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Publication numberCA2664626 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberCA 2664626
PCT numberPCT/IB2007/053925
Publication date3 Apr 2008
Filing date27 Sep 2007
Priority date29 Sep 2006
Also published asEP2066970A2, US20080081305, WO2008038244A2, WO2008038244A3
Publication numberCA 2664626, CA 2664626 A1, CA 2664626A1, CA-A1-2664626, CA2664626 A1, CA2664626A1, PCT/2007/53925, PCT/IB/2007/053925, PCT/IB/2007/53925, PCT/IB/7/053925, PCT/IB/7/53925, PCT/IB2007/053925, PCT/IB2007/53925, PCT/IB2007053925, PCT/IB200753925, PCT/IB7/053925, PCT/IB7/53925, PCT/IB7053925, PCT/IB753925
InventorsSteven Anthony Horenziak, Gary Jay Groznik, Dana Paul Gruenbacher
ApplicantThe Procter & Gamble Company, Steven Anthony Horenziak, Gary Jay Groznik, Dana Paul Gruenbacher
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: CIPO, Espacenet
Candle having visually distinct regions
CA 2664626 A1
Abstract
Candle for providing an aesthetically pleasing ambiance. The candle may include two or more visually distinct regions. The candle may be scented. The present invention also relates to a container for holding the candle. The container may include indicia. A method for making the candle of the present invention is also disclosed.
Claims(12)
24What is claimed is:
1. A container candle, said container candle comprising:
a) a candle comprised of two regions wherein each of said two regions are visually distinct from one another and characterized in that both of said visually distinct regions are visible from the top of said candle; and b) a container for holding said candle wherein said container includes indicia molded into the bottom of said container.
2. The container candle of Claim 1 wherein said container further comprises a top and a bottom and an interior and an exterior wherein the cross sectional diameter at any first height above the interior bottom of said container is from 10% to 400% shorter than the longest cross sectional diameter at any second higher height from said interior bottom of said container.
3. The container candle of Claim 1 or Claim 2 wherein said container further comprises a top and a bottom and an interior and an exterior wherein said bottom of said interior of said container includes a centering element, preferably wherein said centering element is a collar and preferably wherein said bottom of said interior of said candle includes a protrusion for holding said candle.
4. The container candle according to any of the preceding claims wherein said container further comprises indicia wherein said reflection of said indicia is visible in one or more surfaces of said container.
5. The container candle according to any of the preceding claims wherein said one of said two regions of said candle is comprised of a core and wherein one of said two regions is comprised of a bulk phase, preferably wherein the height of said bulk phase is lower than the height of said core and preferably wherein said bulk phase is on the outside of said core.
6. The container candle according to any of the preceding claims wherein said candle further comprises an air freshening composition wherein said air freshening composition includes malodor neutralization ingredients, preferably wherein said malodor neutralization ingredients utilize vapor phase technology, sensory modification, or a combination thereof, and more preferably wherein said air freshening composition includes from 1% to 25% by weight of aldehydes, ionones, or a combination thereof.
7. A process for making a container candle comprising more than one phase, said process comprising the steps of:
a) providing a solid inner core fuel;
b) providing a bulk phase fuel in a molten state;
c) placing said bulk phase fuel in said molten state into a container;
d) placing said solid inner core fuel such into the center of said bulk phase fuel;
e) cooling said bulk phase fuel until it is at least partially solidified; and f) heating said bulk phase fuel and said solid inner core fuel so as to partially melt said bulk phase fuel and said solid inner core.
8. The process according to Claim 7 wherein the density of said bulk phase fuel in a molten state is less than or equal to said density of said solid inner core fuel.
9. The process according to Claim 7 or Claim 8 wherein said solid inner core further comprises an air freshening composition, preferably wherein said air freshening composition includes malodor neutralization ingredients.
10. The process according to any one of Claims 7, 8, or 9 wherein said container further includes indicia molded into the bottom of said container wherein the reflection of said indicia is visible on at least one surface of said container.
11. The process according to any one of Claims 7, 8, 9, or 10 further comprising the steps of preheating said container preferably to a surface temperature of from 100F (38C) to 160F
(71C) prior to the step of providing a solid inner core fuel, placing said solid inner core fuel into said container and heating said container preferably until the surface temperature of said container reaches a temperature of at least 100F (38C) prior to the step of providing said bulk phase fuel in a molten state, and heating said bulk phase fuel and said solid inner core fuel so as to partially melt said bulk phase fuel and said solid inner core after said step of cooling said bulk phase fuel until it is partially solidified, preferably wherein said bulk phase fuel does not contact the top of said solid inner core fuel.
12. The process according to according to any one of Claims 7, 8, 9, 10, or 11 wherein said solid inner core further comprises a wick and wherein said step of placing said solid inner core fuel into said container further comprises the step of gluing said solid core to said container.
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

CANDLE HAVING VISUALLY DISTINCT REGIONS

FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a candle which includes two or more visually distinct regions and a method for making a candle having visually distinct regions.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Candles having more than one layer are known in the art. These layers may be visually distinct. However, as these visually distinct layers are typically stacked one on top of another only the uppermost layer is visible from the top of the candle. The present invention relates to candles having visually distinct regions wherein two or more of the visually distinct regions are visible from the top of the candle.
This and other features, aspects, advantages, and variations of the present invention will become evident to those skilled in the art from a reading of the present disclosure with the appended claims and are covered within the scope of the claims.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a candle. The candle may comprise two or more visually distinct regions. The candle may be scented. A container for the candle may be included. Indicia may be included on the container. If desired, the indicia may be molded into the bottom of the container.
A process is also provided for making the candle of the present invention. The process may include providing a solid inner core fuel and a bulk phase fuel wherein the bulk phase fuel is provided in a molten state. The bulk phase fuel is added in a molten state to the container. The solid inner core may be placed into the center of the bulk phase fuel. The bulk phase fuel is cooled until it is partially solidified. The bulk phase fuel and the solid inner core may then be heated so as to partially melt the bulk phase fuel and the solid inner core. The bulk phase fuel and solid inner core then are allowed to cool so as to solidify both the bulk phase fuel and the solid inner core.
In another suitable process for making the candle of the present invention the container for the candle is preheated. A solid inner core is placed into the preheated container. The surface of the container containing the solid core is heated. Typically it is heated to at least about 100 F
(38 C). The bulk phase is added in a molten state to the container. The bulk phase fuel is cooled

