as a metal can suppress directional dyes, metal Sige polarized part of the like. 有用结构的一个例子是带有形成在薄膜上、即在延伸薄膜之前或之后包复在薄膜上的一层聚乙烯醇(PVA)的薄膜。 One example of useful structure is formed on the film with, i.e., onto the film layer of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film stretched film before or after the bag. 例如通过碘着色、酸脱水或染料埋入方法可以后加工PVA,用以形成双色偏振层。 For example colored by iodine, or an acid dye embedding method can be dehydrated after processing PVA, for forming color polarizing layer. Base

体自身可以是整体的薄膜或带或不带有光学反射功能的多层结构。 Body itself may be integral with or a film or a multilayer structure without the optical reflection function. 可以在美国专利号6, 113,811中找到适合用在这结构中的PVA薄膜的例子,该专利结合在此供参考。 Examples can be found suitable for use in this structure of the PVA film in U.S. Patent No. 6, 113,811, which patent is incorporated herein by reference.

本发明的特定薄膜的一个应用是例如在用于前和后投影系统的偏振分光镜的装置中的一组成部分或者用于显示器(例如液晶显示器)或微显示器中的提高亮度的薄膜。 A particular application of the present invention is a thin film in the apparatus for a polarizing beam splitter for example the front and rear of the projection system or for a part of a display (e.g., a liquid crystal display) or a micro display of higher brightness film. 还应该注意到以下按照本发明所述的延伸设备可以与长度定向器一起使用,用于制造镜子。 It should also be noted that the following apparatus according to the present invention extends the length may be used with directional control, for the manufacture of the mirror.

通常,该加工过程包括对参照对应于机器方向(MD)、横向(TD)和垂直方向(ND) 的三个相互正交轴线叙述的薄膜进行延伸。 Typically, the process comprises the reference corresponding to the machine direction (MD), the three transverse (TD) and in the vertical direction (ND) of the mutually orthogonal axes extending described film. 这些轴线对应于薄膜的宽度、长度和厚度,如图4所示。 These axes correspond to width, length and thickness of the film, as shown in Fig. 延伸加工将薄膜的区域20从初始外形24延伸至最终外形26。 The film's extended processing region 20 extends from the initial shape of 24 to 26 final appearance.

机器的方向是薄膜沿着其通过延伸设备。 A thin film along the direction of the machine which extends through the device. 例如图5所示设备的总体方向。 For example, the overall orientation of the device shown in Figure 5. 横向是在 Lateral in

薄膜的平面内与机器方向正交的第二轴线。 Within the plane of the film with the machine direction perpendicular to the second axis. 垂直方向与MD和TD两方向正交和通常对应于聚合物薄膜的厚度尺寸。 The vertical direction and two directions orthogonal to the MD and TD and corresponds generally to the thickness of the polymer film.

图3是按照本发明的加工过程的方块流程图。 Figure 3 is a block process flow diagram in accordance with the present invention. 在步骤30中,将薄膜供应或提 In step 30, the film supply or extract

供给用于延伸薄膜的设备。 Supply of equipment for the extension of the film. 该加工过程可选择地包括预处理步骤32。 The process optionally includes pre-treatment step 32. 在步骤34中延伸薄膜。 In step 34 the stretched film. 可选择地在步骤36中后处理薄膜。 Alternatively, in step 36 the processed film. 在步骤38中从延伸设备移出薄膜。 The film is removed from the device in step 38 extends. 图5示出了本发明的延伸设备和方法的一实施例。 Figure 5 shows the extension apparatus and method of the present invention to an embodiment. 会认识到使用与延伸设备(它是在图3的最小的执行步骤34中)分开的一个或多个附加设备可以实现图3所示的加工过程。 Will recognize that the use of the extension device (it is the smallest step 34 in FIG. 3) separate from one or more additional devices may be implemented process shown in Figure 3. 这些一个或多个附加设备执行在图3中所示的和在图5中所示的, 如由延伸设备所执行的一个或多个非延伸功能(例如由步骤30, 32, 36和38所代表的功能)。 These one or more additional devices perform in FIG., Such as one performed by the extending device or a plurality of non extensions shown in Figure 5 and shown in Figure 3 (e.g., from step 30, 32, 36 and 38 representative function).

在图5的所示实施例中,该设备包括其中将薄膜40引入延伸设备的区域30。 Shown in Figure 5 in an embodiment, the apparatus comprises a region 30 in which the film 40 is introduced to extend the device. 可以通过任一所需方法提供薄膜。 Can provide a film by any means necessary. 例如,能够将薄膜形成为一巻或其它形式,然后提供给延伸设备。 For example, the film can be formed as a Volume or other form and then provided to the extension device. 作为另一个例子,能够将延伸设备构成为从挤压机(例如,如果通过挤压产生薄膜和挤压之后准备用于延伸)或包复机(例如,如果通过包复产生薄膜或在接受一层或多层包复层之后准备用于延伸)或叠层机(例如,如果通过叠层产生薄膜或在接纳一层或多层叠层之后准备用于延伸)接受薄膜。 As another example, the device can be configured to extend from the extruder (e.g., if you produce a thin film after extrusion through the extrusion and ready for extension) or cladding machine (e.g., re-generated if the film or by receiving a packet ready for extension) or a laminator (e.g., if the film is produced by laminating or after receiving one or more layers stacked ready for extension) after accepting thin film layer or a multilayer clad.

通常,在区域30内将薄膜40传送给一个或多个夹持件,该夹持件被构造和布置成夹持薄膜的相对边和沿着形成预定路径的相对轨道64传送薄膜。 Typically, in the region 30 the film 40 is transmitted to one or more clamping members, the clamping member is constructed and arranged to clamp the opposite edges of the film 64 and conveyed along a predetermined path relative to the track formed film. 夹持件70(见图7)通常在薄膜的边缘处或边缘附近夹持薄膜。 Holding member 70 (see FIG. 7) is usually at or near the edge of the film edges of the film holder. 由夹持件所夹持的薄膜的部分在延伸之后不适于使用,所以通常选择夹持件的位置,以在薄膜上提供充分的夹持以允许延伸,同时控制由该加工过程所产生的废料的数量。 Portion sandwiched by the holding member is not suitable for use in a film after extension, the position of the clamping member is usually selected so as to provide adequate clamping on the film to permit the extension, while controlling the process by the waste generated number.

适合的夹持件的一个例子包括在相对表面之间顺序夹持薄膜和然后围绕一轨道运行的一系列夹子。 An example of a suitable clamping member comprises a thin film sandwiched between the opposite surfaces of the sequence and then around a series of orbiting clip. 夹持件可以沿着轨道置于一沟槽或通道内和在其中运行。 The clamping member may be placed within a trench along the rail or channel and run therein. 另一例子是在相对的皮带或支撑面之间夹持薄膜的皮带系统,或一系列皮带或支撑面,以及沿着轨道引导薄膜。 Another example is between the opposing belt or the supporting face holding film belt system, or a series of belts or support surface, and directing the film along the track. 如果需要,皮带和支撑面能够提供柔性的和连续的、 或半连续的、薄膜传送机构。 If desired, the belt and the support surface to provide a flexible and continuous, or semi-continuous, film conveyance mechanism. 例如在美国专利号5, 517, 737或在欧洲专利申请公开号(这些专利的每一专利的整个内容结合在此供参考)中叙述了许多相对的、多皮带方法。 For example, in U.S. Patent No. 5, 517, 737 or in European Patent Application Publication No. (the entire contents of each of these patents are incorporated herein by patent reference) describe a number of opposing, multiple belt methods. 可选择地调节皮带的张力,以得到所需的夹持程度。 Selectively adjusting the belt tension, in order to obtain the desired degree of clamping.

可以用任何材料制造皮带或夹子。 Any material may be a belt or a clip. 例如,皮带可以是复合结构。 For example, the belt may be a composite structure. 适合的皮带的一个例子包括例如钢的金属制造的内层,用于支持较高的张力,以及弹性体的外也能使用其它皮带。 An example of a suitable belt includes an inner layer made of metal such as steel, to support high tension outside, and an elastic body can use other belts. 在某些实施例中,皮带包括不连续的支撑表面,用于提供良好的夹持。 In certain embodiments, the belt includes discontinuous support surface for providing a good grip.

已知和可以使用夹持和传送薄膜通过延伸器的其它方法。 Known and can be used to hold and transport membrane by other methods Extender. 在某些实施例中, 夹持设备的不同部分可以使用不同类型的夹持件。 In certain embodiments, different portions of the clamping device can use different types of clamping members.

例如通过多根辊62沿着轨道可以引导例如夹子的夹持件,该辊子沿着轨道转动链条,同时夹持件连接于链条。 For example, by a plurality of rollers 62 can be guided along the track of the clamping member such as a clip, rotation of the roller chain along the track, while the clamping member is connected to the chain. 该辊子连接于传动机构,该机构在将薄膜传送通过延伸设备时控制薄膜的速度和方向。 The roller is connected to the transmission mechanism that transmits through the film when the film extends device control speed and direction. 还能够利用辊子转动皮带式夹持件和控制皮带式夹持件的速度。 Also able to use the roller to rotate the belt-type clamping member and controls the speed of the belt-type clamping member. 皮带和辊子可选择地包括互锁齿,用于减少或防止在皮带和辊子之间的滑动。 The belt and the roller may optionally include interlocking teeth to reduce or prevent slippage between the belt and rollers.

图6和7示出了夹持件和轨道的一实施例。 Figures 6 and 7 shows the clamping member and the track of an embodiment. 这实施例和夹持件70是一系列拉幅器夹子。 This embodiment and the holding member 70 is a series of tenter clips. 这些夹子能够提供通过分段的总体柔性。 These clips can be provided through the segment overall flexibility. 通常紧密地组合这些分离的夹子和将这些夹子连接于例如链条的柔性结构。 Typically closely separated clips and a combination of these clip connecting these structures, for example, a flexible chain. 该柔性结构沿着轨道64的通道或通道内运行。 The flexible structure runs along the inner rail 64 of the channel or channels. 关键地放置的凸轮和凸轮表面在所需的位置打开和关闭拉幅器夹子。 Cam and cam surface placed in the key opening and closing tenter clips in the desired position. 夹子和链条组件可选择地在轮子或轴承或类似构件上运行。 Clip and chain assembly optionally run on wheels or bearings or the like member. 作为一个例子,夹持件是安装在两对内和外导轨之间滚动的上和下轴承上的拉幅夹子。 As an example, a tenter clip holding member is installed on the upper and lower bearing between the two inner and outer rail rolling. 这些导轨至少部分地形成了轨道。 These rails at least partially formed track.

夹持件的边缘形成了关于将被延伸的薄膜部分的边界边缘。 Edge holding member is formed on the film marginal edge portion to be extending. 夹持件沿着轨道的运动提供了边界轨迹,该边界轨迹至少部分地引起了薄膜的运动和牵拉。 Clamping member is provided along the motion trajectory of the track boundaries, which is at least partly caused by the boundary track the movement of the film and pulling. 其它作用(例如下游网(clownweb)张力和巻取装置)可以导致该运动和牵拉的其它部分。 Other effects (eg downstream network (clownweb) Volume tension and taking device) can lead to other parts of the movement and pulling. 通常从夹持件沿其运行的轨道或导轨较易于识别边界轨迹。 Usually easier to identify the boundaries of the track along the rail or rails which run from the clamping member. 例如,能够将例如拉幅器夹子的夹持件的中心的有效边对齐跟踪与轨道或导规的表面相同的路径。 For example, it is possible for example, effective edge alignment with the track or the guide track gauge surface tenter clip holding member of the center of the same path. 从而这表面与边界轨道一致。 This is consistent with the boundary surface and thus track. 实际上,夹持件的有效边被从夹持件下的薄膜的稍许滑移或流出弄得有些不清楚,但是可以使这些偏差较小。 In fact, the effective edge of the clamping member is made somewhat unclear from slight film slippage or out under the holding member, but these deviations can be smaller.

此外,对于例如拉幅器夹子的夹持件,边表面的长度能够影响实际边界轨迹。 In addition, for example, tenter clip holding member, the length of the side surface can influence the actual boundary trajectory. 较小夹子通常将提供对边界轨迹的较好接近和较小的延伸波动。 Smaller clips will generally provide better access and smaller fluctuations on the boundary extension trajectory. 至少在某些实施例中,夹子表面边的长度不超过在相对的边界轨迹功轨道之间的总初始距离的一半, 以及能够不超过其四分之--。 In at least some embodiments, the length of the clip is not more than half of the surface side opposite to the boundary between the track rail of the total initial distance function, and can be no more than a quarter of its -.

可选择地将两个相对轨道设置在两个分开的或可分开的平台上,或按其它方法被构造成允许在相对轨道之间的距离可以进行调节。 Alternatively the two opposing tracks disposed on two separate or separable platforms or by other means is configured to allow the relative distance between the tracks can be adjusted. 如果用该设备延伸不同尺寸的薄膜,或者如果希望改变主延伸区内的延伸结构,如以下所讨论的,这能够是特别有用的。 If the device stretched film of different sizes, or if you want to change the structure of the main extension region extends, as discussed below, which can be particularly useful. 能够手工地、机械地(例如,采用计算机或其它装置控制能够改变在轨道之间的分开距离和驱动器)或两者执行在相对轨道之间的分离或变化。 Can be manually, mechanically (e.g., by computer or other control device capable of changing the distance between the separate tracks and drive), or both, or variations in the implementation of the separation between the opposing tracks.

由于薄膜被安装在相对的轨道上的两套相对的夹持件夹持着,因此有两个相对的边界轨迹。 Since the film is mounted on the opposite track two opposing clamping members sandwiched, so there are two opposing boundary trajectories. 至少在某些实施例中,这些轨迹是相对于牵拉薄膜的MD中心线是镜像对称的。 In at least some embodiments, these trajectories are drawn with respect to the center line of the film MD is mirror symmetrical. 在其它实施例中,相对的轨迹不镜像对称。 In other embodiments, the opposing tracks are not mirror images. 这不镜像对称的安排能够用于提供在跨越薄膜的一个或多个光学或物理性能方面的变化(例如,主轴线的斜率或转动)。 This mirror symmetry of the arrangement can not be used to provide variations in the film across one or more optical or physical properties (e.g., the slope of the major axis or rotation).

返回到图5,该设备可选择地包括预处理区32,该区通常被用于对准备延伸的薄膜加热的炉子54或其它布置或结构包围。 Returning to Figure 5, the apparatus optionally includes a preconditioning region 32, the area is often used for preparing the film extending heating furnace 54 or other arrangement or structure surrounded. 该预处理区可以包括预热区42、均热处理区44或两者。 The pretreatment zone may comprise a preheat zone 42, a soaking treatment zone 44, or both. 至少在某些实施例中,那里可以产生少量的薄膜延伸,以便建立在夹持件和薄膜之间的接触,如图8的边界轨迹所示。 In at least some embodiments, there can be generated a small amount of film extends, in order to establish contact between the holding member and the film, as shown in Figure 8, the boundary trajectory. 至少在某些情况下,那里实际上可以设有任何延伸,但是在相对轨迹之间的分开距离的增加至少部分地是由于当薄膜加热时薄膜的热膨胀的原因。 At least in some cases, there may be provided with virtually any extension, but the increase in the relative separation distance between the tracks at least partly due to the film when the film is heated thermal expansion reasons.

