Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) provides basic and applied scientific research services and facilities to both government agencies and private industries. The laboratory specializes in research about such areas as energy and the environment, fundamental and computer sciences, and national security. PNNL has about 4,900 scientists, engineers, and staff members. The lab is funded and managed by the US Department of Energy, but it is operated by Battelle Memorial Institute. PNNL was established in 1965. Since its inception, it has received more than 1,600 patents.