2 until it is partially solidified. The bulk phase fuel and solid inner core may be heated so as to partially melt the bulk phase fuel and the solid inner core.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
It is believed that the present invention will be better understood from the following description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of one non-limiting embodiment of a candle made in accordance with the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a perspective view of one non-limiting embodiment of a container suitable for containing a candle made in accordance with the present invention.
FIG. 3 is a front view of the container of FIG. 2.
FIG. 4 is a perspective view of one non-limiting embodiment of a candle in a container made in accordance with the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
Reference will now be made in detail to various embodiments of the present invention, examples of which are illustrated in the accompanying drawings wherein like numerals indicate the same elements throughout the views. All percentages, ratios and proportions herein are on a weight basis unless otherwise indicated.
Except as otherwise noted, all amounts including quantities, percentages, portions, and proportions, are understood to be modified by the word "about", and amounts are not intended to indicate significant digits.
Except as otherwise noted, the articles "a", "an", and "the" mean "one or more".
As used herein, "comprising" means that other steps and other ingredients which do not affect the end result can be added. This term encompasses the terms "consisting of" and "consisting essentially of". The compositions and methods/processes of the present invention can comprise, consist of, and consist essentially of the essential elements and limitations of the invention described herein, as well as any of the additional or optional ingredients, components, steps, or limitations described herein.
As used herein, the terms "fragrance", "scent", and "perfume" are used interchangeably to refer to any odoriferous material that is included in the candle fuel source and released into the atmosphere.

3 As used herein, "indicia" refers to any desired array that creates an image or a pattern.
As used herein, "phase" refers to candles comprising more than one area or region wherein at least one attribute differs between the areas or regions. The terms "area"
and "region" are used interchangeably throughout this document.
As used herein, "opacity" refers to an indication of how much light passes through a material. The higher the opacity, the less is the amount of light that passes through the material.
Generally opacity is calculated from reflectance measurements of the material with a black backing and the same material with a white backing wherein:

%Opacity =(Yblack backing / Ywhite backing) X 100 Wherein Y is the CIE tristimulus value of Y.
It should be understood that every maximum numerical limitation given throughout this specification includes every lower numerical limitation, as if such lower numerical limitations were expressly written herein. Every minimum numerical limitation given throughout this specification will include every higher numerical limitation, as if such higher numerical limitations were expressly written herein. Every numerical range given throughout this specification will include every narrower numerical range that falls within such broader numerical range, as if such narrower numerical ranges were all expressly written herein.

Candle Fuel The candle of the present invention may be in the form of a pillar candle or preferably in the form of a container candle. The candle comprises a fuel. Suitable fuel sources include but are not limited to waxes, gels, and combinations thereof. Suitable waxes include but are not limited to petroleum based wax (one non-limiting example of which is paraffin); animal based wax; plant or vegetable based wax including but not limited to soy, palm, and bayberry wax;
insect based wax including but not limited to beeswax; and combinations thereof. The fuel utilized for the candle of the present invention is generally solid at temperatures of about 30 C or less. Non-limiting examples of suitable fuels include waxes such as PARAFFLEX 4635A, PARAFFLEX
4794A, PARAFFLEX 4627, and IGI6095A, all available from The International Group Incorporated of Wayne, Pennsylvania.

4 PCT/IB2007/053925 Wick The candle also comprises one or more wicks. A wide variety of wicks are suitable for this purpose. One series of suitable wicks is the SUPERIOR 600 series available from Wick n' Clip Incorporated of Woodridge, New Jersey. The wick may optionally be coated with a wax so as to stiffen the wick thereby allowing for easier placement of the wick in the desired position during the candle manufacturing process. Coating the wick with wax will also help fill in any air pockets which may be present in the wick thereby allowing for more even burning of the wick. One non-limiting example of a suitable wax for this purpose is Superior High Melt Point Wick Coating Wax available from the Candlewic Company of Doylestown, Pennsylvania.

Candle Phases The candle may comprise more than one phase. For instance, in one non-limiting example, one region of the candle may comprise one fragrance while another region may comprise a different fragrance or have no fragrance. In another non-limiting example it may be desirable for one region of the candle to contain fuels having the same or having different properties. Likewise, in a candle comprised of more than one region each region may be comprised of one or more fuels having the same properties or having different properties from the other region(s). For instance, in one non-limiting scenario wherein a first region of a candle surrounds the wick and a second region (which is visually distinct from the first region) surrounds the first region, in some instances it may be desirable that the fuel in the first region be relatively harder than the fuel in the second region. For example, the fuel in the first region may have a Needle Penetration value at 25 C (as measured in accordance with ASTM D1321) from about 5 to about 50 while the fuel in the second region may have a Needle Penetration Value at 25 C from about 75 to about 250.
Alternatively, the fuel in both regions may have similar or equal Needle Penetration values. In another non-limiting example, the candle in one region may be comprised of one or more fuels having the same or different melting points. Similarly, a candle comprised of more than one region may include one or more fuels in each region wherein the melting point of the fuels within the region are the same or are different and additionally or alternatively the melting point of the fuels may vary between each different regions. If desired, these regions may be visually distinct from one another. In another non-limiting example, one region of the candle may be of a different color than another region. In an additional non-limiting embodiment, one region of the candle may have an opacity which is different from the opacity of another region. In another non-limiting example, one region of the candle may have a different gloss than another region of the candle. In a further non-limiting embodiment, one region of the candle may have a different density than another region. In yet another non-limiting example, it may be desirable to use a fuel with enhanced mold release properties (one non-limiting example of which is PARAFFLEX
4794A) for the wick containing phase while for the non-wick containing phase it may be desirable to utilize a fuel with enhanced adhesion properties (one non-limiting example of which is PARAFFLEX 4627). In a further non-limiting example, when utilizing a candle which includes a wick containing phase having a fragrance, it may be desirable for the wax comprising the wick containing phase to be of an equal or lower congealing point than the wax comprising the non-wick containing phase. In the case of a candle containing fragrance in the wick containing phase, while not wishing to be bound by theory, it is believed that by using a wax in the wick-containing phase with a lower congealing point than the wax comprising the non-wick containing phase, there will be a tendency for the wick containing phase to have a higher rate of molten wax formation then the non-wick containing phase thereby allowing for an increased rate of fragrance dispersion to the surrounding environment from the molten wax pool. As such, it may be desirable in this instance for the wick containing phase of the candle to be comprised of a wax with a congealing point of about 10 C lower, or of about 5 C or lower, or of about 3 C or lower than the congealing point of the wax comprising the non-wick containing phase (as measured by ASTM
D-938).
Alternatively, there may be instances where it is desirable for the wax comprising the wick containing phase to have a higher congealing point than the wax comprising the non-wick containing phase.
The candle may include two or more visually distinct regions wherein at least two of the visually distinct regions are visible at the top of the candle. The visually distinct regions may be visually distinct from one another based on the shape of each region, the type of fuel used in each region, the color of each region, the opacity of each region, the gloss of each region, or a combination thereof. Preferably, the color of the fuel is different between at least two of the visually distinct regions. Referring to Figure 1, a non-limiting embodiment of the candle 10 of the present invention is shown. Candle 10 is comprised of inner portion 20 and outer portion 30. The outer portion 30 may also be referred to as the "bulk phase". Inner portion 20 may include core 50 and wick 40 though it should be noted that for purposes of the present invention that although it is desirable that wick 40 be located near the center of inner portion 20, it may also be located anywhere in inner portion 20 or outer portion 30. Furthermore more than one wick may be used if desired.