图8示出了供应区30',随后是预处理区32'和主延伸区34'。 Figure 8 shows a supply region 30 ', followed by a pre-treatment zone 32' and the main extension region 34 '. 在预处理区32' 内(或可选地在供应区30'内)提供夹持件设置区31',在该设置区内轨道稍许分开, 用于将夹持件(例如,拉幅器夹子)设置在薄膜上。 In the pre-treatment zone 32 'of (or alternatively in the supply region 30' within) provide gripping member housing portion 31 ', slightly set apart in the track region, for the clamping member (e.g., tenter clips ) is provided on the film. 在这区内可选择地对薄膜加热。 In this region selectively heating the film. 这初始TD延伸通常不超过最终TD延伸的5/。 This usually does not exceed the initial TD extend final TD extending 5 /. , 一般不小于最终TD延伸的2%和经常不小于最终TD延伸的1%。 , Generally not less than 2% of the final TD elongation and often not less than 1% of the final TD elongation. 在某些实施例中,在产生这初始延伸的该区域之后是区域33',在区域33'内轨道基本上平行和薄膜被加热和维持在升高的温度下。 In certain embodiments, after the generation of this extension of the initial region is a region 33 ', in the area 33' is substantially parallel to the inner rail and the thin film is heated and maintained at an elevated temperature.

返回到图5,薄膜在主延伸区34被延伸。 Returning to Figure 5, a film in the main stretching zone 34 is extended. 通常,在主延伸区34内,将薄膜加热和保持在薄膜的聚合物的玻璃化转变之上的加热环境中。 Typically, in the main extension region 34, the film is heated and kept above the glass transition of the polymer film was heated environment. 对于聚酯,该温度范围通常在8(TC和16(TC之间。适当的加热元件的例子包括对流的和辐射的加热元件, 不过也能够使用其它加热元件。在某些实施例中,可以单独地或成组地控制用于加热薄膜的加热元件,以提供可变的热量。由包括在加热元件的温度和从加热元件引导至薄膜的空气的方向或速度方面可变性的许多过程能够保持这控制。如果需要, 还能对薄膜的可变加热区使用加热元件的控制,用于改进或者变化越过薄膜的延伸的均匀性。例如,能够对均匀加热下不像其它区域那样多地被延伸的薄膜的区域进行较多的加热,以允许其较容易地延伸。 For polyesters, the temperature range is generally Examples of suitable heating elements include convective and radiant heating elements in the 8 (TC and 16 (between TC, however, also possible to use other heating elements. In some embodiments, can individually or in groups to control the heating element for heating the film, to provide a variable heat by a number of processes included in the temperature of the heating element and the guide air from the heating element to the film in the direction or speed variability can be maintained This control, if necessary, but also on the use of the variable control of the heating zone film heating element, or a change to improve the uniformity of extending across the film. For example, it is possible to uniformly heat as much under Unlike other areas, is extended large area films were heated to allow it to more easily extend.

在主延伸区34内,夹持件跟随大体上扩张的轨道,按所需的数量延伸聚合物薄膜。 In the main extension region 34, expansion of the clamping member generally follow the track, extending in the desired number of polymer film. 采用各种结构和材料可以形成设备的主延伸区和其它区内的轨道。 Using a variety of structures and materials may form the main rail extensions and other facilities in the area. 在主延伸区的外部,轨道通常基本上是直线状的。 Extending outside the main area, the track is usually substantially linear. 相对的直线状轨道可以是平行的或者可以被设置成汇聚或扩张。 Opposing linear tracks can be parallel or may be arranged to converge or expand. 在主延伸区内,轨道大体上是扩张的和大体上是曲线状的, In the main extension area, the track is substantially expanding and generally curved,

如以下所讨论的。 As discussed below.

在延伸设备的所有区域中,可以用可选择地连接在一起的一系列直线或曲线段形成轨道。 In the area extending all devices can be a series of straight or curved line segments connected together alternatively formed track. 可以用允许两个或多个(或甚至全部)单个区域分开(例如,为了维护或构造)的诸段构成该轨道。 Can be used to allow two or more (or even all) of the individual regions separately (for example, for maintenance or construction) of the various segments of the track. 作为一可替换选用的或在特定的诸区域或成组的区域内,可以将轨道形成为单个连续的结构。 As an optional alternative or in a particular region or area into various groups, the track may be formed as a single continuous structure. 轨道可以包括跨越延伸设备的一个或多个相邻区的一连续结构。 Track may comprise a continuous structure extending across one or more neighboring device regions. 轨道可以是连续的结果和单段的任何组合。 Track may be the result of any combination of continuous and single segments.

至少在某些实施例中,主延伸区内的轨道连接于前方区域的轨道,但可从其 In at least some embodiments, the track extending in the region of the main front region is connected to the track, but may be from

分开。 Separately. 在随后的后处理或移出区内的轨道140, 141通常与主延伸区的轨道分开, 例如图5中所示。 140, 141 extending generally main track area separated in a subsequent post-processing track or out of the region, such as shown in Figure 5.

虽然在主延伸区的轨道是曲线形的,但是至少在某些实施例中能够使用直线状轨道段。 Although the main extension in the track area is curved, but at least in some embodiments, linear track segments can be used. 将这些段相互对齐(例如,通过围绕轴线枢转各直线段),以产生接近所需的曲线状轨道外形的直线状。 These segments are aligned with each other (e.g., by pivoting about the axis of each straight segment), to produce a linear close to the desired shape of the curved track. 通常,直线段越短,可以使曲线状接近程度越好。 Typically, the shorter the line segment, a curved shape can make better the approximation degree. 在某些实施例中, 一个或多个、以及较佳的全部直线段是可调的(围绕轴线可枢转), 以致如果需要能够调节轨道的形状。 In certain embodiments, one or more, and preferably all the straight segment is (pivotable about an axis), so that if the track needs to be able to adjust the shape of adjustable. 可以手工进行该调节或者可以机械地进行该调节,较佳地是在连接于驱动器的计算机或其它装置的控制之下进行。 This adjustment can be performed manually or may be the adjusted mechanically, preferably under the control of the computer is connected to a drive or other device will be. 会理解到,可以利用曲线段代替或附加于直线段。 It will be understood that the curve segment can be used instead of or in addition to a straight segment.

还可以利用通过各段的连续轨道。 You can also make use of the various segments through continuous track. 尤其,能够使用通过主延伸区的一连续的、 曲线状轨道。 In particular, it is possible through the use of a continuous, curved track main extension area. 连续的曲线状轨道通常包括形成夹持件沿着其运行的轨道的至少一连续导轨。 Continuous curved track typically includes a holding member is formed to run along its track at least one continuous rail. 这一实施例中,曲线状轨道包括带有拉幅器夹子的两对内和外导轨,该夹子安装在四个导轨之间滚动的顶部和底部轴承上。 This embodiment, the curved track comprises two inner and outer rails with tenter clip, the clip is mounted on the rolling between the four rails of the top and bottom bearings.

在某些实施例中,连续轨道是可调的,制造可调的连续轨道的一方法包括使用一个或多个轨道形状控制单元。 In certain embodiments, the continuous track is adjustable, a method of manufacturing an adjustable continuous track includes the use of one or more track shape control units. 将这些轨道形状控制单元连接于例如连续导轨的连续轨道的一部分,以及将该控制单元构造成按需对轨道施加一力,以弯曲该轨道。 These tracks form part of the control unit is connected, for example, a continuous running track rail, and the control unit is configured to exert a force needed to track to the curved track. 图9示意地示出了带有连接于轨道64的轨道形状控制单元65的这一结构的一实施例。 Figure 9 schematically shows an embodiment having this structure is connected to the track shape control unit 65 of the track 64. 通常,轨道形状控制单元具有它能够施加的力的范围,不过可以将某些实施例限制于是开或关的控制单元。 Typically, the track shape control unit has a range of force that can be applied, although some embodiments may be limited so the control unit on or off. 轨道形状控制单元通常能够朝薄膜的中心施加力或者以离开薄膜中心的方向施加力、或者较佳地是上述两情况。 Track shape control units are usually capable of applying a force toward the center of the film or the film in a direction away from the center of application of force, or preferably the above-mentioned two cases. 可以将轨道形状控制单元连接于可调的连续轨道上的特定位置处,或者可以将轨道形状控制单元构造成使轨道能够沿着控制单元侧向滑动、同时仍旧保持在轨道和控制单元之间的连接。 The track shape control units can be connected to a particular location on the adjustable continuous track, or the track shape control unit may be configured such that the rails can slide laterally along the control unit, while still held between the track and the control unit connection. 这结构能够便于具有运动的较大范围,这是因为它允许在驱动控制单元时更加自由地调节轨道。 This structure can facilitate a larger range of motion with, because it allows the drive control unit when more freely adjust the track. 通常,轨道形状控制单元允许轨道运动通过一系列形状,例如图9的形 Typically, the track shape control unit allows the orbital movement through a series of shapes, e.g., FIG. 9 shape

状67和69。 Like 67 and 69. 通常,轨道形状控制单元和轨道能够沿着一运动直线(或其它几何形状)运动。 Typically, the track and track shape control unit capable of movement along a straight line (or other geometric shape) movement. 当使用一个以上的轨道形状控制单元时,轨道形状控制单元可以具有相同的或类似的运动直线和运动范围,或者对于各轨道形状控制单元的运动直线和范围可以是不同的。 When using more than one track shape control unit, the track shape control unit may have the same or similar linear motion and range of motion, or linear motion and range for each track shape control units can be different.

图16示出了适当的轨道形状控制单元和轨道的一例子。 Figure 16 shows an example of a suitable track shape control unit and the track. 在这实施例中的轨道包括有拉幅器夹子(未出出)的四根导轨400,该夹子安装在四根导轨之间滚动的轴承上。 In this embodiment, the track includes tenter clips (not out of) the four rail 400, the clip is mounted on rolling bearings between the four rails. 轨道形状控制单元包括连接于驱动器(未示出)、顶和底内接触件404、以及顶和底外接触件406的基座402。 Track shape control unit comprises the drive (not shown), the top and bottom inner contact members 404, and top and bottom outer contact member 406 of the base 402. 内和外接触件404、 406连接于基座402,以致运 Inner and outer contact member 404, 406 coupled to the base 402, so that transport

动该基座允许该接触件分别对导轨的内和外表面施加力。 The base allows the movable contact member, respectively, exert a force on the inner and outer surfaces of the guide rail. 较佳地,内和外接触件具有一形状,当从上方或下方观察时,该形状仅仅提供在内接触件406和导轨400 之间的较小的接触表面,如图21所示(仅示出了导轨400和内接触件406)。 Preferably, the inner and outer contact member having a shape, when viewed from above or below, this shape is only to provide a small contact surface 406 and the guide rail 400 between the inner contact member, shown in Figure 21 (only out of the rails 400 and 406 within the contact). 这形状的例子包括圆形和卵形以及钻石形、六角形或其中在内接触件406和导轨之间的接触发生在这些形状的顶部的其它类似形状。 Examples include a circle and an oval shape as well as diamond-shaped, hexagonal or other similar shape of the contact wherein the inner contact member 406 and the guide rail takes place in the shape of the top of these. 可以类似地形成外接触件404,以便当从上方或下方观察时,外接触件的部分成为与导轨400接触的一点,如图22所示(仅示出了导轨400和与导轨接触的外接触件404的部分)。 The outer contact member 404 can be formed similarly, so that when viewed from above or below, becoming part of the outer contact member 400 and the outer contact rail and the guide rail 400 in contact with the rail contact point, shown in Figure 22 (shown only a member portion 404). 如果需要,利用这形状允许轨道形状控制单元施加力,以修改轨道形状,同时允许轨道通过控制单元、 而不是固定于控制单元侧向滑动。 If desired, the use of this shape allows the track shape control unit applies a force, to modify the track shape while allowing the track by a control unit, rather than a fixed lateral sliding of the control unit. 这结构还可以允许轨道调节在控制单元内的它的瞬时倾斜。 This structure can also allow the track to adjust its instantaneous tilt in the control unit. 由于这些原因的一个或两个原因,轨道可以具有较大的形状调节范围。 Since one or both of these reasons reasons, the track may have a larger range of shape adjustment. 在另一些实施例中,可以有较少或较多的接触件或者可以仅有内接触件或仅有外接触件。 In other embodiments, there may be fewer or more contact or contacts may be only inner or only outer contact member.

返回到图9,在某些实施例中,轨道的一个或多个点73是固定的。 Returning to Figure 9, in some embodiments, one or more points 73 tracks is fixed. 固定点可以位于沿着轨道的任何位置,包括在起始点或其附近(如图9所示)或在主延伸区的端部。 Fixed point may be located anywhere along the track, including the start point at or near (Figure 9) or in the main area of the end portion of the extension. 固定点73还可以位于沿着轨道的其它点处,如图15所示。 The fixed point 73 may also be located at other points along the track, as shown in Figure 15.

如图15进一步所示,可以将轨道构造成提供在主延伸区的区域81、 83、 85, 这些区域具有不同的延伸特性,或者可以用不同的数字方式描述它们。 As further shown in FIG. 15, the track may be configured to provide a region 81 in the main extension zone, 83, 85, these regions have different elongation characteristics, or they can be described in different digitally. 在某些实施例中,轨道具有形成这些不同区域的形状。 In certain embodiments, the track has a shape such different regions. 在另一些实施例中,利用例如以上所讨论的形状。 In other embodiments, using, for example the shape discussed above. 在另一些实施例中,利用例如以上所讨论的轨道形状控制单元可以调节轨道,以提供超过单功能布置的多种形状87、 89。 In other embodiments, using, for example the track shape control units can be adjusted as discussed above the track, in order to provide more than a single functional arrangement of a variety of shapes 87, 89. 因这为允许主延伸区的不同部分完成所需的功能,所以这可以是有利的。 This is done because the required functionality to allow different portions of the main extension area, so this may be advantageous. 例如,初始延伸区可以具有一特定形状(例如带有U〉1和F〉1的超单轴向形状,如以下所述),随后是带有不同形状(例如, 单轴向形状)的-一个或多个后方区域。 For example, an initial stretching zone may have a particular shape (e.g., with U> 1 and F> ultra uniaxially shape, as described below), followed with different shapes (e.g., uniaxial shape) - one or more of the rear region. 可选择地,可以提供从一形状至另一形状过 Alternatively, the shape may be provided from one shape to another through

渡的中间区域。 Crossing the middle of the area. 在某些实施例中,各区域可以分开或者由轨道的固定点73限定。 In certain embodiments, the regions may be separated by a fixed point or track 73 is defined.

在某些实施例中,轨道具有沿着轨道长度的不均匀的横剖面形状,便于轨道的弯曲和成形。 In certain embodiments, the track having a track along the length of the non-uniform cross-sectional shape, to facilitate bending and shaping rail. 例如,用在轨道中的一个或多个导轨可以具有不同的横剖面形状。 For example, in the track of one or more guide rails may have different cross-sectional shapes. 作为一个例子,在上述的四根导轨结构中,各根导轨、或轨道的一子组件、具有沿着轨道的变化的横剖面。 As an example, in the above-described four rail structure, each of the rails, or a sub-assembly track, the track having a cross-sectional variation along. 例如,通过改变轨道(或轨道的一组成部分,例如一根或多根连续导轨)的高度或厚度或者两者,能够改变横剖面。 For example, by changing the track (or a part of the track, for example, one or more continuous rails) height or thickness or both, capable of changing cross-section. 作为一个例子,在一实施例中轨道或在轨道中的一个或多个导轨的厚度在机器方向沿着轨道的长度减小或增加。 As an example, in one embodiment, the thickness or tracks in the track of one or more guide rails of decreasing or increasing along the length of the track in the machine direction. 可以利用这些变化支持一特定的轨道形状或轨道形状可调性方面的变化。 These changes can be used to support a particular track shape changes or track shape adjustability aspect. 例如,如以上所述轨道可以具有若干不同的区域,各区域具有不同的轨道形状。 For example, as described above the track may have several different regions, each region having a different track shape. 在各区域内可以改变轨道或轨道组成部分的横剖面的变化,以实现或便于一特定的导轨形状和在区域之间可以变化。 In each region can change the track or tracks changes in cross-section components to achieve or facilitate a particular rail shape and may vary between regions. 作为一个例子,带有较厚横剖面形状的一区域可以设置在两个另外的区域之间,以隔离或提供两区域之间的过渡间距。 As an example, an area with thicker cross-sectional shape may be provided between the two other regions, in order to isolate or provide a transition between the spacing of two regions.

作为轨道或导轨横剖面中变化的一个例子,能够利用弧长s代表在轨道或轨 As an example, or the rail tracks changes in cross section, and can take advantage of the arc length s representative on the track or rail

道的部分、例如导轨的厚度外形的设计中沿着轨道的一位置。 Section channel, e.g., the thickness of the rail shape of the design in a position along the rail. 将牵拉开始处的弧长 At the beginning of the arc stretch

S确定为零。 S set at zero. 在牵拉的另一端确定为L,同时在牵拉的开始和终端处的相应厚度分别确定为h(0)和h(L)。 Pulling the other end is determined to be L, the appropriate thickness at the beginning and end, respectively, while the stretch is determined as h (0) and h (L). 在这特定实施例中轨道或轨道组成部分(例为导轨)在从L' 至L〃、在S《和S二L之间梁的一部分上具有斜度,以致在位置L'处的厚度h(L') 大于在位置L"处的厚度h(L")。 In this particular embodiment, the part of the track or tracks (for example rail) from L 'to L〃, having a slope between S "and S L on the part of two beams, so that at the position L' at a thickness h (L ') is greater than at the location L "at the thickness h (L"). 以这方式,L'或L"可以处于较大的弧长座标上(即L' 〉L〃或L' 〈L")。 In this manner, L 'or L "may be on a larger arc length coordinates (i.e., L'> L〃 or L '<L"). 有用的厚度外形的一个例子由关于厚度h(S)的函数、如由下列方程式提供的从L'至L〃的导轨上弧长的函数得出一斜度: h (S) = (h (L') -h (L")) (1- (S—L') / (L"-L')) a+ h (L") A useful example of a function of the thickness profile by a thickness h (S), as provided by the following equation derived from a slope L 'to the arc length of the guide rail on L〃 function: h (S) = (h ( L ') -h (L ")) (1- (S-L') / (L" -L ')) a + h (L ")

式中a是从L'至L"产生减小的厚度的斜度的正比例值。当L'小于L"时,这产生随着弧长的厚度减小。 Wherein a is from L 'to L "proportional value generating reduced thickness gradient. When L' is less than L", which produces a reduced thickness with the arc length. 当L'大于L"时这产生随着弧长的厚度增加。轨道可以选择地在诸部分中按比例分配,各部分带有它自己的局部L'、 L〃和斜度比值。轨道或轨道组成部分的最大厚度取决在轨道上那位置处所需的挠度数值。利用梁理论, 可以显示在带有斜度的直梁情况下,三分之一的a值提供了响应于在一端处载荷的抛物线形状弯曲。当梁开始处于弯曲的稳定外形或被若干控制点加载时,其它斜度可以是较希望有的。对于越过许多其它形状的变换,可以有用的是在某轨道或轨道组成部分内具有增大的和减小的厚度,或在这些部分的任何部分上的斜度的数值计算形式。沿着轨道或轨道组成部分的任何位置处的最小厚度取决于支持牵拉力的轨道的所要求的强度数值。最大厚度可以是所需挠度高度的函数。通常有益的是保持 When L 'is larger than L "when it produces with increasing thickness of the arc length. Orbit can be selectively apportioned in various portions, each portion having its own local L', L〃 and slope ratio. Orbit or The maximum thickness of the part of the deflection depends on the value that the desired position on the rail. utilization beam theory, can be displayed in the case of a straight beam with a slope, one-third of a value in response to a load is provided at one end The curved parabolic shape when the beam begins in a curved shape or a plurality of control points stable load, other than the gradient can be undesirable for many other shapes beyond the transformation, can be useful in a certain part of the track or tracks and having a reduced thickness inner increased, or on any portion of these portions of the slope of the numerical form. anywhere along the track or track portion of the minimum thickness depends on the composition of the support rail traction force strength required value. The maximum thickness may be a function of the desired deflection height usually beneficial to maintain

轨道调节在轨道或轨道组成部分的弹性范围内,例如避免轨道或轨道组成部分的永久塑性变形和失去可重复的调节能力。 Track adjustment within the elastic range of the track or track component, e.g., to avoid losing track of permanent plastic deformation and repeatable adjustment capability or rail components.

由相对的轨道形成的路径影响薄膜在MD、TD和ND方向的延伸。 Path formed by opposed rails extending Films in MD, TD and ND directions. 可以将延伸(或牵拉)变化叙述为一组牵拉比:机器方向牵拉比(MDDR)、横向牵拉比(TDDR)和垂直方向牵拉比(NDDR)。 Can be extended (or stretch) variations is described as a set of draw ratio: the machine direction draw ratio (MDDR), the transverse stretch ratio (TDDR), and the vertical direction draw ratio (NDDR). 当相对于薄膜确定时,通常将特定的牵拉比规定为薄膜在所需方向(例如,TD, MD和ND)的目前尺寸(例如,长度、宽度或厚度)和薄膜在相同方向的初始尺寸(例如,长度、宽度或厚度)的比值。 When determined with respect to the film, the particular draw ratio is generally defined as a thin film in a desired direction (e.g., TD, MD and ND) of the current size (e.g., length, width or thickness) and the film's original dimensions in the same direction (e.g., length, width or thickness) ratio. 不过通过观察牵拉时的聚合物薄膜能够确定这些牵拉比,除非对于MDDR、 TDDR和NDDR的其它指示基准涉及由用于延伸聚合物薄膜的轨道所确定的牵拉比。 However, through observation of the polymer film when pulling the draw ratio can be determined, unless other indications for reference MDDR, TDDR, and NDDR relates to polymeric films by extending track for the determined stretch ratio.

在延伸加工过程中的任意某位置处,TDDR对应于边界轨迹的目前分开距离L 和在延伸开始时边界轨迹的初始分开距离L。 An arbitrary position in the extension process, TDDR corresponds to the boundary of the current track separation distance L and extends beginning at the initial distance apart boundary trace L. 的比值。 Ratio. 换句话说,TDDR=L/L。 In other words, TDDR = L / L. . 在某些情况中(如图2和4中),符号X代表TDDR。 In some cases (Fig. 2 and 4), the symbol X represents TDDR. 在延伸过程中的任何某点,MDDR是在MD和边界轨迹,例如轨道或导轨的瞬时切线之间的正夹角、扩张角的全弦。 During extension of any particular point, MDDR is the MD and the boundary trajectories, is the angle between the instantaneous tangent e.g. track or rail between the full divergence angle of the chord. 它产生了COT(e)等于在那点的轨道的瞬时斜率(即第一阶层数)。 It produces COT (e) equal to the track at that point the instantaneous slope (i.e., the first class number). 在确定TDDR和MDDR 方面,倘若在延伸加工期间聚合物薄膜的密度不变,NDDR=1/(TDDRXMDDR)。 In terms of determining TDDR and MDDR, if the density of the polymer film during processing of extending unchanged, NDDR = 1 / (TDDRXMDDR). 但是, 如果薄膜密度按Pf系数变化,其中ppp。 However, if the film density by Pf coefficient, which ppp. /p, p是在延伸过程中当前点处的密度和p。 / P, p is in the extension process and the current density at the point p. 是在延伸开始时的薄膜密度,那么如预期的那样NDDR=pf/(TDDRXMDDR)。 Is the density of the stretched film at the start, then as expected NDDR = pf / (TDDRXMDDR). 有许多原因可以产生材料密度的变化,这些原因例如包括由于牵拉或其它加工条件所引起的相变,例如结晶或部分结晶。 There are many reasons for changes in the density of the material can be produced, for example, include those reasons or due to other processing conditions traction caused by a phase change, such as crystalline or partially crystalline.

随着横向尺寸的增加,完全的单轴向牵拉状态分别造成x、 a)—'"和a)—1/2的 With the increase in the lateral dimension, a complete state, respectively uniaxially stretch caused x, a) - '"and a) -1/2 of

TDDR、 MDDR和NDDR,如图2所示(假定材料密度不变)。 TDDR, MDDR, and NDDR, shown in Figure 2 (assuming constant density of the material). 换句话说,假定在牵拉过程中有均匀的密度,单轴向取向的薄膜是其中在整个牵拉中MDDR=(TDDR)—1/2的薄膜。 In other words, in the pulling process assuming uniform density, uniaxially oriented film in which the whole is pulled in MDDR = (TDDR) -1/2 film. 可以将单轴向特征U的值的有用计算确定如下 Useful Calcd uniaxial characteristic can be determined as follows U

<formula>formula see original document page 17</formula> <Formula> formula see original document page 17 </ formula>

对于完全的单轴向牵拉,在整个牵拉中U为1。 For full uniaxial stretch, the entire stretch of U 1. 当U小于1时,将牵拉状态认为是"次轴向的",当U大于1时,将牵拉状态称为是"超轴向的"。 When U is less than 1, the traction state is considered "second axially", when U is greater than 1, the traction state is referred to as "super-axial." 在传统的拉幅器中,其中沿着轨道2直线状牵拉聚合物薄膜,如图1和2所示,延伸薄膜的区域4到达延伸区6和扩张角较小(例如约3。或以下),MDDR约为1和U接近于零。 In a conventional tenter, where the second straight line drawn along the track polymeric film, as shown in Figures 1 and 2, the stretched film of region 4 reaches the extended zone 6 and the expansion angle is small (e.g., about 3 or less ), MDDR is approximately 1 and U is close to zero. 如果薄膜是被双轴向牵拉,从而MDDR大于l,U成为负值。 If the film is biaxially stretch, thereby MDDR is greater than l, U becomes negative. 在某些实施例中,U可以具有大于l的值。 In some embodiments, U can have a value of greater than l. U大于1的诸状态代表过分松驰的许多程度。 U greater than 1 degree too many representatives of various state of relaxation. 这些过松驰状态 These over-relaxed state

产生来自边界边缘的MD压縮。 Produce an MD compression from the boundary edge. 如果MD压縮的程度对几何形状和材料刚度是充分的, If the degree of MD compression geometry and material stiffness are adequate,

薄膜将弯曲或皱縮。 Film will bend or collapse.

为预期的那样,对于密度变化能够校正U,以产生按照下列公式的Uf: As expected, the density variation can be corrected for the U, to produce according to the following formula Uf:

卢/ Lu /

较佳地,在平面中牵拉薄膜(即边界轨迹和轨道是共平面的),例如图5所示, 不过不共平面的牵拉轨迹也是可以接受的。 Preferably, the stretch film in a plane (i.e., the boundary trajectories and tracks are coplanar) such as shown in Figure 5, but not co-planar stretch trajectory is also acceptable. 因为平面内的限制减少了许多变量,所以简化了平面内边界轨迹的设计。 Because of the limited plane reduces the number of variables, it simplifies the design of in-plane boundary trajectories. 关于完全单轴向取向的结果是一对镜像对称的、 平面内的、从平面内MD中心线扩张的抛物线。 Completely uniaxially oriented result is a pair of mirror image, from the in-plane MD centerline expansion parabolic plane. 可以通过首先确定TD为"X"方向和MD为"y"方向描绘抛物线。 TD as may be determined by first "X" direction and MD is "y" direction of a parabola. 可以将在相对的定界的抛物线之间的MD中心线取为y座标轴线。 Can MD centerline between the opposing bounding parabolas is taken as the y coordinate axis. 可以将座标原点选择为主延伸区的开始处和对应于在抛物线轨迹之间的中心轨迹的初始中心点。 You can choose the main origin of coordinates at the beginning of the extension area corresponding to the center of the track between the parabolic trajectory of the initial centers. 分别选择左和右定界抛物线,以在负和正X。 Select the left and right, respectively, delimiting the parabola to the negative and positive X. 处开始(y二0)。 At the beginning (y 20). 对于体现本发明的这实施例的正y值,右定界的抛物线轨迹是: For positive y values that reflect an embodiment of the present invention, a right parabolic trajectory is delimited:

X/X0=(l/4) (y/X0)2+l X / X0 = (l / 4) (y / X0) 2 + l

通过将上述等式的左手侧乘负1得到左定界的抛物线轨迹。 By multiplying the left hand side of the equation to get a parabolic trajectory delimited left negative one. 在以下讨论中, 提出关于确定右边界轨迹的方法的说明。 In the following discussion, the proposed description of the method to determine the trajectory of the right border. 通过采取在薄膜的中心线上的右边界轨迹的镜像对称图形可以得到左边界轨迹。 Mirror symmetry through the center line of the film taken at the right edge of the left edge of the track trajectory can be obtained.

共平面的抛物线轨迹能够提供理想状态下的单轴向取向。 Coplanar parabolic trajectory can provide uniaxial orientation under ideal conditions. 但是,其它因素能够影响实现单轴向取向的能力,它例如包括聚合物薄膜的不均匀厚度、在延伸聚合物薄膜的不均匀加热、以及例如从设备的下游网(down-web)区施加的附加张力(例如,机器方向张力)。 However, other factors can affect the ability to achieve uniaxial orientation, which include, for example non-uniform thickness of the polymer film, the polymer film is heated in non-uniform extension, and for example, is applied from the downstream network device (down-web) region Additional tension (e.g., machine direction tension). 此外,在许多情况中,不需要实现完全的轴向取向。 Furthermore, in many cases, do not need to achieve complete axial alignment. 而且, 可以形成在整个牵拉中或牵拉的一特定部分的期间内保持一最小或阈值U或平均的U值。 Moreover, can be formed to maintain a minimum or threshold U value or average U during a specific portion of or the entire pull pulling. 例如,按需要或如特定应用所需的,可接受的最小/阈值或平均U值是0.7,0.75, 0.8,0,85, 0. 9或0. 95。 For example, as needed or as required for specific applications, an acceptable minimum / threshold or average U value is 0.7,0.75, 0.8,0,85, 0.9 or 0.95.