Air Freshening Composition The candle may also include an air freshening composition such as a fragrance.
The fragrance will most often be liquid at about 25 C. A wide variety of materials are known for fragrance uses, including but not limited to aldehydes, ketones, and esters.
More commonly, naturally occurring plant and animal oils and exudates comprising complex mixtures of various chemical components are known for use as fragrances. The fragrances herein can be relatively simple in their compositions or can comprise highly sophisticated complex mixtures of natural and synthetic chemical components, all chosen to provide any desired odor. Non-limiting examples of fragrances include, flavor type fragrances like vanilla and woody/earthy bases containing exotic materials such as sandalwood, civet, and patchouli oil. The perfumes can be of a light floral fragrance, e.g. rose extract, violet extract, lilac, and the like. The fragrances can also be formulated to provide desirable fruity odors, e.g.; lime, lemon, and orange.
Further, it is anticipated that so-called "designer fragrances" that are typically applied directly to the skin may also be used if desired. Likewise, the fragrances may be selected for an aromatherapy effect, such as providing a relaxing or invigorating mood. As such, any material that exudes a pleasant or otherwise desirable odor can be used as a perfume active in the compositions and articles of the present invention.
In one embodiment, at least about 25%, or at least about 50%, or at least about 75%, by weight of the perfume is composed of fragrance material selected from the group consisting of aromatic and aliphatic esters having molecular weights from about 130 amu ("atomic mass units") to about 250 amu; aliphatic and aromatic alcohols having molecular weights from about 90 amu to about 240 amu; aliphatic ketones having molecular weights from about 150 amu to about 260 amu; aromatic ketones having molecular weights from about 150 amu to about 270 amu; aromatic and aliphatic lactones having molecular weights from about 130 amu to about 290 amu; aliphatic aldehydes having molecular weights from about 140 amu to about 200 amu;
aromatic aldehydes having molecular weights from about 90 amu to about 230 amu; aliphatic and aromatic ethers having molecular weights from about 150 amu to about 270 amu; and condensation products of aldehydes and amines having molecular weights from about 180 amu to about 320 amu; and essentially free from nitromusks and halogenated fragrance materials.

It may be desirable to utilize fragrances known as enduring fragrances in the candle of the present invention. Such fragrances may be characterized by their boiling points ("B.P.") and their ClogP values. As disclosed in U.S. Patent No. 5,500,138 issued to Bacon et al.
on March 19, 1996, the ClogP of an active such as a perfume ingredient is a reference to the "calculated"
octanol/water partitioning coefficient of the active and serves as a measure of the hydrophobicity of the perfume ingredient. The ClogP of an active can be calculated according to the methods quoted in "The Hydrophobic Fragmental Constant" R. F. Rekker, Elsevier, Oxford or Chem. Rev, Vol. 71, No. 5, 1971, C. Hansch and A. I. Leo, or by using a ClogP program from Daylight Chemical Information Systems, Incorporated. Such a program also lists experimental logP values when they are available in the Pomona92 database. The "calculated logP"
(ClogP) can be determined by the fragment approach of Hansch and Leo (cf., A. Leo in Comprehensive Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 4, C. Hansch, P. G. Sammens, J. B. Taylor, and C. A. Ramsden, Eds. p 295, Pergamon Press, 1990). The fragment approach is based on the chemical structure of each compound and takes into account the numbers and types of atoms, the atom connectivity, and chemical bonding.
Enduring fragrances typically have a B.P. of about 240 C or higher or of about 250 C or higher as measured at the normal, standard pressure of 760 mm of Hg and a ClogP of about 2.7 or higher, of about 2.9 or higher, or of about 3.0 or higher.
If desired, the candle of the present invention may also include malodor control ingredients, which when used may deliver a genuine malodor removal benefit.
Malodor control ingredients suitable for use with the present invention are disclosed in U.S.
Publication No.
2005/0124512 published in the name of Woo et al. on June 9, 2005. When used, the malodor control ingredients may be added to one or more regions of the candle. A
genuine malodor removal benefit is defined as both a sensory and analytically measurable (such as by gas chromatograph) malodor reduction. Thus if the candle delivers a genuine malodor benefit it would not function merely by using fragrance to cover up or mask odors. In fact, if desired, malodor control ingredients could be added independently from any fragrance, formulated together with the fragrance composition, or added in lieu of any fragrance.
Hence, it is contemplated that a candle of the present invention could conceivably function partially or entirely by masking odors. If the candle is provided with a malodor counteractant, the candle may utilize one or more of several types of odor control mechanisms, such as malodor neutralization or sensory modification.