作为可接受的几乎单轴向应用的一个例子,使用在液晶显示应用中的反射的偏振镜的倾斜特性是强烈地受到当TD是主单轴向牵拉方向时折射的MD和ND指数中的差异的影响,0.08的MD和MD中的指数差异在某些情况下是可以接受的。 Almost as an acceptable application of uniaxial an example, for use in LCD applications tilt feature reflective polarizer is strongly influenced by when TD is the main direction of the uniaxial stretch when the refractive index of the MD and ND impact difference, MD 0.08 index difference in MD and in some cases is acceptable. 在其它情况下,0.04的差异是可以接收的。 In other cases, the difference of 0.04 is acceptable. 在较严格的应用场合,0.02或以下的差异是较佳的。 In more stringent applications, the difference of 0.02 or less is preferred. 例如,0.85的单轴向特性程度在许多情况下足以提供在聚酯系统中、 For example, 0.85 degree uniaxially characteristic in many cases sufficient to provide in the polyester system,

在MD和ND方向之间的折射指数差异,在该聚酯系统中包含用于单轴向横向牵拉薄膜的聚乙烯苯二甲酸酯(PEN)或者在633纳米处的0. 02或以下的PEN的共聚物。 In the refractive index difference between the MD and ND directions in polyester system includes means for pulling the film uniaxially in the transverse polyethylene terephthalate (PEN) or at 633 nm of 0.02 or less The PEN copolymer. 对于某些聚酯系统、例如聚对苯二甲酸乙二酯,因为在非基本上单轴向牵拉的薄膜内折射指数中较小的固有差异,所以0. 80或甚至0. 75的较小的U值是可以接受的。 For some polyester systems, such as polyethylene terephthalate, because the non-substantially uniaxially drawn films within the inherent refractive index difference smaller, so 0.80 or even 0.75 of comparing a small U-value is acceptable.

次单轴向牵拉中,能够使用最后的实际上的单轴向特征值用于由下列等式估算在y (MD)和z (ND)方向之间匹配的折射指数的程度: Times uniaxial stretch, it is possible to use the final actual value for the degree of uniaxial characteristic estimated by the following equation between the y (MD) and z (ND) direction of the refractive index matching:

△nyz=Anyz(U=0) X (1-U) 式中An"是关于值U在MD方向(即,y方向)和ND方向(g卩,z方向)内折射指数之间的差异,以及Arv.(,O)是除了在牵拉中保持MDDR为1之外同样在牵拉的薄膜中的折射指数差异。对于用在许多种光学光膜中的聚酯系统(包括PEN、 PET和PEN 或PET的共聚物),发现这关系式是合理预见的。在这些聚酯系统中,Anyz(U=0) 通常是在两平面内方向MD (y轴线)和TD (x轴线)之间折射差异的差值Ar^ (U二0)的约一半或以上。对于Ar^(lH))的典型值在633纳米处直至达到约0.26。对于A rv(U二0)的典型值在633纳米处直至达到0. 15。例如包括约90%PEN状的反复单元和10%PET状的反复单元的90/10共PEN、即一共聚多酯具有在633纳米处、约0. 14 的在高延伸状态的典型值。按照本发明的方法制造了包括这90/10共PEN、并带有如由实际的薄膜牵拉比测量的0. 75, 0. 88和0. 97的U值和在633纳米处的0. 02, 0. 01和0. 03和An"的相应值的薄膜。 △ nyz = Anyz (U = 0) X (1-U) where An "on the value of U is the refractive index difference between the MD direction (i.e., y direction) and the ND direction (g Jie, z direction) within, and Arv. (, O) is in addition to maintaining MDDR stretch as a refractive index difference than in the same stretch of films for polyester systems are used in many kinds of optical film (including PEN, PET and copolymers of PEN or PET), found that the relationship is reasonably foreseeable. In these polyester systems, Anyz (U = 0) is typically within two plane directions MD (y axis) and TD (x axis) between refraction difference difference Ar ^ (U 20) about half or more. For Ar ^ (lH)) Typical value at 633 nm up to about 0.26. For A rv (U 20) Typical value at 633 nm until it reaches 0. 15. A repeating unit includes, for example from about 90% PEN-like repeat units and 10% PET-like the 90/10 co-PEN, i.e., a copolyester having at 633 nm, at about 0.14 of U values and high elongation at typical state. The manufacturing method according to the present invention comprising this 90/10 co-PEN, and with a draw ratio as measured by actual film of 0.75, 0.88 and 0.97 of the corresponding value of 633 nm film of 0.02, 0.01 and 0.03 and An "in.

由以下方法可以确定几乎或基本上是单轴向特性的一组可接受的抛物线轨迹。 May be determined by the following method is almost or substantially uniaxially characteristics a set of acceptable parabolic trajectories. 这所述的方法直接确定了"右"边界轨迹,以及将"左"边界轨迹采取为镜像对称图形。 This is a direct way to determine the "right" border track, and the "left" border trajectory taken as a mirror symmetry. 首先,通过确定在相对的边界轨迹之间测量的TDDR和在所述的TDDR 范围上形成为这些边界轨迹的非负的扩张角的余弦的MDDR之间的瞬时函数关系, First, determine the measurement between the opposing boundary trajectories TDDR and formed on the TDDR range for these boundary trace function of the cosine of the instantaneous MDDR between the non-negative divergence angle,

建立一条件。 Establish a condition. 其次,为在抛物线轨迹的讨论中所叙述的,形成该问题的几何形状。 Secondly, in the discussion of the parabolic trajectories as described, forming the geometry of the problem. Xi确定为在边界轨迹之间的初始的一半距离和比值(X/X,)被识别为瞬时的TDDR,其中X是在边界轨迹上一点的当前的X位置。 Xi is determined as half the distance and the initial ratio (X / X,) at a boundary between the tracks is identified as the instantaneous TDDR, where X is a point on the boundary trajectory current X position. 其次,将在TDDR和MDDR之间的瞬时函数关系转化成在TDDR和扩张角之间的关系。 Secondly, as a function of the instantaneous TDDR and converted into the relationship between MDDR between TDDR and expansion angles. 当选择U的一特定值时,上述等式提供了MDDR和TDDR之间的特定关系,然后能够将这关系用于确定边界轨迹的较广泛类型的算法中,该轨迹也包括作为在U接近1时一限定情况的抛物线轨迹。 When selecting a specific value of U, the above equation provides a specific relationship between MDDR and TDDR, then this relationship can be used to determine the boundary trace of a broader class of algorithms, the track also included as close to the U 1 When defining a parabolic trajectory conditions. 其次, 将边界轨迹限制为满足下列微分方程: Next, the boundary trajectory is limited to satisfy the following differential equation:

d(X/X,)/(d(y/Xi)二tan(e) 式中t.an(e)是扩张角e的正切,以及y是对应于某x座标的、在右边界轨迹上相对 d (X / X,) / (d (y / Xi) two tan (e) wherein t.an (e) is the tangent of the angle of expansion e, corresponding to certain x and y are coordinates in the right boundary trajectory relatively

点的当前位置的y座标。 Y coordinates of the point of the current position. 其次,例如通过沿着TDDR的函数关系对l/tan(e)从l积分至最大要求的值,可以解这微分方程,用以分析地或数值地得到右边界轨迹的完整的一组座标{ (x, y) }。 Secondly, for example, to obtain a complete set of coordinates along the right boundary trajectory by a function of TDDR of l / tan (e) the integral value from l to a maximum desired, this differential equation can be solved for analytically or numerically {(x, y)}.

作为可接受的轨迹的另一例子,能够叙述一类型的平面内的轨迹,其中使用带有较小或较大初始有效网(web)TD长度的抛物线轨迹。 As another example of acceptable trajectories, the trajectory can be described in a type of plane, wherein the parabolic trajectory with a smaller or larger initial effective web (web) TD length. 如果X,是在关于主延伸区的入口处的、在两相对的边界轨迹之间分开距离的一半(即是在相对边界轨迹之间的初始一半距离的初始薄膜TD尺寸减去由夹持器所保持的边缘),然后由下列方程式描述这类型的轨迹: If X, in the region about the entrance to the main extension, the border between the two opposing half of the distance apart of the track (i.e. the initial film TD dimension between opposing boundary trajectories at the initial half of the distance by subtracting the holder held edges), then this type is described by the following equation of trajectory:

士(x跳)二謂(xyx。) (y/X,"+l Guests (x jump) two that (xyx.) (Y / X, "+ l

式中X,/X。 Wherein X, / X. 被定义为成比例的入口分开距离。 Is defined as the separation distance is proportional to the inlet. 数据X。 Data X. 对应于如果上述方程式描述了提供完全单轴向牵拉的抛物线轨迹所要求的、在两相对的轨迹之间的分开距离的一半。 If the above equation corresponding to provide fully described uniaxially stretch required parabolic trajectory, the trajectory in the opposite half of the distance between the separated. 成比例的入口分开距离是轨迹偏离单轴向状态的指示。 Proportional to the separation distance is the path offsets inlet instructions to uniaxial state. 在一实施例中,主延伸区内的两相对轨迹之间的距离是可以调节的,如以上所讨论的,便于轨迹的操纵提供不同于1的U和F的值。 In one embodiment, the distance between two opposing trajectory zone between the main extension is adjustable, as discussed above, to facilitate manipulation of the trajectory to provide different from U 1 and F values. 还能使用形成这些轨迹的其它方法,例如包括使用轨迹形状控制单元操纵轨迹的形状或通过选择具有所需轨迹的一固定形状。 Other methods can also be formed using these tracks, for example, include manipulation of track shape control units or by selecting the path with the shape having a fixed shape of the desired track.

对于超单轴向牵拉,利用过喂送量的概念能够计量皱縮的严重程度。 For ultra uniaxial stretch, made use of the concept of the severity of the feed amount of shrinkage can be measured. 可以将过喂送量F定义为单轴向MDDR(等于(TDDR)—1/2)除以实际的MDDR。 You can feed excessive amount of F is defined as the uniaxial MDDR (equal (TDDR) -1/2) divided by the actual MDDR. 如果实际的MDDR 小于单轴向MDDR,那么过喂送量F小于1和MDDR处于放松不足,造成U小于1. 如果F大于1,牵拉是超单向和MDDR是相对于单轴向情况过分松驰。 If the actual MDDR less than uniaxial MDDR, so too the amount of feed F in less than 1 and MDDR relax, resulting in U is less than 1. If F is greater than one, super-way stretch and MDDR is excessive relative to the uniaxial case relaxation. 因为薄的、顺从的薄膜加压弯曲阈值通常较低,所以至少一部分过分松驰可以聚积成皱縮。 Because thin film submissive bending threshold pressure is usually low, so at least part of the over-relaxation can accumulate into a shrink. 当F 大于1时,过喂送量至少接近地对应于沿着MD的皱縮中的实际薄膜外形长度对平面内的外形长度或距离的比值。 F is greater than 1 when, through the feed amount corresponding to at least closely along the MD shrinkage ratio of the actual film contour length profile length or distance of the plane.

因为在不变的密度的情况下在TDDR和MDDR之间的关系,所以可将F写成为: Because in the case of constant density relationship between TDDR and MDDR, so F can be written as:

F二1/(MDDRXTDDR12) F = 1 / (MDDRXTDDR12)

通常,F被看作为与设计目的无关的密度。 Typically, F be seen as irrelevant to the purpose and design density. 在加工过程中任何时候F的较大值能引起较大的皱缩,皱縮能够折叠和粘附于薄膜的其它部分之上,引起疵品。 F is greater at any time in the process can cause large shrinkage, shrinkage can be folded over and adhered to the other portions of the film, causing product defects. 至少在某些实施例中,在牵拉期间过喂送量F保持为2或以下,以避免或减少皱縮或折叠。 In at least some embodiments, during pulling through the feed amount F is kept 2 or less, in order to avoid or reduce the shrinkage or collapse. 在某些实施例中,在整个牵拉过程中过喂送量是1.5或以下。 In certain embodiments, the entire process of pulling through the feed amount of 1.5 or less. 对于某些薄膜, 在牵拉中允许1. 2或者甚至1. 1的F的最大值。 For some films, the maximum stretch allowed F of 1.2 or even 1.1 in.

至少对于某些实施例,尤其通过整个牵拉带有U〉1的实施例,重新安排过喂送量的定义提供了在已知当前TDDR的最小MDDR上的相对的限制条件: For at least some embodiments, particularly through the entire pulling U> 1 embodiment with rearranged over defined amount of feed to provide a relatively known restrictions on the minimum MDDR the current TDDR:

MDDR>l/(FmaxXTDDR1/2—) MDDR> l / (FmaxXTDDR1 / 2-)

式中F^能够被选择为大于1的任何较佳的值。 Where F ^ can be selected to be larger than any preferred value of 1. 例如,可以将F选择为2, 1.5, 1.2或1. l,如以上所讨论的。 For example, F can be chosen to be 2, 1.5, 1.2, or 1. l, as discussed above.

当过喂送量小于1时,有效地是沿着MD的平面内距离比对于实际单轴向牵拉所希望的较大的MDDR可以是松驰不足和引起MD张力。 When the amount is less than 1 over feed effectively within the MD along than the actual distance between the plane uniaxial stretch desired larger MDDR may be inadequate and cause relaxation MD tension. 该结果可以是U值小于1。 The result may be a U value less than 1. 利用在U、 F、 MDDR和TDDR之间的关系,在U和F之间随着TDDR变化有一相应的关联。 Using the relationship between U, F, MDDR and TDDR, and between the U and F with TDDR there is a corresponding change in correlation. 在临界牵拉比为2时,最小的U值对应于约0.9的最小过喂送量。 When the critical stretch ratio of 2, a minimum U value corresponds to a minimum of about 0.9 over the amount of feed. 至少对于包括其中对于整个牵拉UM的边界轨迹的某些边界轨迹,能够选择MDDR,以在牵拉的最后部分期间保持在某值之下,例如 For at least some boundary trajectories include those in which the entire stretch UM boundary trajectories can be selected MDDR, to stretch during the last part of the maintained below a certain value, e.g.

MDDR〈1/( F„inXTDDR'''2) 式中F^是对于在牵拉比2之后的牵拉的最后部分的0. 9或以上。 MDDR <1 / (F "inXTDDR '' '2) where F ^ is the draw ratio of 2 to after the last part of the pull of 0.9 or more.

作为一个例子,可以使用其中在整个延伸中MDDR〈(TDDR)—"'2(即U〉1)、 F^是2 和薄膜被延伸至TDDR为4的轨迹。如果轨迹是共平面的,那么薄膜被延伸到至少2, 4和通常2. 3的TDDR。如果F隨是1. 5,那么薄膜被延伸到至少6. 8的TDDR。如果轨迹是共平面的,那么薄膜被延伸到至少2. l和通常至少4. 7的TDDR。如果F皿是1.2,那么利用共平面轨迹、薄膜被延伸到至少1.8和通常至少4.0的TDDR。对于共平面或不共平面的边界轨迹,如果对F没有限制,那么薄膜被延伸到大于4 和通常至少6. 8的TDDR。 As an example, which can be used in the whole extension of the MDDR <(TDDR) - "'2 (i.e. U> 1), F ^ is 2 and the film is extended to a TDDR of track 4 if the track is coplanar, so. TDDR film is extended to at least 2, 4, and usually 2.3 If F is over 1.5, then the film is extended to TDDR of at least 6.8. If the trajectories are coplanar, then the film is extended to at least 2 . l and TDDR of typically at least 4.7. If F dish is 1.2, then the use of coplanar tracks, the film is extended to at least 1.8 and usually at least 4.0 TDDR. For coplanar or non-coplanar boundary trajectories, if F None, then the film is extended to more than TDDR 4 and usually at least 6.8 in.

在另一例子中,可以利用共平面轨迹,其中在整个延伸中(FJ X (MDDR)〈(TDDR)12、 F隱为2、 F,为0. 9和薄膜被延伸到至少4. 6和通常至少6. 8的T匿。如果F j 1. 5,那么薄膜被延伸到至少4. 2和通常至少6. 1的TDDR;如果L、是1. 2,那么薄膜被延伸到至少3. 7和通常至5. 4的TDDR。如果对F没有限制, 那么薄膜被延伸到至少8. 4的TDDR。还能够使用边界轨迹,其中在整个延伸中(F„in) X (MDDT)〈(TDDR)'〜F j 1. 5、 F固为0, 9和薄膜被延伸到至少6. 8的TDDR。 In another example, coplanar trajectories can be used, which extends throughout the (FJ X (MDDR) <(TDDR) 12, F hidden for 2, F, is 0.9 and the film is extended to at least 4.6 and usually at least 6.8 T hide if F j 1. 5, then the film is extended to TDDR at least 4.2 and usually at least 6.1; and if L, is 1.2, then the film is extended to at least three. 7 and generally to TDDR 5. 4 If there is no restriction on F, then the film is extended to TDDR of at least 8.4. boundary trajectory can also be used, which extends throughout the (F "in) X (MDDT) <( TDDR) '~F j 1. 5, F solid is 0, and the film 9 are extended to TDDR of at least 6.8.

利用F^能够形成其它有用的轨迹。 F ^ can be formed utilizing other useful trajectory. 有用的轨迹包括其中TDDR是至少5、 U在实现2. 5的TDDR之后的延伸最后部分上是至少0. 85和在延伸期间F^是2的共平面轨迹。 Useful trajectories include those in which TDDR is at least 5, U is at least 0.85, and during extension F ^ is co-planar extension of the track 2 in the last part of the realization of TDDR 2. 5 after. 有用的轨迹还包括其中TDDR为至少6、 U在实现2. 5的TDDR之后的延伸的最后部分上为至少0. 7和F^在延伸期间为2的共平面轨迹。 Useful trajectories also include those in which TDDR is at least 6, U in the last part of the realization of TDDR 2. 5 after the extending of at least 0.7 and F ^ coplanar during extension of the track 2.

又一些可用的共平面轨迹包括其中在TDDR是大于临界值TDDR'的牵拉的最后部分期间MDDR〈TDDR。 But some of the available tracks including coplanar TDDR which is greater than the critical value TDDR 'during the last part of the stretch of MDDR <TDDR. '〈(F,JX(MDDR)的那些轨迹。以下提供了对于该轨迹应该实现的最小牵拉比。当TDDR'为2或以下时,那么对于Fmax=2,最小牵拉为3.5;对于K 5,最小牵拉是3. 2;以及对于F^二2,最小牵拉是2. 7。当TDDR'为4或以下时, 那么对于FMX=2,最小牵拉是5. 8;对于Fmax=l. 5,最小牵拉是5. 3;以及对于FM,=1. 2, 最小牵拉是4.8。当TDDR'是5或以下时,那么对于乙产2,最小牵拉是7;对于Fm^1.5, 最小牵拉是6. 4;以及对于F„„=l. 2,最小牵拉是5. 8。 '. <(F, JX (MDDR) to those provided for the track following the track draw ratio of minimum to be achieved when the TDDR.' When 2 or less, then for Fmax = 2, the minimum stretch of 3.5; for K 5, the minimum traction is 3.2; and for F ^ = 2, the minimum traction is 2. 7. When TDDR 'is 4 or less, then the FMX = 2, the minimum traction is 5.8; for Fmax . = l 5, the minimum stretch is 5.3;. and for FM, = 1 2, the minimum is 4.8 when pulling TDDR 'is 5 or less, then for the B production 2, the smallest stretch is 7; for Fm ^ 1.5, the minimum traction is 6.4;. and for F "" = l 2, the minimum traction is 5.8.

通常,利用曲线和直线轨道可以构成各种各样的可以接受的轨迹,以致在整个牵拉中将过喂送量保持在临界的最大值之下,用于防止折叠疵点,同时保持在临 Typically, the use of curved and straight track may constitute a variety of acceptable trajectories, that will stretch over the entire amount of feed is maintained at below the critical maximum value, for preventing folding defects, while maintaining the Pro

界的最小值之下,用于允许真正的单轴向特性的所需值,并带它所产生的性能。 Under the minimum community for allowing the real value of the properties required for uniaxial and with the performance it produces.

利用抛物线形状可以形成各种各样的次单轴向的和超单向的轨迹。 Use a parabolic shape may be formed over the one-way track and a wide variety of sub-uniaxial direction. 图18示出了表示在临界的TDDR之后的不同程度最小值U和表示直至最后所需的TDDR的不同的最大过喂送的许多例子。 Figure 18 shows a minimum value of U and showing varying degrees of the desired final until after the critical TDDR shows many examples of different maximum over the feed of TDDR. 这些曲线用与X,、轨道的初始分开距离的一半为比例的座标x和y表示。 These curves and X ,, initial orbit separation distance of half a ratio of x and y coordinates. 因此成比例的X座标/(x/x,)数值等于TDDR。 Therefore proportional to the X coordinate / (x / x,) is numerically equal TDDR. 曲线300是带有1.0 的^/x。 300 is a curve with a 1.0 ^ / x. 值的理想情况。 Ideally values. 曲线302是其中在2. 5的牵拉比之上li保持大于0. 70的、 带有0. 653的x,/xo值的抛物线例子。 Curve 302 is a draw ratio of 2.5 in which the above li remains greater than 0.70, and 0.653 with the x, / xo value parabola example. 曲线304是其中在2. 5牵拉比之后U保持在0.85之上的、带有0.822的x,/x。 Curve 304 is a draw ratio of 2.5 which is maintained above 0.85 after the U, x with a 0.822 in, / x. 值的抛物线的例子。 Examples parabola value. 曲线306、 308和310示出了多种过喂送的程度。 Curves 306, 308 and 310 illustrate various degree of over-feed. 过喂送量、TDDR和成比例的入口宽度通过下列方程式相关联: Over the feed amount, TDDR and the inlet width proportional related by the following equation:

x,/x。 x, / x. = (F2 (TDDR) -1) / (TDDR-1) = (F2 (TDDR) -1) / (TDDR-1)

它直接产生在此所述的抛物线轨迹中过喂送量随着TDDR的增加而增加。 It directly generates the parabolic trajectory in this over-feed amount increases with increasing TDDR. 曲线306是其中过喂送量保持在1. 2之下直至6. 5的最后牵拉比的、带有1. 52的x,/x。 Curve 306 is the feed quantity which had maintained below 1.2 until the final stretch ratio of 6.5, with 1.52 of x, / x. 值的抛物线例子。 Examples of values parabola. 曲线308是其中过喂送量保持在1. 5之下直至6. 5的最后牵拉比的、带有2.477的x,/x。 Curve 308 is the feed quantity which had maintained below 1.5 until the final stretch ratio of 6.5, with a 2.477 in x, / x. 值的抛物线例子。 Examples of values parabola. 曲线310是其中过喂送量保持在2以下直至6.5的最后牵拉比、带有4.545的x,/x。 Curve 310 is maintained in which the amount of over-feed in the last 2 or less until the draw ratio of 6.5, with a 4.545 in x, / x. 值的抛物线例子。 Examples of values parabola. 过喂送量的程度在这些例子中是最终牵拉比的函数。 Over the extent of the feed amount in these examples is a function of the final draw ratio. 例如,使用仅仅4.333、而不是4.545的Xl/x。 For example, the use of only 4.333 rather than 4.545 of Xl / x. 值允许牵拉至10的最终的TDDR,同时保持过喂送量在2之下。 Value allows traction to a final TDDR 10, while maintaining the amount of over-feed under 2.

对于抛物线轨迹,一关系式允许对于固定的有比例的入口宽度、在任一某TDDR 时直接计算MDDR: For parabolic trajectory, a relationship has allowed for a fixed percentage of the width of the entrance, when either a direct calculation TDDR MDDR:

MDDR二(TDDR (x,/x。) + (1- Xl/x。) ) —1 '2 一观察结构在MDDR和TDDR之间的关系不是y位置的显函数。 MDDR two (TDDR (x, / x.) + (1- Xl / x.)) -1 '2 a structure was observed between MDDR and TDDR relationship is not an explicit function y position. 这允许构成包括在y/x,中垂直转移的诸段抛物线轨迹的诸合成的混合曲线。 This allows constituting include y / x, synthesized in various vertical transfer of various mixing sections parabolic trajectory curve. 图19示出了一方法。 Figure 19 illustrates a method. 选择用于牵拉的初始部分的抛物线轨迹、曲线320,以及对于最终部分选择抛物线轨迹、曲线322。 Parabolic trajectory for the initial portion of the stretch of choice, curve 320, and for the final partial selection parabolic trajectory, curve 322. 选择初始曲线322,用于提供在4.5的牵拉比时的带有2.0的最 Selecting the initial curve 322, for providing the best with the 2.0 draw ratio of 4.5 when

大过喂送量的超单轴向牵拉。 Greater than the amount of feed over uniaxial stretch. 选择最终曲线是在4.5牵拉比时带有0.9的最小U 值的次轴向牵拉。 Select the final curve is the smallest sub-axial with the U-value of 0.9 at 4.5 traction than traction. 曲线322具有0.868的成比例的入口宽度。 Curve 322 has a proportional 0.868 inlet width. 实际轨道或导轨形状跟随曲线320直至4. 5的TDDR,然后连续在为曲线322的垂直转移形式的曲线324 上。 The actual track or rail shape follows the curve 320 until TDDR 4. 5, and then continuously in the form of a curve 322 of the vertical transfer curve 324. 换句话说, 一轨迹可以具有带轨道的初始延伸区,该轨道具有对应于下列方程 In other words, a track may have an initial extension zone track, the track corresponding to the following equation

式的函数形式: Type of functional form:

<formula>formula see original document page 23</formula>和带有轨道的后延伸区,该轨道具有对应于下列方程式的函数形式: <formula>formula see original document page 23</formula>式中x,/x2是不同的值和A对应于允许组合轨迹的垂直转移量。 <Formula> formula see original document page 23 </ formula> and rear extensions with the track, the track corresponding to the functional form of the following equation: <formula> formula see original document page 23 </ formula> where x, / x2 and the value of A is different allowed combinations corresponding amount to the locus of the vertical transfer. 按这方式可以组合 This approach can be combined according to

任意数量的抛物线段。 Any number of parabolic segments.

可以利用抛物线轨迹和它们合成的混合曲线,用于引导构成相关的轨迹。 Can utilize parabolic trajectory curve and mixing their synthesis, for guiding constitutes the relevant track. 一实施例包括使用诸直线段,以产生轨迹。 One embodiment includes the use of such straight segments, to produce the track. 能够在所选的TDDR'大于临界牵拉比TDDR' 的情况下最大过喂送量和最小过喂送量(或最小U)的抛物线轨迹(或合成的混合物) 的范围内构成这些直线状的近似状态。 These constitute the largest over the straight inner feed through feed amount and the minimum amount (or minimum U) parabolic locus (or synthetic mixture) can range in the case where the selected TDDR 'is greater than the critical stretch ratio TDDR' of Approximate state. 能够选择关于TDDIT的值,它关系到带有1. 5, 2数值的例子的开始引入应变的结晶性,或者可以涉及到带有1. 2的较低值或甚至1. 1的弹性应变屈服。 Can be selected on TDDIT value, it is related to the example with 1.5, 2 value of the introduced strain crystallinity, or may be related to elastic strain with a lower value of 1.2 or even 1.1 yield . TDDIT的范围通常落在1. 05和3之间。 TDDIT range usually falls between 1.05 and 3. 在TDDR'之下的导轨或轨道的部分可以不具有在最小过喂送量或U方面的任何特定限制和可以落在制约的抛物线轨迹的范围的外部。 In the portion of the track or track TDDR 'below may not have the minimum amount of feed over the external aspect or U and may fall on any particular limitations restrict the range of the parabolic trajectory. 在图20中,选择曲线340是在所选的牵拉比、 TDDR'、在此示为6.5值的情况下最小过喂送量的制约的抛物线轨迹。 In Figure 20, the curve 340 is selected to select draw ratio, TDDR ', here shown as lower case where the minimum value of 6.5 over the feed amount of restriction parabolic trajectory. 为了显示, 在带有比例的入口宽度1的理想曲线情况下已选择了最小过喂送量制约的抛物线轨迹。 In order to display, at the entrance with a width proportional to the ideal case of curve 1 has been selected the minimum feed amount is too constrained parabolic trajectory. 利用在过喂送量、TDDR和有比例的入口宽度之间的关系,曲线342被识别为其中在6. 5的TDDR值的情况下最大的F值为2. 0的最大过喂送量的制约抛物线轨迹。 In the past the use of the feed amount, TDDR and a relationship between the ratio of the inlet width, curve 342 is identified as in the case in which the TDDR value of 6.5 of the largest F value of 2.0 is the maximum amount of over-feed Restricting parabolic trajectory. 现在垂直转移曲线342,形成曲线344,以致两个制约的抛物线轨迹在6.5 的所选TDDR'处相遇。 Vertical transfer curve now 342, 344 to form the curve, so that the two parabolic trajectory constraints selected in 6.5 TDDR 'at the meet. 应该指出对于牵拉特性,曲线342和344完全相等。 It should be noted for the stretch characteristic curves 342 and 344 is exactly equal. 曲线344 仅仅延时延伸直至2.489的y/x,的后面的空间值。 Curve 344 extends only delayed until the space value 2.489 of y / x, the back. 直线的或非抛物曲线段的近似将趋于处在TDDIT之上的这些制约的抛物线轨迹之间。 Approximate non-linear parabolic curve segment will tend to over TDDIT between these constraints in a parabolic trajectory.