Malodor Neutralization With regard to malodor neutralization, this may be accomplished via vapor phase technology. The vapor phase technology is defined as malodor counteractants that mitigate malodors in the air via chemical reactions or neutralization. It is desirable that the malodor counteractants do not discolor the candle.
In one embodiment of a composition that utilizes vapor phase technology, the composition comprises one or more aliphatic aldehydes and/or one or more enones (ketones with unsaturated double bonds). It may also be desirable for these vapor phase technologies to have virtually no negative impact on the desired perfume character when a perfume is used.
Certain malodor technologies are odoriferous and negatively impact the overall character of the fragrance. In this case, a perfume/malodor counteractant premix is formed such that the perfume raw materials used in this technology are selected to neutralize any odor of the malodor counteractants. This odor neutralized premix can then be added to a parent perfume without affecting the character of the parent fragrance. This permits the vapor phase technology to be used broadly with a large variety of fragrance types. In addition, types of vapor phase technologies that predominately comprise a straight chain aliphatic backbone will not discolor fabrics or the candle, unlike products that utilize certain types of aldehydes that contain multiple double bonds and benzene rings.
The malodor counteractants that utilize vapor phase technology can be present in any suitable amount in the fragrance composition. In certain embodiments, the malodor counteractants may be present in an amount greater than or equal to about 1% and less than about 50% by weight of the perfume composition. In other embodiments, the malodor counteractants may be present in an amount greater than or equal to about 3% and less than about 30% by weight of the perfume composition. In other embodiments, the malodor counteractants may be present in an amount greater than or equal to about 5 Io and less than about 15 Io by weight of the perfume composition.
Examples of suitable aliphatic aldehydes are R-COH where R is saturated C7 to C22 linear and/or branched with no more than two double bonds. Additional examples of aliphatic aldehydes are lyral, methyl dihydro jasmonate, ligustral, melonal, octyl aldehyde, citral, cymal, nonyl aldehyde, bourgeonal, P. T. Bucinal, Decyl aldehydes, lauric aldehyde, and mixtures thereof.
Examples of suitable enones are ionone alpha, ionone beta, ionone gamma methyl, and mixtures thereof. The malodor counteractant can comprise one or more aliphatic aldehydes, one or more enones, or any combination thereof. Several non-limiting examples of perfume formulations that include vapor phase malodor counteractants are displayed below in Tables I -V.

Examples of Fragrance Compositions with Malodor Counteractants Table I- Pine Material Name Amount Rosemary 10.00 Spike Lavender 10.00 Lavandin Grosso 5.00 Spruce (conf.-manh) 5.00 Camphor Gum 5.00 Melonal 0.30 Eucalyptol 15.00 Iso Menthone 15.00 Iso Bornyl Acetate 21.70 lonone Beta 8.00 Iso E Super 5.00 100.00 Table II-Ozonic Material Name Amount Xi Aldehyde 8.00 2' 6 Nonadienol 10% In Dpg 5.00 Helional 13.00 Hydroxycitronellal 11.50 Calone 1951 0.50 2' 6 - Nonadien-l-al/10 Io In Dpg 5.00 Lyral 20.00 Melonal 1.00 Iso Menthone 10.00 Floralozone 10.00 Bourgeonal 10.00 Delta Muscenone 962191 1.00 Habanolide 100% 5.00 100.00 Table III- Fruity Material Name Amount Fruitate 5.00 Orange Terpenes 13.00 Ethyl Acetoacetate 3.00 2' 6 Nonadienol 10% In Dpg 1.00 Ethyl Acetate 3.00 Benzaldehyde 2.00 Prenyl Acetate 8.00 Benzyl Acetate 15.00 2' 6 - Nonadien-l-al/10 Io In Dpg 1.00 Ethyl-2-methyl Butyrate 8.00 Amyl Acetate 3.00 Cis 3 Hexenyl Acetate 3.00 Methyl Dihydro Jasmonate 10.00 Ligustral 5.00 Melonal 1.00 Ethy12 Methyl Pentanoate 8.00 Hexyl Acetate 8.00 Habanolide 100% 3.00 100.00 Table IV- Citrus Material Name Amount Orange Terpenes 20.00 Lemon Terpenes X5 Fold 20.00 Lime Oil Cf-8-1285-1 (conf.-berje) 10.00 Grapefruit Phase C- Ref. N* 12245 20.00 Italian Orange Phase Oil 22.90 Delta Muscenone 962191 0.50 Oxane 0.30 Iso Menthone 1.00 Rhubafuran 0.30 Habanolide 100% 5.00 100.00 Table V- Floral Material Name Amount Spike Lavender 5.00 Rosemary 5.00 Helional 10.00 Hydroxycitronellal 10.00 Benzyl Acetate 9.30 Lyral 20.00 Ligustral 2.00 Melonal 0.20 Eucalyptol 2.00 Iso Menthone 8.00 Bourgeonal 20.00 Undecavertol 3.00 Delta Muscenone 962191 0.50 Habanolide 100% 5.00 100.00 In a number of the examples above, the composition comprises a mixture of ionones and reactive aldehydes. Aldehydes react with amine odors (such as fish and cigarette odors). Those of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that there are additional malodor control ingredients suitable for the present invention that are known in the art. Non-limiting examples include certain aromatic unsaturated carboxylic esters and certain aliphatic alpha unsaturated dicarboxylic esters, certain cycloalkyl tertiary alcohols and certain esters of alpha- and beta-unsaturated monocarboxlic acids such as disclosed in U.S. Publication No. 2003/0008787 published in the name of McGee et al. on January 9, 2003. Additionally, suitable malodor control may include (but is not limited to) that which is disclosed in U.S. Publication No. 2004/0248762 published in the name of McGee et al. on December 9, 2004 and U.S. Publication No. 2006/0034789.
Those of ordinary skill in the art will also understand that a suitable amount of solvent may be added to the fragrance composition in order to aid dispersion in the candle wax. Non-limiting examples of suitable solvents include isopropyl myristate and benzyl benzoate.

Sensory Modification Another odor control mechanism is sensory modification. There are at least two ways of modifying the sensory perception of odors. One way (habituation) is to mask odors using perfume so that a person exposed to the odor smells the perfume more than the odor.
The other way (anosmia) is to reduce the person's sensitivity to malodors. lonones are compositions that are capable of reducing the sensitivity of a person's olfactory system to the presence of certain undesirable odors, such as sulfur odors caused by eggs, onions, garlic, and the like.