不像抛物线轨迹随着增加TDDR具有增大的扩展角,直线的轨迹具有固定的扩张角。 Unlike parabolic trajectory angle increases TDDR extension has increased, the track has a fixed line expansion angle. 这样沿着直线段过喂送量随着增加TDDR而减小。 Such cross section along the line feed amount decreases with increasing TDDR. 通过选择在所选的TDDR 情况下带有等于所需的最小过喂送量的扩张角的一直线,可以构成一简单的直线近似。 By selecting at selected TDDR case with equal minimum required amount of expansion over the feed horn of a straight line, you can form a simple linear approximation. 直线段在TDDR中可以向后外推,直至过喂送量等于所允许的最大值。 Line segment in TDDR can extrapolate backwards, until after the feed amount equal to the maximum allowed. 以类似 In a similar

的方式开始随后的直线段。 The way to start the next line segment. 按需经常重复该步骤。 Demand often repeat this step. 随着最大过喂送量增加,为了接 With the increase of the maximum amount of feed too, in order to meet

近所需段的数量增加。 Near the required number of segments increases. 当TDDR下降到TDDR'之下时,只要保持在最大过喂送量方面的限制,可以使用任何数量的方法,用于完成轨道或导轨。 When the TDDR drops to TDDR 'below, as long as kept at the maximum over the feed quantity limits, may use any number of methods for performing the track or rail. 在图20中,曲线346 是被2的最大过喂送量所限制的一直线近似。 In Figure 20, curve 346 is being limited by the maximum amount of two of the feed through the straight line approximation. 因为这较大的最大过喂送量,所以它仅包括两个直线段。 Because this is too large the maximum amount of feed, so that it only comprises two straight line segments. 最后的直线段从6.5的所选的TDDR延伸所有路径到达1.65 的较小的TDDR。 The final line segment extending all the paths to reach the smaller TDDR 1.65 from selected TDDR 6.5 in. 在这情况下,取TDDR'为2。 In this case, take TDDR '2. 没有在2的TDDR之下、在U方面的限制,完成轨道的一方法是从1.65处的TDDR向后外推一第二直线段到达在y/x,零点的1的TDDR。 Under TDDR 2 is not, in U constraints, a complete method from TDDR 1.65 orbit at a second linear extrapolation back segment arrives at y / x, TDDR zero 1. 注意这引起第二段横过较低的制约的抛物线,这是由于该制约在TDDIT之下是无效的。 Note that this causes the second stage across the lower restriction parabola, which is due to the constraints under TDDIT is invalid.

在图20中,曲线348是对于1. 5的最大过喂送量的较紧密的数值的结果。 In Figure 20, curve 348 is over 1.5 of the maximum amount of feed results tighter values. 其中没有显示最大过喂送量的制约的抛物线轨迹。 Which did not show a parabolic trajectory over maximum amount of feed restriction. 要求三个直线段。 Requires three line segments. 第一段从6.5 的TDDR向后延伸至2. 9的TDDR。 From the first paragraph 6.5 TDDR extends back to TDDR 2. 9's. 第二段采取等于在2. 9的这TDDR值处的最小过喂送量的制约的抛物线轨迹的扩张角和向后延伸至1.3的TDDR。 Take the second paragraph TDDR value equal to the minimum at this 2.9 feed amount is too constrained expansion parabolic trajectory angle and extends back to 1.3 TDDR. 这第二段终止在TDDIT之下。 This paragraph is terminated under TDDIT. 采用与对于曲线346所使用的不同方法,最后段完成关于曲线348的轨道或导轨形状。 For use with the different methods used by curves 346, 348 of the last stage completed curve shape of the rail or rails. 其中对于最后段使用了如对于前面诸段的相同步骤,造成带有其较高的y/x,值的延伸开始的延时。 Wherein for the last segment used as appropriate for the various segments of the same as the previous step, resulting in delayed start extending with its higher y / x, the value of. 完成轨道的一第三方法是在1的初步TDDR处将过喂送量设置到最大值。 A third method to complete the track is at a preliminary TDDR will feed through the set to the maximum amount.

通常,利用制约的抛物线轨迹能够构成适合本发明的要求的非直线的和非抛物线的轨迹。 Typically, the use of parabolic trajectory constraints and can be constructed for applications requiring non-parabolic trajectories of the present invention is non-linear. 最大的过喂送量制约的抛物线轨迹是最小斜度的曲线、即最大扩张角, 为TDDR的函数。 Had the largest amount of feed restriction parabolic trajectory is the smallest slope of the curve, ie, the maximum divergence angle, for TDDR functions. 最小过喂送量制约的抛物线是最大斜度的曲线,即最小扩张角, 为TDDR的函数。 The minimum amount of feed restriction had parabola is the maximum slope of the curve, that is the smallest divergence angle, for TDDR functions. 通常,使用位于制约的极限之间的斜度的任何函数可以将曲线从所选的TDDR'向后外推。 Typically, located between the slope limit constraints of any function can be selected from the curve TDDR 'backward extrapolation. 用于形成关于在这些限制之间的斜度的函数的一简单方法是采取在包络线之内的已知曲线的一简单的直线组合。 A simple method for forming on the slope of the function of these restrictions is to take in between within the envelope of the curve of a known simple linear combinations. 图20中的曲线350示出了这简单方法。 Figure 20, curve 350 illustrates this simple method. 在这例子中,通过最大的过喂送量制约的抛物线轨迹、曲线344 和对它的直线近似、曲线346、并分别带有0. 7和0. 3的直线权重的直线组合形成350。 In this example, by the largest amount of feed through the restriction parabolic trajectory, curve 344, and its linear approximation, the curve 346, and the right 0.7, respectively, linear and 0.3 weight 350 is formed with a combination of straight lines. 通常,还能采用不是简单直线组合的函数。 Typically, a simple linear combinations can also be adopted not function.

能够将用于叙述本发明的各种非抛物线轨迹的上述方法应用到轨道的不同段上,例如可以将关于直至6. 5的TDDR的图20的例子与关于带有不同要求的和因此在TDDR的较高范围上的不同的最大和最小制约的轨迹的在6. 5之上的TDDR的另一部分相组合。 The method described above can be used in various non-parabolic trajectories of the present invention is applied to different sections of track, for example, may be examples of until TDDR 6. 5 of Fig. 20 with regard to the different requirements and therefore with the TDDR another part in 6.5 above TDDR different maximum and minimum constraints on the trajectory of the higher range is combined. 在这情况下,较小牵拉的以前部分的TDDR'承担TDDR'的作用。 In this case, a smaller part of the pulling TDDR previous 'bear TDDR' role. 通常, 可以横越所需牵拉的范围选择TDDR'。 Typically, you can choose a range of traction needed across TDDR '. 为计及牵拉的许多现象、例如屈服、引起应变的结晶性、开始颈縮或其它牵拉不均匀、开始应变变硬或计及在薄膜内发展各种 Traction account for many phenomena, such as yield, caused by crystalline strain began necking or other traction uneven start to harden or strain gauge and in the development of various film

性能,可以使用许多段。 Performance, you can use a number of segments. 通常的断裂点包括对于TDDR'、在聚酯中对于应变变硬的3至7的范围以及在4至10或以上的范围内的典型的最后牵拉值的那些。 For a normal break point comprises TDDR ', for the strain hardening range 3 to 7, and finally pulling the typical values within or above the range of 4 to 10 as those in the polyester.

在从所述的TDDR"向前外推至较大的TDDR的类似方法中可以使用在从所选的TDDR'向后外推至较小的TDDR的方法中的关于本发明的用于确定边界轨迹的步骤。 再次,结合在最小的所选TDDR〃处,形成两个制约的轨迹。对于TDDR〃的方便数值是1的最初TDDR。在这方法中,最小过喂送量或U的制约的轨迹位于最大的过喂送曲线之上。图19实际上显示了这方法的一例子,其中混合曲线324位于最小过喂送量限制、曲线322和最大过喂送限制、曲线320之间。 In a similar manner from TDDR said "forward extrapolated to larger TDDR can be used from the selected TDDR 'back extrapolated to the smaller TDDR method concerning the present invention for determining the boundaries Step track. Again, in the smallest combination selected TDDR〃, forming two constraint trajectory. For convenience TDDR〃 initial value TDDR 1 In this method, the minimum feed amount of restriction or U locus is located on top of the largest over-feed curve. Figure 19 shows an example of this fact, a method in which the mixing curve 324 is at the minimum limit excessive amount of feed, between the curve 322 and the maximum over-feed limit, curve 320.

能够形成另--类边界轨迹,在某些实施例中它可以用于消除剩余皱縮。 Can form the other - kind of boundary trajectories, in some embodiments, it may be used to eliminate the residual shrinkage. 因为在没有剪切的情况下单轴向状态提供了零的主MD应力,采用有限应变分析法预计 Because of the situation in the absence of shear uniaxial stress state provides primary MD zero, using finite strain analysis is expected to

主MD应力在这些条件之下将实际进入稍许压縮状态。 Main MD stress under these conditions will actually enter slightly compressed state. 利用有限应变分析法和Neo-Hookean弹性固体基本方程式,发现由下列方程式可选择地可以得出关于防止压縮应力的适当的判断准则: Finite strain analysis and Neo-Hookean elastic solid basic equation, found by the following equation can optionally draw the appropriate criterion for the prevention compressive stress:

((TDDR) (MDDR)) —4 + ((TDDR) (MDDR)) 2- (TDDR) —2 -(MDDR)〜2-Sin2(6) ((TDDR) (MDDR))—2=0 式中MDDR是扩张角的余弦。 ((TDDR) (MDDR)) -4 + ((TDDR) (MDDR)) 2- (TDDR) -2 - (MDDR) ~2-Sin2 (6) ((TDDR) (MDDR)) - 2 = 0 style MDDR is the expansion of the cosine of the angle. 从而本发明的这可选用的方法确定了这类边界轨迹。 This is a method whereby the present invention can be used to determine the type of boundary traces.

如以上所指出的,使用不在一平面上的边界轨迹、即不位于一单个Euclidean 平面内的边界轨迹,可以不在一平面内牵拉薄膜。 As noted above, the use of a plane on the track are not in bounds, that is not located at the boundary of a single locus Euclidean plane, a plane can not stretch film. 这些是无数的,然而尤其,满足本发明的这较佳实施例的相关要求的边界轨迹,从而利用不在一平面的边界轨迹可以保持一基本单轴向牵拉函数关系。 These are numerous, but in particular, to meet the requirements which the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the trajectory of the boundary, to take advantage of the trajectory is not a boundary plane can be maintained to a substantially uniaxial stretch function. 该边界可以是对称的,通过一中心平面形成镜像对称图形,例如包括在边界轨迹之间的初始中心点、薄膜运行的初始方向和对于未延伸薄膜表面的初始法线方向的平面。 The boundaries may be symmetrical, forming mirror images through a central plane of the graphics, for example, included in the initial center point between the boundary trajectories, the initial direction of the film and the initial operation of the normal direction of the surface of the unstretched film plane. 在这实施例中,当薄膜沿着这些边界轨道以相同的速率从类似的初始位置、即相互共直线和初始中心点的位置运行时,可以沿着圆柱形空间拓扑面(manifold)在边界轨道之间牵拉薄膜,由在双相对的边界轨 In this embodiment, when the film along the boundary trajectories at the same rate from similar initial positions, i.e. co-linear with each other and the initial center point is running, along the surface topology of the cylindrical space (manifold) at the boundary trajectories traction between the film, by the boundary track in the opposite double

迹之间的最短距离的成组的直线段形成该圆柱形空间拓扑面。 Line segment groups of the shortest distance between the tracks is formed in the cylindrical space topological surface. 这样在中心平面上的这理想的拓扑面的轨迹描画了对于理想牵拉的薄膜中心的路径。 Thus this ideal trajectory surface topology on the central plane of the drawing of the film center for an ideal traction path. 沿着这拓扑面的从在中心平面上的边界轨迹到它的中心轨迹对从边界轨迹的起始位置到初始中心点的距离比例是越过跨越边界轨迹的薄膜的瞬时名义的TDDR,即在边界轨迹上当前相对点之间的一半距离和在边界轨迹上相对点的初始位置之间的一半距离的比值。 Along this topology from the boundary surface of the track in the center plane to its central trajectory of the ratio of the distance from the starting position of the boundary trajectory to the initial center point is beyond the boundary trace of the film across the instantaneous nominal TDDR, i.e., in the boundary the ratio of half the distance on the track of the current half the distance between opposite points on the boundary and initial position relative to the path between the points. 当两个相对点沿着相对的边界轨迹以不同的和相同的速度运动时,在中心轨迹上的相应中心点为沿中心轨迹的圆弧、即曲线的MD被测量的那样改变速度。 When two opposing points along the opposing boundary trajectories with different and the same velocity, the corresponding center point on the center of the track along the central trajectory arc, i.e., the curve was measured as change MD velocity. 尤其,中 In particular, the

心轨迹与在中心轨迹的单位切线上的边界轨迹的单位切线的突出成比例变化。 Prominent change is proportional to the unit in the heart of the trajectory and the trajectory of the center of the unit tangent boundary trajectory tangent.

上述类型的轨迹是示例性的和不应该理解为限制性的。 Trajectory above type are exemplary and should not be construed as limiting. 许多类型的轨迹被认为处于本发明的范围内。 Many types of tracks are considered to be within the scope of the present invention is. 如以上所指示,主延伸区可以包括带有不同延伸状态的两个或多个不同区域。 As indicated above, the primary stretching zone may include two or more different zones with different extended states. 例如,可以从一第一类轨迹选择一轨迹用于初始延伸区,以及可以从相同的第一类轨迹或从不同类型的轨迹选择另一轨迹用于随后的各延伸区。 For example, you can select a track from a first class of trajectories for the initial stretching zone, and may select another track or from the same first class of trajectories from different types of tracks for all subsequent extensions.

本发明包括包含约0. 7、较佳的约0. 75、更较佳的约0. 8和甚至更较佳的约0. 85的U的最小值的所有几乎单轴向边界轨迹。 The present invention includes about 0.7, preferably about 0.75, more preferably about 0.8 and even more preferably all nearly uniaxial minimum of about 0.85 to the boundary of U trajectory. 可以将最小的U限制应用在较佳的约2. 5、仍然更较佳的约2. 0和更较佳的约1. 5的临界TDDR所限定的牵拉的最后部分上。 U minimal restrictions can be applied in the preferred about 2.5, the last part of the stretch is still more preferably about 2.0, and more preferably about 1.5 of the critical TDDR defined. 在临界的TDDR之上,例如包括可定向的和双折射的聚酯的某些整体的和多层的薄膜的某些材料可以开始失去它们的弹性或急速返回的能力,这是因为例如引起应变的结晶性的结构的发展。 Above the critical TDDR, certain materials, e.g., comprising orientable and birefringent polyesters and certain integral multilayer film may begin to lose their elasticity or capability of snap back, because the strain is caused e.g. The development of crystalline structure. 临界的TDDR可以与例如关于开始引起应变的结晶化的许多材料和加工过程(例如温度和应变速率)的特定事件相一致。 TDDR critical with regard to specific events such as the beginning of the strain caused by the crystallization of a number of materials and processes (such as temperature and strain rate) coincide. 以上这一临界的TDDR的U的最小值可以关系到设置进入最后薄膜的适量的非单向特性。 U above the critical minimum of TDDR can enter the appropriate amount related to the set of non-unidirectional final film properties.

当在延伸时期的终端处U是次单轴向时,许多边界轨迹是可用的。 When the terminal U is in the extended period of time uniaxially, many boundary trajectories are available. 尤其,有用的边界轨迹包括共平面的轨迹,其中TDDR为至少5,在达到2. 5的TDDR之后的延伸的最后部分上U为至少0. 7,以及在延伸的终端处U是小于1。 In particular, useful boundary trajectories include coplanar trajectories where TDDR is at least the last portion 5, after reaching TDDR 2. 5 of the U extending at least 0.7, and extending at the terminal U is less than 1. 其它有用的轨迹包括共平面的和不共平面的轨迹,其中TDDR是至少7,在实现2. 5的TDDR之后的延伸的最后部分上U为至少0. 7,以及在延伸的终端处U是小于1。 Other useful trajectories include coplanar and non-coplanar trajectories where TDDR is at least 7, after the last portion extending achieve TDDR 2. 5 of the U is at least 0.7, and extending at the terminal U is less than 1. 有用的轨迹还包括共平面和不共平面的轨迹,其中TDDR为至少6. 5,在实现2. 5的TDDR之后延伸的最后部分上U为至少0.8,以及在延伸的终端处U为小于1。 Useful trajectories also include coplanar and non-coplanar trajectories, wherein at least 6.5, the last part in the realization of TDDR 2. 5 U extending TDDR is at least 0.8, and extending at the terminal U is less than 1 . 有用的轨迹包括共平面和不共平面的轨迹,其中TDDR为至少6,在实现2. 5的TDDR之后的延伸的最后部分上是U为至少O. 9,以及在延伸的终端处U是小于1。 Useful trajectories include coplanar and non-coplanar trajectories where TDDR is at least 6, at the last part of the realization of TDDR 2. 5 after extending a U of at least O. 9, and extending at the terminal is smaller than U 1.

有用的轨迹还包括共平面和不共平面的轨迹,其中TDDR为至少7和在实现2. 5 的TDDR之后的延伸的最后部分上U为至少0. 85。 Useful trajectories also include coplanar and non-coplanar trajectories, wherein at least 7 and, after the final part of TDDR to achieve TDDR 2. 5 of the U extending at least 0.85.

在某些实施例中,将较小程度的MD张力引入延伸加工内,以消除皱縮。 In some embodiments, the lesser degree of MD tension is introduced into the drawing process, in order to eliminate shrinkage. 通常, 虽然不是必需,这MD张力的量随着减小U而增加。 Typically, though not essential, that the amount of MD tension increases with decreasing U.

在某些实施例中,有用的是随着牵拉过程增加张力。 In certain embodiments, it is useful as the pulling process, which increases the tension. 例如,在牵拉中较早U 的较小值可以趋向于将更多的非单轴向特性引入最后薄膜。 For example, a smaller value of U earlier in the stretch may tend to be more non-uniaxial feature introduces the final film. 从而可以有利的是将多种轨迹的属性组合进入合成的轨迹中。 Thus it can be advantageous to combine multiple tracks into the attribute synthetic track. 例如,在牵拉的较早部分中单轴向的抛物线轨迹可以是较佳的,同时牵拉的后期部分可以汇合在一不同的轨迹上。 For example, in the earlier part of the parabolic trajectory drawn uniaxially may be preferred, while pulling the late portion may confluence on a different trajectory. 在另一布置中,U可以被采取为关于TDDR的不增加的函数。 In another arrangement, U may be taken as a non-increasing function of about TDDR. 在又一布置中,在例如1.5,2或 In yet another arrangement, for example, 1.5, 2 or

2. 5的临界牵拉比之后过喂送量F可以是关于TDDR的不增加的函数。 Critical draw ratio 2.5 feed after excessive amount of F can not be a function of increased TDDR of.

非轴向抛物线轨迹采用了薄膜的均匀的空间的牵拉。 Non-axial parabolic trajectory using a uniform spatial stretch film. 用许多聚合物系统能够实现薄膜的良好的空间均匀性,这些系统带有与在牵拉开始和牵拉时期温度分布的仔细控制相结合的初始的、不牵拉薄膜或薄膜带的交叉网(crossweb)和下游网(doTOweb)厚度分布的仔细控度。 Many polymer systems can be realized with a thin film of good spatial uniformity, with these systems start with a carefully controlled stretch and stretch temperature distribution during the initial combination, do not stretch film or film tape crossover ( crossweb) and careful control of the downstream network (doTOweb) thickness distribution. 例如,在初始均匀的厚度的薄膜上、在初期和牵拉期间越过薄膜的均匀的温度分布在大多数情况中应该充分满足要求。 For example, on the initial uniform film thickness, in the initial stage and during pulling the film over the uniform temperature distribution in most cases should be sufficient to meet the requirements. 许多聚合物系统尤其易于不均匀一致,以及如果薄膜厚度和温度均匀性是不适当的会以不均匀方式牵拉。 Many polymer systems are particularly prone not uniform, and if the film thickness and temperature uniformity is inappropriate will be non-uniform way stretch. 例如,聚丙烯趋于在单轴向牵拉之下的"直线牵拉(line draw)"。 For example, polypropylene tends to stretch under uniaxial "straight stretch (line draw)". 某些聚酯、特别是聚乙烯苯二甲酸酯也很敏感。 Certain polyesters, particularly polyethylene terephthalate is also very sensitive.

由于许多原因,例如包括不均匀薄膜厚度或其它性能、不均匀加热等,可以产生不均匀薄膜延伸。 For many reasons, including for example non-uniform film thickness or other properties, non-uniform heating, etc., can produce non-uniform film extends. 在许多这些情况中,靠近夹持件的薄膜的部分比在中央的薄膜的部分较快地牵拉。 In many of these cases, close to the film holding member is pulled faster than the portion in the center portion of the film. 这产生薄膜中的MD张力,这能够限制实现最后的均匀的MDDR 的能力。 This creates an MD tension in the film, which can limit the ability to achieve a final uniform MDDR of. 对这问题的一个弥补是修改抛物线或其它单轴向轨迹,以提供较小的MDDR。 One remedy to this problem is to modify a parabolic or other uniaxial trajectory to provide smaller MDDR. 换句话说,对于牵拉的一部分或全部MDDR〈(TDDR)—1/2。 In other words, for a part or all MDDR pulling <(TDDR) -1/2.

在一实施例中,选择了一修改的抛物线或其它单轴向的轨迹,其中对于整个牵拉MDDR〈(TDDR)'",对应于较大的扩张角。至少在某些情况中,因为小于1的U 值对于应用情况是可接受的,所以这条件可以被放松。在一些情况中,选择一修改的抛物线或其它单轴向的轨迹,其中(0. 9)MDDR〈(TDDR)—1/2。 In one embodiment, the selected parabolic or other uniaxial trajectory to a modification, wherein the entire stretch MDDR <(TDDR) '", corresponding to a larger divergence angle, at least in some cases, because less than U 1 value are acceptable for the application, so that the conditions can be relaxed. In some instances, select a parabolic or other uniaxial trajectory to a modification, wherein (0. 9) MDDR <(TDDR) -1 / 2.

在另一实施例中,选择了一修改的抛物线或其它单轴向轨迹,其中对于TDDR 增加至少0. 5或1的初始延伸区MDDR〈(TDDR)—1/2。 In another embodiment, a selected modified parabolic or other uniaxial trajectory in which the increase in the initial stretching zone for TDDR least 0.5 or 1 MDDR <(TDDR) -1/2. 然后对于牵拉的其余部分保持一不同的轨迹。 Then, for the rest of the pull holding a different trajectory. 例如,后面的延伸区(在延伸区34内)将具有其中MDDR等于或接近等于(在5%内,较佳地在3/。内)(TDDR)—^的抛物线或其它单轴向轨迹。 For example, the back of the extension region (the extension region 34) wherein MDDR having equal or nearly equal (within 5%, preferably at 3 / inside.) (TDDR) - ^ parabolic or other uniaxial the trajectory. 作为一个例子,初始延伸区能够完成TDDR值达到所需的值。 As an example, the initial stretching zone can complete TDDR value reaches the desired value. 这所需的值通常不大于4或5。 This desired value is typically no more than 4 or 5. 然后后面的延伸区能够从初始延伸区的所需值(或如果有插入的延伸区从一较高值) 将TDDR增加。 Then extending rearwardly from the initial region can be extended region of the desired value (or, if there is insertion zone extending from a higher value) to increase the TDDR. 通常,选择后面的延伸区用于增加TDDRO. 5或1或以上。 Typically, the back of the extension area is used to select an increase TDDRO. 5 or 1 or more.

再次,至少在某些情况中,因为对于应用情况小于1的U值是可以接受的, 所以MDDR和TDDR的关系可以放松。 Again, at least in some cases, as for the application is less than the value of U 1 is acceptable, so the MDDR and TDDR relationship can be relaxed. 在这些情况下,选择初始延伸区的修改的抛物线或其它单轴向轨迹,其中(0.9) (MDDR)〈(TDDR)—''2。 In these cases, choose to modify the initial stretching zone parabolic or other uniaxial trajectory in which (0.9) (MDDR) <(TDDR) - '' 2.

返回到图5,设备通常包括后区36。 Returning to Figure 5, apparatus 36 generally includes a back region. 例如,薄膜可以在区域48内被吹风硬化和在区域50内骤冷。 For example, the film may be a hair in the region 48 in the region of 50 hardened and quenched. 在某些实施例中,在延伸设备之外部进行骤冷操作。 In certain embodiments, the device extends outside the quenching operation. 通常, 在薄膜的至少一部分、例如多层薄膜内的一层达到玻璃化转变之下的一温度时薄膜 Typically, at least a portion of the film, such as a layer of a multilayer film reaches the glass transition temperature when a film under

被吹风硬化。 Hair is hardened. 在所有部分达到它们的玻璃化转变之下的一温度时薄膜被骤冷。 When all parts reach a temperature below their glass transition film was quenched. 在图5的实施例中,使用移出系统从主延伸区34带走薄膜。 In the embodiment of FIG. 5, the use of out of the system area 34 extending away from the main film. 在所述的实施例中,这移出系统是与其上传送薄膜通过主延伸区的轨迹是分开的(即不直接连接于该轨道)。 In the illustrated embodiment, this is out of the system through its trajectory on the main transport membrane extending zone are separated (i.e., not directly connected to the track). 移出系统可以使用任何薄膜传送结构,例如带有例如相对成套的皮带或拉幅器夹子 Out of the system can use any film transfer structure, such as for example with a relatively complete set of belts or tenter clips

的夹持件的轨道MO、 141。 Track holding member MO, 141.

在如图IO所示的某些实施例中,利用轨道140' 、 141'能够实现TD收縮控制, 这两轨道是倾斜的(与能够使用在适合的移出系统的其它实施例中的平行轨道140、 141相比较)。 IO shown in FIG certain embodiments, the use of track 140 ', 141' TD shrinkage control can be achieved, the two tracks is inclined (and can be used in other embodiments of suitable removal systems of parallel rails 140 , compared to 141). 例如,可以将移出系统的轨道定位成跟随一缓慢会聚的路径(产生不大于约5。的角度e)通过后处理区的至少一部分,以便于随着冷却的薄膜TD收縮。 For example, the track is positioned out of the system to follow a slowly converging path (generating an angle no greater than about 5. e) at least a part through the treatment zone, so as to increase as the film cooling TD shrinkage. 在这结构中的轨道允许控制TD收縮,以增加在收縮中的均匀性。 Track In this structure allows control of TD shrinkage to increase uniformity in the shrinkage. 在其它实施例中,两个相对的轨道通常可以按不大于约3。 In other embodiments, the two opposing tracks can generally no greater than about 3. 的角度扩张,不过在某些实施例中可以使用较大的角度。 Angle expansion, but in some embodiments may use a larger angle. 这可以用于增加在主延伸区内的薄膜的MD张力,例如以减少性能不均匀,例如越过薄膜的折射指数的主轴线的变化。 This can be used to increase the MD tension in the film main extension region, e.g., to reduce variation in performance, e.g., a thin film of refractive index variation across the main axis.

在某些实施例中,移出系统的位置可以调节,用于改变沿着延伸设备、移出系统夹持薄膜的位置,如图11所示。 In some embodiments, out of the system can adjust the position, along the extension of the device for varying, the system out of the position of sandwiching the film, as shown in Fig. 这可调节能力提供了控制薄膜所受到的延伸量的一方法。 This adjustability provides a method of controlling the film suffered elongation amount. 由定位在牵拉中较前的移出系统的轨道140' 、 141'(由图11中的虚线所示)接收的薄膜通常会具有比定位在拉牵中较后的移出系统的轨道140、 141(在图11中的实线所示)接收的薄膜较小的TDDR。 By locating the removal systems of the previous track in the stretch 140 ', 141' (by a broken line shown in FIG. 11) of the film will typically have received a later removal systems of the rails 140 positioned in Dragline than 141 (shown in solid lines in FIG. 11) is smaller TDDR film received. 还可以有选择地将移出系统构造成允许调节移出系统的相对轨道之间的距离。 You can also selectively removed from the system constructed out of the system allows you to adjust the distance between the orbits relative. 此外,还可以有选择地将移出系 Additionally, you can selectively removing lines

统构造成允许调节移出系统的长度。 The system is configured to allow adjustment of the length out of the system.

可行的移出系统的另一个例子包括带有分开的轨道140、 141、 142、 143的至 Another example of possible out system comprises a track having spaced to 140, 141, 142, 143

少两个不同的区域。 At least two different regions. 能够利用如图12所示的两组分开的轨道140、 141和142、 143, 形成这些区域。 Able to use two separate sets of rails 140 as shown in FIG. 12, 141 and 142, 143, are formed in these regions. 在一实施例中,如图12所示,第一区可以包括以一会聚角设置的轨道140、 141,以提供TD收缩控制,以及在第二区中的轨道142、 143可以是平行的。 In one embodiment, shown in Figure 12, the first zone may include rails disposed at a converging angle of 140, 141, to provide TD shrinkage control, as well as the track 142 in the second region 143 may be parallel. 在其它实施例中,可以将两个不同区的相对轨道设置成有两个不同的会聚角, In other embodiments, the track may be relatively disposed in two different zones with two different convergence angle,

以提供TD收縮控制,如以上所述,或者第一区可以具有平行的轨道和第二区具有以会聚角设置的、用于提供TD收縮控制的轨道。 To provide TD shrinkage control, as described above, or the first region can have parallel tracks and the second region having a convergence angle set for the track to provide TD shrinkage control. 可替换选用地或附加地,可以按两个不同的移出速度设置两个不同的轨道,用于使主延伸区与移出区去耦,施加张力以去除皱縮。 Alternatively or additionally, the choice may be provided according to two different tracks out of two different speeds, for the main region and extending out of the decoupling region, tension is applied to remove the collapse.