The candle composition can employ one or more of the types of malodor control mechanisms and ingredients described above (e.g., vapor phase technology, and odor blockers (sensory modifiers)). The air freshening composition can be made in any suitable manner. All of the perfume ingredients and any malodor counteractant ingredients can simply be mixed together.
In certain embodiments, it may be desirable to add the mixture of fragrance and malodor control ingredients to some suitable carrier. Any suitable carrier can be used including but not limited to wax.
The fragrance ingredients and any malodor counteractant ingredients can comprise any suitable percentage of the air freshening composition. The balance can be comprised of the carrier and any optional ingredients. Optional ingredients include but are not limited to crystal modifiers, UV inhibitors, dyes, preservatives, and other quality control items. In certain embodiments, the perfume ingredients and the malodor counteractant ingredients comprise from about 0.1 Io to about 50% of the air freshening composition by weight, or any other range within this range. In another embodiment one non-limiting example of such a narrower range is between about 0.5% and about 10% of the air freshening composition. In other embodiments, one or more aldehydes and/or one or more ionones comprise less than or equal to about 25% of the weight of said composition.
Typically the air freshening composition comprises about 1% to about 15% by weight of the wax.
Typically the malodor counteractants comprise from about 1% to about 40% by weight of the air freshening composition.

Additives The fuel source utilized in preparation of the candle of the present invention may optionally be formulated with additional additives including but not limited to: wax crystal modifiers, stability additives, colorants, and additional volatile active additives. While not wishing to be limited by theory, wax crystal modifiers can be used to help bind fragrance to the wax so as to prevent bleed of the fragrance from the wax. They can also be used to help control the melting point, hardness, shrinkage, gloss, and opacity of the wax. When used, the wax crystal modifiers are typically added to the wax at a level of from about 0.5% to about 10% by weight of the wax or from about 1% to about 5% by weight of the wax. Non-limiting examples of wax crystal modifiers which may be used include ASTORLITE C (available from The International Group of Wayne, Pennsylvania); microcrystalline waxes having a melt point in the range of from about 150 F (66 C) to about 170 F (77 C); highly branched olefin polymers such as alpha olefin polymers and copolymers (non-limiting examples of which are VYBAR 103 and available from Baker Hughes of Sugarland, Texas); and C14 to C20 fatty acids.
While not wishing to be bound by theory, stability additives may be used to stabilize ingredients in the candle. When used, stability additives are typically added at a level of from about 0.01% to about 0.5% by weight of the wax. For instance, it may be desirable to add an UV
("ultraviolet stabilizer") to help protect colorants from UV degradation. Non-limiting examples of suitable UV stabilizers are LENSORB LS54-11 and LENSORB C-135 available from Lenape Industries Incorporated of Hillsborough, New Jersey.
Non-limiting examples of suitable colorants include Blue Liquid Dye #D-878 available from French Color and Chemical Company of Englewood, New Jersey and PYLA-WAX
NEW
BLACK C-696, PYLA-WAX BRILLIANT BLUE C-653, PYLA-WAX CANANRY YELLOW
C-302A, and PYLA-WAX BRILLIANT RED C-463, all available from Pylam Products of Tempe Arizona. When used, these colorants are typically added to molten wax at a level of from about 0.00001 Io to about 1 Io by weight of the wax.

Other Optional Additional Components The present invention may also include other optional components, a non-limiting example of which is a wick sustainer (not shown) also referred to as a wick clip. The wick sustainer may be used to: secure the wick during manufacture of the candle and to hold the wick upright during manufacture of the candle and while the candle is in use. Additionally, the wick sustainer may be used to add a self-extinguishing feature such that the candle flame will self-extinguish when the flame reaches the collar of the wick sustainer. One non-limiting example of a suitable wick sustainer is available from Wick-n'-Clip, Incorporated of Woodridge, New Jersey as Part No.
TPB-20-Long.

The present invention may also optionally include a signal that communicates the status of the candle to a user. For example, there may be a signal which indicates when the process has commenced and/or concluded. Non-limiting examples of signals which may be used include color, sound, and/or olfactory signals.

Container The candle of the instant invention may also comprise a container. The container may be any container suitable for holding a candle. The container may be comprised of any number of different materials including but not limited to polymers having a melting point greater than about 100 C (including but not limited to polyethylene terephthalate, polycarbonate, and polymethyl methacrylate); and preferably glass; metal; ceramic; or a combination thereof.
The candle container may be of any size or shape.
The candle container of the present invention may be sized and shaped as to facilitate positioning of the solid fuel core during manufacture. For example, it may be desirable that the candle wick be positioned in the center of the candle container to promote even burning and prevent overheating of the container. In a preferred embodiment wherein the solid fuel core contains the wick, it is desirable to position the core in the center of the container. In one embodiment the walls of the container are sloped so as to guide the solid core to the desired position.
Referring to Figure 4, it is desirable that the shortest cross sectional diameter at any first height above the interior bottom 130 of container 100 be from about 10% to about 400% shorter than the longest cross sectional diameter at any second higher height from the interior bottom 130 of container 100. The cross sectional diameter is defined as the distance between the interior walls of the container when measured on a line that rests in a cross section parallel with the surface on which the container rests, and intersecting the centroid of the cross section.
The cross sectional diameter on a given cross section of the container may be measured by the use of telescoping bore gauges and a set of calipers. A suitable set of telescoping bore gauges are available as Part No. 155-905 from Mitutoyo U.S.A. of Aurora, Illinois.
The telescoping bore gauge is used to transfer the internal container dimensions to the remote calipers. The container is placed on a flat level surface. A telescoping gauge of the proper range is inserted into the container with the "T" side down to the desired depth, while keeping the top of the "T" parallel with the flat level surface on which the container rests, and while keeping the handle of the telescoping bore gauge co-axial with the centroid of the cross section being measured. The spring loaded heads are allowed to expand until they make contact with the inside walls of the container.
The spring loaded heads are then locked by twisting the clamp on the handle of the gauge. The gauge is then removed carefully from the container to avoid compressing the heads of the gauge.
The distance between the heads of the telescoping bore gauge is then measured using suitable calipers, such as Part No. 500-150 from Mitutoyo U.S.A. The measurement is repeated at the same depth at different orientations until the maximum and minimum inter-wall distance at that depth is found. Referring to Figures 2 - 4, this measurement is repeated starting at the depth of the inside bottom 130 of container 100, and about every 10mm increment above the inside bottom 130 depth until reaching the inside top 140 of container 100. In an alternative method for measuring the interior of the container, the inter-wall distance on a given cross section of the container is measured by first setting the container on a flat level surface, and then filling the container with a suitable molding material, such as candle wax, for example plaster, and allowing the material to harden. The mold material is then removed from the container and cut along the desired vertical plane. The distance between the walls is then measured using an appropriate measuring device, such as a ruler or calipers.
Optionally, the candle container of the present invention may contain a cavity comprising a substantially flat area designed such that once positioned on the flat area, the core cannot be moved in any direction more than about 10mm in any direction without at least a portion of the core leaving the flat area. The flat area is defined as the area wherein the internal cavity wall has a slope of not more than about 5 degrees to horizontal.
Optionally, the candle container of the present invention may contain a collar for positioning a solid core of the candle. In one non-limiting embodiment the collar may be a ring attached to the bottom of the container which is of a slightly larger diameter than the solid core so as to position the solid core such that the wick is in the center of the candle and also to prevent the solid core from moving.
The container may include indicia. The indicia could be applied to the container in any number of ways including but not limited to printing, molding, engraving, painting, or combinations thereof. The indicia may be in the form of an aesthetic design.
The indicia may be a symbol or icon such as one or more signature elements which may be used to identify the product and/or the branding of the product. Referring to Figures 2 - 4, in one non-limiting embodiment container 100 may include indicia 110. In one non-limiting embodiment (not shown) indicia 110 could reflect off one or more surfaces of container 100 such that the reflection of indicia 110 is visible on one or more of these surfaces so as to enhance the aesthetic appearance of container 100 and/or container candle 300. One suitable container is available as OLD
FASHIONED No. 128 SCC063533 from Libbey Glassware of Toledo, Ohio.