在图12所示的移出系统的一实施例中,在接受薄膜之前,轨道142'、 143' 嵌套在相对的轨道140、 141之中。 In one embodiment, out of the system shown in FIG. 12, prior to acceptance of the film, the track 142 ', 143' nested in the opposite track 140, 141 being. 当由相对的轨道140、 141开始接纳薄膜时,轨 When the relative orbit 140, 141 began to accept the film, rail

道142、 143运动到图12所示的位置。 Channel 142, 143 is moved to the position 12 shown in FIG. 在另外一些实施例中,在没有任何薄膜时, 相对的轨道140、 141、 142、 143位于图12所示的位置(即没有嵌套)。 In other embodiments, in the absence of any film, opposite track 140, 141, 142, 143 located at the position shown in Figure 12 (i.e., not nested).

图13示出了移出系统的另一例子。 Figure 13 shows another example of the system removed. 在这例子中,移出系统的轨道140、 141 相对于当薄膜通过主延伸区的轨道64被传送时的薄膜的中心线是倾斜的。 In this example, out of the rail system 140, 141 with respect to the main track when the film extends through the region of the center line of the film 64 is to be transmitted when tilted. 两个相对的传送机构的角度可以是相同的,例如角度P,或者该角度可以不同,对于一轨道该角度可以叙述为(3 + s,以及对于另一轨道为(3-s。通常,p至少是1。和可以是5、 10。或20。或以上的角度。角度s对应于以上叙述的会聚或扩展角,用于提供TD 收縮控制等。在某些实施例中,在主延伸区内的轨道64还可以按角度cp设置,以及轨道140、 141倾斜cp + P + s和(p+ps角度,如图13所示。倾斜的移出系统、主延伸区、或者两者可以用于提供其中薄膜的性能的主轴线或轴线、例如折射指数轴线或撕裂轴线相对于薄膜是倾斜的薄膜。在某些实施例中,移出系统相对于主延伸区所采取的角度是可手工或利用计算机控制的驱动器或其它控制机构、或两者进行调节的。 Angle between two opposing transfer mechanism may be the same, for example angle P, or the angle may be different, for a rail of the angle may be described as (3 + s, and for the other track of (3-s. Typically, p at least 1 and can be 5 , 10. or 20. or more angles. s corresponding to the above described angle of convergence or divergence angle, for providing a TD shrinkage control, etc. In some embodiments, the main extension track area 64 may be set at an angle cp, and a rail 140, 141 is inclined cp + P + s and the (p + ps angle, as shown in Fig. sloping removal systems, primary stretching zone, or both can be used wherein the film performance in providing the main axis or axis, such as refractive index axes or tear axis inclined with respect to the film is a thin film. In some embodiments, out of the system with respect to the angle of the main extension region is taken or can be manually the use of computer-controlled drive or other control mechanism, or both regulation.

在利用倾斜的移出系统的某些实施例中,两个相对的轨道被定位成接纳具有相同的或基本上类似的TDDR的薄膜(其中虚线150示出了在相同的TDDR情况下的薄膜),如图13所示。 In certain embodiments utilizing inclined removal systems, the two opposing tracks are positioned to receive the same or substantially similar TDDR film (wherein the dotted line 150 shows a film at the same TDDR case), As shown in Figure 13. 在另外一些实施例中,两相对的轨道140、 141被定位成接纳薄膜,以致对于两相对的轨道TDDR是不同的(图14的虚线150示出了在相同的TDDR情况下的薄膜),如图14所示。 In other embodiments, the two opposing tracks 140, 141 is positioned to receive the film, so that the two opposing tracks for TDDR is different (the dotted line 150 of FIG. 14 shows the film at the same TDDR situation), e.g. Figure 14. 这后一结构可以提供其性能在薄膜的TD尺寸上是变化的薄膜。 This latter structure may be provided on its performance in the film is TD dimension change film.

通常,将被经过主延伸区的夹持件夹持的薄膜的部分去除掉。 Typically, the clamping member will be subjected to partial areas of the main extension of the film holder removed. 为保持基本上整个牵拉过程的基本单轴向牵拉(如图5所示),在横向延伸的端部处,在切开位置58较佳地将迅速扩展的边缘部分56从延伸的薄膜48切去。 In order to maintain substantially the puller (5), at the end of laterally extending, at position 58 is preferably cut to the rapid expansion of the film from the edge portion 56 extending substantially uniaxial stretch throughout the process 48 cut. 在框架58处可以进行切割和毛边或不可用的部分56可以丢弃。 In frame 58 can be cut and flash or unusable portions 56 may be discarded.

从连续的夹持机构释放薄膜边可以连续地进行;但是,从不连续的夹持机构、 例如拉幅器夹子释放薄膜边应该较佳地进行,使在任意某夹子下的全部材料立即被释放。 The clamping mechanism is released from a continuous film side can be performed continuously; however, never continuous clamping mechanism, e.g., tenter clips release the film edges should preferably be such that all the material in any of a clip is released immediately . 这不连续的释放机构可能引起应力方面的较大干扰,这干扰可以被牵拉的薄膜带的上游感觉到。 This discrete release mechanism may cause significant interference stress aspect, the upstream felt this interference can be drawn film tape. 为了有助于分开的移出装置的作用,较佳的是利用在该装置中的连续的薄膜边分离机构,例如从被加热的、被牵拉的薄膜的中央部分"热"切开薄膜边。 To help separate out the role of the device, preferred is the use in the apparatus of the continuous film side of the separation means, e.g., film edges cut from the heated central portion of the film is pulled "hot."

切开的位置较佳地充分地靠近"夹持线",例如被移出系统的夹持件第一有效接触的分离的移出点,以使该点的上游的应力干扰最小或使其减小。 Cut position is preferably sufficiently close to "clamp line", e.g., an isolated point is removed out of the system of effective contact of the first clamping member, such that stress interference upstream of the point of minimum or it decreases. 如果在移出系统夹持薄膜之前切开薄膜,例如薄膜沿着TD的"急速返回"可能造成不稳定的移出。 If the film prior to removing cut film gripping system, such as a thin film along the TD of "snap back" may cause instability removed. 这样薄膜较佳地在夹持线处或其下游处切开。 Such films are preferably cut at holding the line at or downstream. 切开是破裂过程,从而通常具有空间位置方面较小的但自然的变化。 Rupture process is cut, thus generally have a small but natural variation spatial location areas. 从而可以较佳的是在夹持线的稍许下游处切开,以防止发生在夹持线上游处而产生的在切开方面的任何瞬时变化。 Which can preferably be clamped in a slightly downstream of the cut line, to prevent any transient change in the clamping line generated in the upstream of the cutting area. 如果薄膜基 If the film base

本上在夹持线下游被切开,那么在移出和边界轨迹之间的薄膜将沿着TD连续延伸。 The on-line downstream of the clamp is cut, then the film is removed and the boundary between the track will extend continuously along the TD. 由于此时仅有薄膜的这部分正在牵拉,此时它以相对于边界轨迹以一放大的牵拉比牵拉,产生能够向上游传播的进一步的应力干扰,例如向上游传播的机器方向张力的不希望有的程度。 Since this case is just a part of the film is pulled, its machine direction at this time to further stress the interference with respect to the boundary trajectory to an enlarged stretch than the stretch, upstream propagation can be produced, for example, upstream propagation of tension undesirable degree.

该切开较佳地是可动的和可再定位,从而它能够变化,并带有所需的移出位置方面的变化,该移出位置的变化适应可变的最终的横向牵拉比或移出系统的位置的调节。 This cut preferably is movable and can be re-positioned so that it can vary, and change out of the desired position with respect, to adapt to changes in the out position variable final transverse stretch ratio or removal systems position adjustment. 这类切开系统的一优点是能够调节牵拉比,同时简单地通过移动移出切开点58保持牵拉分布。 An advantage of such systems is able to adjust the cut stretch ratio, while simply by moving the cutting point 58 remains pulled out distribution.

能够使用各种各样的切开技术,包括热剃刀、热金属丝、激光、强烈的IR辐射的聚焦束或热空气的聚焦射流。 Can be used to cut a variety of techniques, including heat razor, hot wire, laser, intense IR radiation or a focused jet of hot air in a focused beam. 在热空气的射流的情况中,射流中的空气可以充分地较热,例如通过射流之下的加热软化、融化和受拉的破裂,以在薄膜中吹出一孔。 In the case of the hot air jet, the jet of air can be sufficiently hot, for example by heating to soften under the jet, melted and broken by the pull, to blow a hole in the film. 或者,加热的射流可以仅仅软化薄膜的受聚焦的部分,以将被仍然扩张的边界轨迹所施加的进一步牵拉充分地限制在局部,从而通过连续的薄膜延伸作用引起沿着这加热线下游的最终的断裂。 Alternatively, the heated jet may merely soften a focused portion of the film by further pulling to expand the boundaries of the track being still sufficiently applied locally limited, causing downstream along the heating line extending through the continuous film effect The final fracture. 聚焦的喷流方法在某些情况下可以是较佳的,尤其是例如以一受控方式通过真空排气可以积极地排除废空气、以防止散射的温度流干扰牵拉过程的均匀性时。 Focused jet method in some cases may be preferred, especially for example in a controlled manner can positively exclude the exhaust air by a vacuum exhaust, in order to prevent the temperature uniformity stream interference scattering pulling Process. 例如,可以使用在喷嘴周围的同心排气环。 For example, you can use the exhaust nozzle concentric rings around. 或者,可以使用喷嘴之下的排气,例如在薄膜的另一侧上。 Alternatively, the exhaust nozzle may be used under, for example, on the other side of the membrane. 排气可以进一步向下游偏移或被增补, 以进一步减少散射的流动向上游进入牵拉区。 Shift further downstream the exhaust gas can be added or, to further reduce the scattering of the flow upstream into the stretch zone.

移出系统的另一特征是速度和/或MD张力控制的方法,从而以与输出速度相容的方式可以移出薄膜。 Another feature of the system is out of the speed and / or MD tension control so as to be compatible with the output speed of the way the film can be removed. 还可以利用这移出系统拉去在薄膜中的任何剩留的皱縮。 It can also utilize any shrinkage in the film out of the system pull to the left stay. 通过在被牵拉的薄膜的最终被释放部分的输出速度上临时增加移出速度,在开动期间开始拉去该皱縮,或者例如在牵拉的最后部分内的超单轴向牵拉的情况下在连续工作期间通过在输出薄膜MD速度上的不变速度拉去皱缩。 In the output speed by eventually released by pulling the film out of a portion of a temporary increase in speed, during the start of the pull to start shrinkage, or for example in the last part of the super-uniaxial stretch stretch case During continuous operation by the same speed on the output speed of the film got me MD shrinkage. 还能够将移出速度设定在夹持线处、沿着边界轨迹的薄膜的MD速度之上。 Also can be removed at holding the line speed is set at the top speed along the border MD trajectory of the film. 这能够用于改变薄膜的性能。 This can be used to change the properties of the film. 移出的这超速还能够减小U的最终值,从而被在薄膜的最终使用的范围内的这考虑所限制。 This speed can also be removed to reduce the final value of U, so as to be limited within the scope of this consideration of the final use of the film.

该加工过程还包括在区域38内的去除部分。 The process further comprises removing a portion of the region 38. 可选择地可以使用一辊子65,用 Alternatively, you can use a roller 65, with

于使薄膜前进,但可以不用这辊子。 In advance of the film, but it can not roll. 较佳地,不使用辊子65,这是由于它将接触 Preferably, the roller 65 is not used, this is due to it contacts

被延伸的薄膜52,带有损坏被延伸的薄膜的伴随的可能性。 Film 52 are extended, with the possibility of damage to the film is extended concomitant. 可以进行另一切割和可以丢弃不使用的部分61。 Another can be cut and can discard unused portion 61. 离开移出系统的薄膜通常巻绕在辊子上,供以后使用。 The films are typically left out of the system Volume wound on the roller, for later use. 或者,在移出之后可以进行直接的传送。 Alternatively, after removing the transfer can be performed directly.

以上所述的MD和TD收缩控制的原理还可以应用于其它延伸设备,包括图1 所示的传统的拉幅器结构。 Above said MD and TD shrinkage control principle can also be applied to other extension devices, including traditional tenter structure shown in Fig. 图17示出了一实施例,其中来自主延伸区的轨道64(例如图1中所示的直线形的扩张的轨道)连续进入或通过后处理区的一部分。 Figure 17 shows an embodiment in which the rail extends from the main region 64 (e.g., linear expansion of the track shown in Fig. 1) passed continuously into the treatment zone or part. 如果需要,那么薄膜可选择地被单独的移出系统140、 141夹持。 If desired, the film may optionally be a separate removal systems 140, 141 clamp. 可以使用轨道64的连续性冷却薄膜和便于薄膜的收縮。 You can use the continuous cooling film tracks 64 and ease shrink film. 在某些实施例中,连续的轨道164跟随缓慢会聚的路径(产生不大于约5。的角度e)通过后处理区的至少一部分,便于伴随冷却产生的薄膜的TD收縮。 In certain embodiments, the continuous track follow slowly converging path 164 (generating an angle no greater than about 5. e) at least a part through the treatment zone, to facilitate the generation of film cooling along TD shrinkage. 在这结构中的轨道允许控制TD收縮,以增加收縮中的均匀性。 Track In this structure allows control of TD shrinkage to increase uniformity in the shrinkage. 在某些实施例中,轨道264跟随较积极会聚的路径(产生至少15的角度0,通常在20和30。范围内)通过后处理区的至少一部分,用于提供随着冷却产生的薄膜的MD 收縮控制。 In certain embodiments, the track 264 to follow a more positive converging path (angle of at least 15 to produce the 0, usually within the range of 20 and 30.) through at least a portion of the post-treatment zone, for providing cooling resulting as MD shrinkage control of the film. 在某些实施例中,如图17所示,后处理区包括缓慢会聚轨道164和较积极的会聚轨道264两者。 In certain embodiments, shown in Figure 17, post-treatment zone comprises slowly converging tracks 164 and more positive of the two converging tracks 264. 在另一些实施例中,仅使用一组轨道164和轨道264。 In other embodiments, the use of only one set of tracks 164 and track 264.

不应该将本发明理解为局限于上述特定例子,而是应该理解为复盖如所附权利要求书清楚指出的本发明的所有方面。 The present invention should not be construed as limited to the specific examples, but it should be understood to cover as clearly pointed out in the appended claims all aspects of the present invention. 对于与本发明有关的领域的那些熟练人员来说,在阅读了本说明书的基础上,可以应用本发明的许多修改、等价的加工过程以及大量的结构将是很明显的。 For the present invention, those skilled in the relevant art that the reading on the basis of the present specification, the present invention can be applied to many modifications, equivalents, as well as the processing of a large number of structures will be apparent.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
CN103796824A *13 Sep 201214 May 20143M创新有限公司Textured film and process for manufacture
CN103796824B *13 Sep 201225 Nov 20153M创新有限公司纹理膜及制造方法
Classifications
International ClassificationB29C55/08, B29C55/16
Cooperative ClassificationY10S425/041, B29C55/165, B29C55/08
European ClassificationB29C55/16B, B29C55/08
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
28 Dec 2005C06Publication
22 Feb 2006C10Request of examination as to substance
9 Jan 2008C14Granted