Kit The candle and container of the present invention may be provided as a kit in the form of a container candle. One non-limiting embodiment of a container candle 300 is shown in Figure 4.
Container candle 300 may be provided in a package (not shown) such as a box or carton having a window or an opening so as to allow the user to view, touch, and/or smell at least some portion of container candle 300 prior to use without having to remove container candle 300 from the package. If desired, the package may include a symbol or icon such as one or more signature elements which may be used to identify the product and/or the branding of the product contained within the package. In one non-limiting example, the package may include an opening in the shape of one the signature element. In another non-limiting example, the package may include a visual signal such as an icon, picture, diagram, and/or written description which describes the benefits of using the candle and/or container of the present invention.

Self-Instructin2 Article of Commerce The present invention also encompasses articles of commerce comprising 1) the candle of the present invention, and 2) a set of instructions directing the user how to utilize the candle.
In one embodiment, the article of commerce comprises a candle wherein the candle is within a container in association with a set of instructions, wherein the instructions direct the user to follow the method of utilizing the candle. The instructions may be in the form of written words, pictorials, symbols/icons, and the like, as well as combinations thereof. In one embodiment, such instructions would direct the user to 1) carefully remove any outer packaging from the container candle, 2) place the container candle on a flat heat resistant surface away from flammables; and 3) carefully light the candle wick.
Herein, "in association with", when referring to such instructions, means the instructions are either directly printed on the candle and/or the container; directly printed on the packaging for the container candle; printed on a label attached to the candle and/or the container; printed on a label attached to the packaging for the container candle; or presented in a different manner including, but not limited to, a brochure, print advertisement, electronic advertisement, broadcast or internet advertisements, and/or other media, so as to communicate the set of instructions to a user of the candle.

Method of Makin2 An efficient method of making the candle of the present invention is also disclosed herein.
Because of normal variations during manufacturing it can be difficult to create a candle comprised of more than one region wherein the inner portion/core of the candle has a pleasing appearance or wherein the outer portion/bulk phase does not completely cover and obscure the core region. It has been discovered that a candle comprised of more than one region and/or more than one phase can be made by providing an inner portion/core region that extends vertically above the fill level of the molten fuel of the outer portion/bulk phase, allowing the bulk phase molten fuel to at least partially solidify, and then optionally partially re-melting the surface of the candle. A phase is considered partially melted if at least some liquefied fuel is present.
One non-limiting method of making a candle having more than one phase in accordance with the present invention includes the first step of creating a solid inner portion or core containing a candle wick. Molten fuel that will form the outer portion/bulk phase is then poured into a container of a suitable size. The solid core containing the wick is then inserted into the container containing the molten bulk phase. In one non-limiting embodiment it is preferred that the density of the solid core be equal to or greater than the density of the molten bulk phase at the time the phases are combined so that the solid core does not float in the molten phase. In one embodiment, the molten bulk phase is comprised of a paraffin wax at a temperature of about 80 C
with a density at that temperature of between about 0.70 grams/cm3 and about 0.95 grams/cm3 or between about 0.75 grams/cm3 and about 0.90 grams/cm3. The density of the molten liquid wax at a given temperature is determined by use of a hydrometer as described in ASTM
Method D 1298-99 (available from ASTM International of West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania). In this embodiment the solid fuel core is paraffin wax at a temperature of about 23 C
with a density at that temperature of between about 0.8 grams/cm3 to about 1 grams/cm3 or from about 0.85 grams/cm3 to about 0.95 grams/cm3 at the time of insertion into the molten bulk phase. The density of the solid fuel core is determined according to the method described in ASTM Method D
792-00.
The amount of molten wax is chosen so that when the solid core and molten bulk phase are combined, the bulk phase rises to within about 7 mm or less of the top of the solid core or to within about 13 mm or less of the top of the solid core wherein the differential between the height of the bulk phase and the top of the solid core is measured from the highest point of the bulk phase. The candle is then allowed to cool until the molten bulk phase has at least partially solidified. In one embodiment of the present invention, the top of the candle is then subjected to enough heat sufficient to partially melt both the core and the bulk phases. In one preferred method, at least about 20 mm in depth from the top surface of the bulk phase is preferably solidified and more preferably the entire bulk phase is solidified prior to heating. Preferably, the amount of melting is controlled so that molten fuel does not completely cover the top of the core region. For instance, in one preferred method, from about 1 mm to about 20 mm in depth of the top surfaces of the core and/or the bulk phase may be liquefied. This step helps smooth imperfections in the candle surface such as defects on the top surface of the core phase, sharp edges between the core phase and the bulk phase, and deformations due to wax shrinkage during cooling. In an optional alternative embodiment, the solid core can be inserted into the container prior to pouring the molten bulk phase into the container.
The solid core can be made by any known process, such as cold-pressing, extruding, or preferably by pouring molten wax into suitable molds. The solid core may be of any cross sectional shape including but not limited to round, oval, triangular, star shaped, floral pattern, etc.
It may also have a varying cross sectional shape so that different shapes appear as the candle is burned.
In one non-limiting embodiment the solid core is made by melting a mixture of 93% by weight of PARAFFLEX 4635A and 2% by weight of ASTORLITE C by heating the mixture to about 75 C, then adding about 5% by weight of fragrance. About 57g of the molten mixture is then placed into a cylindrical mold having a diameter of about 37mm, and a depth of about 76mm.
The mold if desired may optionally comprise a small taper. One non-limiting way of achieving this is by having a 2mm decrease in diameter from the top to the bottom of the mold. Optionally any known mold release can be utilized to aid in removal of the core from the mold. After the fuel cools sufficiently to solidify it is removed from the mold. A hole of approximately 0.125 inch (3.175 mm) diameter is then bored in the center of the core. A wick is inserted through the bore.
One suitable wick for this purpose is available as SUPERIOR 600 from Wick n'Clip Incorporated of Woodridge, New Jersey. The wick may optionally include a wick sustainer which would be crimped to one end of the wick. A suitable wick sustainer is available as Part No. TPB-20-Long from Wick-n'-Clip Incorporated.

In another non-limiting method for making the candle of the instant invention, the container which will hold the candle is preheated prior to the addition of the solid core or the molten wax. Typically the container may be heated by convective or radiant heat to a temperature of from about 100 F (38 C) to about 160 F (71 C) prior to insertion of the solid core. This range has been found to be beneficial in helping prevent surface irregularities in the candle such as air bubbles, pits, and/or swirls. Optionally, if desired the wick contained in the solid core phase can then be glued to the container using any suitable glue. One suitable glue for this purpose is HM2164L available from Adhesives Specialists of Allentown, Pennsylvania.
Gluing of the wick and wick clip to the container has the advantage of preventing wick movement during burning of the candle. Optionally, if desired, additional heating of the container may occur after insertion of the solid core into the container, but prior to pouring the molten bulk phase.
The final surface temperature of the container may be from about 100 F (38 C) to about 160 F (71 C). This two-stage heating method has the advantage of achieving the desired final container temperature with reduced melting of the solid core before pouring of the molten bulk phase.
Alternatively, the container may be preheated only after insertion of the solid fuel core.
Typically, in the case where the solid core is added to the container before the molten bulk phase, when pouring the molten bulk phase, it is poured so as to avoid pouring the molten wax directly on top of the solid core phase. The molten bulk phase may be poured so that the surface of the molten phase after pouring is from about 13 mm or less, or about 7 mm or less from the top of the solid core phase. The resulting candle comprised of more than one phase/region is allowed to cool for about one hour.
The top of the candle then may optionally if desired, be submitted to radiant heat sufficient to partially melt both the core and bulk phase. It is generally desirable to control the amount of melting so that molten fuel from the bulk phase does not completely cover the top of the solid core phase. The resulting candle contains visually distinct regions non-limiting examples of which are shown in FIGS. 1 and 4.

Examples Non-limiting examples relating to the instant invention are disclosed below.
Example 1 A first fuel and fragrance mixture can be prepared by melting a commercially available paraffin wax such as PARAFFLEX 4635A by heating to about 80 C. Optionally, a structural modifier like Astorlite C may be added at about 2% by weight. Also optionally, UV stabilizers such as LENSORB C-135 (UV Inhibitor), and LENSORB LS-5411 (UV Inhibitor) available from Lenape Industries Incorporated may each be added at about 0.05% by w/w.
The first fuel mixture may be poured into a cylindrical mold constructed of aluminum.
The assembled mold cavity may have a diameter of about 1 and 7/16 inches (3.68 cm) and a depth of at least about 2 and 1/4 inches (5.72 cm). About 50g of the molten first fuel mixture is allowed to cool and solidify in air at about 21 C for about 2 hours. About 5g of the molten first fuel mixture is then added to "top-off' the mold. After an additional 12 hours of cooling, a solid core is removed from the mold. The solid core has a density of about 0.9 grams per cubic centimeter. A
bore is created in the center of the solid core by drilling utilizing a 1/8"
(3.18 mm) drill bit. A
wick such as WI-625 available from Wick-n'-Clip, Incorporated of Woodridge, New Jersey), is crimped into a wick sustainer such as a "20mm Long 6mm Neck" Part No. TPB-20-Long, from Wick-n'-Clip, Incorporated to create a wick assembly. The wick assembly is then inserted through the bore in the solid fuel core.
A second fuel mixture may be prepared by melting a commercially available paraffin wax such as PARAFFLEX 4635A by heating the wax to about 80 C. Colorants FRENCH
BLUE D-878 (available from French Color and Chemical Company) and PYLAM NEW BLACK C-(available from Pylam Products) are added at 0.001 Io w/w and 0.0006% w/w, respectively.
ASTORLITE C is added at about 5% w/w. UV stabilizers LENSORB C-135, and LENSORB LS-5411 (available from Lenape Industries Incorporated) are each added at about 0.05% w/w. The density of the resulting molten wax mixture is about 0.85 grams/cc3. About 3.5 oz (103.5 ml) of the second molten fuel mixture is poured into a suitable container, such as "Old Fashioned, No.
128" SCC063533 (available from Libbey Glassware of Toledo, Ohio). The solid fuel core is then inserted into the container by pushing the end of the core containing the wick clip into the molten fuel mixture until the core sits level on the bottom of the container. The molten second fuel mixture is about 0.5 cm from the top of the solid fuel core. The resulting candle comprising more than one phase is allowed to cool in 21 C air for about 3 hours. The surface of the candle is then subjected to heat from a heat gun until approximately 0.5 cm of the candle surface is melted. The candle is then allowed to cool in 21 C air for at least 24 hours before using.

Example 2 A first fuel and fragrance mixture may be prepared by melting a commercially available paraffin wax such as PARRAFLEX 4794 (available from the International Group Incorporated of Wayne, Pennsylvania) by heating to about 80 C. Optionally, UV stabilizers such as LENSORB
C-135 (UV Inhibitor) and LENSORB LS-5411 (UV Inhibitor) available from Lenape Industries Incorporated may be added at about 0.05% w/w each.
The first fuel mixture is poured into a cylindrical mold constructed of aluminum. The assembled mold cavity has a diameter of about 1 and 7/16 inches (3.68 cm) and a depth of at least about 2 and 1/4 inches (5.72 cm). About 50g of the molten first fuel mixture is allowed to cool and solidify in air at about 21 C for about 2 hours. About 5g of the molten first fuel mixture is then added to "top-off ' the mold. After an additional 12 hours of cooling, a solid core is removed from the mold. The solid core has a density of about 0.9 grams per cubic centimeter. A bore is created in the center of the solid core by drilling utilizing a 1/8" (3.18 mm) drill bit. A wick such as WI-625 (available from Wick-n'-Clip Incorporated of Woodridge, New Jersey) may be crimped into a wick sustainer such as a "20mm Long 6mm Neck" (part# TPB-20-Long, Wick-n'-Clip, INC, Wood-ridge, NJ) to create a wick assembly. The wick assembly is then inserted through the bore in the solid fuel core.
A second fuel mixture may be prepared by melting a commercially available paraffin wax such as PARRAFLEX 4627 (available from the International Group Incorporated of Wayne, Pennsylvania) by heating to about 80 C. Colorants FRENCH BLUE D-878 (available from French Color and Chemical Company) and PYLAM NEW BLACK C-696 (available from Pylam Products) are added at 0.001% w/w and 0.0006% w/w, respectively. UV
stabilizers such as LENSORB C-135 and LENSORB LS-5411 (available from Lenape Industries Incorporated) may each be added at about 0.05% w/w. The density of the resulting molten wax mixture is about 0.85 grams per cubic centimeter.
A suitable container, such as "Old Fashioned, No. 128" SCC063533 (available from Libbey Glassware of Toledo, Ohio) may be pre-heated to about 60 C and then about 3.5 oz (103.5 ml) of the second molten fuel mixture is immediately poured into the container. The solid fuel core is then inserted into the container by pushing the end of the core containing the wick clip into the molten fuel mixture until the core sits level on the bottom of the container.
The molten second fuel mixture is about 0.5 cm from the top of the solid fuel core. The resulting candle comprised of more than one phase is allowed to cool in 21 C air for about 3 hours. The surface of the candle is then subjected to heat from a heat gun until approximately 0.5 cm of the candle surface is melted.
The candle is then allowed to cool in 21 C air for at least 24 hours before using.

Example 3 A first fuel and fragrance mixture may be prepared by melting a commercially available paraffin wax such as PARRAFLEX 4794 (available from the International Group Incorporated of Wayne, Pennsylvania) by heating to about 80 C. Optionally, UV stabilizers such as LENSORB
C-135 (UV Inhibitor) and LENSORB LS-5411 (UV Inhibitor) available from Lenape Industries Incorporated may be added at about 0.05% w/w each.

The first fuel mixture is poured into a cylindrical mold constructed of aluminum. The assembled mold cavity has a diameter of about 1 and 7/16 inches (3.68 cm) and a depth of at least about 2 and 1/4 inches (5.72 cm). About 50g of the molten first fuel mixture is allowed to cool and solidify in air at about 21 C for about 2 hours. About 5g of the molten first fuel mixture is then added to "top-off' the mold. After an additional 12 hours of cooling, a solid core is removed from the mold. The solid core has a density of about 0.9 grams per cubic centimeter. A
bore is created in the center of the solid core by drilling utilizing a 1/8" (3.18 mm) drill bit.
A wick such as WI-625 (available from Wick-n'-Clip Incorporated of Woodridge, New Jersey) is crimped into a wick sustainer such as a "20mm Long 6mm Neck" (Part No. TPB-20-Long available from Wick-n'-Clip Incorpoated of Woodridge, New Jersey) to create a wick assembly. The wick assembly is then inserted through the bore in the solid fuel core.
A second fuel mixture is prepared by melting a commercially available paraffin wax such as IGI 6095A (available from The International Group Incorporated of Wayne, Pennsylvania) by heating to about 80 C. Colorants FRENCH BLUE D-878 (available from French Color and Chemical Company) and PYLAM NEW BLACK C-696 (available from Pylam Products) are added at 0.001% w/w and 0.0006% w/w, respectively. UV stabilizers LENSORB C-135, and LENSORB LS-5411 (available from Lenape Industries Incorporated) are each added at about 0.05% w/w. The resulting molten wax mixture has a density of about 0.85 grams per cubic centimeter. A suitable container, such as "Old Fashioned, No. 128" SCC063533 (available from Libbey Glassware of Toledo, Ohio) is pre-heated to about 60 C and then about 3.5 oz (103.5 ml) of the second molten fuel mixture is immediately poured into said container.
The solid fuel core is then inserted into the container by pushing the end of the core containing the wick clip into the molten fuel mixture until the core sits level on the bottom of the container.
The molten second fuel mixture is about 0.5cm from the top of the solid fuel core. The resulting candle comprised of more than one phase is allowed to cool in 21 C air for about 3 hours. The surface of the candle is then subjected to heat from a heat gun until approximately 0.5cm of the candle surface is melted.
The candle is then allowed to cool in 21 C air for at least 24 hours before burning.

Example 4 A candle having more than one phase may be prepared as in Examples 1, 2 or 3 above, except that the fragrance shown in Table I is added at 5% w/w to both the first and second wax.
Alternatively, the fragrances could be added to only the first wax or only the second wax.

Example 5 A candle having more than one phase may be prepared as in Examples 1, 2 or 3 above, except that the fragrance shown in Table I is added at 10% w/w to the first wax.
While particular embodiments of the present invention have been illustrated and described, it would be obvious to those skilled in the art that various other changes and modifications can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. It is therefore intended to cover in the appended claims all such changes and modifications that are within the scope of this invention. All documents cited herein are in relevant part, incorporated by reference. The citation of any document is not to be construed as an admission that it is prior art with respect to the present invention.

Classifications
International ClassificationA61L9/00, C11C5/00, F21V35/00
Cooperative ClassificationF21V35/00, C11C5/008, C11C5/004, F23D3/16, A61L9/03
European ClassificationF23D3/16, C11C5/00F, A61L9/03, F21V35/00, C11C5/00B4
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
25 Mar 2009EEERExamination request
19 Feb 2013FZDEDead
Effective date: 20121127